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1007/s11440-013-0215-x

RESEARCH PAPER

Application of a high-cycle accumulation model to the analysis of soil liquefaction around a vibrating pile toe

V. A. Osinov

Received: 28 September 2012 / Accepted: 31 January 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Abstract High residual pore pressure observed in the vicinity of piles driven in saturated soil indicates that the soil around the pile may be liqueed. In the present paper, the problem of deformation of saturated sand around a vibrating pile is formulated with the use of a high-cycle accumulation model capable of describing a large number of cycles. The problem is solved numerically for locally undrained conditions in spherically symmetric formulation suitable for the lower part of a cylindrical closed-ended pile near the toe. The aim of the study is to calculate the evolution of the liquefaction zone around the pile for a large number of cycles. A parametric study is carried out to show how the growth of the liquefaction zone depends on the pile displacement amplitude, the relative soil density, the effective stress in the far eld and the pore uid compressibility. Keywords Cyclic model Liquefaction Saturated soil Vibratory pile driving

1 Introduction It is known from numerous eld measurements that the installation of piles in saturated soils may lead to a signicant increase in the pore water pressure in the vicinity of a driven pile [1, 8]. The residual pore pressure developed around a pile can exceed the initial overburden pressure in the soil. High pore pressure indicates that the effective stresses in the soil are likely to be reduced to zero resulting in soil liquefaction. The effective stress reduction, especially in the case

V. A. Osinov (&) Institute of Soil Mechanics and Rock Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe, Germany e-mail: vladimir.osinov@kit.edu

of soil liquefaction, may affect the adjacent piles and structures, the bearing capacity of the installed pile and the pile installation process itself. Numerical modelling of the effective stress evolution around a pile is determined by the pile installation method. This paper is concerned with the deformation of saturated soil during vibratory pile driving. Except for a few numerical studies where a decrease in the effective stresses is obtained for impact-driven [24] and vibrating [9] piles, there is generally a lack of detailed theoretical investigations into the behaviour of saturated soil around dynamically driven piles. An insight into the problem was recently given by a nite-element study of the dynamic deformation of saturated sand around a vibrating pile [7]. The soil behaviour was modelled by an extended version of the hypoplasticity theory with intergranular strain [5] capable of describing the cyclic deformation of granular soils. The numerical calculations with locally undrained conditions revealed a permanent liquefaction zone formed at a certain distance from the pile after several cycles of vibration. Figure 1 shows the calculated distribution of the mean effective stress in saturated dense sand around a cylindrical pile after 30 cycles (compressive stresses are negative). The darkest area in the gure can be considered as a liquefaction zone. Although the mean effective stress in the liquefaction zone slightly changes during a cycle, it does not exceed 2% of the initial effective stress. The effective stress in the immediate vicinity of the pile does not vanish because of the large strain amplitudes. The inner boundary of the liquefaction zone (closer to the pile) remains stationary with time, while the outer boundary spreads farther from the pile making the liquefaction zone wider. The nite-element calculations performed in [7] cover few tens of cycles. The modelling of a real vibro-driving process

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Fig. 1 Mean effective stress in saturated sand around a pile after 30 cycles of vibration calculated for a cylindrical pile with a diameter of 30 cm, a pile displacement amplitude of 2 mm, a hydrostatic initial effective stress of -50 kPa and a frequency of 34 Hz [7]

