Case: Sugar Consumption Budget don’t change

Q. if price of sugar is increased by 25%. But a family wants to keep its expenditure same as earlier. Then they should decrease their consumption by how much percentage?
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Suppose initial price of Sugar was Rs.100 per kg And this family needs 2 kg per month. (=quantity consumed) So what is their budget (or Expenditure?) Before price rise

Price Quantity

100 2 kg

Budget = Price x quantity 100 x 2=Rs.200 per month Now the price of sugar is increased by 25%. So if previously it was Rs.100 per kg, now it is Rs.100+25=Rs.125 per kg. Before Price Quantity 100 2 kg After 125

Budget = Price x quantity 100 x 2=Rs.200 per month If the family still wants to buy 2 kg sugar, they‟ll have to pay Rs.125 x 2 = Rs.250. But they don‟t want to increase their budget (Expenditure). Obviously they will have to cut down on their monthly consumption (Quantity of sugar.) To solve this problem, just take ratio of both prices 100/125 =(25×4)/(25×5) =4 / 5 It means 100/125=4/5

Now, reverse this ratio (4/5 =>5/4) and write it, in the table. Means, in 100‟s column, I‟ll write 5 and in 125‟s column, I‟ll write 4. Before Price Ratio reversed? Demand 100 5 2 kg After 125 4

Budget = Price x Demand 100 x 2=Rs.200 per month What is the percentage change in Ratio-Reversed? Well, before it was “5” and after it has decreased to “4”. % decrease from 5 to 4 is =(5-4)/5 =1/5 =20% decrease. That‟s our answer. If price is increased by 25% then we must decrease our consumption by 20% to keep the budget same. Let‟s check if our approach is correct. According to above technique, we‟ve found that consumption /demand should decrease by 20%. So if earlier family consumed 2kg Now they should consume only 100% minus 20%=80% of original demand =80% of 2kg =0.8 x 2 =1.6 kg Update the table. Before Price Quantity 100 5 After 125 4

Budget = Price x quantity Price

2 kg 100 x 2=Rs.200 per month

1.6 125 x 1.6=Rs.200 per month

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As you can see, if we decrease demand/consumption from 2 kg to 1.6 then budget remains same (Rs.200). It proves that we‟ve not made any mistake.

Another way is to use readymade formula Formula Percentage decrease = 100m / (100+m), where m is the original percentage. Therefore Percentage decrease in sugar case =100 x 25 / (100+25) =100 x 25/125 =20% decrease.
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You can use whichever technique you like. But once you master product consistency, lot of profit-loss, time-speeddistance questions can be solved in less than a minute. Anyways, lets try some more “easy” questions and then move to difficult ones.

Case: Salary comparison: How much more or less?
1. If Salary of Mr.Abdul is 25% more then Mr.Bhide, then Mr.Bhide‟s salary is how much % less than Mr.Abdul‟s? Assume Bhide earn Rs.100 per month Then Abdul has to earn Rs.100+25=125 Fill up the table. Bhide Abdul Salary Ratio (reversed) 100 125

100 (please note: this is not the answer. we are just „assuming). What was the original price of sugar (per kg)?     This is not at all complicated. Ofcourse you could directly calculate: (125-100)/125=20% but that won‟t help us quickly solve the „complex‟ cases situation like following. Budget =Rs.600 on sugar every month. What is the decrease? (5-4)/5 x 100 =1/5 x 100 =20% less Final answer: Mr.80 M 600 600 . A family spends Rs. The price of sugar is decreased by 20% and they‟re able to buy 5kg sugar more.600 (Constant) Assume that original price is Rs. New price is 20% less = 100 minus 20 = Rs.Bhide‟s salary is 20% less than Abdul‟s.100 Rs.Now get the ratio 100/125=4/5 Reverse it (from 4/5 to 5/4) and plug it in the table Bhide Abdul Salary 100 125 4 Ratio (reversed) 5 That‟s it. Case: Increased consumption absolute value Q. Before After Price Ratio-reversed Quantity Budget Rs.80 per kg Assume that originally they used to buy “m” kilos of sugar every month.

So increase is: (5-4)/4 x 100 =1/4 x 100 =25%   It means if sugar price decreases by 20% then we can buy 25% more sugar. How much more sugar can they buy? 25% of m But the question itself says that family is able to buy 5 kg sugar more.80 5 Ratio-reversed 4 Quantity Budget m So what‟s the increase in quantity ? Just look at the ratio reversed: 4 to 5. now they should be able to buy Total= (m + 25% of m) kilos of sugar.100 Rs. So if earlier this family used to by “m” kilos of sugar.So if price is decreased by 20% then consumption quantity should increase by what percentage? Just take ratio of price 100/80 =10/8 =5/4 Reverse It and fill up in the table Before Price After Rs. It means 25% of m =5 kg (25/100) x m=5 M=5 x (100/25) M=20kg Another way is (% to fraction) 25% when converted to fraction =1/4 So 1/4th of m=5 kg .

