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How the reactive power of a generator is controlled.................?

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How the reactive power of a generator is controlled.................?


April 4, 2012

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Leonardo

Leonardo L. When the synchronous generator is pushing reactive power into the electrical system we say the machine is over-excited. When the synchronous generator is absorbing reactive power from the electrical system, it is under-excited. So, the reactive power output of the generator is associated with the generator field current, provided by the excitation system. But note that we do not control reactive power output of a generator, at least in terms of automatic control. Synchronous machines are usually operated on automatic voltage regulator (AVR) mode, so we are actually controlling voltage. The reactive power output of the generator is thus automatically adjusted as needed to maintain the specified voltage. Conversely, if you try to control reactive power output or power factor in a generator, you will not be able to control voltage. And we should operate the synchronous generators on AVR because of stability, the AVR is a proven solution to several stability issues (steady state stability and transient stability).
April 4, 2012

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Stanislav

Stanislav Z. In addition to Leonardo's comment, if there are more than one power supplier connected to the same bus (another generators or utilities), the reactive power output of a generator will depend on voltage setpoints of these other sources. If you have a generator on automatic voltage regulation and utility connected to the bus through step-down transformer, simply by changing transformer taps (changing voltage), you can make the generator either supply or consume reactive power at any level within a range determined by exitation limits, generator protection, and the transformer's tap-changer range.
April 5, 2012

Robby P. In addition to the above, for more info on a generator's capability, find its capability curve and you will be able to see how muh reactive power can be absorbed (under excited) or pushed out (over excited).
April 7, 2012 Robby

Uma Uche M. Have you read about static var compensator?this plays active part in the reactive power problem
April 14, 2012 Uma Uche

Robby P. Uma has a good point about SVCs but I don't think this is linked to the question of how reactive power is controlled by a generator. An SVC is a device on its own separate to a generator right? Unless you are talking about how it is modeled in some power system analysis packages as a generator.

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4/23/2013 10:23 AM

How the reactive power of a generator is controlled.................? | LinkedIn

http://www.linkedin.com/groups/How-reactive-power-generator-is-2466...

Robby

KAMRAN H. we can control the reactive power by controlling the field voltage or field current of field winding on the rotor of synchronous generator.
April 15, 2012 KAMRAN

Saud Zafar

Saud Zafar U. I agree with Lima's comment, "When the synchronous generator is pushing reactive power into the electrical system we say the machine is over-excited. When the synchronous generator is absorbing reactive power from the electrical system, it is under-excited. So, the reactive power output of the generator is associated with the generator field current, provided by the excitation system." It also depends on the generator's connection with the system. If its an infinite bus connection then, the control is much easier and the AVR has to maintain a certain value of PF. However, on island mode the system gets more unstable, there are more voltage fluctuations. The AVR has to work harder in such situations to maintain PF and voltage.
April 16, 2012

Leonardo L. Mr. Usmani There is no such thing as an "infinite bus". All generators connected to the bulk power system should operate in automatic voltage control (AVR) and not on power factor control. In other words, the excitation system control is controlling voltage and the reactive power output of the unit is a consequence of this voltage control. And we use automatic voltage control (instead of power factor control, for instance) because it increases the stability of the machine. In many regions in the world, it is actually forbidden to operate generation units in power factor control, when connected to the bulk power system. Only small units, connected to the distribution network, would be allowed to operate in pf or reactive power control.
April 16, 2012

Leonardo

- -. Output variable of a synchronous machine are controlled.Automatic voltage regulator also known as synchronous machine regulator couples the output variable of synchronous machine to input of exciter through through a feed back and feed forward control element for controlling the output variables. AVR influences the power angle delta between revolving rotor and stator flux.Terminal voltage control is achieved through controlling field current by means of a feedback system involving voltage transformers and AVR.The variables received by AVR are generator stator current from CT secondary, generator stator voltage from VT secondary and field voltage.These variables are meassured by AVR against set reference value and corrective feedback signal is given to amplifier. The amplifier amplifies the signal and corrective field voltage is supplied to generator field. For a single generator operating in isolation and supplying stand alone load the terminal voltage varies with excitation current also in that case power factor of generator stator current is equal to load current power factor.In this operating mode reactive power supplied by generator depends upon reactive power demand of load.Lagging PF requires higher field current of generator and leading PF load requires less field current (off course there is a limit imposed upon the leading PF load. For details about leading PF load and synchronous machine please refer the link http://electrical-engineering-portal.com /capacitor-banks-in-power-system-part-four ). If the same generator is connected to grid or number of generator units are operating in parallel than terminal voltage does not vary with excitation current and same is determined by prevailing grid voltage.In this case reactive power supplied to load depends upon excitation. Here the change in generator field current affects the PF generator armature current and reactive power shared by generator.Active power shared by generator remains unaffected.Now the point is AVR always control the terminal voltage within + or 1% we do not control reactive power.As suggested by Leornado The reactive power output of the generator is thus automatically adjusted as needed to maintain the specified voltage.
April 22, 2012

- -. Yes as suggested by Leonardo in the immediate above comments the small units connected to distribution network (like emergency diesel generators) are allowed to operate with PF correction or control.
April 22, 2012 -

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4/23/2013 10:23 AM

How the reactive power of a generator is controlled.................? | LinkedIn

http://www.linkedin.com/groups/How-reactive-power-generator-is-2466...

