Apple and the Internet: The Power to Be Your Best—Online | Internet | Macintosh

Apple and the Internet: The Power to Be Your Best—Online

Apple Computer, Inc. 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino, CA 95014 http://www.apple.com/
© 1996 Apple Computer, Inc. All rights reserved. Apple, the Apple logo, AppleScript, AppleSearch, AppleShare, AppleTalk, HyperCard, Mac, Macintosh, MessagePad, Newton, OpenDoc, Performa, PowerBook, Power Macintosh, QuickTake, QuickTime, and “The power to be your best” are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the United States and other countries. Cocoa, Cyberdog, Finder, HotSauce, the Internet logo, MacDNS, OneScanner, Pippin, QuickDraw, and the QuickTime logo are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Acrobat and Adobe are trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated or its subsidiaries and may be registered in certain jurisdictions. AIX is a trademark of IBM Corp., registered in the U.S. and other countries, and is being used under license. Claris and FileMaker are registered trademarks, and Claris Emailer is a trademark, of Claris Corporation. Java is a trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. Netscape Navigator is a trademark of Netscape Communications Corporation. RealAudio is a trademark of Progressive Networks, Inc. TextBridge and Xerox are registered trademarks of Xerox Corporation. UNIX is a registered trademark in the United States and other countries, licensed exclusively through X/Open Company, Ltd. Printed in the U.S.A. 10/96 L01043B

Contents
Introduction Championing the open Internet platform 1 2

Adopting Internet standards........................................................................................... 2 Contributing Internet technologies ............................................................................... 3
Providing easy-to-use multimedia Internet solutions 5

Making Internet access easy and inherent ................................................................... 5 Delivering information: Internet servers for the rest of us ........................................ 7 Creating compelling, media-rich content for the Internet ......................................... 9
Raising the bar for Internet content Using—and supporting—organizational intranets 10 11

The Apple Intranet advantage ...................................................................................... 11
Conclusion 13

Contents

Introduction
Apple’s personal computers have always helped people to do more—better—by making complex technology simple. From its debut, the easy-to-use Macintosh—as the first computer to offer WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get) screen-to-printed-page capabilities—was valued by all those whose business it is to express themselves on paper. Over the years, as Macintosh-based word processing, graphics, and page-layout tools grew in power and sophistication, so, too, did the importance of the Macintosh to the publishing industry, as well as to the education and business communities. And even as the common means of self-expression have expanded into electronic media such as CD-ROM, Apple has continued to deliver solutions based on cutting-edge technology because of a simple proposition: That the most advanced capabilities available should be accessible to everyone who can benefit from them. Today, technology’s cutting edge lies online, with the vast current utility—and even vaster potential—of the Internet. Experts in both the publishing world and the computer industry agree: The Internet is fast joining, if not overtaking, print as a vital means of information delivery. So we are remaining true to our user-centered focus by translating our traditional strengths in the publishing arena—as well as in ease of use and multimedia—into tools and technologies for the Internet that will enhance our customers’ Internet experience and extend their capabilities to think, learn, and express themselves. Toward this end, Apple’s focus is on the following: • Making easy Internet and intranet access a standard feature of all Apple client platforms— Macintosh, Pippin, and Newton. • Providing low-cost, low-maintenance Internet and intranet server solutions that allow anyone to publish information online. • Enabling and promoting the development of best-of-class tools for creating high-impact, media-rich content for the Internet and organizational intranets. • Working with leading media industry players to help them take optimal advantage of Apple-developed standards and technologies on their Internet sites. In short, our overall aim can be stated simply: We want to make the Internet as easy to use as a Macintosh. “Our aim is to make the Internet as easy to use as a Macintosh. ”

Introduction

1

Championing the open Internet platform
To meet the needs of our customers as the Internet grows in both importance and value, Apple is focusing strongly on providing the best possible Internet experience—and on continuing to push the boundaries of just what that means. In keeping with this objective, we are embracing open standards and an open business model. We recognize our strengths in certain key areas, but we also realize that no one company can “do it all” for the Internet. So our goal is to support the Internet in an open way—not to attempt to garner market share through a proprietary approach, but to add value where we can and to supplement our contributions by fostering partnerships with other leading-edge companies that will help us to define and enhance the media-rich Internet experience. Apple’s approach to the Internet platform consists of two key initiatives: • We are adopting Internet protocols and technologies as core components of all of our platforms. • We are contributing Apple technologies to the Internet community, where we believe these technologies add value to the Internet experience.
Adopting Internet standards