requires at least several thousands of cycles in order to estimate the size of the liquefaction zone produced by a driven pile. The use of incremental constitutive models such as elasto-plasticity or hypoplasticity for calculations with large numbers of cycles entails high computational costs and may be impracticable for applications. Another drawback of incremental models concerns weak accumulation effects at small strain amplitudes of the order of 10-4 or less. Cyclic deformation with small amplitudes is accompanied by the gradual compaction of dry granular soil or the effective stress reduction in saturated soil under undrained conditions. Even if an incremental model may correctly reproduce the plastic soil behaviour under multi-cycle loading in general, it may be difcult or impossible to calibrate an incremental model with respect to the accumulation effects for small strain amplitudes and large numbers of cycles. This especially concerns the strong dependence of the accumulation effects on the soil density. The growth of the liquefaction zone around a pile after a large number of cycles is determined by the rate of the effective stress reduction behind the outer boundary of the liquefaction zone where strain amplitudes are small. Therefore, the weak accumulation effects are responsible for the nal size of the liquefaction zone developed around a pile. Besides high computational costs and the calibration problems, calculations with an incremental model and small strain amplitudes may produce an accumulation of numerical errors after a large number of cycles. Problems of cyclic soil deformation can also be solved with the use of so-called explicit cyclic models in which accumulation rates are dened with respect to the number of cycles. A model of this kind, called high-cycle accumulation model, is elaborated in [6, 10]. Explicit cyclic models make it possible to calculate tens of thousands of cycles or

more in a reasonable computing time and thus to cover the whole pile installation process. Since the constitutive parameters control accumulation effects rather than incremental stiffness, explicit cyclic models are easier to calibrate with respect to accumulation effects when compared to incremental plasticity models. A drawback of explicit cyclic models is that they are valid only for small strain amplitudes below 10-3 and, for this reason, cannot be applied to the immediate vicinity of a pile where deformations are large. A way to circumvent this difculty is proposed in [7]. The approach consists in introducing an auxiliary boundary surface around the pile in order to exclude the region with large amplitudes from the computational domain. The strain amplitudes in the outer domain must be small enough for a boundary value problem with an explicit cyclic model to be posed in that domain. The required boundary conditions on the auxiliary surface can be obtained from the solution of a boundary value problem for the whole domain with an incremental plasticity model for a limited number of cycles. It is proposed in [7] to introduce the auxiliary boundary inside the incipient liquefaction zone as shown, for instance, in Fig. 1 by the white dashed line. As follows from the solutions obtained in [7], the varying part of the total stresses in the liquefaction zone is nearly hydrostatic. This allows us to prescribe a simple boundary condition for the outer domain. The objective of the present paper is to apply the highcycle accumulation model [6, 10] to the calculation of the evolution of the liquefaction zone around a vibrating pile for a large number of cycles. The general formulation of the problem is described in Sect. 2. The problem is formulated with locally undrained conditions, assuming that the soil permeability is low enough. Solutions with locally undrained conditions are expected to give the highest rate of the effective stress reduction and therefore the largest liquefaction zone because of no pore pressure dissipation due to seepage. The problem is solved numerically in Sect. 3 in spherically symmetric formulation. This simplication restricts us to the consideration of the lower part of the liquefaction zone where spherically symmetric solutions may give a reasonable approximation, see Fig. 1. A parametric study is carried out to show how the growth of the liquefaction zone depends on the pile displacement amplitude, the relative soil density, the effective stress in the far eld and the pore uid compressibility.

2 Formulation of the problem for saturated soil 2.1 First boundary value problem As outlined above, the application of the cyclic model to the pile vibration problem can be made possible by

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Fig. 2 Computational domain for the problem with the high-cycle accumulation model

introducing an auxiliary boundary surface which envelopes the region of large strain amplitudes around the pile where the cyclic model is inapplicable. The computational domain is thus bounded by the auxiliary surface and a remote boundary as shown in Fig. 2. The calculation of stresses and deformations in saturated soil with the use of the high-cycle accumulation model [6, 10] consists in the concurrent solution of two boundary value problems and integration over time. The calculation cycle between times t and t Dt is shown schematically in Fig. 3 and is described below in detail. The total stress tensor in saturated soil is the sum of the effective stress tensor r (compressive stresses are negative) and an isotropic tensor -pI, where p is the pore pressure (p [ 0 for compression), and I is the unit tensor. Let the effective stress tensor r(x) and the pore pressure p(x), where x denotes the position vector, be known at time t. They represent average values over a cycle as dened in [6]. The total stress must satisfy static equilibrium. The rst boundary value problem is solved in order to nd a scalar strain amplitude eld eamp x in the soil at time