Kevin

I would have thought the correct terminology would have been exporting or importing VARs... and as long as this is within the capability curve of that generator, then its not over or under excited.
12 months ago

Leonardo L. Hi Kevin Over-excited and under-excited operation of a synchronous machine are well defined terms. They are related to the V-curves of the machines and associated with an increase or decrease in the field current, as compared to the excitation current needed to maintain unity power factor. If you over-excite the unit (increase excitation current above the necessary level for unity power factor) you will push reactive power into the grid. If you under-excite the unit you will absorb reactive power from the grid. You have a point, though, regarding the capability limit. There is a limit associated with the maximum field current in a machine. That is usually expressed in terms of rated field current or nameplate field current. Modern excitation systems have over-excitation limiters that will block you from going beyond such maximum field current. When you set the over-excitation limiter properly, you should completely avoid the risk of tripping the unit. In other words, we should coordinate the settings of the over-excitation limiter with the settings of the over-excitation protection, so the limiter acts before you reach the protection settings (before the relay picks up).
12 months ago

Leonardo

akram

akram B. Yes Leonardo you described the operation of synchronous generator regarding the under-(leading p.f), normal-(unity p.f),and over-excited(lagging p.f) conditions very well with the assumption that real power remains constant which is controlled by the turbine governor(since changing the rotor excitation will change slightly the electromagnetic torque). To make this point very solid , for example permanent magnet synchronous generators used in wind turbine plants are designed to operate at normal excitation level(unity power factor) and left the option of changinging the value of reactive power from positive to negative to the converter that links the PMSG to the grid.
12 months ago

Christopher D. Well, we actually make a device that prevents the reactive power from leaving your facility so you do not get charged for it, if cost is your concern.
11 months ago Christopher

Robby P. Christopher....What is the device you speak off called?


11 months ago Robby

Christopher D. The 3DFS Power Controller. Have you not seen this? Freaking fascinating! http://3dfs.com/products/3-phase-power-controllers
Christopher 11 months ago

Jigyesh S. In my point of view when synchronous GENERATOR are over excited(OE) they absorbs lagging VAR from bus... and when under excited(UE) they delivers leading VARS to bus...ie on OE they behave as inductor and on UE as capacitors. REVERSE is true FOR SYNCH. MOTORS
Jigyesh 7 months ago

Leonardo L. Mr. Sharma, It is exactly the opposite. An over-excited synchronous generator delivers reactive power into the grid, while an under-excited synchronous generator absorbs reactive power from the grid.

Leonardo

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4/23/2013 10:23 AM

How the reactive power of a generator is controlled.................? | LinkedIn

http://www.linkedin.com/groups/How-reactive-power-generator-is-2466...

Jigyesh S. Mr lima sir, Deliver or absorption of reactive power but which type?? An over excited Synch. gen. delivers lagging VARS and absorbs leading VARS...
Jigyesh

I request above delegates to correct me if I am wrong..


7 months ago

Leonardo L. Mr. Sharma There is only one type of reactive power. There is no such thing as leading or lagging VARS in itself, you need to define some other things before you can talk about leading or lagging. See, you can only talk about leading or lagging in terms of power factor or, more precisely, regarding the relative phase angle between voltage and current phasors. So, let's assume that a generator is always pushing MW into the grid (otherwise it is not a generator, but a motor). Thus, the "natural" convention is to assume that positive currents are currents flowing from the generator into the grid, correct? So, if the generator operates with a lagging power factor, it is over-excited and it is pushing VARS into the grid. Conversely, if the generator operates with a leading power factor, it is under-excited and it is absorbing VARS from the grid. Therefore, an over-excited synchronous generator will not absorb VARS from the grid. It will operate with lagging currents (or power factor) and will be delivering VARS to the grid. Yet another way of looking at the same thing: a generator will move from lagging to leading power factor as you reduce its excitation (from over-excited to under-excited conditions). I suggest you take a look at V-curves for synchronous generators, for instance, for an illustration of this process.
7 months ago

Leonardo

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4/23/2013 10:23 AM