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PRESENTED TO: MR. MAHOOB SANGHI PRESENTED BY: KHIZAR SAEED SOHAIL ZAFAR M. RASHID SAFINA SAHAR NAILA MAJEED (MB-09-19) (MB-09-29) (MB-09-41) (MB-09-31) (MB-09-30)
Personal Information of E.D.O Education
Name: Qualification: Age: Experience: Joining in distt. Layyah: Office timing: Contact #:
Mr. Abdul Rehman M. Phil (EPM) 49 years More than 20 years 1st May, 2012. 8 AM TO 3 PM 0606-413756
Planning Function of Management
Planning means looking ahead and chalking out future courses of action to be followed. It is a preparatory step. It is a systematic activity which determines when, how and who is going to perform a specific job. Planning is a detailed programmed regarding future courses of action. It is rightly said “Well plan is half done”. Therefore planning takes into consideration available & prospective human and physical resources of the organization so as to get effective co-ordination, contribution & perfect adjustment. It is the basic management function which includes formulation of one or more detailed plans to achieve optimum balance of needs or demands with the available resources. According to Urwick, “Planning is a mental predisposition to do things in orderly way, to think before acting and to act in the light of facts rather than guesses”. Planning is deciding best alternative among others to perform different managerial functions in order to achieve predetermined goals.
According to Koontz & O’Donell, “Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do and who is to do it. Planning bridges the gap between where we are to, where we want Sto go. It makes possible things to occur which would not otherwise occur”.
Guideline & steps for planning function in education department
Planning function of education department involves following steps and some suggestions are also described for making plans.
1. Establishment of objectives
a. Planning requires a systematic approach. b. Planning starts with the setting of goals and objectives to be achieved. c. Objectives provide a rationale for undertaking various activities as well as indicate direction of efforts. d. As a matter of fact, objectives provide nucleus to the planning process. Therefore, objectives should be stated in a clear, precise and unambiguous language. Otherwise the activities undertaken are bound to be ineffective. e. As far as possible, objectives should be stated in quantitative terms. f. Such goals should be specified in qualitative terms. g. Hence objectives should be practical, acceptable, workable and achievable.
2. Establishment of Planning Premises
a. Planning premises are the assumptions about the lively shape of events in future. b. They serve as a basis of planning. c. Establishment of planning premises is concerned with determining where one tends to deviate from the actual plans and causes of such deviations. d. Establishment of planning premises is concerned to take such steps that avoids these obstacles to a great extent.
e. Planning premises may be internal or external. Internal includes policies, rules, regulations, management relations, philosophy of management, etc. Whereas external includes socio- economic, political and economical changes. f. Internal premises are controllable whereas external are non- controllable.
3. Choice of alternative course of action
a. When forecast are available and premises are established, a number of alternative course of actions have to be considered. b. For this purpose, each and every alternative evaluated. c. The merits, demerits as well as the consequences of each alternative must be examined before the choice is being made. d. After objective and scientific evaluation, the best alternative is chosen. e. The planners should take help of various quantitative techniques to judge the stability of an alternative.
4. Formulation of derivative plans
a. Derivative plans are the sub plans or secondary plans which help in the achievement of main plan. b. Secondary plans will flow from the basic plan. These are meant to support and expedite the achievement of basic plans. c. Derivative plans indicate time schedule and sequence of accomplishing various tasks.
5. Securing Co-operation
a. After the plans have been determined, it is necessary rather advisable to take subordinates or those who have to implement these plans into confidence. b. The purposes behind taking them into confidence are :-
Subordinates may feel motivated since they are involved in decision making process.
The organization may be able to get valuable suggestions and improvement in formulation as well as implementation of plans.
Also the employees will be more interested in the execution of these plans.
Follow up/Appraisal of plans
a. After choosing a particular course of action, it is put into action. b. After the selected plan is implemented, it is important to appraise its effectiveness. c. This is done on the basis of feedback or information received from departments or persons concerned. d. This enables the management to correct deviations or modify the plan. e. This step establishes a link between planning and controlling function. f. The follow up must go side by side the implementation of plans so that in the light of observations made, future plans can be made more realistic.