t caused by given periodic boundary conditions on the auxiliary surface. The boundary conditions must yield sufciently small strain amplitudes eamp (\10-3) in the computational domain for the cyclic model to be applicable. This boundary value problem is independent of the cyclic model and may be solved in dynamic or quasi-static formulation depending on the actual rate of loading in the physical problem under study. In the dynamic case, nonreecting boundary conditions should be prescribed at the remote boundary to avoid the inuence of reected waves on the strain amplitudes near the pile. The rst boundary value problem can be solved with the use of any appropriate constitutive model. However, using an incremental model to nd amplitudes during cyclic deformation would require high computational costs. We assume that the response of the soil in the rst boundary value problem is linearly elastic and isotropic. This allows us to solve the problem in dynamic steady-state formulation with time-harmonic boundary conditions. The current effective stress r and the bulk modulus of the pore uid, Kf, determine the soil stiffness. The small-strain stiffness of a soil skeleton as a function of the effective pressure is known to follow a power law. For locally undrained con constants of the soil for small strain ditions, the Lame amplitudes may be written in the form k k0 m r 1 e Kf ; r0 e l l0 m r ; r0 1

where r is the mean effective stress, e is the void ratio of the skeleton, and k0, l0, r0, m are parameters. The term with Kf is responsible for the contribution of the pore uid compressibility to the change in the total stresses. The soil stiffness is spatially inhomogeneous because of the inhomogeneity of r. The latter varies from a nearly zero value in the liquefaction zone to a prescribed value in the far eld. Numerical calculations in Sect. 4 are performed with k0 = 120 MPa, l0 = 80 MPa, r0 = -100 kPa, m = 0.6. For sinusoidally varying strain components, the scalar strain amplitude eamp required for the cyclic model is calculated as

Fig. 3 Solution scheme for saturated soil with the high-cycle accumulation model

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eamp

0 CN 1 CN 2 exp fN

gA CN 1 famp

CN 1 CN 3 ; 6

are the amplitudes of the strain components in a where eamp ij rectangular coordinate system [6]. Relation (2) is valid independently of the phase shifts between the components. 2.2 Strain accumulation rate The strain amplitude eamp x calculated in the rst boundary value problem determines a tensorial strain _ acc x in the high-cycle accumulation accumulation rate e model, see Fig. 3. The meaning of the tensorial quantity _ acc is that it gives the rate of accumulated deformation in a e dry soil subjected to cyclic loading with the strain amplitude eamp under the condition that the average values of the stress components do not change. The rate of eacc in the accumulation model is dened with respect to the number of cycles, N, treated as a real variable. The connection _ acc is between the rate deacc =dN and the time derivative e given by _ acc e x deacc ; 2p dN 3

where gA is a function of the number of cycles N. This function is found from the solution of the differential equation dgA gA famp CN 1 CN 2 exp 7 dN CN 1 famp with the initial condition gA(0) = 0. The factor fe in (4) is responsible for the dependence of the accumulation rate on the current void ratio e: fe Ce e2 1 eref 1 eCe eref 2 : 8

The factor fp depends on the mean effective stress r: ! r fp exp Cp 1 : 9 pref The factor fY is a function of the invariants of r. For isotropic stress states, fY = 1. The factor fp depends on the evolution of the cyclic strain path in the strain space. We put fp = 1, which means that the strain loops change sufciently slow with the number of cycles. For detailed discussion of (4) and the quantities involved, see [6, 10]. The parameters of (4-9) used for the numerical calculations are given in Table 1. 2.3 Second boundary value problem

where x is angular frequency. The relation between eamp and deacc =dN constitutes the main part of the high-cycle accumulation model. This relation also involves the stress tensor and the void ratio and is written as [6, 10] deacc 0 famp fN fe fp fY fp m: dN 4

The tensor m in (4) is a homogeneous function of degree zero in r. It has unit Euclidean norm and determines the direction of strain accumulation in the strain space. In the problem considered in Sect. 3, the stress tensor is always p isotropic. For isotropic stress states, m I= 3. The norm of the accumulation rate in (4) is determined 0 by the scalar factors famp ; fN ; fe ; fp ; fY ; fp . The factor famp depends on the current strain amplitude eamp : 8 !Camp !Camp > < eamp eamp if \100; amp 5 famp eamp ref > eref : 100 otherwise:

0 The factor fN depends on the number of cycles and also takes into account the changes in eamp during previous deformation. It is given by

The application of the high-cycle accumulation model is based on the premise that the evolution of the average effective stress tensor r during cyclic deformation is determined by the constitutive equation _e _ acc ; _ Er : e r 10

_ is the rate of accumulated deformation, E is a where e _ acc is found from stress-dependent stiffness tensor, and e amp e as described above. _ acc already menEquation (10) shows the meaning of e acc _ gives the rate of accumulated deformationed earlier: e _ 0. tion if the stress tensor is maintained constant, i.e., if r On the other hand, if cyclic deformation is applied without _ 0, and e _ acc deteraccumulation of deformation, then e mines directly the stress rate according to the stiffness E. Based on these relations, Eq. (10) can be calibrated for E by comparing results of drained and undrained test. It is

Table 1 Constitutive parameters of the cyclic model (sand L12 from [11]) Camp 1.6 eamp ref 10-4 CN1 3.6 9 10-3 C N2 0.016 CN3 1.05 9 10-4 Ce 0.48 eref 0.829 Cp 0.44 pref (kPa) 100

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proposed in [10] to take the tensor E as in an isotropic elastic solid. For the spherically symmetric problem considered in Sect. 3, only the bulk modulus K corresponding to E is needed. This modulus is taken as a function of the mean effective stress r in the form

n n K r Ap1 atm r ;

11

with A = 467, n = 0.46 and patm = 100 kPa [10]. The second boundary value problem in Fig. 3 is quasistatic and consists in the determination of the rates of the _ (x), and the pore pressure, p _ x, for a effective stress, r _ acc x. Under the assumption of locally given eld e undrained conditions, the governing equations are the static equilibrium equation _ gradp _ 0; divr 12

Fig. 4 Spherically symmetric problem

the constitutive equation (10) for the effective stress tensor and the evolution equation for the pore pressure _ p 1 e _: Kf tr e e 13

Boundary conditions on the auxiliary surface can be specied in terms of displacement or traction. It is reasonable to prescribe zero displacement or constant traction at that boundary, although further numerical studies with incremental models such as in [7] may show the appropriateness of other (e.g. time-dependent) boundary conditions. The remote boundary is intended to imitate an innite domain and may be supplemented with zero displacements, constant tractions or more sophisticated boundary conditions such as innite elements used in niteelement analyses. The last step in the calculation cycle shown in Fig. 3 is _ x ; p _ x and g _ A x (see 7) the integration of the elds r over a time increment Dt. When rx; px and gA(x) at time t Dt have been found, a new calculation cycle begins with the solution of the rst boundary value problem. An optimum time increment may vary substantially during calculation and, for this reason, should be steadily estimated and updated. The time increment may be increased if the change in the effective stresses in one increment is too small. At the same time, care should be taken in increasing the time increment because the func0 tions fN and gA are nonlinear in N and one time increment may contain a large number of deformation cycles.

liquefaction zone, see Fig. 1. The computational domain is shown in Fig. 4. The domain is bounded by two spheres of radii RA and RB which represent, respectively, an auxiliary and a remote boundaries as discussed earlier. The mean effective stress r is understood as an average value over a cycle as dened in [6]. An inhomogeneous initial distribution of r assumed for time t = 0 reects the fact that an incipient liquefaction zone has already been formed. The effective stress at each point will decrease with time due to the cyclic loading resulting in the widening of the liquefaction zone as shown in Fig. 4 for t [ 0. The meaning of a stress rliq which denes the liquefaction zone will be discussed below. The boundary of the liquefaction zone is denoted by Rliq. Let the mean effective stress r(r) as a function of radius r at a current time be known. The soil response in the rst boundary value problem is assumed to be linearly elastic constants given by (1). and isotropic with the Lame Assuming harmonic excitation, we are looking for solutions in the form ur r eixt ; rr r eixt ; ru r eixt , where ur ; rr ; ru are the complex amplitudes of the radial displacement and radial and circumferential stress components, respectively, t is time variable, and i is the imaginary unit. Given r(r), the rst boundary value problem consists in nding ur r ; rr r ; ru r which satisfy the equation of motion d rr 2 rr ru x2 .ur ; 14 r dr the constitutive equations

