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THE MODERN GEOMETRY OF THE TRIANGLE
BY
WILLIAM GALLATLY,
M.A.
SECOND EDITION
LONDON
:
FBANCIS HODGSON,
89 EARRINGDON STREET, E.G.
PRICE HALF A
CROWN NET
.
89 EARRINGDON STREET. BY WILLIAM GALLATLY.THE MODERN GEOMETRY OF THE TRIANGLE. E.A. M.G. SECOND EDITION. *'< LONDON : FKANCIS HODGSON. .
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Rouse for permission to use the theorems due to them. and Mr. G. A. V. P. . F. Davis.merely his hope. Aiyar. articles contributed by the present writer to the Educational Times Reprint. F. Beard. W. Mr. He is also most grateful to Sir George Greenhill. that these novel and interesting theorems some British. Prof. The author ventures to express not. W. Mr.PREFACE. Dixon. but his confident expectation. on the Geometry of the Triangle are presented some of the more important researches on the subject little treatise IN this which have been undertaken during the last thirty years. R. E. Mr. but the greater part derived from French and German sources will widen the outlook of our mathematical instructors and lend new vigour to their teaching. C. to whose editor he The book includes some would offer his sincere thanks for the great encouragement which he has derived from such recognition. R.
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eqn. CHAPTER V. to TOT' Draw : : f : : : : .] CHAPTER Relations between lation between I. of T.SYNOPSIS OF CHAPTEES.L. d\e\f\. TU. c. of Limiting Points. to circumdiameter straight line (general) to find points with given trip. C on S. bisects TH: OAT cr l perps. in given direction S. circle trip. of 0(R) and : I(r) : : points S\ S%<rHiGi poristically circular loci FGHO'I'NM Gergonne Point M : poristic formulae properties of Nagel locus of If found.) : Pedal triangle def similar to BSC = A + \ sin \ a an Limiting Points II in terms of xyz Radical Axes (group) Feuerbach 's Theorem 2 So for Sj. T' are axes of similitude for def. B. Circle Tripolar eqn. angles. length and direction :* the the point a circle (kk ) point . c. on line : : Properties of Quad.L. Artzt's Parabola U.L.) : Feuerbach Point midpoint line of quad. : (1421. CHAPTER Medial II. (2234. formulae : : : : : CHAPTER Poristic condition fixed : : III.ZVfor quad. eqn. : MEDIAL AND TRIPOLAR COORDINATES. of : o> : the centre O t of (kk 1 ) : tricusp Hypocycloid : Cubic in sin< or cos4> Greenhill and Dixon's Theorem. from A. perpr. condition: re616263 and pgr distance between (a#y) and (a'&'y') perpr.) : S.c.v : : : : LMN : : . : (113. .L. Point N : CHAPTER IV. DIRECTION ANGLES. N. OS' and (afry) in terms of \p. : : inverse of S : S.L. [The numbers refer to Sections.) pqr : lines at rt.P.L. ABC and A'B'C' n. : (3555. SIMSON LINES. to S. : Centre Circle. (5669. PEDAL TRIANGLES.A. of PORISTIC TRIANGLES. II.) R. pairs of S.
P.c.2 T3 : Harmonic quad.P.) : Angular Orthologic and Antipedal triangles: nc. OS. (semiaxis) 2 similarly for circle centre S S' and S\ S\ bisected at join of Twin Points : Aiyar's Theorem. axis : COUNTER POINTS.) metrically : general n. : nn' of <T SA S'A = AB Ac : A'B'C' o>. inscribed in ABC : cosflj c2 ) : OK . radius SS\ passes through I'm'ri. Shape and ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION OF A TRIANGLE. of ff acoincides with : on N. of K: K centroid of def: equation to OK: II a 2 + # 2 + y'2 and u. a. centre. of centre of similitude of U and V similar properties of V V' = 4 A S' and /S".) II'. rr' : 5 = IE <r cos e l cos lies cos 3 . a common to the 4 circles. b. 2 in terms of . inverts into square. S found : geo and through a point. Concurrence of THE OBTHOPOLE. A/XI/ : (101116.c. OV Counterpoint conies. : A'l passes through or K : locus of centres of rect.) 2 pp'. q . i and S\ : l l .c.L. CHAPTER X. U'.c.H. asymptotes. : (7080. CHAPTER IX. of S point A'B'C' n.Tj. (See Appendix I and II.c. : : "()" a(6 2 : chords parallel to to T.) : and b. CHAPTER VII. : ANTIPEDAL TRIANGLES. c. CHAPTER VIII. : : : .+ v* + w 2 each a min. ABC . b' c' Pedal triangles and projection: general theory size of projection of : : : . of S' n. (8187. : ^ . : for any triangle XYZ : Schoute Circles.VI MODERN GEOMETRY.c. circle ABC : three S. OS' 2R. direction of asymptotes and axes : : = : '. CHAPTER VI.c. : V = $M S. points : K found : n. qq'. ": O : &Rq: equation to minor Ratio Bl Cl p* = A/iV : : : pedal circle 88' cutsN. (117129. triangle Angle Antipedal triangles and projection calculation of a'. 88100. circle at M'Cay's Cubic For TOT conic is R.) on plane passing through fixed axis in plane of ABC ABC projected into triangle with given angles projec2 2 A (1 + cos 2 ) tion of ABC on planes at constant inclination 2tf'' cot A and Brocard cquilat. are called Twin Points. reciprocal relations: Lemoyne's Theorem: pedal circles through <r(o>): constant b. . 31'. LEMOINE GEOMETRY. at K Artzt's Parabola: triangle AK bisects Lemoine Point of Ii/a^ list of T^T. of S for def: Harmonic system of lines. . Apollonian Circles : Lemoine Axis : Harmonic tripolar equation quad.
c. : Pedal circle of ftft' : Second Lemoine Circle : Taylor cot A. of : n and ft' : equation to : o> not : greater than 30 : useful : formulae Neuberg Circles Steiner Angles Pedal triangle of ft Triangles First Brocard Triangle PQR perspective XBC. TUCKER CIRCLES. zxy. to axis of right figure : angles : G double point On = eR.c. (153166. ZAB : (see also Appendix III) : centre of perspective of D : eqn.) Pairs of homothetic triangles. inscribed and circumscribed to family of circles touch conic Tucker Circles list of formulae Radical : : : ABC : Axis : First Lemoine : Circle c. G 5 centroid of Dftft' D lies 3' Isodynamic Points and Steiner Ellipse. Circle trip. Forms for cot a> : and b. OK = eR : ABC. PIVOT POINTS. VU (130152.ACTB G mean : centre of points yzx. coi C. n. LEMOINEBROCARD GEOMETRY. xyz PQR . .SYNOPSIS OF CHAPTERS. TCA. and St : Isogonic points on 20T: OD = eR and 8^ CircumEllipse : : CHAPTER XII. of Limiting Points for Taylor Circle are as cotB.) rift' : CHAPTER XI. PQR <a : : OK bisects tin' at sec : Steiner and Tarry Points : KPROQ apply to similar to 'S.
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will be denoted the Orthocentre by J3". also . .& being called the Orthocentric Triangle) the Centroid or Centre 3 lengths of AH^ BH^ GHS by l? & 2 . the feet of the perpendiculars by from A. G on BG. J2 73 the points of contact of the circle I with the sides of ABG by X. IN this work the following conventions are observed: the Circumcentre of ABC. . INTRODUCTION: DIRECTION ANGLES. the triangle of reference. .CHAPTER I. Y. J. B.. 7?. I The Circiimcentre OJ OJ. AB respectively by J3"2 lt s (the the triangle HJIJi.and excentres by I. of JjJjJg is /. of Gravity by G the in. H . . Z the corresponding points for the circle I being X^ Y^ Zr . 1. H . /? . which lies on 01} and the Circumradius of ^IjJj = 2E. CA.
AB are A'. with Centre 0' and radius \E theOrthocentre of A'B'C' is 0. the Centroid is G. 2 . B'. we obtain 5 a cos = 0." stand for normal or triUnear coordinatesdenoted by a/?y.. cos 0. . The lines drawn through A. 2.c." stand for barycentric or areal or triangular coordinates. . J5. and in the same sense. 2. &c.2 MODERN GEOMETRY. its Medial or NinePoint Circle is ABG and its NinePoint Centre is 0. form the AntiMedial Triangle A .op sin^ = 2. AB Its Circumcentre is JT. The diagram shows that a sin 6 = q r. C on a straight line TT'.c. . &c. = '. Let 1? Direction Angles of TT' that is. while the incen Ireis denoted by 1'. denoted by xyz also x aa. BG 1 parallel to BC. these angles being measured from TT' as axis. = A'HJOH = R sin(50)/0//oc (/rr)/^. Let _p. r Two sets of direction angles should be particularly noted. a sin ^ = 0. cos t = A'X/OI = \ (bc)/OI oc (6c). The letters " b.. 1 C 1 . . For 01. S. For OG^if. C" the triangleA'B'C' being called the Medial Triangle. The midpoints of BC. so that = .^(3 r) = 0. Its Circumcircle is the NinePoint Circle. its Centroid is 6r. The letters "n. CA. t l so that ' a. the 8 be the angles which the sides of ABC make with TT'. CA. B. r be the lengths of the perpendiculars from A. TT'. g. By projecting the sides of ABC along and perpendicular to. <9.
as it is almost always difficult to evaluate D. y.. To determine the condition that la. in terms of p. < 3 be the direction angles of the two <^ =b \TT. l g. r ') ir) (7 + ' 0.c CH :H B = b cos C c cos 5.. ^ k. p'. which is the required condition. I'a H l falls outside dd'. the length of the perpendicular on TT' from a point P. . 5.DIRECTION ANGLES.6 cos C + r. r. . and may < be at right angles. A. the righthand signs are changed. so that r' be q. Now Also Z oc and Hence = 4A = %+y+z aa+bft+cy = 2A.. =D 2 . Note that the ratios are needed. . 2 A sin fa = 2A . <j+ . Since P is the centre for masses at A. g. To determine 2 Put Z when T2 is 2mwcos A +.*.. 3 To express Since . 0. ?/. r. 0.. r. = 0. . 1' TT. 5'. only of #. = . (a / gr 26c cos ^1) TT A form of little use. cos B = (b cos + c cosB)H d = a(p H d') = ap a. 4. Let p. When 3. cos O in terms of p. 2A. q. Za + m/8 + wy = . Z cc op.cos 0j ap bq cos crcosB. = (Za + m/3 + ny)/D. 2 .. 5. \mj3\ny = 0.. 2. ).ap. B.. < Let OH lines. sin = or ZZ' (^ = 2 A cos 0. ap' sin = p' (%' . q. .. ap cos bq cos cr cos 5. Xow And .. r are z known. To determine TT. are (.c.AJI l l (7 l l l cos t . 2 2 ap . + m'ft + n'y = 0.2 . f ap'(apbq mm' + ww' Gcr cos 5) + r (mn + m'w) cos J. . C proportional to so that is TT determined when p.'. so #3 and Ol that = a. (7. the perpendiculars on the lines from Z' oc op'. whose b.
(6c)(*a). f ... (G)f 3 + c cos #2 (2) we can express the right side in terms of p. 2 2 2 2 . now takes the form + c cos a + For 01. (a a!)/d.r c cos = op... 0. a sin $ a. A From elementary Cartesian Geometry we have 2 A = Ap. 2 .c... To prove thatv when TT' op/JB is = b cos a circumdiameter... r are given absolutely..d a ^7 r = p) cot a 2 B+ (p 2 r/) cot = 2A..pq l /. p 2 2 2 4A 2 & g + cV 2bc cos A. points P.aa.a+.. (6 c ) cos A/a. and the result From follows. . 7.qr + Bq. For OGH. q. Then apply the condition a cos A . = 2 (aa') sin 2 2 (Pfi') sin 27?+ (yy') sin 2(7.gr) = 2{ay(a + + c )grj. marked (G) the present writer is = = 0.qr When TT' = = .. .. (a//3'... so that passes through A... 4A 2 is = p.2A cos #! + = ap (apbq cos C cr cos P) = S (ay26tfcos4. for OF.. 8...p}~ . y) and It is required to determine d.( . 3 . [more useful that (cos B cos C) a + s (&*c )cos4. which cos Os is 2) p. /?. r.. 2 (q r) cot ^4 + (r 2A + Now Hence . . It follows that there must be some independent relation between them.b cos # 4.. = 0]. straight line TT' is determined when any two of the three perpendiculars p.. The equation p = R/OI.. 6. a + 6 2 ic 2 = 4A cot A. .. 2 2 to (fr TOT'. y'). q. = 0..a + 6 + c2 ) gr } = 4A a 2 = 2 A (cot B + cot C).(bc)(8a)/a p = R/OH. (. Hence prove that for Of. the length of PP'. = 0.. P' lying on TT' have absolute n....tt+. = 0.a cos O + q.4 MODERN GEOMETRY. t For theorems and proofs responsible. 2 2 2 Z> This the relation sought. The We have But and Hence 2 { op 2 .+ . in terms of these coordinates.rp+Cr..
have a common point (call it If) so that the parabola which touches the four sides of the quadrilateral will have for focus while the four orthocentres lie on the directrix. CPQ.A are known to lie on a circle (call it the Centre Circle) which also passes through If. 3. which has BC. The results just obtained are useful in investigating some algebraic relations of a quadrilateral. (in circle AQR) 2 Pl AM QR. ap sin O r . therefore the n. : l : z : a a : 6. p & the radii of AQR. = p sin Q : l/(2 sin ^ sin sin 3) =m p/sin . 5 9.2 : r sin 3 . CA. BRP. (R.c. or 1Iote a/p(qr).DIRECTION ANGLES. The four circumcentres 0.&c. GPQ. 2 .F. = AQ . p sin 6V . BRP. 2p sin (B RM or ARM) AM BM CM p p p = p sin # q sin In circle 2 . S l R are #2 .. that in the circle or a/(l/q l/r). Let p be the radius of this circle and p v p2 . ABC. which is also the common radical axis of the circles (AP)(BQ)(CR). The circum circles of the four triangles AQR. 2p l sin A cr. AM = 2 Pl sin ARM.Davis) QR = AMQR. 1/r sin 8 . . AB for three of its sides the fourth side being PQR. Since the angles at Q. : M . of M are as l/p sin OH l/q sin S. O lt 2 0. 2p l sin /. = BM .md in BMRP.
0. and the triangle 0. ft + cos A cy/p the perpendicular from R on AC is cos A aa/q + cos A bft/p + (b/pa cos C/q) y = 0. the point P is determined by a cos q.bfi \r.0.. ABCM. Since 0.'. The equation to PQR being p.0. M = Pt ABC.0. ( 1/p + l/gf l/r)aj+. 3.. 1} MB.00. let PQR be xla?\. in the Centre Circle subtend so that : 00! 00 2 00 = sin^ 3 : sin0 3 : sin 8 . aa/r f (c/p a cos B/r) .6 MODERN GEOMETRY. . the well known Radical Axis * of the circles ABC. L 0. The join 00. But.. . 00..0... to MR. Hence the chords 00. . = 0... ARQM is = perpendi cular to the Similarly 00 2 is perpendicular to the chord MB. ACB (in ABCM) C. To determine the equation of the 4orthocentre line. By or or or subtraction their point of intersection is found to lie on p sin.. known as 2 2 c ) &c. 10. or OMO. = 0.bp + r.. 11..4/a'. be and = 0.. cos.. : MO.aaf p(qr} cos^.c. 00.cy = 0.= is : C. A'B'C'. the directrix being Kiepert's Parabola. c ) cos 2 = 0.* Here p cc I/a 2 so that the focus of the parabola.. from : MO. has n.03 : : similar to p. = AMB = .x + .0. (M is a'/3V) the symmetry of this equation the line clearly passes through the other three orthocentres and is therefore the directrix of the parabola. The midpoints of diagonals lie on or cotA. . a/(6 From = : 2 (6 A. 0.0 is perpendicular to Z 00. is the double point of the similar triangles ABO.. &c.0.. = 0...0... which will prove to be the Lemoine Axis (128). The perpendicular from P on An proves = = 0. aa + q. (circle JBMPR) = 0. cos A . of the centres common chord MA.cy 0.aa+ .'.a+ . The bracketed numbers refer to sections.. . MO.. = 0. .a+. and = BMR = BPR : 0... angles 0. A . which is OGH.. : MA MB MO = Pl Hence 0. = 0. 0. to . For example.
/3 2 . 4A /c + c* 2 2 2 .q sin0 G a2 +6 2 c 2 pY _ (qr}(pr} J ab ~ab~~ But since Z O a 3 . .a') ^.'. Now. =(_r)/( 3 r). 12.4 ( ^+ D = a sin $ a I 6 sin ^2 I c sin 3 .6 0. + <y8 (^^) . . one and 2 (7. For <o 2..A/E a 1==A/a. BQ.4P (gr) 2 2 = 2 q*b + <fl(qry. . the radius of the Centre so M0 = l pl = m. M0 = 2 (G) and O^MO^ C. To determine the length of ci^to. . Let o> 15 w. 2 = = 0.k^/abc. V/ A  _J^ (prr . + c. To determine p.DIRECTION ANGLES. or midpoints of AP.2A/c. p mB. a2 2 . 2 a 2 /. = a sin (a ) a^V. 0..2 a) 5 be the centres of the diameter circles.0. 7l = gr/(gr). since cot .p sinflj. cot Cp Hence. 0. cot J. = r/(rp) A/a. yt = ( p)/(rp) A/c.. X9 2 . 0.2A/6. 2 w. Forcu. 7 circle. .. = 0. r' 13.. ft = (_ r )/(grr) A/6.2 sin 2 Oz 2pq sin 6 l sin # 2 cos = m. The distance d of between ^ 2 .ry Hence . = A/6. / = . CR.fc^ sin 2A+... )8' y = gr/(gr). O^ = 2p sin AP. for P. sin 20.A/c. 2. ^1. of the diagonals of the To determine the length quadrilateral.A/B 2 = (a/?y) (a'fl'y') is given by (6) Now. a = (a. a' Also for = 2A/a.
area of A'B'C' = oa b(3' /. CA. (6 J. = ^+^ b/(ca) + c/(ab) (b c)(s a)/(c a)(a b.. AB..c. in b.. %+y = y+ c/(a = + z. ). = = If the A'B'G' equation to a straight line is I'x' the ABC + m'y' + n'z' =  equation is + . C' are the rnidpoints of called the Medial Triangle of its circumcircle A'B'G' is the NinePoint Circle whose centre 0' bisects OH. b) c)*(sa). 2aa' = s'.'. (w + w)aj'+. 6/(c point. #' oc oc a/(b c). a'fi'y' be the n. of a point If A'. and GP referred to ABC.. &c. oc .c. aa + 2^' bft + cy.c..c.c. the a/(b c).a^ = A = 4. A'B'C' Let a/?y. are to be deduced from the oc oc ac ABC then _(6c) (sa) + (ca) 2 2 ( a(a ?>)( c) oc a/(6 c)... so that or. a. 0. ^4'5'C" b.0 F being b... P ABO = P respectively. MEDIAL AND TRIPOLAR COORDINATES.'5'C' b. . a. OP'. aa = + cy'.CHAPTER II. If the J. For example. to Feuerbach Point determine the &c. of this Here . in A'B'G'. BC. or 8 ( Z' + m + w')a' + f =  . = 0. or 0.c. 14. l(y' + z') + . in For every point there is a homologous point P' 2. = 0. such that P' lies on GP. J5'. A diagram shows that a fa' aa + aa' = hr = i. Medial Coordinates. 15. of the 6). If the ABC equation to a straight line is lx + my + nz the A'B'C' equation is 0. the triangle A'B'G' is ABO ..
. when If H (cot B + cot C)x' + referred to A'B'C'.c.. a2 #'+ . &c. becomes ..2 H H S perpendiculars. the 0. The 4''C' equation therefore x'/P + y'/q + z'/r this TTj 0. = 0..a2 f 6 2 + c2 ) } aqr. r' be the perpendiculars from A'. reducing to (a y+ (a 2 ) . ABC is The J. = we the Hence the quadrilateral is ABC ( equation to the midpoint line . lt 3 = feet or of aV + b*y' + cV  equation to H. .... cos A cos 6 l x' H . k\ 16. . or aqr. 2 or is a2/#+... = 0.. Example. ABC equation 0. ..a+ is = = 0. C' on TOT'.. = OA' cos 6 p' Hence the required equation l = R cos J. Returning to the quadrilateral discussed in section (13) see the b. To determine the A'B'C' equation to a circumdiameter TOT'. .MEDIAL AND TRIPOLAR COORDINATES. V+ = = . A/a. of o^ given by a. ABC is cot^.z = ( fr Therefore the A'B'C' equation (cot is B + cot C) x+ (cot a~x\ 6' 8 cot c ) 2 4)y + cot 2 ^ + cot B)z = 0. cos 6 r is .. The perpendicular on where from J/ = therefore given by D = 2 2 { a 2 g sr s _p 2 gr ( .B(7 equation to the circumcircle a/a + . B'.') 2 + z'x' 4.''?/') (y Referred to A'B'C'. For OI cos^ ? = %(b to c)/OL is Hence the A'B'C' equation (b 01 c) cos ^1.?/ + cot0. A diagram shows that . are the H. Example. Circle is )  aV + 6y + cV + (a + 6 + c = 0. . well cotA. . .x\ = known Radical Axis whose . the equation of the Nine. Therefore or its A'B'C' equation a 2 /0/ + .+ cot.hi/D.. 7'. #'+.Point or Medial 0. is 9 The . =0.. of I/p + 1/q + 1/r) x + is =0. 2 = 0.a. whose direction angles are 1} 0^ O s Letjp'.B..