Another approach .30 per kg. So new price =100 Minus 20=80%of original price =0. Therefore.54/40 And we‟ve to find answer in “dozen” so multiply with 12 Original price= Rs.600 So 1 kg=600/20=30Rs. so our concept is crystal clear.600. Question says. A man spends Rs.96 Final answer: the reduced price of apples is Rs. 25% of m =10 1/4 of m=10 (because 25%=25/100=1/4) 1/4 of m =10 M=40 So what was the original price? Total 54 rupees spent on 40 apples =Rs. Q.96 per dozen. per kilo Final answer= original price of sugar was Rs. Price of Apple is decreased by 20% and this man can buy 10 apples more.So m= 5 x 4=20 kg.12. Now he can by 25% more apples. We‟ve to find reduced price. (given in the question) So what was the per kilo price of sugar? 20kg=Rs.8 x (54/40) x 12 =Rs. And their budget was Rs. But question itself says that he is buying 10 more apples. Case: Apples price decrease absolute value This is also from SSC-CGL exam.12. What is the reduced price per dozen? If price is 20% decreased => consumption should increased by 25% (as seen in previous case) Suppose he used to buy “m” number of apples initially. price is reduced by 20%. Let‟s try a similar question.(54/40) x 12 Donot simplify yet.54 on apples every month. In either way: it means originally family used to buy 20 kilos of sugar.

25 x 40 =50 apples.96 per dozen. 50 apples = 54 rupees 12 apples = how much? How much = 54 x 12 / 50 =Rs. What is his usual time to cover this distance (in hours)? Speed x time = distance This is same as price x quantity = budget. Walking at 6/7th of his usual speed. We don‟t know his speed. Here distance remains the same. Now he can buy 25% more =100+25=125% of original apples =1.12. budget remains the same. Now let‟s apply this concept in Time-Speed-Distance question Case: Time-Speed-Distance Again from old SSC-CGL exam Q.Originally he bought 40 apples. Usual case Late case 1 6/7 . a man is 25 minutes late for his destination. just like in “sugar-cases”.54 means he buys 50 apples for 54 rupees. so let‟s assume his usual speed = 1 kmph And his late speed = 6/7th of usual speed = 6/7 x 1= 6/7 kmph Usual case Late case Speed Ratio reversed Just take ratio Usual/late=1/(6/7)=7/6 Reverse it (7/6 to 6/7 )and put it back in the table. And his budget is Rs.

If price of Desi-liquor is increased by 20% then Mohan should cut down consumption by what %. else you get wrong answer. then it should be increased by 1/6th of original time “T” But we know that he is late by 25 minutes.5% less than Dr. But we don‟t want to raise our expenditure. you get remainder 3 = answer comes as 2 hours and 3 minutes = wrong answer. For example. Then Dr.Speed 1 6/7 7 Ratio reversed 6 Time “T” Ok so if speed is decreased to 6/7th then time is increased by what fraction (or percentage?) 6 to 7 =(7-6)/6 =1/6 increase in time. to keep his budget unchanged? 3. Journalist Popatlal‟s income is 37. Then We should cut down our petrol consumption by what percentage? . Mock questions 1.Iyyer‟s income is how much % more than Popatlal‟s income? 2. You should not cut zeros. It means 1/6th of T=25 minutes 1/6 x T = 25 T=25 x 6=150 minutes But the question is asking time in hours. 150 minutes =60 minutes + 60 minutes + 30 minutes =1hour + 1 hour + 30 minutes =2 hours and 30 minutes Another way to convert minutes into hours 60 minutes = 1 hr 150 minutes = how many hours? Therefore: How many hours = 1 x 150 / 60 When you divide 150 by “60” you 2 as quotient and 30 as remainder. So Correct answer is 2 hours and 30 minutes. Petrol price is doubled. Important: In Minutes to hour conversion via division method. 150/60= 15/6 but when you divide 15 by 6. Iyyer‟s. Suppose his usual time was “T”.