3 Spherical problem The problem of the evolution of the liquefaction zone for large numbers of cycles as described in Sect. 2 is solved in this paper under the assumption of spherical symmetry as an approximation suitable for the lower part of the

rr k 2l

dur ur 2k ; dr r dur ur ru k 2 k l ; dr r

15 16

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rr RA ramp ; rr RB Sur RB ;

17 18

where . is the soil density, and ramp is a given amplitude at the auxiliary boundary. The dynamic stiffness coefcient S in (18) is 4l x2 .cp RB cp ixRB S ; 19 2 2 RB c2 p x RB p where cp k 2l=. is the longitudinal wave speed [12]. Relation (18) with (19) is a nonreecting boundary condition for outgoing spherical waves. It exactly imitates an innite domain provided k and l are homogeneous for r C RB. Equations (1418) are solved by a nite-difference technique. The strain amplitude (2) in the spherical problem is given by s 2 2 dur amp 2 j ur j : e 20 dr r2 The solution of the second boundary value problem in the spherically symmetric case can be simplied by taking _ in (10) to be equal to zero. This approximation is justied e if the bulk modulus of the pore uid is much higher than the stiffness of the skeleton, and the soil permeability is _ 0 in (10), the second boundary value low enough. With e problem degenerates and reduces to relation (10) at each point to nd the radial and circumferential stress components. The equilibrium equation can be satised through the proper distribution of the pore pressure. Equation (13) is not used in this case as it becomes _ 0 and Kf ! 1: indeterminate with e The initial effective stress is taken to be isotropic. As _ 0, the effective stress follows from (4) and (10) with e will then always remain isotropic. The rate of the mean effective stress is determined by the relation x p 0 _ 3Kfamp fN r fe fp ; 21 2p where K is given by (11). Using (21), the stress eld can be integrated over a time increment Dt to nd a new distribution r(r) at time t Dt: In specifying the inner radius RA and the loading amplitude ramp for the spherical problem, we make use of the numerical study of soil liquefaction around the toe of a vibrating cylindrical pile with a diameter of 30 cm performed with a hypoplastic constitutive model [7]. The frequency of vibration in the present study is taken to be 34 Hz and is the same as in [7]. The auxiliary boundary shown in Fig.1 by the white dashed line is assumed to lie inside the incipient liquefaction zone formed around the pile toe after several cycles of vibration starting from a

homogeneous stress state. The lower part of the auxiliary boundary is approximated by a spherical surface with a radius RA. This radius is determined mainly by the pile displacement amplitude and the soil density and depends only slightly on other parameters. In the numerical examples presented in [7] for dense sand, RA increases from 3540 to 6570 cm as the pile displacement amplitude changes from 1 to 4 mm. For the present calculations, we take RA = 50 and 70 cm, which corresponds, respectively, to a pile displacement amplitude of 2 and 4 mm. As found in [7], the varying part of the total stress in the liquefaction zone is nearly hydrostatic. The total stress amplitude at the auxiliary boundary, ramp, depends on the pile displacement amplitude and on the position at the auxiliary boundary. The latter dependence violates the spherical symmetry in the lower part of the liquefaction zone and is the only adverse factor for the spherical approximation.