. I 0. P a r2 2 r32 : r3 2 ra 2 2 : r/ r. equal to the ratios a cos 0j b cos $ 2 c cos 3 should be noted. . cos is (bc) 2 and the equation (ii) to 01 o(fec)r +. z. OH is a 18. from A. . Then.. .. and the equation to = (M~ C )/2a. in fact. To determine the tripolar equation to a circumdiameter whose direction angles are T 2 3 Let be any point on the line. C. The P OP on the sides... . . The tripolar equations to 01. = = OP = +\r*rf)rf (rf^ftrMvfrflr . 2 2 r2 r3 a. of the lr* = * 0.2 rs ) on the line. r2 rs be the tripolar coordinates of P. x. r3 2 = 0.. this becomes reducing to the well known form a cos A. or ratios of distances. the are constant being. c) .2x cos t a. Note that. and So that an equation a 0080!+.'. . 17.. if rjt and .'. a3 . . of 01 on BG 0j cc J (& . form s where + mrf + nr = + m + n = 0. tripolar coordinates of a point are its distances.c cos 2 3 . 2.d:+ . J5. the that we see to Cartesian coordinates. represents a circumdiameter.6 2 cos 2 . Referred to A BC. y. = 0.10 MODERN GEOMETRY. . the projections of . r2 4. : : . for every point ratios or (r15 r. To find the equation to a straight line with direction (Gr) angles O lt 2 3 and at a distance d from 0. Tripolar Coordinates. equaTransferring tion differs only by a constant from that of the parallel circumdiameter. rj 4. n 5 a cos 0! .. OGH (i) The projection . The projection of OH on BG 1 =0.
To prove that Q be .C'lf a(OD/OA")2c. Then = (a x)~^l(a . P.. m.c cos = 2 . 5. a cos 6 = A Then if (p 1? p 2 . and let (c^Og). 3 . la z + m6 2 H wc s = f w^ = l .OA"sinB cZ . then./) = = = acos^.6 cos 0. = 4<iA.la r mean centre for masses Z. w) are the b. or if (Z. k. CQ + 2 2 (l + m + n) PQ*. p2 [p 2 = p3 ] z (p l p. p3 ) be the coordinates of A".Sc. B'. Zr1 2 + mr 2 2 f nr s 2 = I Z. C' be sides. . and let A'O meet midpoints the line in A".yY = LAQ^l. m.c. 2ac sin />' Hence the required equation a cos . k a cos O l pf 4. is . (7. p 2 2 4. ZTY* (^i?> 2 ).la l t But. wi. rf + of the the Let A'. form . at the mean centre of masses Z. I . 19.4.MEDIAL AND TRIPOLAR COORDINATES.^!Q 2 + m. J5Q + w. . (^2)1 Take any rectangular axes at Q. i TO. It 11 must therefore be of the l . .PQ 2x. be the Cartesian coordinates of . P whose tripolar coordinates are (rl5 r2 r3 ). for any point ^t. (/4m + w) if is not zero. When . since Q is the i 2y. of Q. . B.
: : Divide BG. QO = 0. 2 the point 'Q for the circle ABU is K 2 as within or without the lies circle.2 cos ^4 cos 5 cos C). F. Z oc sin 2^1 . f (C) p The Nine.. Q'. R'. To determine the point or points whose tripolar coordinates are in the given ratios p q r. 2 (sin 2B+ sin 2(7) = 4A (1 4. . a . Wj.. : : Q..c. Examples. MODERN GEOMETRY. oc sin 2 ra s /. ^l cos B cos (7. T'. n) OQ 2 . R and externally at BP CP = : r = BP' q = GQ:AQ r:p=GQ AR BR = p q = AR' r : : GP'. of the NinePoint centre are cos (B the b.c.'. Davis) . (A) The circumcircle : Here p = JK. so that AB internally at P. is true for . } . being true for any point P. : : AQ'. (B) The inscribed circle: p = r. OQ Q. . If the circle cuts the circle ABG orthogonally. Let be the centres of the circles described on PP'. Irf + mrf+nr* = I .Q& = JOB 2 1 = R2R cos + sin 2(7. are sin A cos (B C ). (QQ) intersect . RR' as diameters. = 2 A (r 2E) 2 Z oc .. arT 2 + 2 fer 2 + crs : = E 2Sr. then OQJP+rt so that the circle becomes 2 Zr/ + mr/ + nr = 2 3 0. P'. w2 <o at T. and let the circles (PP). (R.Point circle = R. an internal point. QO = 8 I0 2 2 / . according If P describes a circle of radius />(= PQ) round Q. 2O. BR'.12 . This... Since the n.. 3 QQ'. AQ m BQ + n CQ + (Z + m + w) PQ 2 2 2 2 . CA. then the tripolar equation to this circle is or The power 2 2 II of OQ JR . so that Z (7)..
Wl P = 1 (>. so that the tangents to these circles are each equal to R. so 2 that wT 2 Ow 2 where w is the midpoint of TT'.BP r : GP' = BT' : CT'. ABG = B . AT: JIT CT p: q:r AT' BT' CT'.OT' E\ so that T. : : Hence (QQ ) f at T. and TP. 13 Then since GPBP' is harmonic.. : = = : : The symmetry of the result shows that T and T' lie also on the circle (BE'). TP' bisect the angles at T'. and It follows that (a) lies on TT'. and these points are common to the three circles : : (QQ')> (RR'). (W).MEDIAL AND TRI POLAR COORDINATES. 2 . T' the points of intersection of the circles (PP'). Since (GPBP'} is harmonic. 1 = T ABC.. T' on the circle PP' we have. circle (PP ). Hence the '). Hence there are two points whose tripolar coordinates are as p q r. Ac.. T' including the circle on TT' as diameter. from similarly the circles (QQ'). (c) The circle cuts orthogonally every circle through T. the common chord or Radical Axis of the three circles (PP'. at T. Wl O. cut the circle ABG orthogonally. (RR ). . for every point T or a' BT CT = BP CP = : : q : r . are inverse points in circle (b) OT. T'P' bisect those r So for every point : T or T' on the circle (QQ ) GT AT ^ CQ AQ = r p. while T'P.
z : = . a?x + b y + (?z = z (1) . Examples. A r . Hence the tripolar coordinates of the limiting points lying on a). 7r3 are the perpendiculars from A.. The tripolar coordinates of Limiting Points. . J5. a . is a + /? + y p : q : = = or I/ . \/v. 1^1* r the Radical Axis x/a + : . circles (sc). = . For the .7TJ =~AT* 2 or ^ocp Axis 2 . p : q : r = a : b : c. (3) The circle ABC and the Antimedial circle ABC 1 1 1 have Radical ALxis /. the Radical Axis is (s ABC and the a)x+ . o> 2 . Va I/ Vb : 1/v/c.. . . and therefore O^CD^ for Radical Axis so that. 21. 2.*. ABC. (1) For the coaxal system to which the circle incircle XYZ belong. bisect ing TT' at right angles. &c. v/cot 5 \/cot 0.. if 7r 7r. A'B'C'. Polar Circle. x + cot B A/cot . The centres o^.0T. the limiting points lying on OGH. = 0. v'/x. p : q : = J. T' for Limiting Points. . have for their cot . = . w3 lie on the line through w. the limiting points lying on (4) The circles ABC. 2. ( 01 are (2) as (s &). common Radical Axis OGH.. w^Wg is And conversely. G on a> 1 (o 2 o>3 we have by coaxal theory . y f cot : C .14 (d) MODERN GEOMETRY. (Gr> 2 Since OT OT _R the circle ABC belongs to the coaxal system which has T. the limiting points lying on 01. Hence the equation to the Radical p x\q z yiT'z = 0. if the Radical Axis be Xx + /XT/ + vz then the tripolar coordinates of T or T' are VA. = 0.
Then = De + el+IO = R. e. 22.6. C" respectively. cut the circle at le r. . cut DD' . and J>e = De*/2R = DP/2R (Rd)*/2B + r + d = E or OI = d = R2Br. provided On /(r). LET I be any point on the fixed diameter DD' of the circle 0(R). PORISTIC TRIANGLES. in the circle 0(JJ) take any point A.CHAPTER III. 01 = 2 DI d. (Greenhill) L' An infinite number of triangles can be inscribed 0(R) and described about the circle /(r). and draw tangents AB. CI meet 0(Ej in 5'. e. Let BI. . AC to . and and .'. at e. With centre D and radius Let let 6.
XYZ. be the Limiting Points of the two Let .IB' = &OI* B'l = 2E sin . : 13. so that 'C"I or 'C"(7 . and = 7?M #/ = r/sin .Jd = (2Rrv*)/2d.E/2. since BI. BC touches I(r). gives a poristic system of triangles. (JS calculating r from r DTJ and infinite = number of circles /(r) . Then W. The Radical Axis of 0(R) and I(r). each of which.. unchanged (a) The inner and outer centres of similitude (8 l and S2 ) 24. 25. the centroid of XYZ. Then. 23.L. and let Bisect 01 in &. = .'. The Weill Point (^). Hence B'C bisects AT &t L B'C' A . . of the circles (6) We ABC. E/^ 2 = EPi* 2 t by ordinary coaxal theory and Also = (2# 2firr*)/2d. (a) To determine the distances of S l and Radical Axis. = 2Br. Since 01 is divided at S lt so that $2 from the 03.1Jy t of the homothetic triangles (c) (d) The orthocentre (H ) of the triangle XYZ. E l . right angles. So C'l 1 = = C'A.16 MODERN GEOMETRY. ^i = ^i r = J5I 2 2 2 now proceed to discuss some points which remain in a system of poristically variable triangles ABC. cut 01 in 1J7. U circles. combined with 0(7?).R = 3 . (<r) The centre of similitude XYZ and 1. It follows that by taking a series of points J along 3 we have an d~)/2R. =E : r. the Radical Axis.
Since the circumcentre of is J. r).'. a.*. and to determine its distance from the Radical Axis. 1^1^ is poristically fixed.also lies on 01 \ = 01. To show that <r.PORISTIC TRIANGLES. 26. . constant and al/aJ = ratio of circumradii = r/2R = . lying on 01. from above . <r is Again aI/IJ = r/(2R a fixed point. a well known theorem. while the circumcentre XYZ of /jJa/s is /. 17 So that the circle is coaxal with 0(R) and I(r). the centre of similitude of the homothetic triangles XYZ. . and such that OJ .
crHJal = r/2R. since 7 and J are the circumcentres of XYZ. Ea El = EL\ .r = l/(sa) l/(sb) l/(*c). figure p.18 MODERN GEOMETRY. of the point a.0I=2d. on 01. vI/IJ = r/(2R .. (26) Note also that 7T r 7?7 7?7T .c. jffi lies on oJ. It will he convenient here to determine the n. a : ft X and 7 ^ZjJg. the orthocentre of XYZ. r. .belongs to the coaxal system. EI=r(2Rr)/2d. oI= 2dr/(2Rr). is poristically and to determine its distance from the Radical Axis. (7. and we . J^/g slide on fixed circles. 00.X = r/(2Rr).r) . And . 27. . . l . lt joins XI . j^/s/j.'. /. (Greenhill) Note that so that the circle Jo. drawing croj perpendicular to are homologous points in XYZ. r. From have noting that . fixed... 7. Again. that is. the Y72 ZI^ passing through the fixed point IT. the homothetic triangles XYZ.. Since H { and I are the orthocentres of XYZ. aoj/JjX. : TI : : : : Note also that. and IJ=2. = ratio of circumradii of the triangles aX/aIi = r/2R = aX/I. y = . a fixed ratio /. To prove that 23". = a = r/(2Rr).. since oJ = 2dr/(2R r)..'.'. Hi is a fixed point.
of XYZ JET. 19 To determine the n. The Orthocentre H. . of 6r. Y.c. I' the incentre of . and the Medial Triangle A'B'G'.PORTSTIC TRIANGLES. p..c.GJ. /.. J. of The orthocentre JT. polygon (M'Clelland. is a fixed point. In the triangle XYZ. I at cos JT. and described about another fixed circle. (d) (e) 0' the circumcentre. the mean with the inner circle centre of the points of contact X. TAe JF^ZZ When an infinite number of ngons can be inscribed in one fixed circle. 2 /(*a). the centroid of XYZ. 28. Y. n. cot oc X Y sin Z+ tan Z. and ^. Y. ZX sin B cos 6 + cot J(7 cos J5. which may be called the Weill Point of the . Z. Z placed at a oc V. tan Y. Z. Ac. aoc Yoc cos* 29. = 2. Y. and F. . To determine the Since G t is the mean centre of masses 1.H. Z. which loci of some well are poristically variable : known The Feuerbach Point The Centroid G. 2 Y tanY. since / the orthocentre. Gh For a triangle the Weill Point is is the circumcentre and /T. is Gf is a fixed point on 01. 96). We now proceed to discuss the points related to (a) (6) (c) ABC. is the centre of masses tan X. tan /.
00 = f. describes a circle. a)/s.. so that the equation to = sc. Oh = so that & is fixed. whose double point is 6r. GF. This point called the If the absolute n.OI. (a) (6) The point F moves G Gg.. 6ty  . For since I. 2r) thus # is fixed.0'I = R2r = constant. radius (4Bf). (d) 0' obviously describes centre I. /. /. may Let XIx be the diameter of the incircle which is perpendicular to BC. for OH = 2.20 MODERN GEOMETRY. so that fc is a fixed point.. a circle. and let the excircles /15 /2 /3 touch BC in X^ 3O.'. Draw Hh. . the perpendiculars from on Bf!^ A^ A V B^ the sides 2r. = 2A/s. IGT is a straight line. and Hh = 2. a = h^a/s = 2r. of the antimedial triangle A^B^G^ (. whose circular loci . BK CH AP = h. /. then . I'k parallel to O'l: alonsr the incircle. = h l (s Draw NP. then aa/0 a = .0'I= i(fi = constant. NQ. a/2y..c. Ik = f 10. OA in Y AB 2. and (c) H describes a circle. = %(R2r) = /O'. AX is l l and thus as (s AX^ BT^ CZ 6).. 01. (s (sc). 2. CX = sb. and . and GI2. series This point also belongs to the be found by inspection. S concur at a point N whose b. in Z z respectively. /.) are each is the incentre of the triangle A 1 1 C 1 Hence } N = . &/' = f Gg . of N are a) Nagel Point of ABC.c. (/) The Nagel Point. 2. Then BX. N B . 00'. A'B'C'. (e) I' describes a circle. I' are homologous points in the triangles A BO. NR perpendicular to AH. is y 1(81) = zl(sc). . S.'s are a). for OG f 00' = .
'. additional note on this interesting point may here be interpolated. PXX^ /. N describes a circle. . and XI Ix and XA' = PN XX^ = = A'X l b c. The two triangles ABC. and Thus ON = 2 0'l = E2r. is Again Let a parallelogram. ZjX. 0. . tangents to the circles / and /15 the circles. is AN and PX. are parallel radii of /. O'l are . A'I /P meet BC parallel to in T. radius =B 2r.PORISTIC TRIANGLES. since AxNX is a straight AP = 2r = Xx. and for circumcentres. and ON. centre An parallel. Since AB. 0' and H N The corresponding joins are parallel. PX is parallel to AxNX l or l l . / and for NinePoint centres.*. direction. 31. centroid and centre of similitude. in the ratio 1:2. AC are common and Ix. And /. AxX . drawn in the same line. A 1 B 1 C 1 have G for their common for their incentres.
.c. which is satisfied by the n. of H t.22 MODERN GEOMETRY. = ifi+v* r )/A s $]..) Proceeding as usual. which are (&f c)/(s ) The For which join of JH and 6r passes through <r. r (4E h r) + 3r 5 = 2 4r (E 4 .TA'... on the Radical Axis (common tangent) circle. BX = s b and GX = sc. This is another point whose poristic locus Since is a circle. Gergonne Point M and the Nagel Point N passes through (G. = s ...c. : a 2 *. of the T TH. CZ concur at a point whose b.. 2A a? of JSf. TH. is y(s the barycentric equation to z(s c). which are l/(s (G... To determine the absolute b. a) .) . of (r. 2A 3 2A'2 The join of the jST t . (1) A Put (3) s l8 (4) (5) (6) = ra. & = AV* = r l/^ + 1/^+l/*.c. In the poristics of a triangle the following formulae are often required. c)(s is satisfied by the n.. are I/ (s a).." . a(b c)(s a). The Gergonne Point... Then . . this join is (b 0.aa+ . = incircle and NinePoint 32. 3 Va+ aX . so that b) AX.4.a. is called the Gergonne Point.c. and will be denoted AX = byM.. BY. the join proves to be 0. lies :TX = TP:TI=TX: TA'. the Centre of Perspective for the triangles ABC and XYZ. 4AR = (2) abc so that a = s a = &c. This point. a) 33.
finally.. 23 is 34. but the proof long.c'xu .. = . 7r 2 TT... . [f m is the centre of this circle.^^ 4R+r . But. are * l = (a>s l +. * The poristic locus of the coaxal with (R) and I(r). It may be shown that is the radius of the M circle = r ^ ~ .Hence. o'zx f.c. Again.c. then (X + y + Z) b.c. * The original proof belongs to Elliptic Functions. For the proof here . the M M .PORISTIC TRIANGLES. whose are as 1/s. this ^= power (s is 2 also equal to 2ir^d . and. then II 2 Om TT. The power of A for the circle J(r) (s a)". /. &c. . = ncu'iiz / f. Radical Axis E^E^. B. if TT be the perpendicular on the Radical Axis from any point whose b. are (x. the power II for the circle are (x. z) is given by ABC . Hence describes a circle coaxal with 0(K) and f(r).. for M. z). Of. &c . .d. Gergorme Point If a circle (Greenhill) Let TTj. for If. given the present writer is responsible. y.)s power of M for the circle ABO varies as the distance of from the Radical Axis.c. Om 4(E + r) ' . 7T = 7T r C f 7T 2 y f 7T 3 Z.. whose II b. be the perpendiculars from A. //?A\ .v2 of a point whose b. by coaxal theory . Hence. y. C on the = But by coaxal theory . a) /2d..
Thus It is a straight line. . So XY is parallel to At. AB. CM.'. TY. parallel to At. 35. Then. TZ ABC. Produce TX meet the circle in t. THE SIMSON LINE.CHAPTER IV. and T is called is XYZ 24 . its Pole. called the Simson Line of T. since BZTX is cyclic. L BZX = BTX or BTt = BAt ZX is parallel to At. draw perpen to the sides BC. FROM any point diculars to Ton the circumcircle TX.
To prove that XYZ bisects TH If Q be the orthocentre of TBC. passes through it is parallel to the tangent at A. and Z is (b) Since a'BA. i. QX = . az perpendicular to AC. the Simson Line of a. T 25 A T in a given direction At. H at once lt and that 36. .THE SIMSON LI1S E. o.AOT = frAtT = \K. QX or Xt 2R sin BA t = 2R sin BZX 2R sin QX = Xt = 2R sin sin <r 2 cr s . the point X coincides with coincide with A . taking of the triangles OAT. say at h. 19 it is required to determine the Simson Lines of A. when the Simson Line of T passes through T'. TOT' being a circumdiameter. seen that yz. a'. prove that. to o^. XYZ L OAT (or OTA) A = fr%. TQ and = ZRcosA Xt AH.. (W.'. Hx=TX. o. TH. h lies on the NinePoint Circle. For A. XYZ bisects It follows that BXZ = ov OCT 37.YXT = BXZ = ov Xt. a.. is . a'GA are right angles. Beard) /. makes with the are equal to the acute angles which sides of ABC.. <r 3 . (E orthocentre) .2 . or their supplements. line through parallel to At is the Simson Line required. Ax. 03 be the direction angles of XYZ.Ct/2R. AB. To determine and Bt . since At. To draw a Simson Line Draw X Let (a) AH AO meet the circle ABC again in a. it also passes through G. relation of fundamental importance. the Simson Line of a'. Let o. the chord tT perpendicular to BC. HxTX a parallelogram. Bt. (c) follows that it is BC Drawing ay. therefore AH l while lt the Simson Line of it H Y A . meeting BC in X.e. F. as the case may be. To prove that the base angles . XYZ are parallel .'.2 <r3 . being its pole. is a!. OBT.
2 cos <r s cos Or. the length Sim son Line of T. .2. from A. o. s c ) 2 cos A. sin o. a .15 having vertextangent and U is the vertex.3 cc cot o^!. = 0. XY. the direction angles of o. therefore <r 2 . the directrix and passing through H.. o 2. To determine p.cos cos a = 2R cos cos 212.. / ^lf q. From and . To determine TT. of the Simson Line parallel to the Euler Line OGH.cot 03. cos O l so that the n.26 MODERN GEOMETRY. cot + cot y t.JTT l sin (r 2 sin o. Let the direction angles of be 15 2 8 then OGH are . OTJ. To determine the n. oj . <r l . XYZ being oj. 2 2 &c. with AT as YZ = AT sin A = 2R cos diameter. T a/(6 The or directrix will be (6 OGH. c ).. To determine the segments YZ.. 4O. The Simson Line XYZ is evidently the XYZ is XYZ a line parallel to Let T be the pole. r. so that the n. (37) Jft = 2R sin o. gin AtX = 2R cos <r <T! . In the circle AYTZ.c.8 . cos . are as sec <r l : sec<r2 : seco3 . of oc 2 (6 2 c )/a. p = JC^ . cr 3 .. TT of the perpendicular TU o^ 011 the = TU = TX sin TXZ = 2 ^1 7 2R . . TA 2R = = 2# cos = TB TC 4<R. of T.. X = ZXT . since 27t cos o.c. ZX. Kiepert's Parabola...3 . /. found as in (35). 38. . <r. B. 2 cr 3 . Let a parabola be drawn touching the sides of ABG and T for focus. the lengths of the perpendiculars the Simsori Line of T. . The equation to XYZ is a.a+. C on XYZ. Since bisects TH. cos o.c. sin yl = a cos a r 39. o.
