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World Journal of Science and Technology 2012, 2(5):34-36

ISSN: 2231 2587


Available Online: www.worldjournalofscience.com



Design and development of wideband corner truncated square microstrip antenna

Kishan Singh
*
and S. N. Mulgi
#

*
Dept. of E & CE, Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College Bidar - 585401, Karnataka, India.
#
Dept. of Applied Electronics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga - 585106, Karnataka, India.


Abstract
A novel design of three pairs slot loaded corner truncated square microstrip antenna is designed for dual band operation.
Dual bands are merged together and antenna operates for single band and gives 76.19% of bandwidth when three pairs of
slots is reduced to two pairs. The bandwidth is enhanced to a maximum value of 84.02% and gain 8.78 dB when slots on the
patch are reduced to one pair without changing the nature of broadside radiation characteristics. Truncating the corners of
square patch makes the antenna compact in the size. Design concepts of the proposed antennas are given and experimental
results are discussed. These antennas may find applications in SAR.

Keywords: Dual band, Square patch, Pairs, Truncating,

INTRODUCTION

Microstrip antennas (MSAs) are widely used as efficient
radiators in many communication systems because of their
compatibility, low profile, low cost, easy to handle etc [1-2]. However,
the MSAs inherently have a narrow bandwidth and low gain. To
overcome this, many techniques have been suggested in the
literature such as, aperture coupled [3], slot loading [4], truncations
[5], parasitic elements [6] etc. Further, compact antennas capable of
operating for more than one band of frequencies are more attractive
for many military and commercial applications. Where each
operating band can be used independently for transmit/receive
purpose. In view of this a simple techniques has been used to get
dual and wide band operation of antenna by truncating the corners
and by inserting a pairs of unequal vertical length slots on the square
patch. This method reduces the overall size of antenna to a greater
extent.

DESCRIPTION OF ANTENNA GEOMETRY

The artwork of the proposed antennas are sketched using
computer software Auto-CAD 2006 and are fabricated on commonly
available low cost glass epoxy substrate material of thickness h and
permittivity r = 4.2.
Fig. 1 shows the geometry of dual band corner truncated
square microstrip antenna (DCSMA). The length L of DCSMA is 0.76
cm. The corner truncation to square patch is made by taking Ls=Ws=
2mm, which is equal to o/15, where o is the free space wave length
in cm. Further, three pairs of unequal length vertical slots are placed
on the square patch. The first slot is placed with gap of 0.025 cm
from the side edge of square patch. Its length is o /10. The length of
the second slot is o /12 kept at a distance of 0.025 cm from the first
slot and the third slot is of length o /15 which is also kept at a
distance of 0.025 cm from the second slot. Similar three slots are
placed on the opposite side edge of the square patch and width of all
three pair of slots are o /13. The antenna is fed by using
microstripline feeding. This feeding has been selected because it is
simple in design and can be simultaneously fabricated along with the
antenna element. A quarter wave transformer of dimensions Lt, Wt is
used for better impedance matching between microstripline feed of
dimension Lf, Wf and center point along the length of the square
microstrip patch. At the tip of microstripline feed a 50 coaxial SMA
connector is used for feeding the microwave power.













Fig 1. Geometry of DCSMA

The single band corner truncated square microstrip antenna
(SCSMA) is constructed from Fig. 1 by removing inner most pair of
slots from the side edges used on the patch of DCSMA. The
geometry of SCSMA is as shown in Fig. 2. The feed arrangement of
this antenna remains same as that of Fig. 1.
Figure 3 shows the geometry of wideband corner truncated
square microstrip antenna (WCSMA) is also constructed from Fig. 1
by removing second pair of slots from the side edges used on the
patch of DCSMA. The feed arrangement of this antenna also
remains same as that of Fig. 1. The design parameters of proposed
antennas is given in Table. 1.

Received: March 10, 2012; Revised: April 15, 2012; Accepted: May 20, 2012.
*Corresponding Author

Kishan Singh
Dept. of E & CE, Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College Bidar - 585401,
Karnataka, India.

Email: kishanskrish@gmail.com

World Journal of Science and Technology 2012, 2(5):34-36

35


Fig 2. Geometry of SCSMA



Fig 3. Geometry of WCSMA

EXPERIMENTAL RESULT

The bandwidth over return loss less than -10 dB for the
proposed antennas is measured on Vector Network Analyzer (Rohde
& Schwarz, Germany make ZVK model 1127.8651). The variation of
return loss versus frequency of DCSMA is as shown in Fig. 4. From
this figure it is seen that, the antenna resonates for two bands of
frequencies BW1 and BW2. The magnitude of each operating band is
found to be 12.82% and 20.78% respectively which is determined by
using the equation (1),

BW
2 1
c
( )
= 100 %
f f
f
(
(

(1)

where, f1 and f2 are the lower and upper cut-off frequencies of
the band respectively, when its return loss becomes -10 dB and fc is
the centre frequency between f1 and f2. The obtained dual bands are
due to the fundamental resonance of the patch and combined effect
of truncated corners and slots on the patch [7].