Through our work with strategic partners and developers—such as Netscape, Sun Microsystems, Silicon Graphics, Adobe, Microsoft, Macromedia, and Oracle, among others—Apple is actively supporting the development of an open, nonproprietary Internet platform. We are integrating all of the key core Internet protocols (such as TCP/IP, PPP, FTP, POP3/SMTP, IMAP, LDAP, and HTTP) into our operating system, as well as adopting them in our approach to networking. For example, with Apple’s Open Transport architecture, IP networking functions as a peer with AppleTalk, making Internet access easier than ever before, and Internet networking as native to the Mac OS as it is to the UNIX operating system. Given Apple’s level of support for IP, it’s probably not surprising that the first public demonstration of the next-generation version of IP, version 6, was done on the Macintosh. Apple’s goal is to make IP networking as simple and intuitive as AppleTalk is today. Toward that end, we will support all Mac OS–based local area network (LAN) services— such as Apple Remote Access and AppleShare—on the IP protocol. Apple is also aggressively adopting Java, a cornerstone of the emerging Internet platform. We believe that this operating system–independent, object-oriented development language is a key technology, enabling developers to create executable applications

2

Championing the open Internet platform

that can run across the Internet. Because of its complete platform independence, Java promises in-house developers freedom from the necessity of separate development efforts to support multiple client platforms. And commercial application developers don’t have to choose between developing for a single environment and facing many additional hours of labor to port their code from one platform to another. Apple is also actively participating in a number of other Internet industry standards, including the following: • VRML Moving Worlds 2.0. In conjunction with Netscape and Silicon Graphics, Apple has endorsed the VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) Moving Worlds specification for defining and delivering three-dimensional information in a common format. In fact, to support this initiative, we contributed our own three-dimensional data type, 3-D Metafile (3DMF). • Amber. We are championing Adobe’s Amber technology—the basis for Adobe Acrobat— a platform- and application-independent format for document distribution through the Internet. • Shockwave. Apple embraces this standard from Macromedia, which provides for the delivery and deployment of animations over the web. • The Network Computer initiative. With Oracle, Netscape, Sun Microsystems, and IBM, Apple is one of the founding members of the Internet Network Computer initiative, which seeks to create a reference platform for the development of low-cost, easy-to-use “Internet appliances.”
Contributing Internet technologies

QuickTime Media Layer Consistent APIs, Meta Tools, Containment

Complementing our support for emerging standards developed by third parties, Apple is working to enrich the Internet experience by contributing our own technologies to the Internet community. To date, our efforts have largely centered on two areas: multimedia standards and component software. Multimedia standards. Apple’s QuickTime Media Layer (QTML) has established itself as the standard for a media-rich user experience on the Internet. QTML offers an easy, elegant solution for supporting multiple multimedia standards, enabling the flexible and versatile creation, manipulation, and dissemination of rich, interactive multimedia content. QTML encompasses a rich set of architectures and application programming interfaces (APIs) spanning a number of Apple-developed media-handling technologies: • QuickTime. The industry’s leading architecture for multimedia content creation and playback. • QuickDraw 3D. An architecture that allows for the development and manipulation of three-dimensional objects. • QuickTime VR. A virtual-reality tool that supports two types of user experiences: a panoramic technology for exploring 360-degree scenes and an interaction technology that allows users to pick up and interact with objects. • QuickTime Conferencing. A standards-based collaborative technology that lets users write in real time on on-screen images of other users’ text and graphics, share sounds and QuickTime movies, and broadcast video over a network to any number of users. • A wide range of speech technologies. Includes text-to-speech and speech recognition. • Game “sprockets.” Custom combinations of these technologies to provide particular functions.

The QuickTime Media Layer (QTML) is a rich set of APIs that enables the creation of media-rich content and its broad dissemination over the Internet, as well as serving to enhance collaboration. For information, demos, and software, visit the QuickTime web site at http://www.quicktime.apple.com/.

Championing the open Internet platform

3

Advancing information management

Apple is working on new ways of managing the myriad of information available to all of us. For example, the HotSauce fly-through plug-in is a demonstration of one developing information-management technology—it’s a software prototype that gives users a threedimensional “fly-through” view of a variety of information, including web pages, desktop files, audio tracks, and Gopher sites. The plug-in is based on HotSauce Meta-Content Format (MCF), an innovative format that Apple is developing to allow the uniform representation of a wide range of information about content. HotSauce MCF will help users to cope with the issues that arise when dealing with the range of disparate elements available through Internet/intranet technology, such as web pages, e-mail, and structured databases. (For more details on HotSauce MCF, see page 12.)