So that. 3 . (9) Let 15 2 3 be the direction angles of PQE. = fa .. 00 2. MA.. AR are /o cos E. 2 3 are equal ^n ^j' ^3< ^ respectively.NO. are (sec0 15 sec CO. T'Tt 3 4> 2 . OTB. of I5 . < OT 3 or their supplements. To prove that Since TtT' S . are perpendicular to .2 : sec 3 Hence A0 BO^ 15 2. = JTT arc Ct = BT' <. and their centres 0. /?.. if a. N whose coordinates And... on the Centre Circle. = = T'TCtTC ITTS = TYZ = ZXT+ T'TX = 8 = ^4< /. = AMB = 0.. AQR.THE SIMSOX LINE. Denote the vectorial angles OTA. the perdendiculars from Oj cos Q. MB. 3 lie on a circle called 2 Centre Circle. = .c. (7 Making the usual convention that s is to be negative when falls on the side of TOT' opposite to A and B. since = o cos ^+ + ^7+ ^ ^sec sec ^ sec 0.. on AQ. y are the n. and is therefore the second circle which the Centre Circle intersects the ABC.. = rrANB (BNO% being = and since so that point in TT . l 1 /c x ft :y = cos jB : cos Q = sec 0. 41. (^r^) + 4> 3 4>2 5 < 8.A meet at a point sec03 ). a straight line) Again L 0.. x. OTC. If p be the circumradius of AQR. Consider the quadrilateral formed by the sides of ABC and a straight line PQR. 00. 0. + < tfr.00. . . (2) /. we may write < 42. The circles ABC. JV lies on the circle ABC.'. so that < 27 OTU to <r lt by a2 . CPQ have the common point the M". . < . . c . passing through M. BRP. L tTC = BTT' . 8 . and is the pole of the Simson Line parallel to PQR. N lies 0..
aa + .. whose n.c. And the tangent at T is cos 2 oj .. it is required to determine 8. (G. if a. . sin cr//sin (o^ o/) . T'. 43. . TT' = 2Esin(o. Hence the equation to TT' joining the points T.) is cos o! cos aa + . . T and T' being any points on the circle ABC. (37) TAT' <r/. = 0.. 0J0203 T. .. Let Simson Lines of Then. /?.)(sec<r/.'..) The equation to the chord which joins the points (aj/S^) and (a2/3 2 y 2 ) on the circle ABC is aa/ajttg f . . . of 8. We will now deal with pairs of Simson Lines. = 0. T' <r/ .c. . = 0. are (seco. angles of the a = SX sin = TT' cos 6 y are n.  <r/) But so that OJT = sin o^ sin o//sin (o^ OAT' o^ 1 = o/. <r l l . intersect at right angles on the Medial Circle. and of the be the direction chord TT'. sin o/..28 MODERN GEOMETRY. 44.o/). . To prove that the Simson Lines of T and T'. and a = 2J2 cos ^ sin cr. XX' sin o^ o. the extremities of a circumdiameter. . . the point of intersection of their Simson Lines.
are the direction angles of TOT'. 29 Produce TX. t . A'X A'u d .A'X'. X'h' intersect at o>. so that TtT't' is a of l\ T' are parallel to At. At' (35). on the Medial Circle. T'X' to meet the rectangle. therefore they are the huh' lies = JTT. HT\ But h. Let these Simson Lines Xh. as shown above. Also Therefore w Since /.THE SIMSON LINE. and X<*X' = = A'X or A'X' = E cos JTT. . // T and are (36) Again. therefore at right angles. The Simson Lines h. . since are midpoints of HT. h' lie on the Medial Circle ends of a Medial diameter. where 6^ 2. O. circle in t. '. and tt' a diameter.
Bq. . Let TOT' cut the Simson Lines wh. to BC. or/. 45. CA. so that the n. of T' are 2Bcos (^TT cos (^TT <r ). or 4'wX . : .k fcfc' fcfc' : = TT 07i'. Since TAT' and XwX' are right angles. this circle touches oj.30 MODERN GEOMETRY. . 0. A'p = OpjR Op cos . rr' are concurrent at that point o> on the NinePoint circle. It follows that o> is the Orthopole of the diameter TOT' (see Chap. .'. /. a fact to be very carefully noted./ be the direction angles of X'h'u. : = = Hence kk' is a diameter centre and O w as radius. 48. /. wA'p'.. = ^! = A'p'/A'u = Ap'/R cos . AB. o. . where the Simson Lines of T.. XA'X'. also kuk' 0. is parallel to EC. Consider the figures ATOT'. (r. wh' in in is the NinePoint centre. then pp'. 1? where 0' Since Hh = hT and Hh' = h'T'. is + . T'X' cos tX oj = 2R sin o. and 07i OJc . since the Simson Lines of .. uXA'X'. or 2) 3 which are as cosec^ coseccr 2 cosec <r 3 2/t sin o2 sin or3 &c. sin cr 3 . ..'.a . Or. 1 is is parallel to TOT' or parallel to kk'.c. the Simson Then./. VI). Therefore the equation to the diameter TOT' sin a. Let Line of T. and pp'. &c.' . and cut O'to And since hh . since T't . perpendicular from p on 0^4' . cr. and the angle it OTA or (MT = A'Xu . Pwp' passes through p. Hence. if Ap. Or be perpendiculars to TOT'. qq'. A' are the midpoints of TOT'. cr/ : are at right angles. T' intersect. (37) follows that the figures ATOT' uXA'X' are similar. the NinePoint circle at 46. T and T 1 = O^i^TT. while 0. o. a of the circle described with Oj as And since O'OjOj is a straight line. = 0. Through o> draw Pwp perpendicular Then from similar triangles AOp. . 47. k. qq\ rr' be perpendiculars to BO.*.
c.THE SIMSON L1XE. Since and . A' SO. of w.c. The A'B'C' n.c. of o> are a' = 2. of w are p cos 15 ^ cos $ 2 To determine a in terms of p. Hence the direction angles of this Simson Line are # 1? 0. and therefore to TOT'. A'<t) ^4'Pw .T" is given. = up = AOp. q. .c. wA'p'.. From is (35) the Simson Line of o> in the NinePoint circle parallel to A'P.. r. 7 Hence. ^L'P is parallel to TOT'. in = angle = #! (9 15 iTr Op// . to find <u when 2 O. 3 . of <o. A'u = R cos = R sin A'P<a. 9* cos ^8 . 49. 31 (44) the NinePoint Circle. which are as sec sec ^2 . From the similar triangles a A'u. draw the chord A'P in the NinePoint circle.JEcos^ cos^. Q y It follows from (38) that the J/'C" n.Ap/A = p cos 6 r Hence the absolute n. sec The ^BCn. 2 15 &c. and then draw the chord P<o perpendicular to BG.. .
C (46) Hence at O where lt these lines intersect. Here cos0 = %(bc)/d. cos t cos 0. 52.) is through oo.*. = A'O.aa jr . n.(bc)(*a)/a \d=OI]. cos ^.R cos 2 . Bat since TOT' p a diameter of a ABC.cos O l . . p'. cos = ^ cos #. aa For bp + rf.cos 6 l = R cos A cos l . cos 6y (39) The angle &' which this = ^+^+ makes with the diameter wO^' 0. 2 6'.c. The formulae of (14) and (50) supply us with a very simple proof of (8). (14) = . To illustrate the use of these formulae.c. . whose n. B'. w is Point. a'cosflj oc p (sin is + q)/siu G sin 2 (7) cos (r p}/ sin r sin B . aa'. = 0. 4o = R(ca)(ab)/d* oc l/(&c). of 1? the centre of the circle Taking A'B'G' as triangle is of reference. R cos S cos 6 l 3 + c. sin 25 0. .p cos #! = b .. the incentre. p' A'. r' Let Then also since A' be the perpendiculars on TOT' from is midpoint of 50. q'. . So that 2 2 = aa and ^E/d (6c) ( 5 a) a (6c) (..cos O l oc cos cos B sin B (p 2 J5 3 cos sin $2 a /. the equation to 0. the Feuerbach Hence a . are (sec 1S circle passing sin O l cos 6 l aa' . To determine the A'B'G' in (45).. + C .32 MODERN GEOMETRY. take the case when TOT' passes through J. C'. TOT' (16) = The equation to the diameter of the NinePoint . . sin 2 J. 5. The perpendicular TT from o> on the A'B'C' Simson Line of <u = 2 JE . p = R/d. (41). a ... 2 . b cos + c 51.sa).. To determine the radius Ojw (= p) of this circle. + ^ sin 27? + r sin 20 = <x Hence p sec &c. X.
D'DB. /. 54. </>. A'L = arc Id = 2 2 arc A'L H^L arc H^ = 2 arc JW arc LCD = 2 arc Z&.R cos ^ cos cos sec (0 + + 8' 2 3 . >0'H = 2. and LOl for one axis. arc E^w = arc AT = 2 arc dh. But /. 2 cos  (0j + cos D . and IPD' or GPD' /.THE SIMSON LIXE.. P is the midpoint of the arc AB . 2. and for its directrix the diameter TOT'. arc .< sin </> 2 ) (^ + 3 <ft. Then. the incentre. oo on TOT' .'. Line and passes through the orthocentre The 53. Let DOD' be the circumdiameter through 3 I. arc Also . Therefore Xo>/> touches* a Tricusp Hypocycloid. Medial Radius = JB l . by similar figures Hdh. X 2 8) .wA'H1 = AOT. which is parallel to the Simson of A'B'G'. 3 . /. the Medial Circle for inscribed circle. then f lm IP _ + m_llj __ny ~~ " ~ IP ID ID ' sin IPD' sinDD'P  sin ' P DP' IPD sin ) sin 0. D'DG. has the Simson Line of o> for its vertex tangent. having 0' for centre. denote the vectorial angles D'DA. since A'd is also a Medial diameter. IPD Let r/R I = in = GDD' = = ^r0 3 . Id. Draw Then Also the chord CIP. HAT. The envelope of the Simson Line cloid . . arc . Let <j. arc A'L = ^ arc A'H^ Now take and draw Medial diameter LO'l. which touches the sides of A'B'G' and has focus. p = 2 perpendicular on Simson Line = 2?r = Oj<o = 2?r sec = 2. is a Tricusp Hypocy Since .AOT. 33 The perpendicular from /. o> for parabola.
The cubic then gives the values of <k. where the circle I(r) cuts the axis DIOD' (45). . From (42) the angle S is the vectorial angle of the perpendicular from _D on the Simson Line of D. and through /. 8/s.34 tan MODERN GEOMETRY. sin (<k l 2 ) cos < 8 cos (<k ' 2tan^(<k + <M 2 2 /. .'. and this Simson Line passes through the Feuerbach Point F.) (lm) sm C S . < 2 0i * ne vectorial > .S'.tan m) 2 = 2 (1 m 2 ) cos 2 <^) 3 (1 sin 2 cos And or finally.s f = (3 m^. sin f = si 2) Then # = . one of the fixed points. Put <k + 2 0s =^ + < 5 sin S EEB . cot 3 I </>. B D ^ = 0.1 . + tan'i^ + i. fif/s. . 3 .
Then shall the Simson Line of 8 pass through the fixed point T. G . if we put cos 8 for 3 = c. let AS AS cut D. Let AC.THE SIMSON LINE. we shall obtain (Greenhill). angles of 35 DA.. 2 in F. AC in y. 8^ to /SyS'. /?.2? in H. the Simson line of a fixed point 8 on (R). T8^ and hence Thus or Aonin. K. ID are perpendicular respectively to IF. Let SSv S8 Z be tangents to I(r) then . DC . is also a tangent. or HDAH is cyclic. = (7. cos Again. IS l ip. L Sf/lfi". . In a poristic system of triangles ABC. passes through a fixed point.pH yD. AB cut S. and thus the triangle < ABC is deter mined any given position of F. Draw DE touching I (r) and parallel Draw 8T perpendicular to DE.yH .. DB. l Now 1G. SDH = SS& = SAS. IE. ftD. Iy.*. Let DE be cut by AB. . 55. and similarly SEAK.
y lie on a circle coaxal with these circles. That is. (55) present themselves in the Cubic Transformation of the Elliptic Functions. which must be /S. /3y. (54). the four circles circumscribing the four triangles formed fiy have a common point. the Simson Line o^ogOg of S for the triangle ABG passes through T. The relation (i) circles are in the shows that the powers of fi and y for these same ratio and hence that ft. AB. GA. BC.36 MODERN GEOMETRY. being the foot of the perpendicular from S on the fixed line fty. a fixed point. are collinear. since this point lies on the circles ABC. AC. Afiy. the feet of the perpendiculars from S on the lines jRO. and therefore passing through A and 8. In other words. . (Grreenhill and Dixon) in (34). ASj3y is cyclic. and T. Now by AB. Hence o^o^cr. The properties given .
PEDAL TRIANGLES. + v. AB respectively. If. BSC=BMC+SCM = BMC + NCM or NLM = A + \. any two of these arcs containing angles A}. From the cyclic quadrilateral SdCe. AB respectively.A. Se. e = /*. Thus to LMN is similar to the pedal triangle of is S with regard S with ABC.CHAPTER V. BS. CA. Produce AS. Let angle d = A. 56.'. /x. J5 + /x. / v. a point 8 whose pedal triangle has given angles A. 37 To determine . . CS to meet the circle ABC again L. &c. similar to the pedal triangle of Similarly ABC regard to LMN. FROM a point S within the triangle ABC perpendiculars to BC. describe inner arcs on BG. = in = = so Sdf = ML A d or A = MLN. SCe or NCA L Sde NLA. CA. so draw Sd. intersect at the point S required. Sf is that def the Pedal Triangle of 8 with respect to ABC. . N. v.
then 2p sin A = : e/ = SA : . . To determine J. In (c). . . the tripolar coordinates be the circumradius of def. ABC is 57. 6 cot/x. sin e J/ = . Then from In (a). sin A/ 2 sin A . 1 TAaza. 7 (57) MN a. since p 2 : q : r oc sin A/a 2 : sin fji/b : sin i//c.'. = 0. in (a) and Let J x I3 be the in centres of the orthocentres in (b) and (rf). . c coti/.fd de oc cos A sin ^ sin v oc cot A sin . /. OiT4 = 58. /. . z = 0. T^l oc v/ cot^.. IfJV oc a/v/a a2 . 8C. diameter sin v AS) MN : NFj : LM = ef fd de = = sin A : sin : /x : a i\ r : ferj ci\. SB. (in circle SeAf. of 8. MNcta(sa). the Radical Axis becomes sin A/a 2 . .. TB. LMN = (c) H^ H 4 01. r2 and if p ?* 3 represent SA. . r l sin JL . In {&). Limiting Points. oc \/sin 2J. JfJVocsin^. the pole of this Radical Axis ABC. 2 oc ~by \cfi } a ac/3' +2 aZ>y' .38 MODERN GEOMETRY.sin 2 vjc~ . = 01. OH. 6ca' oc 2 2 A f sin 2 /x + sin 2 v oc e/ +/^ + de* a cos A . v.c. a! oc a cot A.'. In (21). for the circle /. This construction also gives S as the pole of inversion when inverted into a triangle with given angles X. Schick) .*. . LMN If r x .*. J. s/cot J. The polar of a'ft'y' is (by + c)8') a + 1 . x + sin 2 /x/6 . OI3 = OH.'. (Dr. . a In (a ). so that the n. ?/ 4. M"JV oc a 1/ya. It is very easy to prove that . . of /are a cot A. TA&S 7 J. In section (21) in (G""0 let TA. 01. TC meet the circle or ABC again IMN. /x. oc sinX arr A/a. .
c. ft. . as the pedal triangle becomesa R. &c. x oc a . 2U = and de df. .OS')/Rr. C 2R Note that only the Examples. ..PEDAL TRIANGLES. To show that Z7. the area of def. Let a. constant. fty sin . Since aa/x . y be the n. = U Simson Line. To determine the power the b. z.si 3 Hence Z7/A = Jll/fi = J (B .. 2 When U is centre 0. of S.1 Then Putting we h ave + . (aa . x/a. For I. = 2(AeS/+. of S. and S describes a circle. . II. 59. OS constant. 2A = 4 R. (i) ratios x : y : z are required. and GO. sin X . = a bft/y cy/z = 2A/ (a: \y + z).) 2 . sin B sin C sin C.&M"=I SMC. (R + 6^4. When 08 vanishes. is the power of 8 for the circle ABC. . y. .c. 39 proportional to X.cy) 2 as the locus (a concentric circle) of S 9 when OS is constant. = (aa + &^ f cy ) S)/abc.'. 4A 2 afiy = 2 + . = rr 2 3 . II of a point S in terms of #.sin A sin B sin Now and in the triangle r3 . r 3 or 86' = is $flf.
The Radical Axis of the circles Q and ^5(7 0. (7 on the Radical Axis of the two circles.j. the : = (tiX + t*y+tz)(p+y+t} circle Q.. lies on a known circle for which the powers of are simple expressions. the power II of S for the circle ABC usually takes a simpler form than that given by the above general formula. &c. while II = found in (60 Equating this to the expression for II. j we have ayz as the locus + tfzx + rfxy of 8 i. for which the power let ^4. (iii) For 6r. H= = aa = p (q + r} tan A. from coaxal theory. As an example. on the NinePoint Circle. 4 f. . t* 2d 7r 1? &c. When 8 J._p(2 + r) tan J/2A 62. (50) Also for x and /.. a. x oc tan ^4 . x + y + z = 2A. #. J ^4. J5. Examples. From (7). (i) (ii) When Q is When Q is Incircle : t? : = ^ 2 (saf. B tan + A 1? + tan (7) tan + (tan = 8 7T cos cos B cos C. Let d be the distance between the centres of the two circles Q and tftftf the known powers of J. . J. is t?x+tfy + t'fz = for TTj oc t^.40 (ii) MODERN GEOMETRY. =y= z . G for the circle Q . This point of lies A= t* = \ be cos w. . For #. TrTTjTToTr. = . Circle J^Jj = fee. 5..e. a 1 tan 2 . G ABC .. the perpendiculars from $.. we have . [Jfoccos4.r = But. us find II for the point w (50). " 61.
Professor in the University of Munich. 2 cot v + 4A = 2E giving II in . with are different from those treated in this work. +c .. The relations he deals Schick. abc/tt = X + 6 2 cot /x. J. Then a? cot 2E ." was first used. C E2 tan B tan C oc cot t* is circle A t? (vii) (viii) When Q is the circle ((91?) When Q is Polar Circle : : = 2E cos A.SO. p. 2A/H 2 or = 2./l . Feuerbach's Theorem. (iv) 41 : (v) (vi) When Q When Q When Q is is Antimedial Circle (1) t* = a\ NinePoint Circle 1 : ^ 2 ^ be cos : A oc cot 4. (Fig. are the n.. cos B cos . B.. T^.sinM cot X + i^. = A'X* . of the point of contact.. //. v. 37) Multiply each side by 87? A/I1 or 45 2 .ac cot A.aintA + X) = BS SM sin (A + X) sin A/sin X = n {sin A cot X + i sin 2^1} (aa + &/34cy)/LI = S.%h. the Radical Axis is 2 (6 c) #' = = J(6 0..x + cot B y + cot C = 0. The power of A' for the Incircle = t* /.. To determine the Radical Axis Incircle : of the NinePoint circle and Take A'B'C' as triangle of reference.PEDAL TRIANGLES. 2 c) . .c. a cot t? = AH*+4<B? cot cos A . 2 n = 2R abc/M . 63. 2 . But We 64.. . L . v. * The 2 expression "a cotA+.sin2^. Hence the two circles touch. 8E A. n. terms of X. abc or /x.c. BSG = A + A aa .^ circumscribed to the triangle formed by the tangents at A. To express have /.&BSC = BS. I believe. ... II in terms of X. by Dr. A So that circles (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) have the same Radical Axis z A... this is the tangent to the circle A'B'C' at the point whose are l/(6 c). and !/(& c).
c^jm^ SG = The S can be a at once obtained from X. n. So GSK^ = A.c. It is (G..) known /. that. . : . . 2p~. SAC = SBA. = abc/M. 2A 2/M . To illustrate one of these results. 66. = U= = U= and now the elements of def are found in terms of fl From above. = .. a2 a (2 4crra 1 2 . 88).cot^L we obtain = 2A. the point S l be the 2 B inverse point of S. cr cotXK. SAB = SO A 5^% = BAS + ABS = BAS + CAS = that L . p. /UL. take $. = M . 2 where m ^ l . SA = %. if X. of = e/ = 85 =  J&c/m. sin X sin /UL sin v 2 2 . A. aa sin (A + X) sin A/sin.) /sin &c. . (ibc sin (A +X) a Hence sin X all X. the focus of and J. p~ sin sin G sin J? A 2 /lf finally . Then and /. . 06VI. bc/m.M = = ^4.+4A 65. A/E . with respect to the circle ABC. 67.'. p so Then $^4 sin J. lying on OS produced then OS.1. If. Putting 4A. v are the pedal angles of $. sin ( A + A. IT A 58(7 and So #+ G = = 2. BSA = /x. X.OS l . if p 2A /M J. = .n be the radius of the pedal circle def.C at C (see at Artzt's Parabola.42 Since IV MODERN GEOMETRY. 2p sin X . Observe also that the area of def so that. v. which touches AB B f Figure.