Fig 4. Variation of return loss verses frequency of DCSMA
The variation of return loss versus frequency of SCSMA is as
shown in Fig. 5. From this figure it is seen that, the antenna
resonates for single band of frequency BW3 with a magnitude of
76.19%. The merging of dual bands shown in Fig. 4 in to single
band is due to the effect of removing of third pair of slots from the
side edges of the square patch, which enhances the bandwidth.
6 8 10 12 14 16 18
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
Frequency (GHZ)
BW
3
R
e
t
u
r
n

L
o
s
s

(
d
B
)
SCSMA

Fig 5. Variation of return loss verses frequency of SCSMA

The variation of return loss versus frequency of WCSMA is as
shown in Fig. 6. It is clear from the figure that, by removing second
pair of slots from the side edges of the square patch. The antenna
again resonates for wide band of frequency BW4 and gives a highest
bandwidth of 84.02%.
The gain of the proposed antennas is measured by absolute
gain method. The power transmitted Pt by pyramidal horn antenna
and power received Pr by AUT (antenna under test) are measured
independently. With the help of these experimental data, the gain (G)
dB of AUT is calculated as,

P
0 r
(G) dB=10 log - (G ) dB - 20log dB
t
P 4R
t
| | | |
| |
\ \
(2)

where, Gt is the gain of the pyramidal horn antenna and R
is the distance between the transmitting antenna and the AUT. Using
equation (2), the maximum gains of DCSMA, SCSMA and WCSMA
measured in their operating bands are found to be 9.69, 9.17 and
8.78 dB respectively.
6 8 10 12 14 16 18
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
R
e
t
u
r
n

L
o
s
s

(
d
B
)
Frequency (GHZ)
BW
4
WCSMA

Fig 6. Variation of return loss verses frequency of WCSMA

Fig. 7, 8 and 9 shows the co-polar and cross-polar radiation
pattern of DCSMA measured at 8.53 GHz, SCSMA measured at
8.70 GHz and WCSMA measured at 8.28 GHz respectively. From
these figures it is clear that, the pattern are broadsided and linearly
polarized
Kishan Singh et al.,

36

Fig 7. Radiation pattern of DCSMA measured at 8.53 GHz




Fig 8. Radiation pattern of SCSMA measured at 8.70 GHz



Fig 9. Radiation pattern of WCSMA measured at 8.28 GHz

Table I. Design parameters of proposed antennas

Antenna
Parameters
Dimension in
mm
h
Wf
Lf
Wt
Lt
3.2
6.3
4.0
1.0
4.1
CONCLUSION

From the detail experimental study it is concluded that, the
novel design of truncating the corners of square patch and by
inserting three pairs of vertical slots of different lengths, i.e. (DCSMA)
the antenna is quite capable in producing dual band operation.
These dual bands can be converted to single band by removing a
pair of inner most slots on the square patch i.e. (SCSMA). Further,
by removing second slot i.e (WCSMA) the bandwidth can be
enhances to 84.02%. This technique reduces the overall size of the
antenna by 27% when compared to the size of conventional square
patch. The proposed antennas are simple in their design and
fabrication and they use low cost substrate material. These antennas
may find applications in SAR.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors would like to thank the Dept. of Science &
Technology (DST), Government of India, New Delhi, for sanctioning
Network Analyzer to this Department under FIST project.

REFERENCES

[1] Contantine A. Balanis, Antenna theory analysis and design. John
Willey & Sons, Inc., New York, 1982.
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Willey & Sons, Inc., New York, 2002.
[3] Nasimuddin Z. N. Chen, Xianming Qing, Aperture-coupled C-
shape slot cut Square Microstrip Antenna for Circular
Polarization, Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol.
50, No. 12 pp. 3175-3178 Dec 2008.
[4] G. S. Binoy, C. K. Anandan, P. Mohanan, and K. Vasudevan,
Slot-coupled Square Microstrip Antenna for Compact Dual-
frequancy Operation, Microwave and Optical Technology
Letters, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 7-9 Jan 2002.
[5] Wen-Shyang Chen, Chun-Kun Wu, Kin-Lu Wong, Novel
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[6] Ali, W.K.W, Broadband square microstrip patch antenna with
suspended parasitic element IEEE Transaction on Antennas
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[7] Mulgi, S. N., Sameena, N. M., Maddani, G. P., Konda, R. B. and
Satnoor, S. K., Simulation, Design and Development of
Complementary-Symmetry Microstrip Antenna for
Compactness, Enhanced Gain, Bandwidth and Low Cross-
Polarization (November 2010). The IUP Journal of
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