I should reduce talk-time by what percentage? 7. Petrol Double 4.33% decrease in talktime to keep budget unchanged. Writing at 3/4th of my usual speed. If a politician‟s bribe income is decreased by 10% then his anger increases by how much percentage? hahaha Answers 1. then journey completion time should increase by what percentage? 5. Dish TV has reduced the channel prices by 20% now I‟m able to subscribe to 5 more channels in the same budget of Rs.33% increase in time. so 1/4 of original channels=5. I could have finished the whole paper in how many hours? 9. Desi liquor 3. Motorboat 5. We should decrease our rice-consumption by what percentage? 6. Earlier I had subscribed to 20 channels. Now they want to decrease number of questions by 20% but want to keep total marks same as earlier. If the speed of a motorboat is decreased by one fourth. Price of rice is increased from Rs. I finished the question paper 20 minutes late. If I want to keep my budget unchanged.(hint double = 100 to 200 =100% increase) One fourth=25% decrease=> 33. If we don‟t want to increase our Expenditure. Mobile company increased the call charges by 50%. 25% increase in price =>20% reduction in consumption. Mobile talktime 60% Perhaps this is the reason why Popat is unable to find a bride while Iyyer walked away with Babita-ji. 7. Iyyer Popat 2. Had I written the answers at my regular speed. How many channels did I subscribe earlier? 8.67% decrease (1/6) 50% decrease in consumption.4. hence original number of channels=5 x 4 =20.5 per kg. So. Earlier UPSC used to ask 579 questions for 2900 marks. 20% decrease in price= 25% increase in number of channels. Dish TV . they should increase the marks per question by what percentage? 10. 16. Rice 6.400. 50% increase in call rates=>33. 6 to 7.

If not. and he reaches six minutes early. Find the distance between his home and shop. Next day he goes at the speed of 24 km/h. Anger 10. Food for thought Try these two questions: (You can solve them via STD table method but try to solve them via this product consistency method. Writing speed 3/4 th of writing speed= reverse ratio is 4:3. he is very tired. Find distance between his home and school. and he reaches five minutes late. and he reaches five minutes late. After the school is over. Find the distance between his home and shop. This can be solved with any of the two approaches 1. What was his original consumption? . UPSC Absolute values 579 and 2900 are irrelevant! No need to waste time in dividing them. (Ans=22kms) 2. Approach #1: Product consistency Let me rephrase the question: Price of sugar is increased from 24 per kg to 30 per kg and now Jethalal is buying 11/60 kilograms sugar less (in the same budget). Tappu walks from home to school @5kmph and reaches 15 minutes early. (Ans=3 kms) Before proceeding further.11% increase in anger lolz 9. and he reaches six minutes early. and increase in time is 1/3 (=33. 20% decrease=> increase marks per question by 25% percentage.8. Approach #1: Product consistency 2. make sure your concept regarding “productconsistency method” Is clear. Jethalal goes to shop at the speed 30 km/h.33%). So he walks back from school to home at a slow speed of just 3kmph and reaches 9 minutes late. 11. Next day he goes at the speed of 24 km/h. So if 1/3 rd of original time= 20 minutes late. then go through my previous article click me Case : Early Late Jethalal goes to shop at the speed 30 km/h. You‟ll get the answer much more quickly!) 1. Then original time = 20 x 3 =60 minutes = 1 hour. Approach #2: STD table.

Prepare this table. when speed is increased.54 minutes so the time difference between slow speed and fast speed = 11 minutes. just add the two minutes given to you (6+5)=11 and since speed is given in km/h. that‟s our approach. Update the table Slow speed Fast speed Speed km/h 24 30 4 24 30 24 30 Ratio-reversed (Time) 5 So. what is the decrease in time? 5 to 4 .Does it ring any bell with previous sums of product Consistency? Yep. he is 5 minutes late=10. Slow speed Fast speed Speed km/h Ratio-reversed (Time) Now apply the product consistency method: Take ratio of 24/30 =(6 x 4)/ (6 x 5) =4/5 Reverse it.=5/4. we‟ve to convert 11 minutes into hours =11/60 hours. plug in the “speed” values in ascending order Slow speed Fast speed Speed km/h Ratio-reversed (Time) What is the time difference between these two cases? suppose on regular speed.05AM on fast speed he is 6 minutes early=09. in the exam. Jethalal used to reach office @10 AM on slow speed.

using the Approach #2 (STD Table) Case 1 Case 2 Speed Time 24 ? 30 ? D Distance D . to reach his destination Now just apply STD formula (slow) Speed x time = distance 24 x 11/12 = distance Hence distance = 22 kms. It means 1/5th of (slow) time =(6+5)/60 Hence time = 11x 5/60 Hence distance = just multiple time with slow speed =11 x 5 x (24)/60 =22 km. Just think in your head.=(5-4)/5 x 100 =20% (or just keep it in fraction form of 1/5) Meaning new time is 20% less than time. he took “M” time. This is the time he takes during slow speed. That means difference between two situations is 20% of m but we‟ve already inferred that time difference between two situations is 11/60 hours therefore 20% of m=11/60 or in other words 1/5 x m=11/60 M=11×5/60 M=11/12 hours. speed is decreased from 24 to 30 so reverse ratio is 30/24=5/4 And hence decrease from 5 to 4 is (5-4)/5=1/5. Thought process in the exam You don‟t even need to draw table. This technique looks “odd” but It is very fast once you practice. Then in fast speed he‟ll take M minus 20% of M time. Now let‟s try solving It. suppose during slow speed.