= M^N^ ABC is S l with as the S l . the So &c.W pedal triangle of S r In the cyclic quadrilateral # 1 d 1 ce ] . S e Af l : l : : BI/I e i/i /i^i ^i e i = = SA . 1 similar to d^fi.'. If OSS. Let d^f. and then obtain inverse point of S. sin . so that AT. then in the cyclic quad: S^C ..sinB . sin J. T'.M 1 . To determine &\ first find 8 (56). To prove that the triangle . : = = S. to which the circle ABC belongs.PEDAL TRIANGLES .L 1 .C SC. then angles between AS and AS 19 &c.ef SiA sin A #i4.sin A SB : . 43 so that S.B : SB .sin C C Si are : fd : de. >i may be taken as the limiting points of a coaxal system. cuts this circle in T. AT' : bisect the S.sin B SO : .. eidji or X similar to the pedal triangle of Similarly respect to the triangle LjJtfjJVj. Hence the pedal triangles inversely similar : of the inverse points el S and so that di = X. .A rilateral " l : SA = ^T ST = : S. S^B. =^ fi = is v. be the pedal triangle of S l .
all the elements of d l e l fl are found in terms of V. 2 ^ be the radius of the pedal circle d^f^ sin v = ^ = 2A /M 2pi* sin X sin 2 . X+ . we find n^ = ZR. the power of S 1 l for the circle ABC. and 0<S\W = OT ~ E08 ~ _ VM 2 8T' JB+ 08 #1 VM+ VM 4 /^. in So Also . ( v. a negative value 2 [/A > B]. : . 4A. p. ac^ = a. /*.= a 2 cot i^.CN. and therefore of X. giving IIj in terms of Since H i 15 where 2 M. X) sin A/sin X.N. = ' E 2 2 Jtt a2 cotX+.. ..sinB8 C = BS 8^ sin (A .C 1 GM 1 1 1 ) 1 l 1 l l .4A' [or from Hence 0/S 2 /^ = ^/M. = A\. .. ! ' l The area Hence If of A^A/I = = l/Ul/U = l /x.X) sin A/sin X = Ilj. can be v.L.CM.44 MODERN GEOMETRY. v. And now /A. So and giving y8 x = BM CS (M. /u. SA /!/!...abc or 85 A.) = HM.^B8 C = BS . now have a second pole ($ T ) from which inverted into a triangle with given angles We ABC X..C8 . Proceeding as before.. u. [cyclic quad.C = A8 B + B8 C = (A\) + (C. A&\B = Cv. J^M^ 68. as the figure indicates. sin (A X) } \ sin X  . A8. 1 ./sinX. IIj. = Hi sin Cv) sin (7/sin 6ft = n sin (Bp) sin 7?/sin l_ B8. From Hence above.sin (A X) sin J. . cyt . > > B] oo! = 2. sin ( A = a6c  M . IIj .v = nB. To express terms of X.
the angle SAS l toX bisects the angle dn)d r . In section (47) it 45 was proved that the are similar. 69.PEDAL TRIANGLES. and just as homologous to d r uXdA'X' S is homologous SOT' and figures to d. It follows that <ad : wdi <*>d = Xd : : so that we : w/ = Xd. = <ad l TS : : TS : &c. Hence <uX'. the Simson Lines of T. o^ <ofr .. <o is the double point of the similar figures and wX. so is S l AT Now AT bisects .*. T\ are the axes of similitude for the inversely similar triangles def and ^i/i (Neuberg) .
THE ORTfiOPOLE. g. Draw For and /. qS 2 perpendicular to OA. i. Bq. The Orthopole theorems are nearly 46 all due to Professor J. are M C on any r be the lengths of the perpendiculars Ap.. from A. <S'. rS & perpendicular to AB. 2 2 Hence $!_p. Cr straight line TT'. /9 3 r are concurrent. 7?. . whose direction angles 0. denoted by J.CHAPTER VI. ISeuberg. 2.2^sin^ = l (2) 0.. p$j perpendicular to BC. B8 = BD+p sin^. l KBSfGSfi = CS = GDp sinfl. The point of concurrence. *S 2 g. These lines shall be concurrent.apsinWj^O.* *7O. 5('/) OD )42. is called (by Professor Neuberg) the Orthopole of TT. LET jo.
47 Let 9 be the length of the perpendicular 88' on TT O r 3 to represent for this one particular case. Multiply other terms by 2A/4R term on right side by sin A sin B sin 2 from (2). cos 3. is the Simson Line of R". 0j 6*! (G. of S.sin OS = 2E cos . To determine the Orthopole geometrically. Let Ap meet the circle ABG again in R. Draw the chord RR'R" perpendicular to BG. take the acute angles which the sides of ABO make with TT'.c. asectfj first q + 2R cosC (cr . RR = BR OB/2B = 2E cos 2 = ^8p. a . RR'. Let BA. pS parallels to Ap. To determine the a. l ABC n. l : . Hence 8 is found by drawing R'S.) 3 . r".q sin 5 + cos C. 1 . As TT' moves parallel to itself. . . sin ^4 sin 0.r sin G cos jB cos O. = 8S = projection of J9gr$ on fi^^ = q cos 0j + 85 cosp8q = q cos + 2R cos cos $ cos 0. pq = c cos S Also pSS' = O are 88' since 8p. (7 A Sp = c cos 3 . Then so /. being parallel to AR.r sin 6' cos^cos O.THE ORTHOPOLE. 8 slides along R'8 perpendicular to TT'. (BAR 2 .^ . and the Then 2 ! . and 9 = Sp cos X = 2 J^ cos itself.. As T2" moves parallel to unchanged in shape arid size. = cos 2R cos 2 2 cos 6. BR = 2B. Also R'8' 8. ap cos B bq cos J.sin (90 2 )/sin G 0.. A/2/t = sin B cos A cos G .(/ sin J9 + cos0. Now. 72. $g are perpendicular to 50. perpendicular to BC. since $p. the figure SqS'pr remains 71. OA meet TT' in r'.)/2A.'.jp sin A cos J5. or r'Ap) = 2R cos cos <9 3 8. . . TT' also #$' = 3 and ^$2 = C We have .
COS0J 2 .cr). 4A C 2 we obtain 2Aa = abc cos rpb cos . .ap i cr cos 73 cos cos B . the orthopole of tt\ lies on the Ts"inePoint circle. MODERN GEOM ETRY 2A. (5) Multiplying the two factors. B cos C. Bhimasena Rao who first pointed out expression for each coordinate involves two linear factors in p. J2' = o^Hp tnr Again 5"E' = + 2.48 Also *. =0. cr. the circumcentre 0. * It was Mr. r. When TT'. .(apbq cos C x (cos C .. then ap cos In which case a A+ . ay S. that q. H be the orthocentre of ABC. . T. the His . . = irR.gr.bq B) C. whose equation ap.0A' = + AH. and using the form 2 . 0. method is different from that given above. passes through = JK/2A = p cos 2 .. Let ^Oi' be the circumdiameter parallel to TT'. Since ATT J^'oj 2?.c cos B. bq cos C .. 2bc cos A = B cos C+aqr is . 2 A cos O l (cos .a+ = pq. cos ^4) r Then Let 73.'.ap + ap. = ap cos a = R/2& .
and therefore lies on the NinePoint circle. . XA^ is parallel to R\p. passing through H l and TT. (G. T1\A . is the midpoint of /TZ?". XE = a parallel to 72'JS ATV .'. . a = ' o^ = J. jo COS 0j. /. the orthopole of TT' . pR^X or . circle (^Lw).'..C. But ATT' 49 = RR' (equal triangles Tr'H. (G. the Simson Line of T. 74. a rectangle is a symmetrical trapezium.'. &C. R p is r But . To find a 'y '. U cos 2 (9 T . To Bisect find a y .'. the ABO n. of cr^ is cr. And Hence o = 2. the J/'C' n. Hence So for XS is T'. <rA' = R sin oJfj J/ = orB' .7TO. Ame r RarR'] = orr. TR^R is cyclic pR^ = TRp or TRA = 1 .*. L TpR = 90 = TR R. &C. CTTT Then . of cr. sec<9 2 sec ^ 3 ) referred to A' JVC'. article. passes also .) Tr'jETj in m. The Simson Lines of the extremities of any chord TT' of the circle ABC pass through $.irC'/R . so that (sec^. a/ = R COS ^ COS # 3 .. as found in preceding.'. since .c.THE ORTHOPOLE. cr is coincides 75. to o^m. It follows that the point cu of sections (4450) with the Orthopole <r of a circumdiameter TOT'. = Sp and therefore to T^.m = JV and == = ATT COS m^TT TT<T I TT'W.'. Am. Acr is is = = and parallel and parallel .. For. Also TT^Hjm AH^cr Hence the through or.) to Since .
R" respectively. their poles being T. T\ R" for all pass through 8. (6) As jp. the foot of the perpendicular from to : f 1 on the perpendicular l 3. Thus (S. so that each of the points T. so dicular to T'R". AhO . T\ R" has similar relations to the other two for . SX 8R'. through 8. r . Thus we have three Simson Lines SX. all passing They are the three tangents drawn from 8 to the tricusphypocycloidal envelope of the Simson Lines. XS A on TT lies BC from S so also do p and p the feet of perpendiculars from A on TR". B. T'R". T'. and X'S to TR" or each Simson Line is perpendicular to the join of the other two poles. . C for th triangle TT'R" as well as the Simson Lines of T. Hence ppip$ is the Simson Line of A in the triangle TT'R". example : is perpen() Just as R'S is perpendicular to TT'. Narayanan) the Simson Lines of A.50 MODERN GEOMETRY.
also symmetrical .i . 51 9 through S 76. the trapezium Ap'pH^ is symmetrical. if TT' cut CA in 7.) H l .cos crSp' = 2d cos Q r Sp' 2R cos cos = d sec 6^ Sp prr . 0. twice product of perpendiculars from Then Sp Sp' and on TT'. the power of 2c/3 for each of the circles (7). then the power of is S' with regard to XT/.'. l is But Note that 2^8 = pir d and = S<r p'a= 2 So. AB. But the trapezium Aa"jrH /. and let the circle (AU) passing and p. P be any point on the straight line TT'. TT'. Similarly.THE ORTHOPOLE.15 in TF. constant. (G. the pedal circle of P. or common Radical Axis of the three diameter circles. S Therefore in the quadrilateral formed by 730. = In the circle (A U ) the chords pp\ H^A are parallel . = If 77. . cut Sp in p'.2 . CA. whose orthopole is S. is therefore the power of S for the circle (AU). the orthopole ( S) of TT' lies on the 4orthocentre line. . Let TT' cut BG in 7. Lemoyne's Theorem. (017). .
Draw ABRC Let pfi. Observe that.'.52 MODERN GEOMETRY. pxy /. N Let L and M intersect again in x. Xpp'X' is symmetrical.Sx' = Sp. .. since U^pp A is symmetrical. XPX' perpendicular lies PC. (GW) are the pedal circles ur. /. = SB'/ XX' 8p = RR' = pS. 8 coincides with $. respectively. When TT' is a circumdiameter ^Of'. Finally. BG ABRC) on on fiy . M.4 = a straight line. N is L A~>. 78. Ti'O. BC. XX'pp. Let Xx cut pS in Then Sp/XX' = px/xX' ratio of perpendiculars = from p and It and J. ^L /. RB.. and then the pedal triangles all pass through the orthopole <r of tOt'. so that tlie figures Aftpy. SX. to Draw AX' YZ Zi cut lies parallel to /3y in x.pYy = pxX' 8. . Denote the circles XYZ. x' are two points on the circle XYZ.*. then t7 vanishes. w. or (circle AYpZPX'. AYpZPX' by L. of F. jpX'4 . . and JV . But X.'. diameter AP) . since Xpx'p'X' is cyclic. circle Afty. pass through x &. /. Yxpy is is 180pr. (#P). Since on the circle A BC. Xow the common chord of L and M is If and . is YZ. (from similar figures Aftpy. These common But . ISTote that the circles (AU). X'p. Hence the power of $ for the circle XYZ = 2<iS. py parallel to are honiothetic. and therefore cyclic. YZ chords are concurrent.Sp' = 2d&. therefore^ on the Lpyx or pyfi i = pA3 = pYZ cyclic or pAZ pYx . . . Xx' passes through and therefore through S. A'a''.
the : dimensions of the homothetic B'G'. P'. Medial Triangle A'B'C'. and .. ABRC are as 1 2. Hence Xo. Changing +p into jo makes no change in the focus. In section (20) we determined the inverse points T. 0. Returning to the general case. therefore the parabola also touches P'QR. Then from where (9) the n. P' &c.) 8O.THE ORTHOPOLE. q. To prove that the point common to the four circumcircles of the four triangles formed by these four straight lines is w. r. for . r so that BP PC = : by dividing BG : q r. XYZ. T' whose tripolar coordinates are CA at Q. AB at 1?.'s of 8 with regard to the triangle XYZ. and external bisectors of BTC. Thus the Orthopole has constant pedal triangles b. for every one of the (Appendix I. J?/ .c. so that fty becomes YZ intersect on B'C'. 2R sin B sin sin A sec sin B : 2 : sec # 3 sin C. P'QR. the equation of P'Q'R' being px + qy + rz while that of P'QR is = = rz + px}qy 0. (BT'G) meet the sides in the points P. the Orthopole of OT1*. four straight lines. 27? cos #2 cos 0^ x : y : z = sec 0. known E'PQ lie 011 that the triads of points P'^'JB'.. p.(r +p) y'+(p + q) . J3P It is : PC = BT TC = : q : r. Describe a parabola touching P'Q'R' and the sides of the B'C' as triangle of reference. Q'RP. of the focus are as . ^(/. [g + r or as a ^ y3 . whose tripolar coordinates are p.. z' = 0. the diagram shows that if are the b. and similarly Q'RP and R'PQ . x. _BK'. Since in this case figures A^iry. Conversely we may begin by taking two inverse points T and Then the internal T'. &c. (/ . q.'. = p']. at P. &c.. and take From (15) the A' B'G' equation of P'Q'R' is A (g + r) x' 4.c. z 79. describing circles on PP'. &c. then 8 SP XX' > AXYZ~xX _ . &c.. ^. y.and 53 AT = TrR.c.
(G..c. 5 sec /) 0. 2 the direction angles of 3 be perpendicular to BG. the circumcircles of the triangles formed by any three of the four tangents P'Q'R'. T or T' also . OTT\ and draw Then  oc GT* = 2 r a oc 2a.. (Appendix II}. the circumcircles of the four triangles passing through <o.) Remember pass through also that the pedal circles of all points o>.54 MODERN GEOMETRY.. J/w oc oc 2a. and the four orthocentres : lying on TOT'. are (sec 15 . For each pair we have a set of four harmonic lines touching the parabola. The student may f 1 develop this hint.. pass through the focus o>. whose n.. . In addition to each set of four harmonic tangents. Now Tm let 0.. Hence the orthopole w.OI cos0 T 1 . And. and OTT' the Directrix. there are also the three tangents B G' G'A\ A'B'.) is the focus of the parabola the Simson Line of w (in A'B'G') being the vertex tangent. . On the fixed Directrix TOT' may now be taken an infinite number of inverse pairs (TT*)..
&c. N Draw any straight lines MN. If A. ANTIPEDAL TRIANGLES. the angles are called the Angular Coordinates of 8 they are denoted by . /?. LM perpendicular to 8 A. SB. (at /S). Then shall the perpendiculars MN 55 . sin X sin A/sin (XA). ASB ' .CHAPTER VII. CSA. Let AS. intersect at Z. Z. 5. S be any BSC. of 8.X". so that the perpendiculars from J. Orthologic Triangles. y are the n. point within the triangle ABC.sin (A+\) sinA/siu A = =n . /A. aa Il. Y. SO. then If 81. C on the sides of LMN are concurrent from LMN on the sides of ABC be concurrent. (65) 82.c. if a. So that. v are the angles of the pedal triangle of S. NL.
E' =e= . sin ^4 f sin _L/sin (J.sin L) sin ^4 /sin (?r L J. and I)' E'F'. are said to be mutually Orthologic.area ABC/LMN to Hence the b. so that relation between 8 and R. of R referred to R for the circle LMN. AB are Triangles ABC. Then SM . F' =f= v. of areas of the triangles. (74. Let def be the pedal triangle of 8. . SC aa are perpendicular to /_ . fS perpendicular to AB are concurrent at S. of & with reference R with reference to LMN ABC are as the b. Hence the perpendiculars from L. are concurrent say at /S".c. 83. A L) = . Then. since dS is perpendicular to BC. forming the triangle D'E'F' the Antipedal Triangle of S'. the pedal triangle of S.sin i sin^4/sin (lv + ^1). concurrent. 2' be the power of be the b. are homothetic.CL ) + (CM '^Jtf 4. If. JV on 0. It follows that jy = d = >. S'G.M.SN = 2 2 MPNP = AM*. and the proportion is that of the or of the powers of S and R for their . LM. Reasoning as before. the antipedal triangle of >$". f x/x' = y/y = = n/n'. def are orthologic. ^/'. . LMN which are thus related. LMN. Antipedal Triangles. or x = from (65) let II . C draw perpendiculars to S'A. = Il. and Now II' let '. the triangles ABC. z/z + L) . from on de.(AN'BN*) = 2 ) 0. IT.. so that the perpendiculars from A on ef. BSC = X = TTL (TT LN. (BL 2 8VSM* = CL*CM*'.56 MODERN GEOMETRY.. The sides E'F'. To determine the trigonometrical Since SB. from B on fd.c.AN 2 2 .sin (TT A) sin _L/sin (TT . .. ef (being each perpendicular to S'A) are parallel .c. and therefore def. say at R. B. we have x' = n'. Through A. S'B. respective circumcircles. eS perpendicular to CM.).
respectively.c. from (65).ANTJPEDAL TRIANGLES. area of de/ U" = . AS'B  RV. sin ( * B + fi) 2 sm /x sin sin r^ sin : ( C+ sin v But abc a' 2 ?> A sin sin v c 2 sin (^ +X) (g + /*) fj.?+/*. In Germany these points are called Gegenpunkte. finally. /S". " In this . 8. of S for def. But. Also 57 BS'C = TT D' = TT A. taking a/3y. 5(7 are as the b. of S. J (65) n . from symmetry. . since ABC and def are orthologic.BS'C aa _ area of ABC _ " A^ ^ .c." " work the name " Counter Points will be used.) _ ~' : _ a^ c " sin ' " sn /A ?^c ( G + v) sn r . the b.c. Therefore. S' are the foci of a conic inscribed in ABO. and so that. afly' as the ii. OS' A = TT n. M* sin A sin = ftp = Thus yy'. afrc sin (. of 8' for Again.' M 2 . k.
A . . Henceforth the areas of the pedal triangles of $. S'E'. S'AF'B S'D'. Let 1? 3 be 2 ffCE'A. S &c. Then f 0. Z7 = 2A /M.. v. Oj is the midpoint of S'D' area S'BD'C . . F'. i. A... . 2 (65) C7F' =A 2 . and the homothetic antipedal or. &c. the area of ABC is a geometric mean between triangle. a cot Now . D' This is a particular case of the more general theorem given in (158). = i. f .BC = . = 2 BO^S' = 2 (J a cot X + V = S'BD'C + S'CE'A+ S'AF'B = \ (a cot X 6 cot + c cot + 4A) 2 ' . /A.acotD' = . 84. will be denoted by U.) triangle of S\ in terms of X. 2 J. &c.58 MODERN GEOMETRY. . To determine the area (V) of D'E'F'. 2 2 2 j /x i/ But /. the antipedal (G... the area of the pedal triangle of any point. S'F' being diameters. the circumcentres of the circles S'BD'C. antipedal triangles by F. Z7'. AO.
cos ? cos ccsm^tan/1. /^p ^G! respectively meet at a point call it $/ Through A. so that d^f^ the pedal triangle of $ 19 and D^E^F^ the antipedal triangle of $/. homothetic to T^T^ (Fig. the centre of similitude homothetic triangles def and D'E'F'... H 86.) The ratio of corresponding lengths Td. as in (67)./jSj.ANTIPEDAL TRIANGLES. since d^S^ 6^. &c. Here a u = R cos 7 2R. 59 of the 85. and is therefore the antipedal triangle of 0.. (Gr. AB. Td/D'd . D' are homologous points. perpendiculars to BC. The orthocentric triangle. are homothetic. d'5 = (/ + a cos )/sin d'C = (P + a! cos 0)/sin D'D" = d'd" = d'B. . CA. G draw perpendiculars to S^A. 89). To determine the n. TD' in def and D'E'F' = VU VV = : N/J7F : V=A V=U : ' 1 : A. and Since are homologous points. S^B. 2?. It follows that the perpendiculars from J.. 0. the point T lies on OH. are concurrent at S lt therefore the triangles ABC and d l ejl are 1 and l l orthologic. since e. M/JW = 6'. being the incentres of the two triangles. .j J. Hence D/ = di = X. (X v. the antipedal triangle of /S/. . . Now the perpendicular from d' on AC = cos 0. The sides E^F{ and ejlt being each perpendicular to *S/A.  .. which is formed by the tangents at A.d'C/d'S' J3 \a! . ^L7? = y'+a' cos#. G on e^.c. let d l e f be the pedal triangle of S v Then. or pedal triangle of jff. U . p. 5. = U/(U). Therefore. 2 and the formula gives (7 ^1 cos J3 cos sin  1 2 cos J. where m= Z7/(A is Example. Let S be the inverse of 8 for the circle ABC. are parallel.. w) of T.. S^O forming the triangle D/J^j'J?/. B..
the pedal triangles of >V.. a. of #/ in are as the b.'..c.'.60 MODERN GEOMETRY. of 4 and $/. b.I X) sin (5 sin A sin sin(0 v) sin v = Hence S and l ft/3/ /S'/ from symmetry. and the antipedal triangles of S\ $. / Hence. : We have now four triangles. viz. are a second pair of Counter Points. ft sin /x. . /x.c.' = = J/ 1 I . =  . sin ((. _ 2 6 c 2 2 sin (. abc sin (B " /x) fji. from (68).c. sin sin v /x) /< a. But. = area of d^) . so for y l .7 v) MI .. (Z7. = the foci of a conic touching the sides of ABC. . aa.S'. and finally. of ABC 8 l in d^i/i i = . Let c^ftyj and From (82) the a/ft'y/ be the n. v. being y^/. each of which has angles X.