Already, more than 50 percent of the digital video data on the Internet is based on QuickTime technology. And because QuickTime supports a number of other popular media formats—such as MIDI music; MPEG, Cinepak, Indeo, and other compression/ decompression standards; and SMPTE time code—it can be used to access more than 85 percent of media-rich Internet information. QuickTime has been licensed and endorsed by Netscape as a core technology, and Apple’s QuickTime plug-in is the only third-party plug-in included with the Netscape Navigator 3.0 browser. Sun Microsystems has announced that its Java Media Framework will fully support QuickTime. Apple is supporting the emerging status of QuickTime as a standard by making it simultaneously available for the Mac OS, Windows, and other platforms, and by licensing it widely to our business partners. Component software. Originally an Apple-backed venture, OpenDoc technology has evolved into an open standard for component software architecture managed by CI Labs—a consortium with more than 500 member companies. It has been endorsed by the Object Management Group (OMG) as the distributed component builder for the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) model. OpenDoc provides an ideal medium for combining the previously disparate tools required for dealing with the Internet—browsers, helper applications, e-mail software, plug-ins, add-ons, and on and on—into a single, seamless solution. Its modular architecture allows OpenDoc to unite the varied tools and data types that make up the Internet experience, providing users with the most effective way to take advantage of the Internet’s vast information and communications resources. In addition, OpenDoc is designed for customization; so, for example, a user could easily create his or her own Internet “launchpad,” integrating links to relevant or related Internet content such as web pages, FTP sites, news lists, and more. OpenDoc is also the vehicle by which Apple will integrate Internet capabilities into the Mac OS. Just as QuickTime allows users to embed multimedia information, OpenDoc allows users to embed live, constantly updated Internet information into documents of all kinds. In addition, the open, modular nature of OpenDoc allows it to serve as a universal component architecture, uniting a variety of technologies—such as Netscape plug-ins, Java applets, and Java Beans, as well as the full range of OpenDoc components—into a single, seamless environment. Furthering third-party development efforts. Apple is also actively working with our developer community to support advancements in Internet technology for individual users, organizations, developers, and content creators. The Mac OS developer community has created a wealth of Internet products that have established the Macintosh as a leading platform for Internet client, server, and authoring solutions. For example, the Apple Internet Connection Kit, our Internet access solution for individuals, consists of a collection of best-of-class third-party software (including Netscape Navigator and Adobe Acrobat) along with Apple-developed software. Similarly, most components of the Apple Internet Server Solution are developed by third parties, including products such as WebSTAR from Quarterdeck/StarNine, PageMill from Adobe, and NetCloak from Maxum Development. And, through the ongoing efforts of third parties (including companies such as Adobe, Symantec, and Metrowerks), a full suite of state-of-the-art Internet development tools is available for the Mac OS.

4

Championing the open Internet platform

Providing easy-to-use multimedia Internet solutions
Ultimately, the Internet isn’t about technology—it’s about what people can do with technology. Our goal is to provide solutions that offer users an unparalleled, media-rich Internet experience. We are approaching this goal via a broad spectrum of products and technologies. Perhaps the easiest way to discuss Apple’s Internet solutions is to look at the Internet in terms of three primary usage areas: • Accessing Internet information. People are attracted to the Internet because of the wealth of information it offers. But even more important, they want to be able to find the information that really matters to them and then manage it easily and efficiently and use it in their work—whether it’s to expand their business or to expand their knowledge. • Delivery of information over the Internet. People want to establish an Internet presence to communicate their message to others, or use Internet technology to streamline and enhance their organizational communications. • Creation of information for the Internet. People want to create information for the Internet that takes advantage of its inherent interactivity and media-rich nature to communicate their ideas in the most effective way possible.
Making Internet access easy and inherent

Apple is making Internet access a standard feature of all our hardware products— a commitment supported by initiatives involving both our hardware and our software. On the hardware side, we will ensure that all of our computers come with adequate RAM, as well as high-speed networking capability, to support state-of-the-art Internet access software. Our latest Power Macintosh models will ship with a minimum of 16 megabytes of RAM and Ethernet networking, and our Macintosh Performa and PowerBook lines will feature at least 12 megabytes of RAM and provide high-speed networking through either 28,800-bit-per-second modems or ISDN connections. On the software side, our commitment to Internet readiness has already been evidenced by our development of the Apple Internet Connection Kit, a collection of Internet tools that makes it easy to get started with Internet access. All current Power Macintosh systems ship with this kit, which is also available as a stand-alone software package. In addition, the kit has been integrated into the latest release of the Mac OS. For those users who are just getting started with Internet access, Apple has entered into a partnership with America Online (AOL). Under this partnership, AOL software will be bundled with some of our computers, and Apple will maintain a content area on AOL to provide customers with timely information on Apple products and services.