Slow speed Fast speed Speed km/h 3 5 . we get time=D/30 Update table Case 1 Case 2 Speed Time 24 D/24 30 D/30 D Distance D From the question. Find distance between his home and school. he has to cover same distance “D” kms. Approach #1: Product consistency The question is talking about two times: 15 minutes early and 9 minutes late. we can infer that time difference between two cases is (6+5=11 minutes =11/60 hours) Therefore D/24-D/30=11/60 Simplify this equation and you get D=22 kms. Therefore total time difference between two situation =15+9=24 minutes=24/60 hrs. Please note: in the fractions.We‟ve ssumed that in both cases. Apply STD formula in column 1 (case 1) Speed x time = distance Therefore time = distance / speed = D/24 Similarly for case2. After the school is over. he walks back from school to home @3kmph and reaches 9 minutes late. D/24 is >greater than> D/30 That‟s why I did D/24-D/30=11/60 Let‟s try second question with both methods Case #2: Tappu’s school Tappu walks from home to school @5kmph and reaches 15 minutes early.

Approach #2 (STD Table) Slow speed Fast speed Speed km/h 3 Time Distance ?? D 5 ?? D Apply STD formula in each column you get Speed x time =distance Time = distance / speed Time = D/3 in first case and D/5 in second case update table Slow speed Fast speed Speed km/h 3 Time Distance D/3 D 5 D/5 D The time difference between two situations is (15+9)=24 minutes=24/60 hours Therefore D/3 – D/5=24/60 .Ratio-reversed (Time) 5 3 What is the percentage decrease in time? (5-3)/5 =2/5 (=40% decrease) That‟s it. If time taken during slow speed =”m” Then 2/5th of m=24/60 hours (the time difference between two cases) Hence M=1 hour (=time taken during slow speed) Now speed x time = distance 3 (slow speed) x1= distance Therefore distance between Tappu‟s school and home is 3 kms.

33% of m =2m-m/3 (because 33. Mock Questions .33%=1/3) =(6m-m)/3 =5m/3 And we know that total time is 5 hours therefore 5m/3=5 hours hence m=3 hours. He spends total 5 hours in walking. Pinku‟s “Total” time is given 5 hours. Slow speed Fast speed Speed km/h 2 3 2 Ratio-reversed (Time) 3 What is the decrease % in time? (3-2)/3= 1/3 (=33. total time (taken to goto college and come back) =m + m -33. therefore M + m -(1/5)m=5 hours.Solve this equation and you get D=3 kms Meaning distance between Tappu‟s school and home is 3 kms Now let‟s try a bit complicated case Case: Pinku’s college (total time given) Pinku goes to college @ speed of 3 kmph and returns back @2kmph. fast speed = 2 and 3 km respectively. you‟ll get the distance. What is the distance between his home and college? Slow speed . (time taken during slow speed) Apply STD Speed x time = distance 2 (slow speed) x 3 (time)=distance Hence distance=6 km Thought process in the exam Speed increased from 2 to 3. Solve it and multiple with slow speed. therefore reverse ratio is 3/2 and %decrease in time is 1/3. He‟d take M minus 33. Therefore.33% of M hours during fast speed.33%) It means if Pinku take “M” hours during slow speed.

Gogi walks from home to school @2. (please note: since she‟s late in both cases the time difference is 30-5=25 minutes.0)=3.5 5 Ratio-reversed (Time) 7 What‟s the decrease in time % From 7 to 5. he‟ll do it in less time =m – 2/7 of m. rest approach is same) Answer and explanation 1.5 = 7/4 kms. Find total distance. Sonu college Slow speed Fast speed Speed km/h 5 6 .5+1. 2. If she walks @5kmph. In fast case. but from question.5 3. Sonu walks @6kmph and late to college by 5 minutes.5kmph and he is 6 minutes late. =(7-5)/7 =2/7 Suppose during slow speed case.5 and (2. she is late by 30 minutes. Distance = 7/10 x 2. Find distance between home and school? 2. Gogi school Question is talking about two speeds : 2. Gogi takes “m” hours to reach school.5 kmphs Slow speed Fast speed Speed km/h 2. Multiply it with slow speed and you‟ll get the distance. we already know that time difference between two cases =6+6=12 minutes=12/60 hrs it means 2/7 of m=12/60 hours therefore m=7/10 hours :This is the time taken during slow speed.1. Next day he increases speed by 1 kmph and reaches 6 minutes early.