4 Numerical results As follows from (21), the average effective stress falls to zero in a nite time and remains zero thereafter. This implies rliq = 0 in Fig. 4. In a real situation, however, the effective stress in the liqueed soil around a vibrating pile would oscillate with a small amplitude about a small nonzero average value. Such oscillations cannot be taken directly into account within the framework of the cyclic model if the strain amplitude is determined from steadystate solutions. An approximate way is to take a small nonzero rliq as a limit for the effective stress reduction and not to reduce r below rliq regardless of (21). Note that a small nonzero effective stress assumed for liqueed soil can also be found in other models dealing with soil liquefaction (cf. [13]). The question is how a small nonzero stress rliq in the liquefaction zone inuences the solution when compared to rliq = 0. To reveal the inuence of rliq, consider the rst boundary value problem with a given distribution of the effective stress r(r) as shown in Fig. 5. Besides rliq, the

Fig. 5 Prescribed distribution of the effective stress r for the solutions in Figs. 68

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10

-2

liq = 0 liq = -0.2 kPa liq = -0.4 kPa liq = -0.6 kPa

Rliq [m]

liq = 0 liq = -0.6 kPa

0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

amp

1.2

10

-3

1

0.8 0.6 0.4 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

10-4 0.4

Rliq [m]

time [min]

Fig. 6 Strain amplitude eamp at r = RA as a function of Rliq for given r(r) as shown in Fig. 5, for a frequency of 34 Hz and RA = 50 cm, DR 50 cm, rini = -50 kPa, ramp = 3 kPa, Kf = 2.2 GPa

Fig. 9 Boundary of the liquefaction zone as a function of time. RA = 50 cm, rini = -50 kPa, ID = 0.7, ramp = 3 kPa, Kf = 2.2 GPa

Fig. 7 Strain amplitude eamp at r = RA as a function of rliq and Rliq for given r(r) as shown in Fig. 5. RA = 50 cm, DR 50 cm, rini = -50 kPa, ramp = 3 kPa, Kf = 2.2 GPa

parameters of the distribution are RA ; Rliq ; DR and rini. The change in r between Rliq and Rliq DR is taken to follow a sinusoidal curve from rliq to rini. For xed loading amplitude ramp and DR, let us increase Rliq starting from RA to imitate the widening of the liquefaction zone. Figure 6 shows the strain amplitude (20) at r = RA as a function of

Rliq for two values of rliq. The curves in the gure exhibit a resonance-like phenomenon with eamp reaching a maximum at a certain Rliq. The maximum value of eamp is 50 times higher than that at the beginning when Rliq = RA. Similar curves are obtained for points with r [ RA. For brevity, the strong increase in eamp at a certain Rliq will subsequently be referred to as resonance. Another important feature of the solutions is that the size of the liquefaction zone, Rliq, which corresponds to the resonance turns out to depend strongly on rliq, so that rliq becomes an additional parameter in the modelling. Figure 7 shows eamp as a function of both Rliq and rliq. The function for larger RA and DR is shown in Fig. 8. In order to trace the evolution of the effective stress, we now solve both the rst and the second boundary value problems in parallel as described in Sects. 2 and 3. Consider the case with RA = 50 cm. The initial distribution of the effective stress is taken with Rliq DR 50 cm. The amplitude of the boundary loading, ramp, is kept constant and equal to 3 kPa. Figure 9 shows the boundary of the liquefaction zone, Rliq, as a function of time for different values of rliq. Three stages can be distinguished in the motion of Rliq. After an initial increase, Rliq undergoes an abrupt jump within few seconds followed by a very slow increase. The jump is a consequence of the resonance that occurs at a certain Rliq. The speed of propagation of Rliq is determined by the strain amplitude eamp in front of Rliq. For a xed time, eamp decreases with the distance from the boundary. This explains why the growth of Rliq in the postresonance stage is very slow. The time at which resonance occurs (subsequently referred to as resonance time) depends on rliq. For instance, as seen from Fig. 9, the resonance time for rliq = -0.6 kPa is larger than 3 min, that is why the resulting Rliq in 3 min is much smaller than in the other cases in the gure. Thus, the boundary of the liquefaction zone after a given time of vibration essentially depends on whether the resonance occurs within this time or later.

