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Textbook of Nursing Education ledge that they have acquired in the classroom. Clear thinking and clear expression both speech and writing has to take place. Trains the learners in the techniques of studp, methods of acquiring knowledge througr personal effort and initiative. A well-thought-out attempt should be made to adopt methods of instruction in order to benefit all categories of students. Opportunity for the students should hi provided to work in groups and to carry out group projects and activities to develoc I them the qualities necessary for group Me and for cooperative work.

General support of the profession. Teamwork and a sense of security. Mastery of the subject-matter. Provision for a good library and teachinglearning material. Role of teachers' training institutes. Cooperation of the parents.

Classification of Methods of Teaching' 1. Inspirational methods: Based on high activity on the part of the teacher, e.g. Simulation and micro-teaching. 2. Expository methods: Cognitive emphasis is high, while student activity and emphasis on experience is low, e.g. Lecture method. 3. Natural learning method: Learning takes place in a natural way, e.g. Field trips. 4. Individualized methods: Main emphasis is for each learner to learn at his own pace, e.g. Programmed instruction, self-study, case method and computer oriented instruction. 5. Encounter methods: Providing experience through confrontation or through encounter effective for change in basic behavioural patterns and developing new ways of looking at things, e.g. Role play, simulation. 6. Discovery methods; These methods are high on all dimensions like learner activity, - experience, experimentation by the learner and cognitive understanding, e.g. Problemsolving technique. 7. Group methods, e.g. Project method, Socialized classroom method. Characteristics of Methods.of Teaching Imparting knowledge in an efficient manner. Inculcates desirable values and proper attitudes and habits of work in the students. Create a genuine attachment to work and a desire to do it as efficiently, honestly and thoroughly as possible. The principle of 'verbalism and memorization' 'activity and project method' should be assimilated in school practice. Provides opportunities for students to learn actively and to apply practically the know-

Selection Principles Methods should be suited to: The objectives and the content of the course The capacity of the student. Accord with sound psychological principles Teachers' personality and capitalizes on her special assets. Should use creatively. THE DEMONSTRATION METHOD t h e demonstration method is of utmost impo--tance in the teaching of nursing. The demonstration method teaches by exhibition a n : explanation. It is an explanation of a process trains, explains the student in the art of c a r e . observation, which is essential to a good nurse
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Advantages 1. It provides an opportunity for observational learning. 2. It commands interest by use of concrete illustrations. The student not only can heathe.explanation, but also can see the procedure or process. As a result, d e m o n s t r a t e method projects a mental image in the st_dents' mind, which fortifies verbal knowledge. 3. The demonstration method has universa appeal because it is understandable to al

Teaching Method 4. The demonstration method is adaptable to both group and individual teaching. 5. It activates several senses, it increases learning, because the more senses used, the better the opportunity for the learning. 6. It clarifies the underlying principles bv demonstrating the 'why' of a procedure. 7. It correlates theory with practice. 8. It has particular reference to student demonstration of procedures already learned. 9. R gives the teachers an opportunity to evaluate the student's knowledge of a procedure, and to determine whether reteaching is necessary. 10. It points out that the student must have knowledge and must be able to apply it immediately. 1 1 . It serves as a strong motivational force for the student. 12. Return demonstration by the student under supervision of the teacher provides an opportunity for well-directed practice before the student must use the procedure on the ward.

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Uses of the Demonstration Method 1 To demonstrate experiments or procedures and the use of experimental equipment in the laboratory, classroom and the ward. 2 To review or revise procedures to meet a special situation or to introduce a new procedure. 3 To teach the patient a procedure or treatment which he must carry out in the home. 1. TO demonstrate a procedure at the bedside or in the ward conference room. 5. Demonstration of a procedure in its natural setting has more meaning (e.g. in ward on patients) than when carried out in an artificial environment (e.g. classroom). 5 To demonstrate different approaches in establishing rapport with patients, so that the most effective nurse-patient relationship may be established.