Ja cot A . 3 lying >/. (a/yS/y/) ^ e ^ ne n c pendicular from _D/ on J5C'. SiJB^. v. be the circumcentres of the circles S^BD^C. B'O. ' Then O/ is 0. O. the midpoint of S l 'D l if Therefore. 61 87. C'O respectively. ' '.'A' = a cot D/ = ' . Let O/.ANTIPEDAL TRIANGLES . SI'FI being diameters./. 2 8 \'CEiA. and on A'O. \ve have on the left side .   i be the^per So Adding. Si'AFiB} SI'DI. To determine the area (F/) of the antipodal triangle (Gr. /tx.) ^'EiFi in terms of A.
the Pedal f triangle of either point of a pair being homothetic to the Antipedal triangle of its companion point. S\ 8^. 8^ (a) 8 and 6\ are Inverse Points. Hence F/ =  (a .. S ' } = F'F/ = ^M^M. with similar Pedal triangles. = 4A.62 MODERN GEOMETRY. triangles. with similar Antipedal triangles. (c) (SS ) and ($!$/) are pairs of Counter Points. are The points called 8' and S^ having similar antipedal : "Twin Points." Of the four points 8.P*r 2 cot A + &' cot /A +c 2 cot v 4 A) (68) Now area (Z7J of ^e^ . 2 . . (6) 8' and $/ are Twin Points. N"ote also that difference of antipedal triangles of *S". is JW = A 2^/M l .
THE ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION OF A TRIANGLE. theorems are omitted. the orthogonal projection AM perpendicular to AL. AM take a point T. * AL being a given axis in the plane of the triangle ABC. Draw of ABG on the plane X. " ? 63 ." with the author's To avoid overloading the chapter. cutting LT in U and V. in shape and size. passing through and projection of inclined at an angle 6 to the plane ABG. CVc perpendicular to AL. Then. Neuberg's Projections et Contreprojections d un Triangle fixe. AUV represents.CHAPTER VIII. such that AT/AM = cos 0. since Ub/Bb = Vc/Cc = AT/ AM = cos 6. it is required to determine the shape and size of the orthogonal on a plane X. S 1 * In writing Sections (8890) I have drawn on Professor J. ABC AL Draw In BUb. the Counterprojection permission. 88.
LU LB = LV LC = LT LM. BSC = from UA V. AH being DA = and let DR = h. where R is the centre ALA r Then. : We . S with from AV and S' with A.. having SBC = AUV. v.64 MODERN GEOMETRY. Therefore the figures ALUVtT and SLBONM are And : are right angles. the the image of A in BC. x* + y* circle is Let this family of circles is coaxal. tAT or L ALT = = SAM SLM. Therefore the figures ALtT. Draw At 8 S. And Therefore the triangle SBC is similar to AUV. is Hence the locus of S remote from the axis AL. remains unchanged. so that coincides with Af. with D as origin and DA as 7/axis. of the circle h being the variable of the coaxal system. A. DA or l . t. described on BC. = T J7T. When 6 = cos = = 1.. triangle the projection of The perpendicular to LT. the equation of the 7r = 2hx. cutting the circle ALA^I in SBC will be similar to A UV. the arc AMA on the side of AA' point a series of variable axes AL 19 AL 2 . Draw SNS' Then perpendicular to BC. 89. As 6 increases from A to M. Hence the vertices of all triangles SBC. : N : similar. Hence each position of the axis AL gives rise to a circle ALA^M passing through the two fixed points A and A^ so that When . are taken. and SLNM are similar. It is required to determine the locus of the vertices of these X triangles. S to M. /x. To determine the may now deal with the problem plane X on which the orthogonal projection of ABC has given angles X. and S' from A l to ^TT. and therefore to ABC on the plane X. T travels from l M to A. S. lie on the circle ALA r SCB = A VU. is On either side of the common base BG a series of triangles described similar to the orthogonal projections of ABC on a series of planes passing through the common axis AL. The angles of projection range to (9 0.
DM=k. l T such that a. as before. it is required to determine the locus of S. 65 = v. Draw parallel to the line of intersection of the planes then the original projection is equal and similar to the projection on a parallel plane through AL. and the AL . triangles SBC being drawn. cutting AA in H and H'. so that . taking Join 8L. the orthocentre of is DH.DH' = DL. The triangle ABC being projected on a series of planes making a constant angle a with the plane of ABC. similar to the successive projections.ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION OF A TRIANGLE. 9O. Then H AT/AM = cos SM. and Construct the triangle SBC. if AL and $ are on opposite sides of AA AL is the required axis. Determine S as before. LH'M. Then. Then the required inclination of the plane X to the plane ABC is given by { = . Draw LtT perpendicular to SA. SCB hence B8C = A. cos 6 = AT/ AM. Let the circle ASA l cut BC in L and M". so that SBC /*.
S H and H f are fixed points. . . ?. = 2A (sec 04.cotX = 4A. H series of circles are therefore coaxal. 6. cos cot A. v/V 2 a" 2 v/6 Z/ 2 vVc' = 2 0. c and area A. For another series of planes inclined at a constant angle the points and H' would be changed to B and If/. be the heights of the points A. . MODERN GEOMETRY. yu. The equation to the circle x" HSH' is It + (yk cos a) (y sec a) = l 0.. To prove Let /^. so that A.. //. since HSH' is a right angle. .2 A (sec + cos 0).' = Jr.'.. 2 . with sides a. describes a Hence.66 Again. = vVa' 2 2 . H'D so that HD = = ^ L. = constant. angles orthogonally into a triangle A'B'C'. = k cos a'.I/' k cos a k sec a = constant. the point circle on HH' as diameter. Hence 2 a' 2. DH. C above the Then . J = 2A (1 4.DH. 7?. the signs of the surds depending on the relative heights of A.cos 0). and DH.cos A./?. ^. A triangle ABG. which pass through A and A r The } for 91. hfr h% ' 2 . a 2 = 4A cot J = 4A'. where DH. . This leads to (6 + c a 2 2 2 2 ) or 16A+16A' 2 No \v fe' b~ 2 +c 2 2 a2 2 fc' a' 2 . and area A' '. with sides the angle of projection being 0. 2 0) . c'. c. cot 4 = 2A (1 + cos 6) cot A . cos a AT tsLvAL AM " tan t&nALM SLM HD A^D* tan . a!* cot A' = A cos 0. n. and therefore cutting orthogonally the former series of circles.' = k sec a'. a'. having A and A limiting points.ar cot plane A'B'O. is projected &'.
A/ A' = 2. if two antipedal triangles be drawn having the same angles as the projection. When ABC (a' + 6' + 2 is 2 equilateral.a cotA + 4A 2 = 2A (sec + cos 0) +4A (9 . JD/JW. . Let 92. But.2 %. if u/ be the Brocard Angle of A'B'C'. with the projection and counterprojection. the sides of the projection are half the difference of the corresponding sides of the antipedal triangles. Z' + Z/ = 2. ( v/s^c~. are all similar. v the angles of D'E'F'. v/A. is projected orthogonally on to a plane 93. c' of the sides of the projection A'B'G' in terms of u^ u. 2.ORTHOQONAL PROJECTION OF A TRIANGLE. F'. . A x is the area of the counterprojection of ABC that is. 8'. u^ with the sides of ABC. . and Let cos 6 = k. So F'/A = F//A = '. and where yF'+A/F/^ x/A sec^ = 2.) . . ABC If U. make direction angles u v u^. of which the above is a new proof. Xow the triangles F'. /*. Hence. 2F' = 2. it is required to determine the lengths a'. . The Brocard Angle therefore depends solely on the angle (#) It follows that all equilateral coplanar triangles of projection. the triangle whose projection (for 0) is ABC.a'. The triangle inclined at an angle 6 to the plane of ABC. is due to Lhuillier and Neuberg. /. . F/. F/ the areas I'm'n'j Z/w/n/ be the sides . and A. /. the line of intersection of the planes. cot .^F/ = ( v/sec<9+ v cos x 2 <9) . having angles X. Z'Z/ = 2. %/ A cos 2.a 1 . This theorem. we have (1 2 c' ) I/ A/3 = ' 2A + cos 2 fe' 2 0) = 2A' (sec (9 + cos 6) . project into triangles having the same Brocard Angle. . the antipedal triangles of / From (84). 67 The Equilateral Triangle and the Brocard Angle. v so that their corresponding sides are as the square roots of their areas : . /x.v/c^sl) 2 6> . (131) . &'. 0.. (Gr. Antipedal Triangles and Projection. cot a/ = (a' f + )/4A' .v/3/2 (cos + sec 0) 2 2 c' .
2 ) sin2 u. Draw perpendiculars Bb. Cc to the line U. of qourse.} t a 2 (1 Bin s t*.asin^. as the plane of projection revolves round Z7. B'bC'c = and the projection a!" of B'C' B'C' k(BbCc~) = A. are similar to the pedal triangles of the projections of To prove ABC points lying on the circumdiameter TOT'.A. not on the position. Let XYZ.'. makes angles u lt u^ u$ with ur (37) OTA or OAT = . is the pole the sides of Then XYZ.68 MODERN GEOMETRY. . X'Y'Z' be the Simson Lines of T7 T'. 2 siri' ^). on U = a cos u^ . of U '. only direction. where T of the Simson Line parallel to U. Pedal Triangles and Projection. and take so that B'C' Now (= a') is equal to the projection of BC. the projection of B'C' on Bb = . The dimensions on the of the projection depending. (G. = = = = a 2 (cos 2 u^ + k~ sin 2 ?t ) a 2 (1(1. being parallel to ABC.) that. 94. and therefore L ?7.
OP' = B cot ia. Let w of P. = = u 4w* a' : (! + 1 : sinX}. will have their pedal triangles similar to the projections of ABC. . If. any point P on one circle. let the plane of projection be inclined at a constant angle a to the plane of ABC. /x. .i it 1 k' k  =1  1 + a COS . a point Another Proof. 95. (36) the point Tis found by drawing chord At parallel and the chord tXT perpendicular to BC. r be the sides of the pedal triangle u. v. (Gr. But Hence and a' = (l/v ) a' 2 .'.) T In this case. /x. (93) &') : b' : c' v if ' (so that the projection on the plane triangle of P). I 2 .JK. Let P (or its inverse P') be whose pedal triangle has angles A. AP = 2 tf + k'*E 2 So that 4tt* = 4 . provided that is similar to the pedal so that P. therefore. v. and its inverse point P' on the other circle. and its inverse point P'. AP 2 Bin* A= 2 rt a 2 (1 {1 + k') z 1  4k> 2 j 2 sin u. v. be drawn with centre and radii 2 tair^a. = tan2 ia 2 21 COSa . Then. . and let OP = k R.ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION OF A TRIANGLE. Next. .jB and cot a. j. From to 7". In 69 TOT' take any point P. circles A'B'G'. Let ABC be projected on the plane a into whose angles are A. in the triangle GAP. OP R tan 2 Ja. are given by TP/T'P = TP'/T'P' = cos 0.
CQ') meet the circle ABC again in yyz (or x'y'z') then it is known that plane at a given angle 0. DEF D'G'/DG /. Also so that #i/.F'D')/(EG. planes inclined to its A triangle XYZ is projected own orthogonally on a series of ABC Draw . F'. y or y' Take Q as inversion centre. To determine the locus of the point. CQ (or AQ'.70 MODERN GEOMETRY. so that the theorem is proved. BQ.KE'. If 7 I).OQOQ? = so that in this QO.E'F')/(DG.Qy = ABC. inverts into 97. a point Q being thus determined whose pedal {has triangle angles X. 4A _ ~~ (1 (1 2A(seca + cosa)f4A tan 2 Ja . inner arcs BQC.KE')/(KG. Let AQ. + cosa) 2 2 OPIE = so OP'/R = cot ia. = KD'/KG. 96.Qz. jB. . Y.D'E')/(FG. G'.o cot /x +c cot i> 4 4A cos a)' ' _ ~ 2 A (sec a+ cos a) /.FD) = (F'G'. any four points . (56) fc = power of Q for ABC = E'OQ* = OQ.QQ'. Then OPIB' = "'cotA + fr cotg + r cotKjA or cot \ 4. CQ.DE) .KF')/(p\KG) = (E'G'. (D'G'. BQ'.EF) and E'F'/EF = KE'/KF = (KD'. with any centre JT and any radius p. then the pedal is similar to the pedal triangle of G with respect to For triangle of G' with respect to D'E'F'. Lemma. A point is is taken such that its pedal triangle with respect to similar to one of these projections. as before.F G are inverted into D'. Z. system Q' tf is inverse to 0. B+ Y C Z : : the angle x or x' X. 9 by symmetry. CQA. .z = AQ. and let (inversionradius) or 2 2 = = F.KF) = (KD'. AQB containing angles A+X. E'. z or z' = Z.Qx = BQ.
. mm'. with centre Q. Then xyz inverts into into Q'. p' of the circles II'. radius k. are the the circles with common centre loci of points whose pedal triangles with respect to xyz are on planes inclined to the similar to the projections of YZ at an angle 6. Then. be a point on either concentric circle. circles in 98. t. Z.01'} IU = 2 k*t/(OQ RW). mm' now be determined in terms of X. R/t*) into circles of the coaxal system which has Q and Q' . inverting into $. the pedal triangle of 8 with respect to with respect to xyz that is. Hence the required locus consists of these two coaxal circles. Y. = W/QL = W 01= OQ+Ql= 01' = [_R(R + OQ p/R = i (01. (0. k) system. and the two concentric circles (0. Let the circum diameter OQQ' be cut by the concentric LL' MM' and by the coaxal circles in II'. Then and radii Rt 2 R/t*. R ABC R .. plane of N"ow invert. XYZ X for its limiting points. . The centres o>. ... : : that L and Z. 71 In Section (95) substitute the triangle xyz for ABC. will Ql . by the is similar Lemma. are inverse points in the (Q. to one of to the pedal triangle of the projections of XYZ. so . w' and the radii p. Rt 2 ) and ABC. Let a point on one or other of the coaxal circles.ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION OF A TRIANGLE.
from Section (64). Then. lying on 0ST. the Lemoine axis inverse of the circle (0. k) inverse of the circle N circle ABC. A XYZ Lemoine point K. bisecting QQ' at right angles. J?) system. is the . in the (Q. are the Isodynamic points 8. Ow.72 MODERN GEOMETRY. For then Q. is is the the to be projected into a Suppose the equilateral triangle triangle with angles A/xv. Om' = Hence OLOm = R 01' . that 2 fr QQzip* . viz. Om = [R(OQRt*)y(ROQ. 4 = < . from Section (91).. Z. MM' X. fc) system.^ cot x + a* cot cot r+ c 2 2 cot cot X+b* cot Y+ c Z. Z. the pole of the Lemoine axis for the circle ABC. it follows. (cot v/3)/cot <+ V3). the pedal triangles of all points on the circumference of any one circle have the same Brocard angle.4A Z+ 4A ' so that When OQ = LZ/. as is constant.. And. MM') in the Since the pedal triangle of Q has angles (0. Om'. It follows that in the (8. Hence the (Q. Q'. and p are infinite. 99. and Brocard angle <.t*). OQ') it is easily is the ON.. 08) while the Brocard circle inverse of (0. . or when Q are expressed in terms of X. Therefore < is constant. K") system. Y. &) inverse of the OQ) is DJS'D'. the Radical Axis of the coaxal system. are mutually inverse (as are LL'. Y. area A'. 2 Oo>' Bf . p'. lies on the inner concentric circle circle (0. which are inverse to LL'. And if be the pole of DED' for the proved that the (Q. . sides Zwm. writing 2 l/t for f'. case of great beauty and interest presents itself when the is equilateral. mm'. then Oo> now /a. XYZ . t. circle (0. having equilateral triangle pedal triangles. so that the circles II'. the Radical Axis of the coaxal system is now the Lemoine axis and N. S. Hence the remarkable property of this coaxal system of Schoute circles.
= cot^) x years ago Prof. was analytical. H. and therefore of Q' (here 8 a ). . 4A)/(a 2 cot 60+ . Bead sections 99. + 4A) (cotw v/3)/(cotu> And t* = (cot< v/3)/(cot< + A/3).) = = Many sin x/sin o>) . Otf/R* = = (a cot 2 60+ . It is known that 008 = 30. Section (98).. from Section (98). P. 1OO. < 73 is equal to the acute (G.. Dr. to (cotw+ \/3)/(cot a> In our calculations. we took Rt* < OQ. (cot <^> co . 8 r His proof. Schoute proved that the locus of a point whose pedal triangle had a constant Brocard angle is a circle of the coaxal system whose limiting points were 8. + A/3) (Section 99)...v /3)/(cotw /. 100 after Chapter XI.) From Section (98).ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION OF A TRIANGLE. (ISO/. Therefore. OQ^ = (x 150 . OOo> 180 x Let = = . To prove that the Brocard angle angle (less than 30) between wO and OO. I believe.sin (o> + 30)/sin 30 . so that lies to the right of Q.
CHAPTER IX. sin A sin sin v (83) . has been shown that = yy = W M* sin (A + X) 74 sin (B + /*) /x sin ( C+v . .c. and so for S l and $/. WE now proceed to a further examination of the two 1 pairs of Counter Points ($. a'P'y' be the n. COUNTER POINTS. of 8. where the pednl triangle of 8 is homothetic to the antipodal triangle of S while the pedal triangle of 8' is homothetic to the antipedal triangle of $. 1O1. 8'. Let It afiy. S') and (Sv $/).
=y= 0. and aa' a'/S'y' its counter point. the diameter of this circle. of 8 is AT lt BT%. the pairs (SA.COUNTER POINTS. the counter point of is A. the counter point of S. B8C = (56) And +X  5/SC = TT X' . aa'. and draw diameters S8 and T'L\. the angles It is known that tBSC = A + \. because. It follows that . X. ftft = yy' = /3' = 0. . so BS'C But BS'C = rrBD'C = TTX ^4 so = A+X. &c i. 8A C = 8'AB. also AT^ is 8^ and therefore perpendicular Hence the counter point to the three parallels to the Simson Line of S. sin X = sin (J. the angles of d'e'f. S' are often called of a well known conies. being equally inclined to the corre sponding then said to be isogonal to SA. SBA = tf'BG. of is isogonal to AS. &c. draw chord BC. 1O2. S'CA. S be on the circle ABC. so that S'. + X). Isogonal Conjugates. the Auxiliary Circle of the conic that the major axis 2p. S'C to SC'. Then But /?. X+V = 7T A. S'A). by property The L SCB = sides. . S'B to MB. ." points S. 75 S and 8' are the foci of a conic inscribed in that the two pedal triangles def. To determine the relations between and A'. + X') . d'e'f have the same circumcircle. //..'. i/. the centre lying midway between S and 8 while the semiminor axis q is given by ABC = .. being common which are perpendicular of def. . i. f q = . CT 3 at infinity. . /x.e. The line 8' A is Let afty be any point Z/ 1 on Z?0. sinX' = sin(^. i/. lies on any line isogonal to SA or SB or SG.. V. L If ST perpendicular to parallel to the to the Simson l Obviously AT^ Simson Line Line of 8. (a = 0) y are not zero .
.sin ^. = U'M'. 1 the area of d'e'/' M' Then = a cotX'+. ./1 <" j 2 O v ^ =^. . similarly.*.00. v' .sin(v v') = The proof here given by the present writer.4X ) sin A_ sin X sin ^. A sin X' sin X' a result due to Professor Genese. ana a = aa =m 2 a 6 2c 2 M .7r. sin X' T sin A . /x sin v Let n' be the power of U ..^. (83) /u. Trj. f . U' = m H. The equation 8.76 also MODERN GEOMETRY. so that the equation is a \. 0.. .. where m = sin X' sin u! sin 2 : : sin S' 2 .2 b . 7r 15 which has (H. sin X f sin X . M.. UM = 272 afcc sin//. 7r 3 be the perpendiculars on the minor axis from jr^a . a' = abc  sin // sin M ^ sin sin v . And and Since = U = 2A'/3f 2/. . . and. j3 r TT^C . X sin  v' . . sin ^ +A sln ^ = n pX/Bin ^ aa = n 2/. a = abc M 2 . A also diagram shows that \SJBL C A 2 O. 1O3. sin(^. r . .siii(/< is + y. a ' ) B1 . (57) X') . Taylor) Let 4.sinA  sinv (65) "2 . 1 8A 2 sin 2 A= ef 2p sin X . y = 0.sin(X to the minor axis /x') X')+y3. J3.+4A. _ ri. I/' = M/m?. 7r 2.sinX' sin/x' sinv' = 17' = m = u'/u = M/M' = n'/n U = m*U = m\2tf/M. oc (sin' X sin'^X') a sin (X is sin A 0.. (64) . to the minor axis of the conic S f for foci. Hence the equation a.
