How the reactive power of a generator is controlled.................?

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How the reactive power of a generator is controlled.................?
April 4, 2012

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ABRAHAM O., Naman M. and 16 others like this
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Leonardo

Leonardo L. • When the synchronous generator is pushing reactive power into the electrical system we say the machine is over-excited. When the synchronous generator is absorbing reactive power from the electrical system, it is under-excited. So, the reactive power output of the generator is associated with the generator field current, provided by the excitation system. But note that we do not control reactive power output of a generator, at least in terms of automatic control. Synchronous machines are usually operated on automatic voltage regulator (AVR) mode, so we are actually controlling voltage. The reactive power output of the generator is thus automatically adjusted as needed to maintain the specified voltage. Conversely, if you try to control reactive power output or power factor in a generator, you will not be able to control voltage. And we should operate the synchronous generators on AVR because of stability, the AVR is a proven solution to several stability issues (steady state stability and transient stability).
April 4, 2012

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Stanislav

Stanislav Z. • In addition to Leonardo's comment, if there are more than one power supplier connected to the same bus (another generators or utilities), the reactive power output of a generator will depend on voltage setpoints of these other sources. If you have a generator on automatic voltage regulation and utility connected to the bus through step-down transformer, simply by changing transformer taps (changing voltage), you can make the generator either supply or consume reactive power at any level within a range determined by exitation limits, generator protection, and the transformer's tap-changer range.
April 5, 2012

Robby P. • In addition to the above, for more info on a generator's capability, find its capability curve and you will be able to see how muh reactive power can be absorbed (under excited) or pushed out (over excited).
April 7, 2012 Robby

Uma Uche M. • Have you read about static var compensator?this plays active part in the reactive power problem
April 14, 2012 Uma Uche

Robby P. • Uma has a good point about SVCs but I don't think this is linked to the question of how reactive power is controlled by a generator. An SVC is a device on its own separate to a generator right? Unless you are talking about how it is modeled in some power system analysis packages as a generator.

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4/23/2013 10:23 AM

Now the point is AVR always control the terminal voltage within + or 1% we do not control reactive power.In this operating mode reactive power supplied by generator depends upon reactive power demand of load. 2012 Leonardo L.-.com /capacitor-banks-in-power-system-part-four ). 2012 . when connected to the bulk power system.. When the synchronous generator is absorbing reactive power from the electrical system.. If its an infinite bus connection then. generator stator voltage from VT secondary and field voltage.. So. April 22. 2012 - 2 of 4 4/23/2013 10:23 AM ..com/groups/How-reactive-power-generator-is-2466.Active power shared by generator remains unaffected.. If the same generator is connected to grid or number of generator units are operating in parallel than terminal voltage does not vary with excitation current and same is determined by prevailing grid voltage.. connected to the distribution network. Only small units..linkedin. April 16. the excitation system control is controlling voltage and the reactive power output of the unit is a consequence of this voltage control. The AVR has to work harder in such situations to maintain PF and voltage.-. For details about leading PF load and synchronous machine please refer the link http://electrical-engineering-portal. the reactive power output of the generator is associated with the generator field current.. April 16.. April 22. • we can control the reactive power by controlling the field voltage or field current of field winding on the rotor of synchronous generator.How the reactive power of a generator is controlled.. it is under-excited. • I agree with Lima's comment..Terminal voltage control is achieved through controlling field current by means of a feedback system involving voltage transformers and AVR. • Output variable of a synchronous machine are controlled... for instance) because it increases the stability of the machine. April 15... • Yes as suggested by Leonardo in the immediate above comments the small units connected to distribution network (like emergency diesel generators) are allowed to operate with PF correction or control. For a single generator operating in isolation and supplying stand alone load the terminal voltage varies with excitation current also in that case power factor of generator stator current is equal to load current power factor.? | LinkedIn http://www. 2012 KAMRAN Saud Zafar Saud Zafar U. The amplifier amplifies the signal and corrective field voltage is supplied to generator field. All generators connected to the bulk power system should operate in automatic voltage control (AVR) and not on power factor control.In this case reactive power supplied to load depends upon excitation. Robby KAMRAN H. on island mode the system gets more unstable.. there are more voltage fluctuations.. AVR influences the power angle delta between revolving rotor and stator flux.. it is actually forbidden to operate generation units in power factor control. In other words. would be allowed to operate in pf or reactive power control." It also depends on the generator's connection with the system.The variables received by AVR are generator stator current from CT secondary. Usmani There is no such thing as an "infinite bus". • Mr.These variables are meassured by AVR against set reference value and corrective feedback signal is given to amplifier. And we use automatic voltage control (instead of power factor control.As suggested by Leornado The reactive power output of the generator is thus automatically adjusted as needed to maintain the specified voltage.Automatic voltage regulator also known as synchronous machine regulator couples the output variable of synchronous machine to input of exciter through through a feed back and feed forward control element for controlling the output variables.Lagging PF requires higher field current of generator and leading PF load requires less field current (off course there is a limit imposed upon the leading PF load. However. "When the synchronous generator is pushing reactive power into the electrical system we say the machine is over-excited. In many regions in the world. Here the change in generator field current affects the PF generator armature current and reactive power shared by generator. 2012 Leonardo - . provided by the excitation system. the control is much easier and the AVR has to maintain a certain value of PF.