Essential Characteristics of a Good Demonstration 1. Every step of a well-conducted demonstration should be understandable and exemplary of the best possible procedure, which might be used under the same circumstance. 2. It should allow sufficient time for reflective and critical thought as the demonstration proceeds. 3. Applied principles in demonstration method performed by both the teacher and the student: a) The demonstration should understand the entire procedure before attempting to perform for others. This sometimes necessitates review before performance. b) All equipment should be assembled and pretested before the demonstration takes place. This saves time and ensures that the apparatus will be in good state. c) Advance knowledge: The group as well as the demonstrator should have advance knowledge of the general procedure to be followed in the demonstration, its relation to the unit and its purpose. Otherwise, the student's attention will not be focused on the procedure, her mind will be distracted by questions relating to the performance why it is being given, what it means, which is to follow to negate any possibility of such distraction, the student should receive specific instructions about everything, from the apparatus to the demonstrator and the method she will use. d) A positive approach should be used, emphasis should be placed on what to do, rather than what not to do. e) Everybody should have a good view of demonstration, precautions should be taken to ensure allround comfort. f) Running Comments: The person incharge of the demonstration should accompany it with running comments relative to materials used, amounts necessary processes taking place, and anticipated results. However, the commentary should

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Textbook of Nursing Education to learn. The sooner practice takes place afar demonstration, the better the learning. LectureDemonstration Lecture-demonstration is a combination of re lecture and the demonstration. Its purpose i point out relationships as they occur during demonstration. These may be in the nature i properties of matter, explanation of structure y steps of a procedure. This method is used extensively in teach -.: sciences and nursing subjects. It measure: factual knowledge only.

be limited to essential facts. If an actual patient is used in the demonstration, explanatory and comments must be regulated accordingly. The setting for the demonstration should be true to life as possible. Demonstration of a nursing procedure should be done on a live model wherever possible. Ex: if a patient is used, he should be told the purpose of the demonstration and shown every possible courtesy. No patient should be used without his consent. A discussion period should always follow the demonstration. This affords an opportunity for reemphasis, questioning, recall, evaluation and summary while the procedure still fresh. Mimeographed directions should be distributed before demonstrating a nursing procedure. This saves continuous dictation on the part of the teacher and writing on the part of the student. Prompt practice: if the purpose of a demonstration is to teach form for skills, the student should be given an opportunity to practice the procedure as soon as possible after the demonstration. Students vary in their ability

The Television LectureDemonstration The lecture - demonstration is the method usee most frequently in T.V. teaching. Because of the nature of the medium in which photography a- 1 audio-tape are combined, and because of time limitations, the preparations of T.V. lectures | more exacting than the regular classrooms. Scripts have to be prepared and rehearsa to ensure proper use of time and photograph, Television lecture should not be simply a talk -: lecture; it should make wide use of all kinds i illustrative materials.

ADVANTAGES
1. The teacher is present. 2. Gives a feeling of security. 3. Develops the quality of observation. 4. Ensures closer contact with concrete problems. 5. Facilitates the acquisition of practical, intellectual and communication skills. 6. Presents reality, not substitutes. 7. Enables logical step by step presentation. 8. Is attention catching. 9. Demonstrates the right way of doing a complex task. 10. Presented facing the audience. 11. Makes it possible to ask questions. 12. Limits damage to equipment and material when students do practical work afterwards. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

DISADVANTAGES
Number of students is limited. Keeps the students in a passive situation. Offers little possibility of checking the learning process. Does not allow for individual paces of learning. High cost in personnel and time. Difficulty in repeating demonstration in order to acquire competence.