Ac. to prove be to the conic being drawn SA.S'A = AC. B.Ab = AB. Then and.S'A Let a. 8 = AC.COUNTER POINTS. y.*. triangles . Also Hence the ASb. Davis. drawn from a point }D parallel to B(7. The theorem is due to Mr. SA. Rouse. so that . be the angles subtended at & by the tangents from 5. (7. BC. ACS' are similar. P. b. E. 77 parallel to The tangent 1O4. c. .Ac. DSl = DSn = i(2/3h2y) = (/? DSC= DSlCSl= + y)S'CJL = SCI = DSC = y = /. Z /. Lemma. : : AS Ab = AC AS' . >S'^(7= SAb. the demonstration to Mr.= SD is y. regarding the parallel tangents as at infinity. F.Ab = AB. /. /?.
where N= BG at 3. (57) ' 71 2 2 . Then A. and ^4. 5Z : C? = J?^! C% = &! *?. is 6/3 f ' : cy : aa ( ?>^ cy feft' cy sin /x'/sin (14) /x. ' 2 ( .a^ = ac^Xq/p aa : . from A on = ZRxAbsiuB or 2Rx4csinC = AC.Ac = 8 A S'A (from Rouse's Theorem). of ' cr . a.c.5(7 into A^B^J^. H. the proof by the . . /. a n 7? ' referred to ively. M. j a ' = J^ But 4E. be Then /. n. /. cc j . ca = aa = = sin The theorem present writer.o = 2R(h.'/sin J5 sin v sin v'/sin (7. aa = "2p sin X sin X'/sin yl. Bo^C X q/p /. of oto the midpoint triangle A'B'C' respect Let &i be the perpendicular from a ' A .. 1O6. sin /x. . (G. by Mr. sin X sin X'/sin ^4. Taylor. ABO 'y be the and the centre of the conic. 2a = 2Experp. The coordinates Let a /8 of the centre . cr of the conic. B : sin v sin v'/sin is 6'. . to prove : Cl = sin /u.c. B a. . ) f .'. Project the conic (ellipse) into a circle of radius cos" q/p. of projection being 6 = q. ' b. q. giving the absolute A'B'C' aa . . .l l C l = : A.) y . and since ' + fy8 + cy = A.78 MODERN GEOMETRY. on B G. 8 A . 1O5.sin A = ef 2p sin X 4 a = 4p sin X sin X'/sin J. The conic touching Bl : Z. the angle 1 Let the centre cr be projected into o a. Ab or AB.
OJA %$&' be the direction angles of OS.A'd' OS cos 0.COUNTER POINTS. = A'w.) . And therefore ww' is the Radical Axis of the two 0) circles.A'u'/R /.O'<r Q . a/ coincides with w. passes . (78) Therefore defd'e'f. If 0' be the NinePoint centre Then Let OS and . circle touches the NinePoint 108. the common pedal circle of 8 and $'. 0'<r .OS' = E cos e.. (V. The power of A' for the pedal circle A'd. (Gr. a/ be the orthopoles of the circumdiameters passing i. passes through w similarly the circle d'e'f passes through a/.e.R cos = 2R. the through 8 and S' points on the NinePoint circle whose NinePoint circle Simson Lines are parallel to the diameters OS and 08' (49). . Aiyars Theorem. (44. OS'. The pedal circle of every point on the diameter through 8 passes through o> therefore def.' . the pedal circle of 8. and the pedal circle at w. 79 1O7. from A' 0'<r . through <o and <*/. But since GMO' is the Radical Axis of the two circles. .. OS. 6. Ramaswami Aiyar.) s'/L When OS' falls on OS. OS' cos 0/. Let w. the = = power of A' for pedal circle = And this perpendicular perpendicular from A' on wo/ x 2 . OS' = 2R .
'. of . the orthopole of TOT'. A7 locus passes through B. and therefore on TT'. we have I (m 2 rr) cos A+ .S. Hence t is a point where the Q locus cuts the circle ABC .) The point to determine Let TT cut the sides line TT'. AB. the counter point (101) the chord Aa parallel to TT'. it is required the locus of its counter point Q. Ct by ft y. J.c.80 MODERN GEOMETRY. then .. from (50). /S' are counter points. The equation to &$' then is 0. and their pedal circle touches the NinePoint circle at w. Bt. Xote that the A'B'C' equation COS O l COS 6[ . 8' (the third point is 0). w and o>' have n. so that now Aiyar's be written 08. C . So that and 8' He on M'Cay's Cubic. (G.c. its counter point must be on the locus of Q. k'. wk' are the Simson Lines : We have already met with this is centre On Theorem may of T. =0. sec ft/. M. Counterpoint Conies... 1/n) are the n..). Q. circle in Section (45) its a straight line.c.. The counter point of t (101) is the point at oo on Aa. /. to o>o/ is aa + . And conversely. 1/m. on . if any diameter TOT' cut this cubic at S. But this point being on TT'. also (101) t is the pole of the Simson Line perpendicular to TT. and if the circle cut TSS'OOfl' in k. .  = : for. 1O9. When /8/S>' l(m~n)a+. and at parallel to BC. M'Cay's Cubic. of P moving along a given ABC in L. Then the Q of ..S". N. = passes through 0. Tor ABC coordinate? of S . O'Qp* is = 110. n. the counter point of P. T'. then w&.. Draw Denote perpendiculars from AC. this occasion take (Imn) as the so that (1/7.. OS' 2R(Rp).. (sec^. I/.
C on T2 Hence the locus is a come passing through ^4.Ct _smQCB ~ sin ainQBt ' _smPCA ~ sin ' QBt QCt' ^5(7 sin QCt ninPBA sin Let Z?P. so that Ax. AT'. Then QBt So = QBC+CKt = PBA+ BCa . tC. of the 111. If the sides of the quadrilateral were BA. Ax'.. . '. ^.. Draw Tx. T f . (7P cut Aa in ?w. which are isogonal to AT. 81  Then y sin (1 A( " siu PA /. A. To determine the directions asymptotes and axes. and w. Ax' are parallel to the asymptotes. tA..COUNTER POINTS. sin QA'Ji sin H Q<J . the arc tx = G = Hence tT. tT' are parallel to Ax 1 . J5. QCt = QCB+BCt = PCA + CBa = PCA + nAC = Pna = OPT. g. T. sin OPT ^ ~ q r 7 ' where p. C. The points at infinity of the Q conic are the counter points of and therefore lie on Ax. BO. PC' PA' sin yy' CPT PC .FBA + BAm = Bma = BPT.. T'x' parallel to BC. r are perpendiculars from. and therefore to the asymptotes. Ax. But aT AT'. . B. we should have yy'/aa' = r/p.sin Q.
112. . if u l9 aie the perpendiculars from i(?.2 cr 3 . . . <r l cr 2 cr3 .. a a Z( al \brn \cti). Z/af.) Let wZ..aa+. = 0. the Asymptotes are at right angles. oj o. . From (111). .. la + mp + ny=Q we have or p. From Section (41). ap/R #j. A A. whence p cos &c. To determine the Asymptotes.. To determine the Counter Point Conic of a circum diameter TOT'. ex.82 MODERN GEOMETRY. from (50). 0. If TOT' be the conic is . my + nfi a cc a.. n l ^2 = 2E cos sin sin = 2/i'. . &c. Hence. tT' therefore the conic is ^a Rectangular . = 2B sin cos cos .7? on ojj^ arid w 2 r 2 w^ h z those on coX2 then . To find the centre. = b cos 8 + c cos ^ 2 . But I oc op. t . and. T'. since they are parallel to tT.cos (^TT oJ. T' 113. . Hyperbola. = 0. the Orthopole of TOT'. (G.. wX' be the Simson Lines of T. the centre is w.. 5. from (8).
. y/ has been shown that _ abc sin(J. It /?/.w 2 . from T on = 2R cos cos cos = 2R. = 2 R sin sin sin = 27^.COUNTER POINTS.'.X'j . _ abc ' sin (B p) sin (C sin /x v) If JVJT sin v (68) and (86) So that /S/ is the counter point of $. of $/. which is the counter point conic of TOT'. oj o. A. 1 2 . 83 3 Also So /.c.. wXg are the Asymptotes of the Rectangular Hyperbola and the square of the semiaxis = B Since ? 2 . /. y x be the n.cos(i7r(T h. u^ = R*. . from on o>Xj Aj = perp. &. 2. 1 ).c. Hence w^. the Twin Point of 6'. and therefore lies on the Rectangular Hyperbola. Therefore t' lies on the Rectangular Hyperbola. is But H Let ttj. oj o2 <r s .4 or OAT = = E. Hence the OT. square of semiaxis = pqr/R. and a/. flu> = wt'. . . cr 3 . the n. } ff w. since oj circle ABC in t'.sin 2<r sin 2<r = 2 t^ro = 2 iv w*. Produce H<o'to cut the Then. sin A..sin2o. Therefore t' coincides with t.. lies on the NinePoint Circle. sin 2o. .sin^OT = E. and w is the centre.. (37) 114. sin 2^ sin 2cr 2 sin 2<r3 o. l 2 . . = perp.. on the Eectangular Hyperbola.. .) . the fourth point where the Rectangular Hyperbola cuts the circle ABC. of S^ inverse to 8.
being homologous points in the similar triangles S. since CD is on the circle defd'e'f. and similarly. AB.. Hence. $/ are always at the extremities of a diameter of the Rectangular Hyperbola. To prove that o> is the midpoint of S'SJ. d' Pi def. $'. 115. tad <ad } ' P d. as the inverse points S and S travel along TOT' in contrary directions from T. Therefore the pedal circles of (SS ) and (fi^/S/) pass through w. and the difference between the areas of their antipedal triangles is always 4A. w is the Centre of Similitude of def. p are the circumradii 1 of these circles./ d^fr Draw to& perpendicular to BG. Also. and of d^ej^ the pedal circle of $. is the midpoint of S' and /S'/. wd l '/2p l . Then. their counter points S' and $/ travel along the Rectangular Hyperbola which passes through 4. We f Hence. have shown that the pedal circles of all points on TOT' pass through the orthopole w. BG is midway between the pro jections of 8' So for OA. Therefore o> l .84 MODERN GEOMETRY. if p. 2p so that the projection of w on and Si on BG. the pedal circle of S. from Section (69). w/c = ud^ . B^ G and has o> for its centre.
<r S=:oS'<rQ /. because cr is the centre of the pedal circle of ($$'). 85 116. 2p. SI' = 2.. (Gr.'. n' be the images of 8' in EG.) Then. centre 8. since = ar 8 and 2. . m'. CA. I'm'n'. AB. Let I'. passes through Again. .COUNTER POINTS.o<u 8'<o = oi/8/. . since the circle def passes through Hence a through circle described with centre S and radius 2p passes I'm'n' and $/. Therefore a circle. 88^ = = <u. radius 2p. '.<r d' = 2p.
CHAPTER X.> . the three outer sides of the squares meeting in A... Hence AA. CK.. BC in K then. are therefore (a or Symmedian Grebe This point is called the Lemoine or Point and will be denoted by K. = &AKB AAKC = ratio of b. (a. The perpendiculars from A. 117. C. are called the Symmedians of A.. C. The Lemoine Point. on AC. The absolute values of the n. CCl meet at the point whose n... z and y = c o" : o . AK.c. CK. LEMOINE GEOMETRY. are as the squares of adjacent . c. segments BK. . so that the sides.. &c.c. . BB. BK.and whose b.c. c). AB being b and equal to the equation to AA l is (3/b y/c. are 2 2 2 6 c ). = .c. AK to : meet BK. 6. B. are given by a ha. On the sides of the triangle ABC construct squares externally. and complete the diagram as given. . B. CK = where Produce k = 2A l .
ABC. or (118) and (131) ...a+sm(C4).LEMOINE GEOMETRY. 118. For 87 def. y are the n. and the righthand expression when 8 coincides with K.sin A .y. The minimum value of u 2 is a minimum when KS = 0. a2 +Z) 2 + c 2 = therefore 3 4A 2 2 +.c. cos 0).Ke. /?. K is the centroid of its pedal triangle &eKf= cc .x+. which 4A 2 is 2 7j 7 t The sides of the pedal triangle of a point 8 are u.c. since a 6 c are the b. while sin 5. = . ^. of K. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 r c r3 Z> KO* + E 2 ) a\ r.c. of any 2 2 point.. therefore. we have. .j8 + sin(4 (b*<?)/a*. The Power of JT for the circle Using the form of Section (60). (a + & + c )(a + 2 2 /S except when or when the point a/a = (3/b +y ) 2 is 2 always greater than 4A = y/c coincides with K.. + 2 + (a + 6 + c ) CfiTtf . u = r. Since If a. from (19). 2 .) 2 2 2 But. A as (cos A.. . then a + /? fy 2 is a minimum at K. To show that u*\v*+v& is a minimum when 8 coincides with the Lemoine Point K. of those of ET are as (sin 9 OK is or sin( C). v. In this case. are A eKf = AfKd = A dKe. = 5).. So that K is the centroid of def. (SA = r. sin C) therefore the equation to t Since the n. we have 119. cos B. 0. ' . a 2 4/8 2 fy 2 has its minimum value.KfsinA be sin A . From (57).
touching AB. are similar. BSC = 2. AB. having L so that SEA = SAC is . on the J. SAC. be described exterin Y is homologous to B in Z.. SAB = SGA ASB = 4SC. Let Pv Pz be the perpendiculars from $ known S on AC. so that in to JL in Z. the triangles SAO. 8A = 5A B08C) Hence the double point 8 of the two directly similar figures on AB. Let figures Yand Z..BSK. S lies Again. if 8 be SBA the double point of Y and . from similar triangles so that SBA. on the circle so that S lies BOG. A Y Then. AO at B. AB. . / BSK. as Artzt's First the focus of a parabola Parabola. = 2A = BOG. AC may be found by drawing the Symmedian chord AAl through K and bisecting it at 8. Z. OSKi = OSB+A = OGB + A = 90. Then.Symmedian. and nally on AC. C. = SAB + SB A = SAB + SAC . /. (in circle Also.88 MODERN GEOMETRY. directly similar. 12O.
_sinff_ *inC b ' r c . Therefore the point M. IJJs =r:2B. But XYZ and IJ^ are homothetic. Then AT.. is the the Lemoine Point K Gergonne Point (32) is of r I\T2 Ts .c. r 89 121. B. (26) Therefore the Lemoine Point call it A of I^/a lies on crJIf. and <rM crA : = linear ratio of XYZ. _ T. AB. C. 6. r BT CT 2. .. .GsinACT. formed by drawing tangents to the circumcircle at A. In the figure of the preceding section. are concurrent at K. the centre of similitude being <r. K l at so that the n. whose equations are y/c + a/a = 0. 122. a/af 6//S = 0. of '1\ are ( a.2 (7T3 Hence AT^ passes through Note that T is the point of intersection of the tangents and C.LEMOINE GEOMETRY. For. it will be seen that of the inscribed triangle ABC. Let l\'l\'l\ be the Tangent Triangle. c). be the perpendiculars from T^ on AC. which the Lemoine Point of XYZ.. B so also do BT. The Lemoine Point A of I^A. . q__ S. if q. is the Gergonne Point of ABC.
The Harmonic Quadrilateral. = y/ft = c/b = sin 0/sin B = sin 5^T /sin CA'1\. for the perpendiculars from the point {(s a). A and A are harmonic. with to are parallel 124. p. ABA C being called. AJ3.symmedian of .A.. The point A has n. are 1/0 (2) Grergonne Point a). in the same order. on this account.90 MODERN GEOMETRY. z.. o of XTZJJJ. 0. (26) 123. 6 or (7. OAK = <. are (sa).. or parallel to the side HH Z S of the orthocentric triangle Let Then sin 0/sin < Therefore AK BAK = B.c. are : c). (s c)} on the sides of 1^1^ are found to be proportional to the sides of this triangle. BK l To prove that rectangle AB. (4) Centre of Sim.4 r Hence the pencils at B. x/AB = y/AC. <t> = sin = rectangle AC . AI^ is the J. 1 l . at B and and.K bisects all chords which T2 Tx or JToHg. The angles of the harmonic pencil at A are seen to be B. the J^symmedian of = .. To prove that JJT bisects all chords of the triangle ABC.. (s a).. or perpendicular to OA. .c. AB. (3) Lemoine Point A of IJ^: n. A. jugate to BK^ so that Similarly.A^B. are 1/0 a).Bsymmedian of And. = AC....<? a). AB and T^AI\ are harmonic conjugates and AC. u are the perpendiculars from K l on AB. since 5^ AK l is the . AC. 2 H^H^Hy respect to It follows that J.B.B. (7.G x/AB //. (s &). BCA/sin CBA = A^/A. &c. (56). since l is x/AB z/A. And. A^K^ is the Jljsymmedian in A C1 and CK^ the Csymmedian in AGA r l 1 .. (Fig.A^G sin 0/sin If x. which are parallel to the tangent at A. The same angles are found. (30) (32) : (.c. . a Harmonic Quadrilateral.A B.c. (s b. <. Note the following list of " (s a) " points (1) Nagel Point: b. or are perpendicular to OA.. In the triangle ABA the tangent at B is harmonically con<f> l } is the Bsymmedian for this triangle. 89).: n.C. ABC. since = y/AC = z/A. then For.c.
3. mon AB to A'l. respectively. and let A'K meet AD in I. 6 19 2. which OK From the diagram. OK cos Now and l = A'd = A'D. Then. rectangle XYVU inscribed ABC with the The diagram and that P lies on A'L The Lemoine Point K. CA.LEMOINE GEOMETRY. 126. so that in AD is A side XY on BC. HJ A'D = 2 fr c 2a 2 2A (117) . B'm. BC. C'n is the comcentre of three inscribed rectangles. since BK and the tangent BT at B form a harmonic pencil with BA. C' be the midpoints of BC. AB. B'. CA. standing on BC. The Lemoine Point is the point of intersection of lines to the midpoints of joining the midpoints of the sides of corresponding perpendiculars. shows that the midpoint of UV lies on A'A. common to find the locus of its centre P. pencil A'(AWco being ) is harmonic. therefore the range (AKK^T^ is harmonic l : therefore the bisected at I. To determine the direction angles makes with the sides of ABC. ABC A Let A'. 91 125.
OJ. since so that Z/j is aAa' = 90. /?/?. A the centre of the Apollonian Circle and orthogonal to the circle ABG. 1 and therefore 128. y'. . L^. aBA + BAa. L.A = LX through and. a! . is is the polar of L.. the other tangent from L v Hence the common chords AA^ BB^ GGl of the circle ABG and the Apollonian Circles intersect at K. + = 0. in ft J. C meet in a. . 1 of Section (120). Since AL^ since through Kr (BKfiL^ a tangent. . is l (aa').a(b~ c cos08 cos : 2 ). The circles described on aa'. . = Hence L^L. The equation to the tangent at A is ft/b+y/c 0. !TAe Apollonian. & 2 2 2 2 2 Z> ) : ) : ). where 1/m = = a 6 (c COS0! a(b"c c(a Hence the tripolar equation to OK is a ^ C )r ffe (c o )r *f6 (aa 6)rt = 0. B. It follows that AKK^Ti Note that OL bisects passes through the point l AKK A IS at right angles. which is therefore equipotential for the four circles.^LS is or x/ar + y/tf + z/c* 0. L. the polar of L passes through A is harmonic. &c.aA = L^a = . a/a /3/6fy/c This is called the Lemoine Axis. /^a = = = And. MODERN GEOMETRY. . COS0! : = .'. the passes polar of L t so that L.A.^ on the polar of K. BG ' Let the tangent at A to the circle ABC meet BG in L r Then so that angle L. 129. passing .92 . Let the several pairs of bisectors of the angles A. yy' as diameters are called the Apollonian Circles.AC \GAa. A Harmonic Quadrilateral such as ABA^ can be in verted into a square.. Circles. therefore L^L.B in y. m. lie Since the polars of L^ L>2 L s pass through K. The Lemoine Axis. 1 8 i i 2 s s l l 1 8 (17) 127.
A of n= Then. OB. BE. we have } ' E meet n LM= AB... . Hence LMNL' is a square.*.BT.C 3 : : : . taking power E E= the circle again in LMNL'. Another square may be obtained by taking E' as In the above figure.EC But since BE EC = BA : : AC. AE.LEMOINE GEOMETRY. /x v. .EB' LN = AC. . . /. LM = LN. and { two circles OE. lies on their common chord EE'. \ ?r so that x =v= . as pole and VII as radius of inversion (where RZ OE*). CE. 00. z & .OE' Let =S 2 . since the tangents OA. OA to the are equal. E' are inverse points for the circle ABC. E is on the Apollonian Circle aAa! /. so that E. Also E is on the Apollonian Circle r r = BE CE = Ba aC = c b = de = df or br = cr = = = \ A+ BEC TT^. 93 or l Then. Let the circle described with centre 'L\ and radius cut the Apollonian Circle L in E and E' . 2 : pole. Ac. n EA. aa'. EA.
this CA at C. C.. 94 and . A . CA. CttA touches C. BQ!G touches AB at B. Cti'A touches BC at Similarly. by </. 056' w. " (Memorize the order of angles for O by the word CAB. SlAB by each of the equal angles 0. ABC. C. AB at A. &c. Again. of circles be described whose On the sides BC. (ABC) being O Let the second triad intersect afc and O' are the Brocard Points of and the third at O'.O/> touches BC at B. QCA.A. QCA = SIBC. Q'AC = Q'CB = &BA. Denote each of the equal angles IBC.C. triad of circles intersect at the orthocentre H. = VAB. The Brocard Points. since J. 13O. 17. and AlB touches BC at B."} In like manner.. ASl'B touches CA at A. let triads external segments contain the angles AB O) (b) (c) A. BB.CHAPTER XI LEMOINEBROCARD GEOMETRY. Since the external segment of circle touches BQC contains the angle C.'CB. the angle So Similarly. the cyclic order The first preserved.
LEMOiNEBROCARD GEOMETRY.
95
131 To determine
B
CD
and
to'.
In the triangle AtoB, toB =: c sin w/sin B 2R sin to.c/6. to A = 2B sin to 6/a, 12 6 = 2 JB sin co So a/c
=
Y
.
.
;
sin (01 to) sin to
...
_
~~
sin
CLIO
12 0.4
_ ~
120
_
a2
be
.
sin
toA~
'
cot
to
=
_
4A
sin J,
2
^1 2
cot
A + cot 5 + cot
2
2 sin
+ sin B + sin C. ^. sin B sin C
a>
_ 1
4
cos
sin ^1 sin
;
A cos j? cos C B sin
The same expressions are found
^^
for a/
o>.
The angle
,
<o,
which
is
QCA, &BA, Q'CB, Q'AC,
oV
equal to each of the six angles QA B, is called the Brocard Angle of
ABC.
Since
to'
=
o>,
.
it
follows that
A = 2E sin w
a
c/a,
Q'C
n.c. of

=
2 Z? sin
co
.