An organizational structure consists of activities such as task allocation, coordination and supervision, which are directed towards the achievement of organizational aims. It can also be considered as the viewing glass or perspective through which individuals see their organization and its environment. Organizations are a variant of clustered entities. An organization can be structured in many different ways, depending on their objectives. The structure of an organization will determine the modes in which it operates and performs. Organizational structure allows the expressed allocation of responsibilities for different functions and processes to different entities such as the branch, department, workgroup and individual. Organizational structure affects organizational action in two big ways. First, it provides the foundation on which standard operating procedures and routines rest.
Second, it determines which individuals get to participate in which decision-making processes, and thus to what extent their views shape the organization’s actions. Organization structure? Either centralized or decentralized? Before the district government system education department used centralized decision making style and at this time this department is using the decentralized decision making style.
Short term planning
The process of setting smaller, intermediate milestones to achieve within closer time frames when moving toward an important overall goal. Many business operators will engage in short term planning that typically covers time frames of less than one year in order to assist their company in moving gradually toward its longer term goals.
Long term planning
Exercise aimed at formulating a long-term plan, to meet future needs estimated usually by extrapolation of present or known needs. It begins with the current status and charts out a path to the projected status, and generally includes short-term (operational or tactical plans) for achieving interim goals. Type of planning? Either short term or long term? Both are used in education department its depending on the situation in some causes they used short term but in most causes the long term planning is used.
Duties of EDO:
1. Deals with Elementary, Secondary and College Education, Adults Education, except Professional Education. 2. Grant of scholarship. 3. Promotion of scientific research. 4. Production and distribution of educational and scientific films. 5. Promotion of sports and co-curricular activities. 6. Service matters, except those entrusted to the Services and General 20 District Government Rules of Business, 2001 Administration Department, Attached Departments.
7. Purchase of stores and capital goods for schools and colleges. 8. Establishment of new schools and upgrading of existing schools. 9. Conducting of 5th to 8th class examinations. 10. Identification and formulation of development schemes 11. Formulation of district education budget (development and non-development), reconciliation of expenditure and audit matters. 12. Surprise inspections of educational institutions. 13. Development of district data base and its up-dating. 14. Matters related to School Councils. 15. Periodic and regular reporting to the Heads of Attached Departments and the Administrative Department. 16. Postings and transfers within the district, except those falling in the purview of S & GAD, Attached Departments and Administrative Department (Education Department). How you make decision? Rational or intuitive? E.D.O Education made rational decisions in every place. How decision is made? Individually or collectively? Collectively decisions are made because involvement of community is greater in this sector. At the time of problem who is responsible? Individual or group? At the time of any conflict or problem the head of that school will be responsible. And at the top the EDO himself is responsible.
Training and development
ongoing educational activities within an organization designed to enhance the fulfillment and performance of employees. Training and development programs offered by a business might include a variety of educational techniques and programs that can be attended on a compulsory or voluntary basis by staff. The need for Training and Development Before we say that technology is responsible for increased need of training inputs to employees, it is important to understand that there are other factors too that contribute to the latter. Training is also necessary for the individual development and progress of the employee, which motivates him to work for a certain organization apart from just money. We also require training update employees of the market trends, the change in the employment policies and other things. The following are the two biggest factors that contribute to the increased need to training and development in organizations: 1. Change: The word change encapsulates almost everything. It is one of the biggest factors that contribute to the need of training and development. There is in fact a direct relationship between the two. Change leads to the need for training and development and training and development leads to individual and organizational change, and the cycle goes on and on.. 2. Development: It is again one the strong reasons for training and development becoming all the more important. Money is not the sole motivator at work and
this is especially very true for the 21st century. People who work with organizations seek more than just employment out of their work; they look at holistic development of self. Spirituality and self awareness for example are gaining momentum world over. People seek happiness at jobs which may not be possible unless an individual is aware of the self. At ford, for example, an individual can enrol himself / herself in a course on ‘self awareness’, which apparently seems inconsequential to ones performance at work but contributes to the spiritual well being of an individual which is all the more important.