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1.8 1.6 1.4

1.8 1.6 1.4

Rliq [m]

Rliq [m]

liq = 0 liq = -0.2 kPa liq = -0.4 kPa liq = -0.6 kPa

1.5 2 2.5 3

liq = 0 liq = -0.2 kPa liq = -0.4 kPa liq = -0.6 kPa

1.5 2 2.5 3

time [min]

time [min]

1.8 1.6 1.4

1.8 1.6 1.4

Rliq [m]

Rliq [m]

liq = 0 liq = -0.2 kPa liq = -0.4 kPa liq = -0.6 kPa

1.5 2 2.5 3

liq = 0 liq = -0.2 kPa liq = -0.4 kPa liq = -0.6 kPa

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

0.4

time [min]

time [min]

1.8 1.6 1.4

liq = 0 liq = -0.2 kPa liq = -0.4 kPa liq = -0.6 kPa

Fig. 14 Boundary of the liquefaction zone as a function of time. RA = 70 cm, rini = -50 kPa, ID = 0.7, ramp = 6 kPa, Kf = 2.2 GPa

time [min]

Figures 10, 11, 12, 13 show the same four solutions as in Fig. 9 with one parameter being changed. An increase in the loading amplitude ramp or a decrease in the relative density ID shorten the resonance time. For instance, an increase in ramp from 3 to 4 kPa or a decrease in ID from 0.7 to 0.6 reduce the resonance time for rliq = -0.6 kPa to about 1 min and thus substantially increase the resulting Rliq if the vibration time is longer than 1 min (Fig. 11). The compression modulus of the pore uid, Kf, in fully saturated soil is equal to that of pure water (2.2 GPa). In

reality, it may be difcult to determine whether the soil is fully saturated or contains a small amount (a few volume per cent) of undissolved gas entrapped in the pore space. In the latter case, the compressibility of the pore uid (a mixture of water and gas) is substantially higher than that of pure water. Figure 12 shows the curves with the same parameters as in Fig. 9 except for Kf = 20 MPa, which corresponds approximately to a degree of saturation of 99 %. The decrease in Kf has practically no effect on the solution for rliq = 0, but essentially increases the resonance time for nonzero rliq. Another factor which strongly inuences the solution is the effective stress in the far eld, rini, which represents the initial stress in the soil prior to the vibration. As seen from Fig. 13, the change in rini from -50 to -20 kPa drastically reduces the resonance time, so that the resonance occurs at the very beginning of the vibration. According to the numerical modelling performed in [7], the solutions in Figs. 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 correspond to a pile displacement amplitude of 2 mm. For larger amplitudes, both RA and ramp become larger. Figure 14 presents an example which corresponds to a pile displacement

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1.8 1.6 1.4

5 Concluding remarks The problem of the deformation of saturated soil around a vibrating pile, even without considering penetration, is rather complicated for theoretical modelling because of the fact that it involves a large number of cycles and both large and small strain amplitudes. Neither an incremental plasticity model nor an explicit cyclic model can be used to adequately describe the deformation process in the whole region of interest from the immediate vicinity of the pile to the far eld. In the present study, the application of an explicit cyclic model to the pile vibration problem and thus the calculation of a large number of cycles is made possible by introducing an auxiliary boundary around the pile and solving the problem for the outer domain where the strain amplitudes are small enough. The approach is implemented for the cyclic model developed in [6, 10]. The choice of the auxiliary boundary and the specication of the boundary conditions are based on the solutions obtained earlier for the whole domain with the hypoplastic constitutive model for a limited number of cycles [7]. The aim of the study was to trace the evolution of the liquefaction zone around the pile. The solutions obtained in the spherically symmetric approximation reveal a resonance-like increase in the strain amplitude at a certain distribution of the effective stress and the resulting rapid increase in the current size of the liquefaction zone at the resonance. The ultimate boundary of the liquefaction zone for a given vibration time is essentially determined by the time at which the resonance occurs. The liquefaction zone becomes much bigger if the resonance occurs within the vibration time. For certain sets of parameters, the resonance is observed at the very beginning of the vibration. The parametric study has shown how the evolution of the liquefaction zone around a vibrating pile toe is inuenced by the pile displacement amplitude, the relative soil density, the effective stress in the far eld, the pore uid compressibility and the residual effective stress assumed for the liquefaction zone.