Observe that the
=
2A
CL" \~
\~
K may now be written
to
to,
fe/c,
O'5
=
2.R sin
w
.
a/6.
.
a
b
c"
= Ja tan = R sin A tan
n.c.
&c.
(117)
132. To determine the
and
b.c. of to
and
fi'.
From
So
the diagram, a toB sin
=
to
212
sill to
2
.
fi
=
to
.
2R
6/c,
sin
2
to
.
a/c,
y
sin
2
= 2E sin
to
.
c/6.
2
to
.
6/a.
And
a'
for O',
= 2B sin aa' =
.*.
2
ft'
:
=
2R
y8y8'
= yy'
: :
c/a,
7'
=
2JB sin
2
to
.
a/6,
so that O,
12'
are Counter Points.
2
:
The
b.c. of
O
are given
by
x:y:z
and for
to',
x'
toto' is
2
y'
z'
= =
2
l/b2
:
1/c
2
I/a
1/61
4
;
1/c
:
I/a
2
:
The
line
4
then found to be
2
(a
6
c
2
).^/a
of
to
+ (6
4
cV).?//6 +(c
2
a
2
6
2
2
)^/c
=
0.
The power
U
= /V+"; . ^
on
,
?'f 22
^
22
..
=
on'.
96
MODERN GEOMETRY.
133. The Brocard Angle
is
never greater than 30.
\
For
and
.*.
cot
<o
=
co
cot
A
cot
B + cot
(7,
cot
cot
V
2
cot ('+...
cot
2
=
...
1
;
=
/.
(cotl?cot(7) +...
cot
to
+ 2; = 2(cotM + ...)2
J.+
=
Hence
is
2 (cot 2 (o3).
is
never less than A/3, and therefore w
never
greater than 30.
134, Some useful formulae.
(a)
cosec
2
CD
=
=
1 4 cot 2
<o
=
1 4 (a 4 &
2
2
+c )
2
2
2
/16A
and
s
,
,
.
1
4
a4
2
.
sin
cu
This expression will be denoted by
(6)
e
cos
CD
==

.
.
(c)
sin 2to
2 2 2A(a + 6 + c
2
)
.
^
.
2
a
(d)
COS
l>oi
= _
A^
a
(e)
cotL^^j. 4
sin
A(
(A
w)/sinw
a>)
:
(/) Since
/.
= a /66;
s
sin(J.
w)
:
sin(l?
sin
(0
w)
to)
to
.and
(gr)
sin(J.
sin
(^.4
w) sin (/?
jw)/sin
o>
<o)
siii(6'
=a = sin
3
:
I
s
:
c
8
,
3
to.
=
sin
A (cot
f
cot
A)
Note
(/&)
that,
when
6
c,
sin
to
cos (^4
+ <o)/sin J.
sin
+ w) = 2 sin = cot A cot 1
(^4.
to
2
to.
/.
cos(yl+(o)
=
a
sin
sin
A sinto/8A
4
.(fc
+c
4
a 2 /; 2
<rc
2
)
f
'.
(AE)
sin
7>
+
sin ( J.
C)
sin
LE:IOINEBROCARD GEOMETRY.
97
135. JTeuberg Circles.
of a triangle The base being fixed, to determine the locus of the vertex A, when the Brocard Angle of the triangle is constant.
BG
ABC
ABC
to
Bisect
BG
in I)
:
draw DA^A. perpendicular, and A
2
M parallel
BG.
Then
=
4. area of
.'.
ABC
L
4,a.DM
2
AD*
.
a.
DM .coto) + 3/4.a = 0.
so that
Take
DN =
\ a cot o>,
BND = GND =
2 1/4. a
u>.
Then
NA*
= =
AD* + ND 2 2.DN .DM
3/4.o
constant.
8
=
(cot'w3)
Hence the locus
centre N,
of 4 is a circle, called
a Neuberg Circle,
and radius p =
\a
136. Let
nicies of
Sj&C', #_E7'(7
the
common
base BC, so that
be equilateral triangles on opposiie DE = a. V3.
Let the Neuberg Circle cut
Then
DA,. DA,
=
DJV 2  P 2
H
DE in A A. = 3/4. a = DE
2
.
2
2
.
And
thus, for different values of
<o,
the Neuberg Circles form
= BG BT. will be called the Steiner Angles.98 a coaxal family. A. MODERN GEOMETRY. = cot to p/^a = f cot \/cot 3. A. with right angles and Z>. But A.D(7 _ ^^ _ ~ BG l >. ~*inB l\D~ BD r BD Similarly.CT^ 19 = CE* = : CB\ . .G. so that the triangles GBA GT^B B'l\ : are similar A. From the similar triangles BA. T^BC. and EG for Let GA l cut the circle in Tv Then. with Radical Axis. 2 a> 3. The Steiner Angles. This gives cot 2 ^ 2 cot J# cot w + 3 = 0.C = A + _ sin r. BT then l is a tangent at Similarly. /_ n sino> oi i o) BT^D = BND or w BG = u + BA. a limiting point. whence cot^^ as is obvious cot 00+ cot^A. and . 137. BT^ND^ . = Also.B if = /. 15 A% are the values of x obtained from sin (x + w) = . since E is A . BA% cuts the circle at T^ CT is a tangent at T 2 .NAJDB GJ 2 .C. GA^. For A. = BG = BE Tr . So denoted by S 19 cotJA /S' 2 = cot w \/cot w A V \A^ The angles %A 2.D/DB j DJNT/DJ5 . 3. 2 sin o>. = =  cot w v/cot' 2 w w v/cot' 2 3 . from the diagram. E and E' for Limiting Points.B /. L r l\BG BAf.G. from the cyclic quadrilateral at T.. sin w Thus J.
BY.# 0) . 2 2 2 o>) (134 a) 139. v = A.. 99 138. Z. a sec 0. Either Brocard Point For ft. \' = = ABO. 2p sin A. A = (131) to J\ sin to. 2 . 1. b/a sin .'. . To prove that AX. A. Lemma I. Then 04 = ^ a tan ft = JO7sin(C'6>) = i. v' So that the pedal triangles of the Brocard Points are similar for ft'. the circumradius of the pedal triangle of 2p sin B. sin (B 6). ft or ft' supplies some interesting illustrations of the properties of pedal triangles. CZ are concurrent. (a 2 /32 y2 ).i a2 a : ft : = sin0 sin (00) = sin (00) sin : : sin (.c. . so 0. = But ef=QARiuA = 2R sin p to . : : sin (A : 0). And to B. ZAB be isosceles triangles. of X. (a 3 &y3 ) be the n. . ABO A have their linear ratio equal sin w. the triangles sin <o : def. and having a common base angle 6.MOINEBROCARD GEOMETRY. // /x = 0. yx = ia sec 0. 4 sin Oft = E (l II 2 2 2 2 to. described inwards or all outwards. sin (C0) .2 7. A + \ = BQO = 1800 = A + B. YCA. U Also . To determine p. ft : == s i n (^ 0) : sin (^ 0^ si 11 0 . \ = B. 2 /. ef ft. = 4_B /A U E Oft = n = 4JR sin = e'E*. all Let XBC.LE. A C So that fll : ft : yj y. Let (a^yO. Y. Hence.
3 3 8 I/sin (Acu) Ac.c. Hence AX. its n. 141.. Counter Point conic OK. so that 1 N^N9 the three Neuberg Circles.6) (A) In the diagram of Neuberg's Circle v and on BC.c.. For the n. = 0> = y/y 1? 7 sin (C0). AT? describe the isosceles triangles N^BC.sin (7? 0) } oc 26 sin (7 oc I/a . 1/af =0. 97).100 MODERN GEOMETRY. 0. BN. is sin G) . N. 2 1/c . S concur at a point whose at the Tarry Point. AB. &c. for triangles ABC. 7) be the n. I/sin (7?0). . of The centroid (') For if (a. are as the The point obviously of lies on Kiepert's Hyperbola.c. RAB the Centre of Perspective for PQR. with the Illustrations. that is. the lines AiV.c. b. N^AB (all inwards)... . being as 2 being as I/a 1/6% . 8 0^ concur at a point whose the centre of n. of P are as a 2 c 2 . 3. (B for the K. I/sin (00). O. to The equation or AX is sin (7>> ft/fa ft. (Appendix TIL a) 14O. BQ...H. (p. ^ : y l = sin sin (C = 1 cr/ab b*/ac. N CN For a second illustration take the triangles PBC. of aj : /'.c. CR meet at a point D. or I/a 1/6 1/c the . a> : : co) : sin (7^ co) . equation . XYZ coincides with a. while AP. : BO that the b. called the First Brocard Triangle. Perspective I/sin (A J3Y..2 CA. Lemma II. CA. . 0). XYZ. ABC. (la = + Oo + = \ sec0 [a sin 016 sin (0 ttj 0) +c.c of G'. having the common base angle w measured inwards. The triangle PQR. 8. (See Appendix 771. are as sec (A + w). change N into N common are the centres of base angle (^TT <o). Then since sin (A 0} becomes cos (A + <*>). . corresponding to 7? (7. has G for centroid from (140).2 n. (143) .. 6r' coincides with G. CA.c. &c. 6 2 .
follows that P. . AE pass through fl.tan w = KM. while C'P. ABC (4p_pewdi'a' 7IZ". BR Since o>. /. a 2 . c) Hence the Axis is of Perspective of the triangles z/O 142. cr. O'. O. pass through O'. Similarly OQ. c 2 . A B (a) Since PA' = /. E lie on the Brocard Circle (OA'). = (6) Since the angles PPG'. Q'. 4 6V ) + 2 . . AB respectively.4'. QBG are each PP passes through O. ? //(6 cV) + s/(c'aW) _p<?r = 0. = 0. will now be investigated. AQ.LEMOINEBROCARD GEOMETRY. 2 ?/ . =0. 7CK are parallel to OA. . it OPK = 90 = OQK = ORE. Q. ?r. AP is parallel to so Y^. PQR. Some of the relations between O. The equation 4 of & e 3 2 QR found to be a 2 6 2 )2/+(6* (a )0+(c cV)s = This meets J56' at a pointy. tan PjBA' = Ja. BC. and K. and those R are 0. for which 4 8 s a 2 o 6 )y+(fe*c a ) (c 4 or. A'. 5. Similarly those of 101 of Q are is 4 2 c' .
sec((7 + u>). (e) L so Q'OK = VOK = &PK = OJ5(7 = OK bisects flO' at right angles (at Z). and crS perpendicular to BC.OA = R sin A tan 1 (KM perp. o> .2 . 00 OK (diameter of Brocard Circle) = DO' = 2 012 sin = 2eR sin .c. . secw. From Section (138). N pendicular to Hence N is the Tarry Point. sec(5+(o). the triangles having centroid G as their double point.c. Hence the n. 2 is to S on the circle J^BO therefore the called the Tarry Point. PRQ=C. The point diametrically opposite Now 03T sin ^ = J^M.. or as a (o r ) . To determine 2 geometrically. that # 3 are the direction angles of OK. and the are as l/(6 c ). = R (14 sin o> 2 4 oo) = eR . as sec(J. AB. of Tare 2 R sin 2 sin 8 &c.. 3. .c. o>) =B = PQR. cos 6 l oc a (6 of it has been proved The n.'. 2 is the pole of the ABC OK.f to). c. 143.. Since KQ. which 2 (126) are as sectf]. In (42) let is the pole be the Lemoine Axis then of the Simson Line parallel to this axis. O (and similarly O') lies on the Brocard Circle. o> to 56') IZ cos 4 cos(J. and is denoted by T Simson Lines of 2 and T are at right angles. (46) . 5 5 are 2 R cos c 2 cos b. <o. So and thus the QPR = QKR = A. and therefore per oc Hence the n. of Tare PQR OK. &c. . PQR is common Since inversely similar to ABC. eR to. RQP = B. are parallel to AC.102 (c) MODERN GEOMETRY. draw Aa.parallel to OK. KR. . The Steiner and Tarry Points. 0. 2 2 c ). + oo). (d) POE = VAB + ttBA = u+(B . (35) The ABC Steiner Point denoted by is Simson Line which parallel to If 0j. &c.
OAh)* (oa^sys)* and 6r' respectively. 2BA = KQP = (similar figures) JKTJKP. JV have .^70. a.'. coincides with G. So and /. 3oT B<r is parallel to BC. for L. = 2 A/ + y + z). = 2A/(o. zxy. xyz. Since ZSOT a diameter. to to ABC. and arc = a right angle. (aj 04 8 (a.). since KR . Now. 2B is parallel to EP. 2 3 Ac./. Hence G' coincides with G. above). . is parallel to L Similarly. and 2 are homologous. 6?'.LEMOINEBROCARD GEOMETRY. and KO to A<r (as OKR = <rAB = T2C. 145. Therefore Hence the figures KPROQ. of /. OKQ = T2B . PQR being the First Brocard Triangle. to &c. 103 144.'. ^AGTB are inversely similar. inversely similar to prove that the figure KPROQ is inversely similar is 2ACTB. b. N W) be tne absolute n.c. Then.y/a. . Hence TA is perpendicular to QE. also ABC. Lemma. AB (142 a.c. so that aT is CT. The points L. L. + y + ). the mean centre of Let (0. Hence and T are homologous points in these two triangles. If. a = 2 A/ + y + 2) a?/a 3a' = ai + a 4a = 2A/o. are inversely similar. . from the equal arcs. PQR K Since L parallel to . TO to PQ. arranged in cyclic order LMN. 3f. and AB is KR. to prove that (a proportional to yzx. T5 EP.
the orthocentre of PQE. 146.0Z = 2. and therefore of the ABC. and Dfi" =2. Hence G But . the 2 b. 12' 2 . Bisect DO' in Z. O. and Z GD = : 1 : i>. 2 2 . 2 2 . . The order. (9 lies 1/c are I/a in cyclic order. in then L in PQR is homologous to Therefore the axes of similitude of the two inversely similar triangles bisect the angles between GO and GL. 8 b. LGH' /. .104 MODERN GEOMETRY. 1 : But LG GH' = ZG GD = J^ is 2 . is : the Euler Line of : PQR. PQR. It being aVfe 7/W. 1/6 1/c . of . of P. as already and is therefore the double point of the inversely . 1/c l/a .c. Brocard Circle (OK) .'. Q. and G the centroid of PQR.'. Again. i is the circumcentre. Let L be the circumcentre of PQJR. in cyclic follows that G is the centroid of PQR.c. similar triangles ABC. 1). then on DZ. (H orthocentre of ABO) OK. Let Since LG meet DIf in H'.S" is parallel to OG:GH=l:2. 1/6'.eP cos to. 1/6 I/a is the centroid of DOQ'. j . proved. it cW. D. 2 .
. . 0. /.= P. 2 p . DT: . OL = OK. OO' are tangents to the circles . Ofi 2 or OO' 2 .p.ZL = 2 cos > p cos 2w . from H'T:LT= GT+2. H'TiLT = /. OD:B = 2cos2o>l:l. H'D eR cos w^eR sec w = = 2.= GT : <!L. 105 HH' 2 is . if OGT = LGO. . : : . on SOT. : then GO GL = R . in the latter.'. Again. T in the former figure are homologous to G. So that OO. OD = eK =eE = 2 2 Note also that OD. ZL = OZp = /. Again. f 2o>. From and (146) H'D ZL : = H'G GL : = 2 : 1 . : so that G. OT= H'T: LT = 2cos2w:l. jB 2 + 'V J^p : : 2 = 2 cos 2w D lies 1 = H'D LO : (or p). Hence angle Again. (by similar figures). and. 02 respectively. L. H'HKO bisects and E'K OH a parallelogram at the NinePoint centre. is 147. To prove that D lies on the circurndiameter SOT. L.p~ above.GTGT GO. p(= eR secco) be the radius of the Brocard Circle.LEMOINEBROCARD GEOMETRY.. To determine OD. GT GL = R. So GT:GO=R: P : : and GO'=GL. Since G figures 2ACTB. T are collinear. 148. KPROQ. the double point of the inversely similar therefore the points 6?..GL: GTGL.
c. . The Isodynamic Points. (A The circamradii . since p q r I/a l/b 1/c. In this case. Let this Radical Axis cut then. These are the pair of inverse points triangles are equilateral . since K . = for I/a. . )\ oc a (6 *_ c s) ri i_. OK in X . Then ' (p/paW) be the tripolar coordinates of constant. Consider the coaxal system which has limiting points. 8. : : : : 8 and 8 t for its From (149). cos^ oc 2 a(6 c 2 ).'. is \0 ^K X8 2 or XSj 2 since ABO belongs to the coaxal system. p sinA ef p sin 60 l 8a . (126) and this is satisfied 8. 1). . Areas of pedal triangles = 2A*/M (3^) Absolute n. l). ABO . Let (piP2 p3 ). The Powers 11(11^ are given by H (BO = 8Es A/Jf (1Q = 2EV(cotoi cot60=bl). 149. of the pedal triangles are given by area of pedal triangles sin 60 sin 60 sin 60 2p* (2p*) = = iA/(cot<ocot60l). 8! lie Hence 1 50. . 8 and 8 1? whose pedal so that A = ^ =v= X+ o> .106 MODERN GEOMETRY. M= a? cot = 4 A (cot . i> by on OK. therefore the Radical Axis of the system becomes which is the Lemoine Axis Jj^L^Jj^. cot 60 + 4A + 1)._. Therefore the Brocard Circle (OK) belongs to this system. (68) = oc a (a l} sin = A/(cot(ocot60 = abc 60). = = ' PiP2'Pz= 1> 1/& : = c !/ = />/ : Ps' ^ Pa' The tripolar equation to OK is 0. = = the pole of LJJ^LZ for the circle square of tangent from X to ABC. and therefore is coaxal with ABC. (64) 4A (cot & cob 60 So for ST M. 60.
1 Let a/?y. if equilateral triangles XBC. then XA. = aa x g/p . ti . Their n. 107 151. i/ . Also . so that the ABC b.LEMOINEBROCAKIJ GEOMETRY. of O are as tan A. = . the centre O.. ZAB be described inwards on BC. AB. Their antipedal triangles are equilateral. while the angle of projection 6 is cos" q/p. of = the ellipse. sin sin 2p. with axes 2p. sin (5 C)/a+. 152. tanv. The Isogonic Points. Let l/a + m//3 + n/y 0. 2 2/?y sin 2A sin 2 2 2p sin 2v . A. from (139).  (aa + 6/3 + cy) =A i/ . the point of concurrence is S/. 0.lfo>J\r /. 2q. . of O are as sin 2X. YB. be the triangle into which /.*.J3OC'xcos0. the radius of the circle being therefore g. = g sin 2X 2 A. . ZC concur at 8' for the outward system. are !} . . with angles X/xv. ~ oc ale l sin(Bd=60) sinf fJ=b60) sin 60 M(M )'' sin 60 60). so that 2aa' n.c.c.b/3 + cy aa' 2pg sin X cos /x cos v = . These points lie on Kiepert's Hyperbola. I/Bin (4 Hence. 2pg sin X sin /x sin 2a' aa \. Project the ellipse into a circle. centre co. be oa + fyS + cy.. tan/x. YCA.c. a//?V be the and A'B'C'. ABC is projected. Since and and it = 2pq sin A sin sin v aa+6/2fcy = 4>pq sin A cos/x cos aa = pq sin 2A A . 2/t.c.. referred to ABC Let LMN. These are the Counter Points of 8 and B l they are therefore denoted by 8' and /. follows that (aaf bfi = cy) . having areas %M (MJ = 2A (cot w cot 60d=l). whose equation is .. Again A. so that the A'B'G' b. aa =: pg' sin2X. CA. The Circumellipse.
whose sides touch the * Then LMN (fig. A cot 2 (cot wf \/cot w 3)/ \/3 where The which * jS 2 v/cot a> (cotw ^/p ^. . Counter Point Locus of the Steiner Ellipse is a/a+0/6+?/c s= 0. . is the Lemoine Axis.. the projection of T is evidently the Lemoine Point of p.. . BQ. . 2 sin' 2 v. a 2 cot A + b" cot ^ f c 2 cot v =. al : bm : en 2 = sin A 2 sin 2 //. when the area of the ellipse Let PQB he the triangle formed by tangents to the Ellipse at A. 1 sin sin A So . a  =0. = = 4A/3 \^3 _pg = cot V3 \/3 3)/v/3 = cot w . are as HN*. be projected into pqr. A = 2A (sec 6 + cos 2A (q/p+p/q) A sin/x sinv.I/ for the angles of their pedal triangles. = And from (152). or as sin A. The point T may be called the Sub. . C then AP. found that 2 2 p~ + cf = p/q (a 4. 2A J/ (p* + q*)/l>q. 6) = .c ) = f 2 . B. are as Z. and therefore its b. well known example is the Steiner Ellipse.Lemoine Point of the conic.S T . aa b/3+cy) (aa+bficy) giving the locus of the centre. 89).108 MODERN GEOMETRY. /A. Hence the and its Ellipse is sin A. /S2 are the Steiner Angles. Counter Point Locus is . From (91). GR have a common point call it T f . sin : 2 2 tt. whose Let circle b. (irpq) is constant. sin v sin A sin /x sin v (P~g) 8 = i.. . sin 2 A/a./3y + .. PQR LMN.fe 4.c. = v ^TT. 2pq sin . and LMN A It will be /u.. NL LM2 .c. v. en. = 0. This is the Radical Axis of the coaxal system. whose Limiting Points have A/U. .'. : sin v. //. To calculate the axes of the ellipse in terms of A. fern. whose centre so that is equilateral. = 3 ^ sin x A siti /x sin v is A 6r./a..