Training - On the Job
With on the job training, employees receive training whilst remaining in the workplace. The main methods of one-the-job training include
Demonstration / instruction - showing the trainee how to do the job Coaching - a more intensive method of training that involves a close working relationship between an experienced employee and the trainee
Job rotation - where the trainee is given several jobs in succession, to gain experience of a wide range of activities (e.g. a graduate management trainee might spend periods in several different departments)
Projects - employees join a project team - which gives them exposure to other parts of the business and allow them to take part in new activities. Most successful project teams are "multi-disciplinary"
The advantages and disadvantages of this form of training can be summarized as follows:
Generally most cost-effective Employees are actually productive Quality depends on ability of trainer and time available Opportunity to learn whilst doing colleagues A wider range of skills or qualifications can be obtained Can learn from outside specialists or experts More expensive – e.g. transport and accommodation Lost working time and potential output from employee New employees may still need some induction training Employees now have new skills/qualifications and may leave for better jobs Employees can be more confident when starting job Training alongside real Bad Learning habits might may be not passed be on environment conducive
Potential disruption to production
Training - Off the Job
This occurs when employees are taken away from their place of work to be trained. Common methods of off-the-job training include: • Day release (employee takes time off work to attend a local college or training centre) • • • Distance learning / evening classes Block release courses - which may involve several weeks at a local college Sandwich courses - where the employee spends a longer period of time at college (e.g. six months) before returning to work • • Sponsored courses in higher education Self-study, computer-based training
The main advantages and disadvantages of this form of training can be summarised as follows:
A wider range of skills or qualifications can be obtained Can learn from outside specialists or experts Employees can be more confident when starting job
More expensive – e.g. transport and accommodation Lost working time and potential output from employee New employees may still need some induction training Employees now have new skills/qualifications and may leave for better jobs
What are your training and development methods? Two methods are used to train the teachers which are. 1. On the job training 2. Off the job training • • Class room lecture Workshops
On which basis promotions are given either on individual performance or group? Promotions in education department are given on individual performance and commonly promotions are given on the basis of seniority. Leadership Styles Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. Kurt Lewin (1939) led a group of researchers to identify different styles of leadership. This early study has been very influential and established three major leadership styles. The three major styles of leadership are • Authoritarian or autocratic • Participative or democratic • Delegative or Free Reign
Although good leaders use all three styles, with one of them normally dominant, bad leaders tend to stick with one style.
I want both of you to. . . This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. Some of the appropriate conditions to use it is when you have all the information to solve the problem, you are short on time, and your employees are well motivated. Some people tend to think of this style as a vehicle for yelling, using demeaning language, and leading by threats and abusing their power. This is not the authoritarian style, rather it is an abusive, unprofessional style called “bossing people around.” It has no place in a leader's repertoire. The authoritarian style should normally only be used on rare occasions. If you have the time and want to gain more commitment and motivation from your employees, then you should use the participative style.
Let's work together to solve this. . . This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it). However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority. Using this style is not a sign of weakness, rather it is a sign of strength that your employees will respect. This is normally used when you have part of the information, and your employees have other parts. Note that a leader is not expected to know everything — this is why you employ knowledgeable and skillful employees. Using this style is of mutual benefit — it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions.
Delegative (free reign)
You two take care of the problem while I go. . . In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do everything! You must set priorities and delegate certain tasks. This is not a style to use so that you can blame others when things go wrong, rather this is a style to be used when you fully trust and confidence in the people below you. Do not be afraid to use it, however, use it wisely!
What is your leadership style? Autocratic, democratic, pace setter or delegative? Leadership style depends on the situation and the psychology of the employees but E.D.O said that democratic style is best in education sector. Either job insecurity prevails in your department? 100% job security prevails. Employees are hired on contract basis for 2 years after this the employees are permanent. What is boss and employees relationship? There exist Cordial relationship between boss and employees. What is reward/ recognition process? Reward or recognition in education department is given on the basis of different factors some of these are given below, • Attendce, • Dressing • Attitude • Behavior • Performance etc. What is current performance of your department? He said that I am satisfied from the performance of my department and on the basis of this performance district Layyah education department ranking improved from 28 to 11 in education sector in Punjab. Communication style? Formal or informal? mostly formal communication style is used and if the decision is made on the spot the informal communication style is used. Low context culture prevails in your department or high context culture?
High context culture is prevails in the education sector. Values and experiences are share with other employees.
• Paper pattern is change similar to NTS test. The • Paper checking system • Computer as compulsory subject • In 2013 all classes will be English medium
• Abdul Rehman (EDO Education of Layyah) • http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadstl.html • http://www.tutor2u.net/business/people/training_offthejob.asp • http://www.tutor2u.net/business/people/training_onthejob.asp • http://www.managementstudyguide.com/training-and-development.htm • shttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/training-and-development.html
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