when people come and go.5 km distance between home and college.Ratio-reversed (Time) 6 5 So % decrease in time =(6-5)/6 =1/6 Therefore 1/6 of slow time (m)= 25/60 hrs. Case# 2: Time Ratios are given Case#1 : Time equations: set of two people working A & B can do a piece of work in 12 days . we can do addition and subtraction in the “SPEED” boxes only and now in the Time boxes. Two complex cases of Time and Work 1. B and C in 15 . A+B B+C C+A SPEED TIME DISTANCE 12 15 20 TAKE THE LCM (12. Based on that we can find individual speeds using STD formula. C & A in 20 days. . How long would each take separately to do the same work ? In the STD table. M=25 x 6/60 hrs Multiply it with slow speed (5) and you get distance Distance =speed x time =5 x 25 x 6/60 =25/2 =12. Case#1 : Time equations: set of two people working 2. Now fill up the table.20) =60.15.

A+B B+C C+A SPEED TIME 5 12 4 15 60 3 20 60 DISTANCE 60 Assume that these three entities work together A+B B+C C+A (A+B)+(B+C)+(C+A) SPEED TIME 5 12 4 15 60 3 20 60 5+4+3=12 ?? 60 DISTANCE 60 Speed of A+B+C together can be derived using (A+B)+(B+C)+(C+A) = 2(A+B+C)=5+4+3=12 Hence speed of A+B+C together =12/2=6 Now STD formula Speed x time = distance 6 x time = 60 Time = 10 Meaning if A+B+C work together. [although Time of A+B+C. they can finish work in 10 days. is not asked in the question. we‟ve to find individual time. but I‟ve given it only for explanation] Now back to the question. So far our table looks like thisA+B B+C C+A A+B+C SPEED TIME 5 12 4 15 60 3 20 60 6 10 60 DISTANCE 60 .

Now you can solve it three unknown equation. subtraction and solve it as three unknown equations Speed of A+B+C=6 Speed of A+B=5 Hence speed of C= 6 –(A+B)= 6-5=1 A+B B+C C+A A+B+C (A+B+C)-(A+B)=C SPEED TIME 5 12 4 15 60 3 20 60 6 10 60 6-5=1 ?? 60 DISTANCE 60 Speed of C is 1 and he has to cover 60 kilometers alone. A+B B+C C+A A+B+C (A+B+C)-(A+B)=C SPEED TIME 5 12 4 15 60 3 20 60 6 10 60 6-5=1 60 60 DISTANCE 60 Do similar procedure for B and A. A+B B+C C+A A+B+C C SPEED TIME 5 12 4 15 60 3 20 60 6 10 60 B A 6-5=1 6-3=3 6-4=2 60 60 20 60 30 60 DISTANCE 60 . we can do addition. STD formula. Because this is „speed‟. 1 x Time = 60 Hence it‟ll take him 60 days.

In the first eq. Multiply first eq with (2) and second equation with (3) B:A=3:6 A:C=6:2 Now we can make a three terms ratio B:A:C=3:6:2 Keep in mind.C if they work individually= 30. this is ratio and not „absolute number‟ So we fill “Time” boxes as A‟s time = 6x . Case# 2: Time Ratios are given A takes twice as much time as B and thrice as much as C to finish a piece of work. A is 2 and in second eq. Meaning. They together finish the work in one day.3)=6 Multiply something in both equations so that we get 6 in both equation.Final answer. A Speed 2 Time Dist B 3 C 1 A+B B+C C+A 5 4 15 60 3 20 60 30 20 60 12 60 60 60 60 Yes it satisfies the statements given in the Question.B. Find the time taken by each of them to finish the work. A takes twice as much time as B.60 Run a cross verification to see the answer is correct. meaning if B takes 1 day. time taken by A. A takes 2 days So the ratio of time is A:B=2:1 Similarly A:C=3:1 We can write the same thing as B:A=1:2 A:C=3:1 If we want the three terms ratio. A is 3. LCM (2.20. we want mid term (A) to be same in both equation. Plug the answer values.

B. we can get the individual speeds of A.2x)= 6x From the STD fomula.2. Cross verification (plug the answers we got) A B C A+B+C Speed Time 1 2 3 6 3 2 6 1 day 6 Distance 6 6 6 From the table.= 1. fill the data A Speed Time 1 B 2 C 3 A+B+C 6 6x 3x 2x 1 day Distance 6x 6x 6x 6x LCM of (6x. A takes twice as much time as B and thrice as much as C to finish a piece of work Yes it satisfies the statement given in the question itself. B will take 3 days and C will take 2 days.C. Time n Work :Daily Wages and Share in Payment .3 Together their speed A+B+C=1+2+3=6 For the last column Speed x time = distance 6 multiplied with 1 =6x Hence x= 1 Put the value of x=1 in the table and you get individual time A will take 6 days individually.3x.B‟s time = 3x C‟s Time = 2x Run the STD table.