.? is similar to the pedal triangle of 8. including def. be any triangle inscribed in The circles AE F. and let its DEF /x. (circle tiD'BF). Then SD = of these angles a sec (9. Again.AB. changing their size but not their shape. as in (56) by drawing inner arcs (A + X). e = /LI. eSE. 109 . where (a/3y) are the n. with their vertices on the sides of ABC. Hence /S is the double point for any pair of the family of similar triangles DEF.CHAPTER PIVOT POINTS. 153. its SDBF. ABC. SF = y sec b. Let angles be A. BFD.c. of 8. XII. ODE meet in a point call it S.CA. andp Sdf. and thus the triangle D/*/. on BC. \>. / dSf irB L DSF by ft Hence Denote each dSD = fSF = 0.*. circumradius. d angle So . so that it may be fitly named the " Pivot Point " (Drehpunkt) of these triangles. TUCKER CIRCLES. Let def be the pedal triangle of S. L SDF = SBF or SBf = SDE = Sde so 1 = X. /=:/. which rotate about it. The point $ can be found. SE = sec 0. In the circle 17 its area..
is a line through perpendicular to 8m. let cutting the sides of ABC again in D'E'F'. if The linear dimensions of DEF. sin X sin sin = Z7 known. and. An important case is that of the centres of the triangles DEF. 155.^. For M sin A (65) where and so that M= p is a~ cot 2 Xf 2 fe cot /* /x.is the centre of DE F. . These lie on a line through <TO the centre of the circle def. if a. and S' their Pivot Point. . absolutely in terms of X/xv 154. so that. be the angles of the family of triangles D'E'F'. 0. All the elements of DEF may now be determined and 0. then perpendicular to >Scr <rSo = 6. A FI'E + F'EE' 180 = FDF + F'D'E' = So 18GB . and the locus of m M M for different triangles DEF . Hence SD = 2p sin a sec . def are as sec 6 1 M. m are homologous points in these triangles then MSm = 0. v' DEF In the triangle AF'E. . The circle X'. circumradius of EF = X area of D#^ = U sec 2 6^ DEF = p = = 2&/M sec. S = mS sec : . . +c i/ 2 cot v + 4d . . //.110 M ODERN GEOMETRY . 2p .
oiSV/S". L o'SV where 6' = d'S'D'. . and has $. either being the centre of the circle 0' = 0. to . SS' = S'(T . To prove that the circle DD'EE'FF' touches the conic which is inscribed in ABC.Str . . But a' coincides with DD'EE'FF'. Now. Let TT be a point where the circle since Soti' . ..PIVOT POINTS. HI It follows that S' is the Counter Point of $. TUCKER CIRCLES. and that the AX. normal to the conic at TT. meets the conic. S' for foci.. . = S& (Sir + S'TT) = major axis of conic. Hence =& a.. the centre of D'E'F'. 156. STT j. Hence this circle touches the conic at r. we SV $' through o.and take To find or'. S'ir : =: So. in the cyclic quadrilateral OTT . .. (102) angles of the family D'E'F' are 180 The triangles def. . is the centre of the circle DD' . <T7r = p sec 6 = S<rJS<r = 2 cos p. draw a perpendicular .2p But Also cr SS'/S<r = for 2p '2 . Then arc So = S'ar Therefore CTTT is L STrS' is bisected by TTO. d'e'f therefore have the same circumcentre cr and the same circumradius p .
B.. and therefore to have angles X. vertices slide on fixed circles. if 2V. Through A draw QR parallel to EF. so that P on the circle BS'C'p. linear dimensions of the similar triangles PQR. . B. as the vertices of the sides of PQR. and '. 8q. /A. n be homologous points in the two as cos 6 1 describes a circle on S'n as diameter. Triangles circumscribed about ABO. C. pqr are so that. S'q cos 0. &c. Let QC. The : N . is Since S'q a diameter of S'qQC. and therefore making an angle with qr.112 MODERN GEOMETRY. the Antipedal Triangle of S'. . Through A. AQC = AqC lies and ARB = v . S'Q= Therefore 8' '... Obviously Sp. triangles. S'B. v. C draw perpendiculars to S'A. Since RB meet at P. homothetic to its DEF slide along DEF. /A. R Hence. Sr are diameters of the circles BS'Cp. S'O. 157. forming pqr. S' being Counter Points) is known to be homothetic to def. the sides of AB( rotate about A. This triangle (o. is the double point of the family of triangles including jp^r. the pedal triangle of S.
Tucker. O' . V= = %M . 2 2p' sin \ sin /x sin v . To determine the elements of PQR. . F=f= A. 2 Then. QAFf.2A /M sec 0. 113 158. when The K. An for " circle Pivot Points series interesting " of circles we take the Brocard Points O and present themselves. = ^M. is then called a Tucker Circle. B. SlOZ = u = VAF = O5D = Q(IE7. and by Z' (corresponding to a) the circumcentre of DEF. Area circumradius of p' 2 p' cos 0. d'e'f Since are now B. common common The line of centres ZZ'. and the area of homothetic to DEF. TUCKER CIRCLES. from who was the first thoroughly to investigate its def. 159. the area of areas of any triangle the triangle which ABC is DEF PQR a geometric mean between the ABC. From (84) so that. O'. Hence. 1'. D'E'F'. 0.) the centre of the pedal circle of O. Z'VZ follows that the figures VOZ'Z. for PQR.PIVOT POINTS. DD'EE'FF'. Tucker Circles. /. VBDd. Denote by Z (corresponding to o. also And it since = = Dtid = EVe = Ftlf. the pedal triangles of 12. and whose sides is inscribed in pass through A. if area of pqr p' be the circumradius of pqr. But PQR = V cos = i Afcos area of DBF . C. D= d = E = e= C. 2 2 . VCEe are similar. properties. falls on Oil. bisecting Ofi' at right angles.
114
Let
'
MODERN GEOMETRY
.
=
0'
= ACIF = BttD =
CQE.
Then
Now the
.'.
radius of the pedal circle of
fii)'
=
JP
7i*
sin w, (138)
circumradius of DD' ...
= p = p sec =
Tt.siii to/sin (o> 40').
The quadrilateral BDSIF being cyclic, EFT) therefore the arcs DF', FE', ED' subtend each an angle circumference, and are therefore equal.
= B&D
6'
6'
:
at the
Hence the chord E'D is parallel to AB, F'E to BC, D'F to AC and a circle with centre Z' and radius p cos 0' will touch the
:
three equal chords. In the cyclic quadrilateral so EDF, AE'F that the equal chords are antiparallel to the corresponding
E
!
= EDF=B;
sides of
ABC.
L TJE'D'
= F'E'E =
F'E'D' F'E'D
F'E'D' + D'E'E
=
A0'.
A+
6'.
Chord EF'
parallel to
chord DD' cut from
BO = 2p sin F'E'E = sin (4 + 6') EC = 2/> sin DE'D' = 2 P sin (A 6').
'2,>
;
And
if
afiy
be the
n.c. of
the centre
Z
1
',
a
= p cos^DZ'D' = p cos DE'D' = p cos (A&).
PIVOT POINTS.
TUCKER CIRCLES.
formulae will be found useful.
H5
16O. The following
(a)
(b)
(c)
list of
Radius of
circle circle
DD' ...
=
p
E
sin co/sin (w
+
fl').
Radius of
touching equal chords
;
= p' = p cos
$'.
N.c. of centre Z'
a
= p cos (A
PC =
6').
(d)
(e)
Length
of equal antiparallel chords
=
2p sin
&'.
Chord DD' cut from
Chord #/<"
If
d!
l
2p sin (A
&).
(>').
(/)
parallel to
EG
0.K"
2p sin (A +
((/)
and d are points on
such that
00d
then
a x cos aa
l
=
30, OOdj
=
150;
(A3Q) a
150)
sin
(4 + 60),
60).
8
and
oc
cos (^t
a sin (J.
Hence d and d coincide with the Isodynamic Points
and
8r
161. The Radical Axis of the Tucker and the circle ABC.
If
circle
(parameter
#'),
^
2
,
2
2
,
I.*
then the required Radical Axis
are the powers of A, B, is t *x
l
C
for the
Tucker
+
...
= 0.
A 'sin (wf 6')'
circle,
(62)
Now,
'sin
=
And
since
sin o 2p
.
Kin
5 A

. .
sin 6.
/,,
EF'
is
parallel to
BO,
.
sin
.'.
A
2
.
^
2
= AF. AF' = 4p
sin ^. sin
S sin C sin
0'.
sin
(4 f ^)/sin
8
^1,
so that the Radical Axis is
sin^+0'^ +
..
=
0.
116
MODERN GEOMETK Y
.
162. The properties of four Tucker Circles, whose centres are certain standard points on OK, will now be discussed.
(A) The First Lemoine Circle, or Triplicate Ratio Circle. This has its centre at L, the midpoint of OK, or the centre of the Brocard Circle.
so that
&
(a) p
(]})
=
<o.
Then,
(c)
= R sin w/siii 2w = = ^R. p = p COS a = ^Ksec cos (A
to
^Ii*
sec w.
00.
w).
o>
.
(d) Antiparallel chord
(e)
= R sec sin = tan Chord DD' cut from 5C = E sec sin (A
<o
Z?
oo.
o>
o>).
So that
:
FF'
=
sin
(A
o>)
:
sin(Sw)
:
sin (6
y
o>)
Hence the name "Triplicate Ratio
(/)
Circle."
Chord EF'
parallel to
BC = R
sec <o.sin
is anti
These chords pass through K.
parallel to
.'.
For since chord ED'
AB, ED'C
perp. from
E
on
= A, BC = ED' sin A = tan sin A, = perp. from K on BC.
li
o>
.
from
(^)
6/ (d) (a) (/) Antiparallel chord = R sin 2w. . w.PIVOT POINTS. (B) The Pedal Circle The centre being (a) p (fo) ' Z. 2 (o. D'E each equal that they each pass through the centre K.'.a>) := . DD' : = 2R tan EE' FF' : cos A . ' <o (131) F'D. so (d) Antiparallel chords E'F." : cos 5 : cos (7. <o). J>D' = cos A Circle. a = R tan sin ^1. p = R tan w. (C) The Second Lemoine Circle. co 2R tan w.0. Hence the name "Cosine (/) Chord parallel to BC = 2R tan <o cos A = chord cut from BC. so that & = O&K = Jir. H7 163.R sin 2 a> . or Cosine Circle. Chord cut from BC = 2R sin w cos Chord parallel to BO = 2R sin w cos (J. A The centre (a) (6) (c) of this circle is K". sin (A f. 6' = %TT c) = R sin = sin p' a = R sin 72 oj. 164. P . from (e) . a) . TUCKER CIRCLES of OQ'. as is also obvious the diameter (6).
. = Ctt'D' = </>. (131) sin to Also cot o> Hence tan < AF sin A sin 5 sin C + = cos J. B. Then it may be shown that H F' Z perpendicular to AQ'E' = Btl'F' . H H^ H Let Then and A&F = <. called the Taylor Mr. = BOD AVF A 13. Let H!. it follows that circle. Taylor. . H. E to CA. D' perpendicular to BC. The six triangles lie A&F. 1 j6> . H. (131) Similarly it may be shown that tan 5OD or tan ClE BO that = tan A tan B tan = CUE. A B O < The angle is called the Tajdor Angle. 165. . M. The Taylor Circle. C on the opposite sides. being all similar. cos B cos (7 sin A sin sin (7 = tan A tan 5 tan 0. = 2R sin sin 5/sin A 2 o> .. Draw S perpendicular to AB. draw HJE' perpendicular to CA. sin B = 211 sin B sin C AQ.118 MODERN GEOMETRY. AF AH. after D&EE'FF' on a Tucker circle. H. jff3 Next.2 D to BC.2 be the feet of the perpendiculars from s A.
also the \ K T 166. parallel to AB.PIVOT POINTS. D' F to AC. (c) 'a = RDcos(A<j>} = R (cos A cos 5 cos 2 sin 2 A sin 5 sin C). : : 0. + cos A sin cos . Note the equal antiparallel chords DP'. circle To determine the Radical Axis of the Taylor Circle. cos 2 B cos (7. />) 0. / . 2 D sin where < = + sin A sin B sin D = cos JL cos B cos 2 2 : D cos = < cos J.4 cos B cos + cos A </> . OT TK tan < : T being the centre of this tan o> = tan A tan B tan C circle. x + . is Hence. 2.1 <) = R sin 2. FE'. cos </> =D oc sin A 2 .= J?_D cos </> := + 7? cos ^4 cos 5 cos sin (w =R sma> .. sin ( ABC and the A f <) = sin ( A . the other chords being D'F and E'D. ^'7 parallel to BC = R sin 2. sin ^4 sin B sin ( ') sin A cos A. the Radical Axis 2 cot A. Since < TUCKER CIRCLES. C f sin 2 A sin J5 sin 2 (7. w. : tan . A diagram shows that. (21) . . 119 is less than 2 TT. F'E to BC. ED' chord E'D. from (61). (d) Antiparallel chord E'F or F'D or D'E sin 7? sin 0. we have (7..4 cos A . The (a) list of formulae is now Radius of Tcircle p' (fe) . So that the tripolar coordinates of the Limiting Points of these two circles are as cot A cotB cot C.4 cos (BC).B sin sin </> = 2RD = A (e) Chord (/) Chord cut from BO = 2ED sin (.
. oc sin A. Project LMN. placed at the angular points d.. and angle (MM'. p at L... ..'.. is (ee'. the same masscentre. whose sides are parallel and proportional to p. are the projections of LL'. in the case under discussion. 120 . &c. q at M. e. To determine the condition that the two systems shall have . and the masscentre 011 any axis.. and let lmn. Hence all pedal triangles same masscentre for the A sec def of points P on TT have constant masses sin A sec 6 V or sin 1B f the &c. and let its pedal triangle be d'e'f. L'M'N'. NN')... But I I'. NN'. and so for any number of axes. Then m')+r(nn') + . In the case of a triangle p. If'. Let LMN. Place equal masses p.LL' <x Bin (MM 1 .APPENDIX I. Therefore the required condition is that a closed polygon may be formed. /. &c. &c.. be two systems of n points...x be the distances of these projections from a given point on the axis. Here LL' = dd' = PP or > .LL'. MM'.. a second point P' on Now.. take TT. //') A oc p cos 6. NN') . cos ^. L' gr.. = 0..
= AR. AR=p/(p+q)..BR. BQ.c.BP.BP. Let the circle PQR cut the sides of ABC again in P19 Q 19 r R Then . l : q. } Therefore AP^ BQ GR .. = AR. . . = BP.APPENDIX II.AQ.BROP.AR.AQ^ . 6 2 121 . CQ. . So AR =pJ(p } {q l }.1>'.AR^ &c. GR are concurrent. l .BR.b... l are concurrent.AQ.AQ . since CQ QA = : r : /.'. . AR RB = p AQ=p/(r+p).BR .AQ . AQ.AR.CQ. CQr AQ. : Again. But AQ.CP. AR.CP. &c. AQi=pJ(ri+pJ. and .. since AP.AR = CP. by Ceva's Theorem. = AR.c. l l But. GQ.: BP.. To determine the second points in which the four circles out the Ninepoint Circle.
q. MODERN GEOMETRY. whose b. are as a /(q r*).c. a 2& 2 Tn (80) it Point Circle at a point Similarly the circle Point Circle at a point aJ ' ' was shown that the circle 1J QR cuts the Nine w. p. <x M .122 . a oc +r Hh g : r \p .'. if the b. of <o' are given by ^ 2 ' a AT So. So ql r.c.' R' cuts the NinePoint Circle again at o^ o> are given by 1 1 writing p for . of the circle PQ. where the (the same circle) cuts the Nineb.r.c. 2 PQB 1 1 1 <o'.
APPENDIX
(a)
III.
To determine the area
A'O
of
X YZ.
%a tan
.
Since
= E cos A
.'.
,
A'X
=
= E sin 4 tan
A + 0}
.
6.
OX=
B/cos
cos
(
.'.
/.
= OY.OZ.sinA = E /cos cos (B + cos (0 + 0) sin A. 2.&XYZ = '2(YOZ + ZOX+XOY) =
Z.&retiYOZ
2
2
.
(9)
...
;
and by some easy reduction we
obtain,
oj
&XYZ = AM cos
When
then
is
2
0.
[2 sin
sin (20
+ o>) }/sin
o>.
equal to either Steiner Angle,
sin (20
(137)
+ w) =
2 sin
w,
and the triangle
line.
XYZ
vanishes, so that
XYZ
is
a straight
But
this triangle always has G for its centroid. Hence, in this particular case, XYZ passes through G.
(b)
Instead of the base angles being equal, suppose that
z
and
 YCA = ZAB = BOX = CAY = ABZ = BXG CYA  AZB =
XE(
'
0,
0,
X

Then
Oj
a2 as
3a
= = = =
a. sin
b sin
c sin
sin </sin ^,
0.sin(C'
0.sin
0)/sinx,
^>)/siii
A,,
(B
x
;
a1
+ a2
+
u3
=
&c.
Hence
6r is
the eentroid of
XYZ.
123
124
(c)
MODERN GEOMETRY.
Let YZ, ZX,
XY
meet BG, GA,
AB
in x, y, z respect
ively.
Then, since AX, BY, GZ&re concurrent, xyz is a straight being the axis of perspective of the triangles ABC, XYZ. To show that the envelope of xyz is Kiepert's Parabola.
line,
The equation
of yz is
(Ay.&y,)
+ (wy a. ) 0+ (oAa,&) y = 0.
3
2
Now
So
y 2 a3
y3 a 2
oc
sin (J.
sin J. sin
0) sin
(B
0)
sin
sin
;
cc
B
sin
C sin 26.
sin
a3&"~* a
A
<* s ^
n^
sin J.
5 sin 2^.
sin
Therefore at # we have
/3/(sin
C'
sin ^4
sin
5
sin 20) +y/(sin
A sin 5
G
sin 20)
=
0,
so that xyz is
aa/(sin J. sin
Writing
this as
5 sin (7 sin A sin 20) + px + qy + rz = 0, we know,
2
. . .
=0.
this line touches the
parabola, the n.c.
oc
of
from (9), that whose focus are
a/(l/ 3 l/r), Ac.
Here
1/g
1/r
(sin J5
2 2
2
sin 0) sin 20.
c ) &c.,
2
Hence the focus has
2
n.c. a/(fc
2
and the
directrix is
(& c )cos.4a+... =0. Hence the envelope of xyz is Kiepert's Parabola, having for focus the point whose Simson Line is parallel to OGH, and
OGH for directrix.
INDEX.
[The numbers
refer to Sections,
Aiyar, V. R., 108, 109.
Angular Coords., 81.
Apollonian Circles, 127, 129.
Artzt's Parabola, 66, 120.
Feuerbach Point, 14, 51. Theorem, 63.
Gegenpunkte
,
83.
Axis of Perspective
:
ABC
and PQR, 141.
,,
Genese, Prof. R. W., 102. Gergonne Point (ABC), 32, 34,
,,
XYZ,
App. Ill
(c).
(TiTtTj, 122.
Greenhill, Sir George, 22, 26, 34,
Beard, W. F., 36. Brocard Circle, 142, 144, 150. Brocard Angle and Equil. T., 91.
Centres of Similitude
:
54, 55.
Harmonic system Harmonic Quad.,
of lines, 80.
124, 129.
(g).
XYZ and
Circles
Ii/2 I3 26.
,
Isodynamic Points, 99, 149, 160
Isogonal Conjugates, 101. Isogonic Points, 151.
Kiepert's Parabola, Ill (c).
11,
def and D'E'F', 85.
HiHiHs and
:
T^T^
85.
40,
App.
Apollonian, 127, 129.
Brocard, 142, 144, 150.
Centre, 9, 12, 42.
Kiepert's Hyperbola, 139, 151.
Lemoine
Lemoine Point
Lhuillier, 92.
(First), 162.
of 1,12/3, i22

(Second), 164. Neuberg, 135.
Lemoyne's Theorem,
77.
Nine Point,
Taylor, 165.
16, 45, 61, 107.
Limiting Points, 21, 57. Lines, harmonic system
of, 80.
Pedal C. of nn', 163. Centre O lf 44. Cubic Transformation of Functions, 34, 54, 55.
Davis, R. F., 9, 19, 104. Dixon, A. C., 55. 125
Elliptic
M'Cay's Cubic, 109.
Nagel Point, 30, 31. Narayanan, S., 75. Neuberg, Prof. J., 69,
135.
70, 88, 92,
Nine Point
Circle, 16, 45,. 61, 107.
165. 137.. Tarry... 33. Schoute. 144. Twin Points. Parabola Points : Artzt. Orthopole is for TOT'. 144. 106. 144. . W. H. Steiner : Feuerbach. Weill Point GM 28. Tsodynamic. (g). 153. Harmonic. Dr.. 153. 161. MODERN GEOMETRY. Poristic formulae. 74. Nagel. J. Quadrilateral. 64.A.. 82. 57. 14. Schick. . E. Ellipse. Point D. 141. 148. 122. T. SS'SiSj (relations). 30. P. 58. 146. 120. 104.'s. and Tucker . 129.. Tarry Point. : Radical Axis (poristically fixed). 87. . 11. : SiSrfHiGi 2428. Hodgson & Son. 99. 72.. 143. 149. Pivot. Circle. 52. Limiting. Rao. 122. 1 Groups of R. 2934. SubLemoine. Point. 21. 143. 152. Circle. 151.. 160 Isogonic. Rouse. Dr. 31. ABC . 2 Newton Street. Taylor. Midpoint of S'S/. M. Gergonne. Tricusp. 144. 21. 62. H. 152. 34. Twin Points. Bhimasena. 124. hyp. Taylor 166. Pivot Points. 100. 87. Lemoine Point of IiI2 ^. Steiner. 103. P. London : Printed by C. 66. 115. Kiepert.126 Orthologic Triangles. 141.. Angles. 87. FGHO'TNM(on poristic circles).C. 141. 143. 51. 40. 32. 143. F. Kingsway.
.
.
.
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