Teaching Method THE LE.CTUBE METHOD The lecture is a teaching procedure consisting ; the clarification or the explanation of facts, orinciples or relationships, which the teacher shes the class to understand. The teacher talks -"ore or less continuously to the class. The class listens, takes down notes of the facts and the aeas worth remembering and thinks them over ater; but usually the students do not converse with the teacher. Almost, they might ask a few questions, but these are for the sake of : arification and not for the sake of discussions. The lecture is essentially a formal exposition, which makes only incidental use of narrative and ascription in setting forth the basic and all inclusive structure of an entire topic. The lecturing is a great art. Purposes A good lecture stimulates thinking. It serves as an example of how to attack a problem, develop it, evaluate the data and solve it through clear thinking. Lecture method is appropriate method, in sometimes, the instructional services of an expert teacher and / or scholar. The right teacher in the right course can in a single semester be more instructional than several years of independent reading and unlimited group discussion. She opens a field of study, draw attention to its vital elements extract the essentials from many years of productive scholarship and bring students abreast of development in the forefront of research. The lecture method should not be a representation of exactly what is in the textbooks nor in the assigned readings, nor should it be completely unrelated to the students' readings. The lecture should illuminate, supplement and reinforce the topic being studied. She may provide illustrative materials (from other sources or from her own experiences) not found in the readings but nevertheless considered to be essential by the teacher to understand what the student has to read. Concrete examples help to provide the student with a factual basis from which to build concepts. A lecture properly prepared and

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delivered can have an organizing or integrating function. By the use of cross references, which relate the teacher's lecture materials to those that the student reads, the student can compare from the two sources. The teacher can introduce an organizing scheme in her presentation, when feasible involving students in arriving at the generalizations. The teacher also may exemplify the techniques of analysis in a field of study by using the case presentation. The teacher may communicate through her lecture, intangibles as enthusiasm for a subject, tolerance or respect for ideas, worthwhileness of intellectual values, in general by means of her manner, her mode of presentation and her materials. Preparation of the Lecture The goal of lecturing is communication and it is more effective, if it is prepared before hand. The objectives of the course, as well as the immediate objectives of the lecture should be kept clearly in mind. The teacher should know exactly what points she wants to make, in what order and with what emphasis. The teacher should have a scheme for each lecture in mind, not simply as a set number of pages to be read over, but visualized as a well-articulated structure of thought. The lecture should have a central theme carried to completion in each delivery. The lecture should contain a sequence of ideas kept relatively simple with headings and subheadings. There should be a definite limitation on the number of sections in which the main topic is decided; too many topics may hide the main topic from view. Time distribution is needed to the various subtopics to make sure that the essential topics are covered. Lecture should contain an introduction to help to establish rapport with the class, to relate each lecture to the preceding one etc., The introduction may be a preview of the main topic to be covered. This helps the new inexperienced teacher through the first few difficult moments of her lecture. Introduction can serve as a means of getting the class started promptly. The lecture should be written in outline form, the amount of detail would

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Textbook of Nursing Education 2. Voice: The lecture should be presented in = clear, natural tone of voice. The teacher should speak to her students not at them, nor above or below them. The teacher can use her voice for emphasis in helecture by pausing at appropriate points to e her words sink in and to let the echoes of hevoice subside. In a lecture - the rate of ideas s the critical element. Keep the students alert and get across IN ideas; talk twice, fast, repeat often, even spea indistinctly, by keeping students alert. 3. Gestures: Whatever gestures the lecture uses should be in a natural part of the tota expression of what she is communicating. The teacher's actions should blend with her spee: they should be spontaneous and animated a r ; a part of the natural style of the individual. 4. Eye contact: The teacher should address the students with her eyes as well as with her vo : The eyes have a unique power to transmit the mood of the teacher to the student. If the teacheis alert, eager, enthusiastic, the eyes convey th s to the student, who usually adopts a similar attitude. 5. Lecture outline and students' notes: The lecture should be prepared and delivered several blocks or units, each unit should presetnot more than fifteen minutes. As each ur completed, it should be briefly summarized r punctuated with discussion for a short period y time. Lecture should present from written notes but should not be read. Salient points marke: on the outline which are to be delivered slow . and emphatically so that students can copy the~ if they wish to do so; the connecting arguments should be remembered and delivered ir g conversational tone, leaving time and opportune, to unusual interest in any one of them. The lecture should conclude before the end of the period, leaving time to tie up loose threacE review essential points, ask questions or get comments from students. The lecture should be delivered on the assumption that the students have completed the reading assignments and are prepared for the lecture. This means that the teacher will have

vary with the teacher's experience in lecturing and her knowledge of the subject. Some literal statements of all critical points may be written on the lecture plan for the teacher to read. If illustrative materials are to be used, they should be prepared and tested before the lecture.