Providing easy-to-use multimedia Internet solutions

5

Apple Internet Connection Kit

The Apple Internet Connection Kit contains all of the software you need to get started quickly and easily, including the following: •Apple Internet Dialer, online Internet service registration and connection software •Netscape Navigator •Apple Guide for the Apple Internet Connection Kit •Claris Emailer Lite •Dartmouth Fetch •NewsWatcher •NCSA Telnet •QuickTime plug-in •QuickTime VR Player •Macromedia Shockwave plug-ins •RealAudio Player •Adobe Acrobat Reader •Aladdin StuffIt Expander •OnBase Technology DragNet •Farallon Look@Me •Dartmouth MacPing •PPP and SLIP software

But we also believe that “Internet access” means a whole lot more. That’s why we developed Cyberdog—a unique suite of Internet tools that lets users customize their Internet use and combine Internet functionality with existing applications under a single, seamless user interface. Cyberdog: Powerful, customizable Internet access. For end users, Cyberdog simplifies and streamlines use of the Internet through an integrated Internet application suite. It includes a notebook and log, for saving Internet places and tracking Internet use; integrated mail and newsgroup services, with powerful sorting, filing, and search options; browsers for web and file archives; and integrated data viewers for simple point-andclick rendering of most common Internet data types (eliminating the need to invoke an appropriate helper application for each one). The tight integration of these functions also enables Cyberdog to offer some advanced capabilities, such as the ability to send messages that include links to Internet content—the recipient can simply click the link to go directly to the information. Cyberdog makes the Internet truly useful by allowing users to develop documents that organize Internet resources relevant to the tasks at hand. Using the Cyberdog DocBuilder, they can create documents that include text, graphics, and Internet links or views simply by dragging in those items. Cyberdog can even be used as the interface to streamlined, customized Internet resource management. For example, a technical support person could create a document with links to sites that offer employees information relevant to their support needs; a business could create a sales brochure that includes up-to-date product information located on a variety of Internet sites; or a teacher could create curriculum materials designed around, and incorporating direct access to, specific web sites. What makes Cyberdog unique is that it lets users handle a number of disparate Internet-related functions with the same consistency that people have become accustomed to on a Macintosh: double-click to open, drag to copy—whether it’s a data file or a site’s URL. That’s because Cyberdog takes advantage of OpenDoc technology—which lets multiple software modules, called Live Objects, work together as a single, seamless application—to provide a level of integration unmatched by any other Internet tool.

Appropriate Internet access for everyone
America Online

For the casual or first-time user who wants an easy way to get online and experience a broad range of managed content. For more experienced users who want access to the bestof-class Internet applications for the Mac OS, and the ability to take full advantage of the Internet’s information and communications services. For experienced users—especially in-house support people and academic computing staff—who want to be able to tailor access to the Internet to support their specific needs or those of their end users.

Apple Internet Connection Kit

Cyberdog

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Providing easy-to-use multimedia Internet solutions

In addition, developers can extend the capabilities of Cyberdog by creating components that either replace its existing components or extend its functionality. For example, Netscape recently announced that it will develop a version of the Netscape Navigator web browser as a Cyberdog component to replace the current Cyberdog browser. Developers can also use Cyberdog components to create OpenDoc-based software with integrated Internet capabilities—either by incorporating a single component to give an application a particular Internet-related feature, or by integrating all of the Cyberdog components within an application to provide more broad-based Internet functionality. Keeping pace with Internet access technology. The fact that Internet standards evolve both continually and quickly can make it difficult for users to keep up to date. To ensure that our users continue to have the best and most current Internet access capabilities, Apple will deliver new functionality in three ways—via system software, retail software products, and online distribution over the Internet. This approach provides our users with access to new technology in a timely manner, while also offering them the option of simply purchasing a complete, integrated, and up-to-date Internet access solution at any time. Extending Internet access across all Apple platforms. Believing that Internet access need not be solely the province of personal computer users, Apple is also committed to extending Internet access capability beyond Mac OS–based systems to our two other major platforms. Devices based on Newton technology offer the promise of the most convenient possible Internet access. Extremely lightweight and portable, Newton technology–based Apple MessagePad products can provide true “anywhere, anytime” Internet capability. The MessagePad 130 is fully Internet ready, and with the addition of the Newton Internet Enabler and their choice of a wide range of third-party Internet software, users can turn the MessagePad into an ideal solution for handheld Internet access. Apple’s Pippin architecture was designed to facilitate the creation of what have been termed “information appliances.” It offers the promise of low-cost, dedicated Internet access devices and set-top Internet access. Apple is working with its partners to make these Pippin-based devices available to home users who don’t necessarily want to purchase a personal computer.
Delivering information: Internet servers for the rest of us