B in 15 days.. meaning the work is worth Rs.1500 for the whole work. They got Rs. They work for 5 days. Case 1:Daily Wage 2. The rest of the work was finished by C in 2 days.1.1500 so take it as our distance Repharse: A can do road-construction of 1500 kms in 10 days!. Find the daily wages of B and C. If they get Rs.1500 for the whole work. Case 2: Share in money Case 1:Daily Wage A can do a piece of work in 10 days. and so on A Speed Time 10 15 B distance 1500 1500 Apply STD formula and find out speed value of each column A Speed Time 150 10 B 100 15 distance 1500 1500 Given: they (A and B) worked forfive days A Speed Time 150 10 B 100 15 A+B 150+100=250 5 .

So daily wage of B=Rs.125 Total daily wage of B and C=100+125=225 . E.distance 1500 1500 250 x 5=1250 Combined speed of A+B=250 so in two days they constructed road of 1250 kms.100 And daily wage of C=Rs. Remaining work = 1500 minus 1250 = 250kms This was done by C alone. B can construct 100 km roads per day.g. in two days. A Speed Time 150 10 B 100 15 A+B C 250 5 2 distance 1500 1500 1250 250 Run STD fomula on C‟s column and find his speed A Speed Time 150 10 B 100 15 A+B C 250 5 125 2 distance 1500 1500 1250 250 Daily Wage of B and C Their daily wage depends on how much work can they do per day. Which is actually their speed.

A Speed Time B C c A+B+C (3200/6)+400+c 3200/6 400 6 8 3200 ?? 3 3200 distance 3200 . With the help of C.3200. they completed the work in 3 days. A Speed Time 6 8 B distance 3200 3200 Run STD formula to find speeds A Speed Time B 3200/6 400 6 8 3200 distance 3200 Given: With the help of C. assume it is “c” but construct his column and fill remaining data.Case 2: Share in money A alone can do a piece of work in 6 days and B alone in 8 days. A and B undertook to do it for Rs. We don‟t know the speed of C. How much is to be paid to C? Total road construction is 3200 kms this time. they completed the work in 3 days.

Speed x time = distance (400/3) x 3 =distance 400= distance Meaning C covered 400kms Which means he was paid Rs. they can do it in how many days? A is thrice as good means if speed of B is “b”. then A can do it in t-60 days Fill up the table A Speed Time distance 3b B b (t-60) t .400 nW: A is thrice as good as workman as B Question from Comments A is thrice as good as workman as B and therefore is able to finish a job in 60 days less than B. then Speed of A = 3b Given: A is able to finish job in 60 days less than B Means if B can do work in t days. Working together.Run STD formula on third column [ (3200/6)+400+c ] x 3 = 3200 Solve this equation you get c=400/3 Meaning speed of c=400/3 He works for 3 days.

The distance covered in each column is same. When A+B work together. they‟ve to cover the same distance (90b) A Speed Time distance 3b B b A+B 3b+b=4b ?? 90-60=30 90 b x 90=90b 90b . therefore (Speed x time)A’s column = (speed x time )B’s column 3b x (t-60)=b x t 3(t-60)=t t=90 Update the table with this value of “t” A Speed Time distance 3b B b 90-60=30 90 In B‟s column apply STD formula so you get b x 90 =90b that is our total distance.

X started the work alone and then after 4 days Y joined him till the completion of the work.5 daysTnW: How long did the Work last? Question from a reader: X and Y can do a piece of work in 20 days and 12 days respectively.Apply STD in last column 4b x time =90b Time =22. How long did the work last? X Speed Time distance Y 20 12 LCM (20.12)=60 Total distance = 60 Update X Speed Time Y 20 12 distance 60 60 Apply STD formula in each column and you get speed of X and Y X Y .

Which was completed by X+Y X Speed Time 3 Y 5 X started X+Y 3 3+5=8 ?? 48 20 12 4 distance 60 60 3×4=12 Run std on last column .Speed Time 3 5 20 12 distance 60 60 Given: X started the work alone and then after 4 days Y joined him till the completion of the work Means X worked for four days alone. X Speed Time 3 Y 5 X started 3 20 12 4 distance 60 60 3×4=12 In 4 days. he covered 12 kms. So remaining work = 60 minus 12 =48.