If you over-excite the unit (increase excitation current above the necessary level for unity power factor) you will push reactive power into the grid. if cost is your concern.. • The 3DFS Power Controller.? | LinkedIn http://www.com/groups/How-reactive-power-generator-is-2466.. and when under excited(UE) they delivers leading VARS to bus.How the reactive power of a generator is controlled. normal-(unity p. while an under-excited synchronous generator absorbs reactive power from the grid. then its not over or under excited....ie on OE they behave as inductor and on UE as capacitors. It is exactly the opposite.. as compared to the excitation current needed to maintain unity power factor. That is usually expressed in terms of rated field current or nameplate field current.. you should completely avoid the risk of tripping the unit.. though. for example permanent magnet synchronous generators used in wind turbine plants are designed to operate at normal excitation level(unity power factor) and left the option of changinging the value of reactive power from positive to negative to the converter that links the PMSG to the grid....What is the device you speak off called? 11 months ago Robby Christopher D.. • Mr. 12 months ago Leonardo L.. 12 months ago Leonardo akram akram B. 12 months ago Christopher D.. we should coordinate the settings of the over-excitation limiter with the settings of the over-excitation protection. In other words.. Have you not seen this? Freaking fascinating! http://3dfs..and over-excited(lagging p. They are related to the V-curves of the machines and associated with an increase or decrease in the field current. There is a limit associated with the maximum field current in a machine.f) conditions very well with the assumption that real power remains constant which is controlled by the turbine governor(since changing the rotor excitation will change slightly the electromagnetic torque). If you under-excite the unit you will absorb reactive power from the grid. Modern excitation systems have over-excitation limiters that will block you from going beyond such maximum field current. Kevin I would have thought the correct terminology would have been exporting or importing VARs.. To make this point very solid . • Hi Kevin Over-excited and under-excited operation of a synchronous machine are well defined terms.. You have a point. Leonardo 3 of 4 4/23/2013 10:23 AM . so the limiter acts before you reach the protection settings (before the relay picks up). 11 months ago Christopher Robby P.. • Well. • In my point of view when synchronous GENERATOR are over excited(OE) they absorbs lagging VAR from bus. • Christopher...f). REVERSE is true FOR SYNCH..com/products/3-phase-power-controllers Christopher 11 months ago Jigyesh S. Sharma.... and as long as this is within the capability curve of that generator. regarding the capability limit..f). • Yes Leonardo you described the operation of synchronous generator regarding the under-(leading p. MOTORS Jigyesh 7 months ago Leonardo L. An over-excited synchronous generator delivers reactive power into the grid. we actually make a device that prevents the reactive power from leaving your facility so you do not get charged for it. When you set the over-excitation limiter properly.linkedin..

Therefore. I suggest you take a look at V-curves for synchronous generators.. Jigyesh S. See.. you need to define some other things before you can talk about leading or lagging.. There is no such thing as leading or lagging VARS in itself. • Mr lima sir.... Deliver or absorption of reactive power but which type?? An over excited Synch. delivers lagging VARS and absorbs leading VARS. Sharma There is only one type of reactive power. you can comment and post Or Sign In » your own discussions. correct? So. for instance... So. Thus. Yet another way of looking at the same thing: a generator will move from lagging to leading power factor as you reduce its excitation (from over-excited to under-excited conditions). if the generator operates with a lagging power factor. it is under-excited and it is absorbing VARS from the grid.. the "natural" convention is to assume that positive currents are currents flowing from the generator into the grid. but a motor).....How the reactive power of a generator is controlled. gen.. 7 months ago Leonardo Have something to say? Join LinkedIn Join LinkedIn for free to participate in the conversation... more precisely.com/groups/How-reactive-power-generator-is-2466. • Mr. Conversely.. if the generator operates with a leading power factor... 7 months ago Leonardo L. regarding the relative phase angle between voltage and current phasors. for an illustration of this process. Help Center About Press Blog Careers Advertising Talent Solutions Tools Mobile Developers Groups Directory Copyright Policy Publishers Language SlideShare LinkedIn Updates LinkedIn Influencers LinkedIn Jobs Privacy Policy Jobs Directory Company Directory Cookie Policy Skills Directory Title Directory LinkedIn Corporation © 2013 User Agreement Community Guidelines 4 of 4 4/23/2013 10:23 AM ..? | LinkedIn http://www. it is over-excited and it is pushing VARS into the grid. It will operate with lagging currents (or power factor) and will be delivering VARS to the grid..linkedin. let's assume that a generator is always pushing MW into the grid (otherwise it is not a generator. Jigyesh I request above delegates to correct me if I am wrong. an over-excited synchronous generator will not absorb VARS from the grid. When you join. you can only talk about leading or lagging in terms of power factor or.

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