Cyberdog features for end users

Customized Internet resource management •Lets users customize documents to organize Internet resources, including mail, newsgroups, web sites, and more. •Supports drag and drop of Internet links to a Cyberdog component, the Finder, or any OpenDoc application that supports Macintosh Drag and Drop. •Provides multiple notebooks to save and organize Internet sites and addresses for rapid access. •Includes a log that automatically keeps track of where users have been—alphabetically, chronologically, or hierarchically— from which they can drag links into their notebook, messages, or the Finder. Powerful, integrated mail and newsgroup management •Enables management of multiple mail accounts and newsgroups. •Automatically handles sorting and filing of incoming mail and newsgroups into multiple mail trays. •Allows creation of e-mail and newsgroup messages that include styled text, graphics, Internet links, and files. •Allows fast, indexed searching over the entire content of mail and news messages— not just names and addresses—and returns relevance-ranked results. Compatibility with existing Internet services and standards •Supports standard Internet protocols through a simple, consistent interface: web (HTML 2.0), FTP, Gopher, mail (POP3/SMTP), newsgroups (NNTP), MIME 1.0 for mail and news text, and Telnet. •Comes with integrated, consistent viewers that automatically display the most common Internet data types: text, PICT, JPEG, GIF, TIFF, QuickTime, and sound (.au, .WAV, and .AIFF). The most up-to-date information on Cyberdog can be found at http://cyberdog.apple.com/.

Historically, most Internet servers were based on the UNIX operating system, and today many servers are based on Windows NT. But the complexity of managing these machines has limited the numbers and types of people who can publish information on the Internet. With the development of Mac OS–based Internet server software, more and more people started using Macintosh computers to publish information on the World Wide Web. Today, the Mac OS platform provides the easiest and most cost-effective way to set up an Internet server. Currently, servers running the Mac OS are second only to UNIX-based servers in terms of number of Internet sites. The Apple Internet Server Solution reflects our commitment to delivery of information over the Internet, as well as demonstrating strong support by the Internet server software development community for the Mac OS platform. A collection of easy-to-use, best-of-class products that includes all the functionality needed to publish information on the World Wide Web, the Apple Internet Server complements Apple’s Workgroup

Cyberdog features for developers

•Easy addition or expansion of Cyberdog components (because they are all written to public APIs). •Support for use of those components in any OpenDoc application. •Ability to combine Cyberdog and other OpenDoc components with customized documents to create custom solutions.

Providing easy-to-use multimedia Internet solutions

7

Apple Internet Server Solution

The Apple Internet Server Solution includes all of the software users need to become World Wide Web publishers. It features: •Apple Internet Server Solution Software Installer—clicking one button installs all of the included software and templates •WebSTAR from Quarterdeck/StarNine •Adobe PageMill •MacDNS from Apple •NetCloak from Maxum Development •ServerStat from Kitchen Sink Software •RealAudio Server from Progressive Networks •HyperCard from Apple •FileMaker Pro from Claris •EveryWare Tango and Butler SQL •Netscape Navigator client •BBEdit from Bare Bones Software •Adobe Acrobat Pro •HomeDoor from OpenDoor Networks •Image map software •Electronic mail Common Gateway Interface (CGI) •Sample web pages •AppleScript and useful scripting additions •AppleSearch 1.5 and AppleSearch CGI •Apple RAID and AppleShare Client for Windows