last column and second last column) Total time= 4 + 6=10 days. Short cut methods in quantitative aptitude Todays all competitive exams are having the topics of quantitative aptitude and reasoning.railways exams. Final Answer: work lasted for 10 days.which are not related to any formula.all national level exams formula or trick ? we are not going to solve the problems in formula.So we are giving you suggestion that.apply tricks.hate formulas.Speed x time = dist 8 x time = 48 Time =48/ 8 =6 days Final table looks like this X Speed Time 3 Y 5 X started X+Y finished 3 3+5=8 6 48 20 12 4 distance 60 60 3×4=12 Question: How long did the work last? X started and X+Y any website providing the short cut tricks to solve the problems in less time. (i.GATE . why aptitude Why and where to apply short cut methods  in bank exams like IBPS  Written test for MNC job CAT.try to solve in logical methods.MAT.GRE.which improves your logical thinking and attitude Where i have to learn these tricks to solve quantitative aptitude problems? These methods/tricks will not available in any books or any other websites.e.lic.If you know the solving method for particular problem in seconds.In aptitude for every problem or question we have short cut methods.In this site you can learn aptitude short cut methods IBPS EXAM SPECIAL . Look at the “time” cells of their respective columns.then you can said to be good in aptitude.

The new population is what % of the original? Soln: The overall effect = 1. 4%. 4. Note: 1. 10%. 1.2 reduced to 1 and we can use % decrease formula) % decrease = (1. it becomes 0. 2. by what percent should it be reduced to get the actual value? Soln: (It is equivalent to 1.9 X 0. it becomes 1.Today we are explaining you. The percentage increase or decrease depends on the decimal multiplied. Eg: A value after an increase of 20% became 600. 3. When a value is subjected multiple changes.8 = 0.4%. 2. Eg: 0. LESSON 1 -SHORT CUT METHODS/TRICKS IN PERCENTAGES CONCEPT: Important Points to Note: 1. 3. What is the value? Soln: 1. it becomes 0.1 times of itself.04 times of itself. (since 100+10 = 110% = 1. 20% increase and 30% decrease) = 0. Eg: The population of a town increased by 10%.9 times of itself.72 => 28% decrease (Since only 72% is remaining). 4.66%. 0.short cut methods in percentage topic . the overall effect of all the changes can be obtained by multiplying all the individual factors of the changes.8 X 600 = 480.Learn short cut methods in aptitude to get your dream job.apply new methods to solve the problems by using our short cut methods. 0. So.1 X 1.64 times of itself 4%. 3. Eg: When a value is increased by 20%. it becomes 1.9) 20%. it becomes 1.7 => 30% decrease. it becomes 0. 2. When any value decreases by 1.96 times of itself. 2. decrease = 0.Start from here. 36%. Thus we can see the effects on the values due to various percentage increases. what is the new value? Soln: new value = 0. it becomes 1.8 times of itself for every day. 20% and then decreased by 30%.which related to aptitude. (Since 20% decrease) Thus depending on the decimal we can decide the % change and vice versa. it becomes 0.2 X 0.7 x. Thus we can see the effects on a value due to various percentage decreases.924 = 92. Eg: Two successive discounts of 10% and 20% are equal to a single discount of ___ Soln: Discount is same as decrease of price.7 (Since 10%.2 times of itself.2 X 100 = 16. Eg: If 600 is decrease by 20%. Eg: When the actual value is x. 956 => 4. When any value increases by 10%.67 => 33% decrease.the lessons for aptitude tricks from all topics. When a value is multiplied by a decimal more than 1 it will be increased and when multiplied by less than 1 it will be decreased.1) 20%.36 times of itself. find the value when it is 30% decreased.2x = 600 (since 20% increase) ð x = 500.4% decrease and so on. (Since 100-10 = 90% = 0. Soln: 30% decrease => 0. .2 – 1)/1.

The percentage change in its area is ___ 9.16I => 16% (So income decreased form 20% to 16%) % decrease = (20-16)/20 X 100 = 20%. 33.1 X 0.33%. None 6. A saves 20% of his income.10% rise b. 4% rise 7. 8/5 a. None d.2I (since 20% rise) New expenditure = (0. 600000 d. b. 36% d.7 Let I be the income. 156 c. 300 c. The side of a square is increased by 20%. What is the percentage change? 4. By what % is 200 more than 50? 3. Find the total number of votes polled if 20% of the votes were declared invalid. 400000 c. 100 a. A secured 56% of the votes and won by 48000 votes.2I – 1. 2. None clear explanation for above problems: 1/5 X 2/5 X a = ¼ X a X b => b = 8/25 % difference = (200-50)/50 X 100 = 300 % % increase = (80-30)/30 X 100 = 166. If the length of a rectangle is increased by 33.66 % 1.2 X 1. 33. 20% fall b. A and B. None d. 25% d.33% c.66 b. None d. In a theatre. 7.33% b. 76000 2. 20% c. a. .04I So. then what is b? b. None 10. 7% rise d.6% decrease.04I = 0. The population of a city is increased by 30% and thus became 78000.2I => 20% = 0. by what percentage should the breadth be reduced to make the area same? a. 4% fall c. 20% b. 5. 4. 125 a. None a. What is the original population? 5. Savings = 0. 16/25 b. None 8. None d. What is the percentage change in his savings? a. 25% a. If 20% of 40% of a = 25% of a% of b.25 decreased to 1.practice problems: 1. 166. Net effect = 1. 6.8I) X 1. new savings = 1. 500000 1.3 (Since 30% rise) = 1. A value changes from 30 to 80. Expenditure = 0. 7% fall c. The price of petrol is increased by 25%. By what percent the consumption be reduced to make the expenditure remain the same? a. What is the net effect on the economy of the theatre? a. 8/25 c. 60000 d. 20% rise d. 3.8I New income = 1. 200 b. His income is increased by 20% and so he increased his expenditure by 30%. the number of seats is increased by 20% and the price per ticket is increased by 10% but the public response decreased by 30%. 44% c. In an election between two candidates. 20% b. 64200 c. It is equivalent to 1.924 => 7.3 x = 78000 => x = 60000.