Technique of the Lecture If the lecture is viewed, as a means of presenting information, and a method of effective learning, it requires the teacher not only to talk, but also to work with the students. The teacher establishes the contact with the students quickly and places her delivery to the capacity of the students to follow her lecture, making allowances for note taking, and that she anticipates the sections in her lecture that students find difficult to comprehend. The teacher will make sure that the important points in her class are made clear before advancing to the next point. The teacher will use illustrations and interject questions to help to clarify points before students become too fatigued from the strain of intense listening. A lecture is teacher-centered, the expert teacher will compensate for the restriction of student's verbal expression by sensing how her students are responding in thought to what is being said. The lecture should provide internals for clarification of thought, assimilation of ideas. Guides helpful to the Teacher in using the Lecture Method: 1. Rapport: Teacher should establish rapport with her students. It will be done: i) Through an exchange with students in a conversational tone about some event at the school, this will help to foster a sense of ease and give the impression of personal interest. ii) By beginning the lecture with a review of previous lectures, tying them in with the present one. iii) To merge the students into a learning group, the questions will be directed to students in various parts of the room

Teaching Method * e entire course prepared before beginning her ectures and that she will give advance notice to sr-dents in each lecture. requent Criticisms of the Lecture Method " The Lecture is Time Consuming: The lecture should supplement the book by adding to or clarifying its contents. It should not be a repetition of the book, it should not waste the time by explaining self-explanatory information. 1 The Lecture provides Little Student Activity: The teacher prepares, organizes and present the lecture and the student sits, listens and takes notes. If the teacher is carefully planned and skillfully presented, the student will be thinking with the teacher. The student will be taking part through mental activity, which means listening, thinking, reasoning and judging therefore she is engaging in a learning activity. I The Lecture requires Special Skill: The eacher should have sufficient knowledge and skill, she should be a master of subject matter before a lecture can be successful. The essential factors i.e., personality, voice, se, vocabulary are necessary for the eacher to deliver the lecture method. 4 The Teacher is not Readily Analyzed and Summarized by the Student: The teacher clans her lecture carefully, organizing it under subheadings and then delivering it slowly, rating the major points with emphasis, the student will be able to take good notes. Beginning students who are not accustomed to the lecture method at first may need some nstruction and help on note taking. If the tear

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cher will pause frequently, asking forquestions or comments on points on which they are not clear, students should be able to follow the lecture easily and to take satisfactory notes. 5. The Lecture is Sometimes Poorly Adapted to the Perceptive Ability of Students: If the lecture had used the lecture method properly, she would have been alert to the needs of the students, evaluated their progress throughout the term by means of tests and quiz and used similar methods to ascertain whether they understood the subject. Unless the teacher is in close touch with the students and is sensitive to their reactions and aware of their responses, she cannot possible use the lecture method with success. 6. The Lecture is likely to become a sustained Dictation Exercise: Poor lecturing was the reading or the dictation of the lecture or the textbook. LectureConference groups offer student's learning experiences, which the lecture itself cannot provide. It supplements the lecture by digging into details, providing exercises of application by follow-up individual learning. It offers opportunity to direct individual students, assist the slow learner or the superior learner or the learner with special interests. It gives the student a chance to respond to learning to a much greater degree than possible with just a lecture. Care must be taken to coordinate carefully both the lecture and the conference groups. This requires that the lecture and the conference groups work as a team performing their separate roles in relation to a purpose and planning toget-

ADVANTAGES
- : o a r e n t saving of time and resources. P esence of the teacher. Covers a large group of students. 3 .es a feeling of security. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

DISADVANTAGES
Keeps the student in a passive situation. Does not facilitate learning how to solve problems. Offers hardly any possibility of checking learning progress. Does not allow for individual pace of learning. Low receptivity.