Server line, which is based on the Mac OS. A Mac OS–based server is far easier to set up and maintain than a UNIX or Windows NT server, so the Apple Internet Server has opened up the arena of Internet publishing to individuals and organizations that would otherwise have turned to others for publishing capabilities—or would simply have been unable to enjoy the advantages of becoming Internet content providers. For example, the availability of the Apple Internet Server has nudged a growing number of elementary and secondary schools into joining the world of Internet publishing—a move to which many ascribe a unique educational value. And large organizations are finding that the Apple Internet Server Solution provides by far the most cost-effective Internet server option, with its low initial cost and easy maintenance. In fact, Apple’s own corporate web site (http://www.apple.com/), one of the 20 most visited sites on the web, is served largely by Mac OS–based Apple Internet Servers. Although a Mac OS–based web server is the ideal solution for many users— particularly those with cost constraints or limited technical expertise—Apple recognizes that for some organizations, there are a number of situations in which a UNIX server is preferable. Large commercial and university environments with in-house expertise and legacy applications demand high-performance UNIX-based servers for storing, moving, and manipulating extremely high volumes of data. The individuals who support such servers have always wished for low maintenance, expandability, and superior reliability. So Apple has also developed a line of UNIX-based servers to meet those requirements: the Network Server 500 and 700. The Network Servers run the AIX operating system— an industry-standard version of UNIX from International Business Machines Corporation—which means that Network Servers are binary compatible with thousands of existing AIX applications, including NNTP, web, POP3, FTP, and other services, as well as with UNIX-based Common Gateway Interface (CGI) applications and relational databases. What differentiates the Network Servers from traditional UNIX servers is an innovative industrial design that makes them far easier to set up, maintain, and service. This, coupled with the fact that Netscape has certified its Netscape Commerce Server software to run on the Network Server line, provides an exceptional offering for web sites that require UNIX. And, in fact, Apple is using Network Servers for our own innovative webcasting activities (see page 10). Moving forward, Apple will make Internet capabilities core to its Mac OS–based server platform through a project code-named FutureShare. FutureShare is Apple’s nextgeneration server software, which takes AppleShare from its roots as an AppleTalk file and print server to an open, extensible Internet server platform with built-in support for the AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) over IP, and FTP, POP3/SMTP, and HTTP Internet/intranet services. FutureShare, like the Mac OS and Open Transport, will make AppleTalk and TCP/IP peers on the desktop, providing an excellent environment for intranetworking and organizational productivity with web, file, print, and mail services.

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Providing easy-to-use multimedia Internet solutions

Creating compelling, media-rich content for the Internet

The Mac OS supports a complete suite of tools from both Apple and third parties for creation of media-rich, interactive content—a fact that has made the Mac OS the numberone platform for multimedia and publishing, the current content-creation markets. We’re now building on that strong foundation to expand our offerings and enhance the platform to ensure that Apple and third parties can provide all the tools needed by content creators who are moving to the Internet—the new publishing and distribution medium. Mac OS solutions for content creation will continue to expand existing tools to include support for current standards—HTML editing, Java dynamic page creation, and creation of applets and plug-ins. As mentioned earlier, we are also taking a very active role in creating and establishing Internet standards for multimedia, with our QTML technology. Apple can’t accomplish all of these objectives unaided, so the complete solution for media-rich Internet content creation will be achieved in great part through our working in partnership with our developer community. In essence, what Apple is doing is helping to define the Internet platform, and then building on that platform at the system software and server software levels to provide developers with the best possible foundation for creating high-quality and innovative content-creation tools for the Internet and intranet. One area in which Apple is leading the way is in imaging technology. Apple imaging products—as well as our software support for media-rich offerings through QTML—are helping to fuel the move away from text-only online documents to richer, more visual Internet offerings. For example, the QuickTake 150 digital camera provides the simplest way of moving images from life to digital form. And the Apple Color OneScanner scanning devices—the 600/27 and the 1200/30—include software that makes it easy to integrate a variety of document-processing tasks: optical character recognition (OCR), editing, printing, faxing, copying, archiving, and retrieving images. The latest version of this scanning software even integrates with another program that comes with the Color OneScanner 1200/30—Xerox TextBridge 3.0h—to provide easy OCR-to-HTML text document conversion for streamlined web authoring. This offering provides the only seamless, integrated scan-to-web solution available.

Internet authoring for kids

Apple has initiated several efforts that are yielding innovative Internet content-creation tools. One example is Cocoa, an interactive authoring tool that’s intended to bring the creation of media-rich Internet content within the reach of children and nontechnical adults. Designed for ages 10 and above, Cocoa and the Cocoa plug-in make it easy to build simulations, games, animations, nonlinear stories, and even interactive worlds, and then turn them into web pages. The program features a friendly, familiar Macintosh interface, complete with drag-and-drop functionality and a built-in painting tool. By simply demonstrating the desired reactions of an object, users are, effectively, programming—Cocoa automatically generates the code to accomplish the effects they want. It even offers the option of adding an element of randomness to creations, so visitors to web pages created with Cocoa will have a different experience every time.