Valid Votes: A got 56% => B got 44% Difference = 12% = 48000 So. The digital sum of 19 is 1+9 = 10 = 1 Consider the number 129. 9. Ignoring all the 9’s. The digital sum of 129 is 1+2+9 = 12 = 3 Consider the number 1239. the digital sum of 5466 = 3 So. So. It is equivalent to 1.44 => 44%. Digital Sum of 12 = 1+2 = 3 Digital Sum of 5466 = 5+4+6+6 = 21 = 2+1 = 3 So. 10. The digital sum of 1239 is 1+2+3+9 = 15 = 6 So. So. So.25 decreased to 1. can you determine the Digital Sum of :     134566 23566 34563 895785 Consider the number 19.2 (since area = side X side) = 1. 21 is not the digital sum. 100% = 400000. notice that even though sum of the digit of 5466 is 21. % change in area = 1.2 X 1. But valid votes are only 80% of total votes. 80% of total votes = 400000 => total votes = 500000 Digital Root or Digital Sum of a number is just the sum of all the digits of the number. you can safely ignore the digit 9 in the number. For example. this will not have any impact on the digital sum.25 X 100 = 20% 8. So the digital sum is 5+2=7 . if a number has 9. can you guess the digital sum of 599992. So.% decrease = (1.25-1)/1. The sum is again added until we are left with a single digit. These are valid votes. we are left with 5 and 2. So 20% decrease.

subtracted.Consider another example 7486352. Digital Sum of 7486352 = 7+4+8+6+3+5+2 = 35 = 3+5 = 8 However. So. multiplied or divided. in order to obtain the digital sum. the question arises. Similarly 5 & 4 adds upto 9 and 7 & 2 adds upto 9. we are left with the digit 8. Why do we need Digital Sum of the number ? It turns out. their digital sums will also be respectively or added. there is a shortcut for this. subtracted. Let’s consider an example : . Here. we donot have any 9’s in the number. multiplied or divided. We can cancel all the digits. So. cancel out the digits which add up to 9 as shown : 6 & 3 add upto 9. the digital sum is 8. when the numbers are added. instead of adding all the digits. we can use their digital sums to check the accuracy of the answer. So. so we can cancel that. we will just add all the digits. So.

61329 62139 63329 62329 .Now consider the digital sum of each of the number: The digital sum of 1234 is 1 The digital sum of 345 is 3 The digital sum of 6543 is 9(or 0) The digital sum of 345 is 3 So. Let’s say you come across a question something like this in the examination : 18265+2736+41328=? 1. 3. we can conclude that the addition is correct. 4. the total digital sum is 1+3+9+3 = 7 The digital sum of 8467 is 8+4+6+7 is 7 Since the digital sums are equal. 2.

In this case. Important It is important to note that. the total digital sum is 4+9+9 = 4 Let’s look at the choices: The digital sum of 61329 is 3 The digital sum of 62139 is 3 The digital sum of 63329 is 5 The digital sum of 62329 is 4 So. it cannot conclusively point out the right answer. So. the Digital sum of 62329 is 4. Let me explain : The digital sum of 18265 is 4 The digital sum of 2736 is 9( or 0) The digital sum of 41328 is 9(or 0) So. the shortcut is to obtain the digital sum of each of the numbers. the digital sum of 62392 is also 4. we can conclude that only option (4) can be the answer even though we have not actually calculated the sum. even though the numbers are different. We know from previous example. the Digital sum remains the same as the numbers have changed their places. . So.So. using Digital sum. even digital root technique will help you in eliminating few options from the question. Digital sum sometimes lead to conflicting results. instead of adding all the numbers. the Moral of the story is.

multiplication or division just like we used in addition. .Digital Sum technique can also be used in case of subtraction. Please contact me if some point in the tutorial is not clear. I would be glad to help.

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