Acknowledgements The study has been carried out within the framework of the Research Unit FOR 1136 Simulation of geotechnical construction processes with holistic consideration of the stress strain soil behaviour, Subproject 6, nanced by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

Rliq [m]

liq = 0 liq = -0.2 kPa liq = -0.4 kPa liq = -0.6 kPa

1.5 2 2.5 3

time [min]

Rliq [m]

liq = 0 liq = -0.2 kPa liq = -0.4 kPa liq = -0.6 kPa

1.5 2 2.5 3

time [min]

amplitude of 4 mm. The curves are similar to those shown in Fig. 13. The resonance time is very small, and the resonance manifests itself as a rapid increase in Rliq at the beginning. Calculations for denser soil with ID = 0.8 instead of 0.7 give a slight increase in the resonance time, which still remains small compared to 3 min, see Fig. 15. A much stronger increase in the resonance time is observed by changing the stress rini from -50 to -100 kPa as seen from Fig. 16. The gures presented in this section show that the radius of the liquefaction zone, Rliq, in the post-resonance stage grows very slowly with time and, for the parameters considered, lies in the range between 1.1 and 1.6 m for a pile displacement amplitude of 2 mm (Figs. 9, 10, 11, 12, 13) and between 1.3 and 1.6 m for a pile displacement amplitude of 4 mm (Figs. 14, 15, 16). The eventual size of the liquefaction zone after a given vibration time is inuenced by the residual effective stress in the liquefaction zone, rliq. A nonzero value of rliq increases the radius Rliq when compared to rliq = 0 and also shifts the resonance to a later time. The question of what value of rliq should be taken in applications when solving a particular problem requires further investigation.

References

1. Hwang J-H, Liang N, Chen C-H (2001) Ground response during pile driving. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 127(11):939949 2. Mabsout M, Sadek S (2003) A study of the effect of driving on pre-bored piles. Int J Numer Anal Meth Geomech 27:133146 3. Mabsout ME, Reese LC, Tassoulas JL (1995) Study of pile driving by nite-element method. J Geotech Eng ASCE 121(7):535543

123

Acta Geotechnica 4. Mabsout ME, Sadek SM, Smayra TE (1999) Pile driving by numerical cavity expansion. Int J Numer Anal Meth Geomech 23:11211140 5. Niemunis A, Herle I (1997) Hypoplastic model for cohesionless soils with elastic strain range. Mech Cohesive Frict Mater 2(4):279299 6. Niemunis A, Wichtmann T, Triantafyllidis T (2005) A high-cycle accumulation model for sand. Comput Geotech 32:245263 7. Osinov VA, Chrisopoulos S, Triantafyllidis T (2012) Numerical study of the deformation of saturated soil in the vicinity of a vibrating pile. Acta Geotech (Accepted) 8. Pestana JM, Hunt CE, Bray JD (2002) Soil deformation and excess pore pressure eld around a closed-ended pile. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 128(1):112 mann B, Grabe J (2011) FE-based modelling of pile driving 9. Schu in saturated soils. In: De Roeck G, Degrande G, Lombaert G, ller G (eds) Proceedings of the 8th international conference on Mu structural dynamics, EURODYN 2011, pp 894900 Wichtmann T, Niemunis A, Triantafyllidis T (2010) On the elastic stiffness in a high-cycle accumulation model for sand: a comparison of drained and undrained cyclic triaxial tests. Can Geotech J 47(7):791805 Wichtmann T, Niemunis A, Triantafyllidis T (2011) Simplied calibration procedure for a high-cycle accumulation model based on cyclic triaxial tests on 22 sands. In: Gourvenec S, White D (eds) Frontiers in offshore geotechnics II.. Taylor & Francis, London, pp 383388 Wolf JP (1988) Soil-structure-interaction analysis in time domain. Prentice Hall, New Jersey Zhang J-M, Wang G (2012) Large post-liquefaction deformation of sand, part I: physical mechanism, constitutive description and numerical algorithm. Acta Geotechnica 7:69113

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