Providing easy-to-use multimedia Internet solutions

9

Apple on the Internet

Here are just a few examples of the various sites Apple maintains on the web to provide assistance and information to our customers and the Internet community at large. There is a complete list of Apple sites under the “find it” button on Apple’s home page. Apple’s home page (http://www.apple.com/) The main point of entry to Apple online. This page directs visitors to product information, community, and Apple-related resources such as user groups, shareware, disability solutions, and much more. Support info (http://info.apple.com/) Need technical and support information? You’ll find more than 50,000 items here— Apple product information, the Technical Info Library, technical support, software updates, and professional support programs. Media-rich experiences start here (http://quicktime.apple.com/) QuickTime is the industry standard used by multimedia software creators to store, edit, and play synchronized graphics, sound, video, text, and music. The online publishing source (http://www.media.apple.com/) All about becoming a publisher in new and/or traditional media, this site offers up-to-date information and links to other publishers using Mac OS–based solutions. Live events on the web (http://live.apple.com/) Apple QuickTime Live! Internet events are showcased here. You’ll find past, present, and upcoming Apple webcasts and examples of Apple’s leadership in media-rich interactive experiences. Education online (http://education.apple.com/) K–12 and higher education resources for students, educators, and families worldwide. Developer World (http://devworld.apple.com/) The developer source for Apple technical and comarketing information, as well as a marketplace to give exposure to new products and the ever-expanding Third-Party Products Database. A place for kids (http://youthcentral.apple.com/) An electronic and interactive community clubhouse in cyberspace, created for kids and teens by kids and teens.

Raising the bar for Internet content
Another key part of Apple’s Internet initiative is to produce our own Internet offerings that demonstrate the cutting-edge capabilities available to everyone—and that continue to push the boundaries in terms of both style and content. As part of our commitment to using the Internet to run our own business better, Apple offers a rich portfolio of easyto-find information about Apple, its products, and its third-party developers, resellers, and customers. We also provide resources and interactive activities that support the Apple community. As noted earlier, the increasing richness of media available over the Internet is making Internet usage both more useful and more enjoyable. At Apple, we are working toward enhancing the media-rich Internet experience by moving beyond more traditional offerings to provide innovative new ways of communicating with customers. A prime example is our “webcasting,” or Internet broadcasting of live events. Webcasting is a medium that offers an incredible opportunity to use Apple technologies to give people access to comprehensive information and live video and audio, as well as to enable them to participate in such events through interactive discussion boards and other means. For example, our webcast of Apple’s Worldwide Developers Conference provided developers unable to make the trip to San Jose, California, with a means of experiencing—and directly contributing to —this informative conference. Everything from the keynote speech by Apple’s CEO to live chats and coverage of breakout sessions was available online and in real time. Finally, we actively support the development and maintenance of creative sites geared toward more specific interests and communities, such as children or publishers. To that end, Apple has worked—and will continue to work—in partnership with various groups, individuals, and businesses to foster focused sites that afford the public a chance to directly contribute to and shape the available content.

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Raising the bar for Internet content

Using—and supporting— organizational intranets
Another way in which Apple is embracing the Internet is in the “intranet” arena— the growing use of Internet standards and technology to meet organizations’ internal networking and communications needs. In fact, intranet technology is Apple’s recommended approach to enterprise networking for our customers. Most organizations today have highly complex networking systems that have evolved over time in response to changes in communications needs and available networking technology. The common setup might include any of the following: multiprotocol networks, several different types of client systems, various local area networks, host-based services, databases, and more. In addition, many enterprises now need to support remote sites or individuals on the move, as well as to provide some kind of communications link to business partners and customers. Adopting the intranet approach enables enterprises to pull together this array of disparate resources into a single, vastly more useful entity within a common networking infrastructure. Basing a corporate network on intranet standards not only simplifies the process of laying the network infrastructure, it also lets companies move from proprietary client/server applications that require a separate development effort for each supported platform to more broad-based solutions—as well as providing an easy bridge from the enterprise network to relevant resources available over the Internet itself. More specifically, an intranet offers the following benefits: • Lower costs and increased flexibility, because of the use of open standards • Easy connections to external business partners and remote sites • Modular, nondisruptive rollout of new technologies and applications • Continual innovations, ensured by industry investment in the technology • Enhanced productivity through the rich data types available, so communications can be much more compelling than simple ASCII text
The Apple intranet advantage

Today, Apple’s full support of Internet standards—through making the open Internet Protocol (IP) a desktop peer with the proprietary AppleTalk protocol—means that Macintosh computers, as well as our Mac OS–based Workgroup Server line, can fit seamlessly into any organizational intranet. With the Apple Internet Server Solution, a Workgroup Server can easily function as an exceedingly easy-to-maintain, low-cost department-level server—one that supports all client platforms with a consistent interface that makes application-level training and support virtually superfluous. And

Using—and supporting—organizational intranets

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Running Apple’s business online

Not only does Apple recommend the intranet approach for enterprise networking, we also practice it. For example, our IS&T organization now manages a web site called AppleWeb, which provides employees with easy access to Apple internal information. The results of shifting to an intranet approach have been immediate and positive: significant cost reductions over the previous, legacy environment; enhanced productivity, because the search engine and indexing functionality make it easier to find relevant information quickly; and enhanced communications through the use of rich media. Taking just a single example, under the intranet approach, Apple’s employee benefits enrollment program had higher participation than previously, and the human resources staff found that they were able to add functionality, such as online review and confirmation of benefits status, quickly and easily. The bottom line was similarly positive: Firstyear savings exceeded development costs. And employees were appreciative. In fact, a user survey found that 95 percent of the respondents found the service “very good to excellent.” By running our business online and by using Apple products and technologies on our intranet, we have the benefit of a “living laboratory”: a Fortune 500 company that can stress-test its solutions. What we learn not only provides feedback for our product development processes, but offers real-life examples for our customers.

for organizations that require the capabilities of a UNIX server, our Network Server line combines the virtues of UNIX with outstanding ease of setup, maintenance, and service—areas in which UNIX machines have traditionally been found wanting. Apple and Sun Microsystems are working together to provide intranet users with a powerful combination of high-performance networking, media-rich development tools, and desktop ease of use by integrating technologies from both companies. Apple’s OpenDoc and Sun’s Java Beans technologies are slated for interoperability, to facilitate component software development, while the rich media capabilities of Apple’s QuickTime technologies will join forces with Sun’s JavaMedia to enhance and speed the development of flexibly distributable, media-rich content. The collaboration between the two companies will make it easier for organizations to run Mac OS–based clients with Solaris-based intranet servers. The move to intranet technology is a move to richer media—from basic ASCII text to laid-out pages with rich fonts, graphics, and more. By leveraging richer media, communications become more effective and productivity increases. The Macintosh has established itself as the premier platform on which to create content for the Internet. This functionality is supported by the availability of excellent content-authoring tools developed by third parties, as well as by Apple efforts ranging from our long-time system software–level support for scripting to our current work on a multimedia authoring language that will integrate the QuickTime Media Layer with Java. And content created using a Macintosh can be readily deployed on virtually any intranet server. In addition, Apple has defined and published a standard language for describing the variety of information types that exist on most intranets. Referred to as the HotSauce Meta-Content Format (MCF), its goal is to allow users to view this variety of data—everything from desktop files to e-mail to organizational databases to web sites—in a uniform way, without requiring the creation of a custom application to view each content type. With HotSauce MCF, users can view all of the information available through an intranet as residing on a virtual database that can be navigated and queried in a single, simple way, rather than having to deal with numerous separate sources that require different query conventions. Already Apple’s HotSauce fly-through plug-in has taken advantage of the HotSauce MCF specification to enable users to view information on the web in a three-dimensional “fly-through.” Developers can take advantage of this open standard to create a wide variety of such viewers, which will streamline and enhance the work of intranet users. HotSauce MCF will be the backbone of a new generation of technology that will redefine the way we organize, view, and find information. The bottom line is that, with the earlier barriers to full networking parity removed through Internet technology, the innate advantages of Macintosh technology become practical and cost-effective for larger organizations and enterprises. Organizations that are moving to IP networking gain the advantages of streamlined network development and lower costs, since they can create an application that will run on all of their supported client platforms without the need for porting. The Macintosh has always been popular with end users for its ease of use, with developers for its extensive tool set and ease of development, and with support people for its relatively low support requirements. Now Apple has fully integrated Internet technologies into the Macintosh platform. Considerations such as these explain why Apple itself has become a model intranet user— and why growing numbers of organizations are taking a second look at what Apple products can do for them.

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Using—and supporting—organizational intranets

Conclusion
Apple’s focus on the Internet reflects our conviction that, to a large extent, it represents the future of personal computing. We are committed to adopting open Internet standards, because we recognize that an open Internet platform offers the greatest potential utility to the greatest number of people. And we are complementing our support for open standards with our contribution of Apple-developed technologies to the emerging Internet platform—technologies such as the QuickTime Media Layer. We also believe strongly in the future of intranet technology as a solution for many of the problems inherent in the heterogeneous enterprise networking and communications environments of today. And we are backing this belief with action, as we move our own business to Internet technology. In addition, we feel that the true potential of the Internet lies in allowing all users to take full advantage of the power of the Internet—not just by enabling them to access Internet information easily and efficiently, but also by empowering them to become Internet content creators and publishers themselves. So, as we continue to enhance our operating system and LAN services and develop new hardware, we will build in technologies designed to make working with the Internet as easy as using a Macintosh computer. Because, ultimately, the goal is to enable everyone to create, communicate, and learn better using the Internet—and to enjoy the entire process more.

Conclusion

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