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I have taken efforts in this report. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals and my friends. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them. I am highly indebted to mrs. Sasmitarani Behera for their guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the report & also for their support in completing the report. I would like to express my gratitude towards my parents & my friends for their kind co-operation and encouragement which help me in completion of this report. I would like to express my special gratitude and thanks to my teachers for giving me such attention and time. My thanks and appreciations also go to my colleague in developing the report and people who have willingly helped me out with their abilities.
Table of Contents Page No. Abstract
Cloud computing Evolution of cloud computing Characteristics of cloud computing 2. Models of cloud computing System models Deployment models 3. Cloud computing architecture Virtualization Architecture The intercloud Cloud engineering
04 05 07
15 17 18 19
4. Data storage & security Secure Data Storage in Cloud Computing Cloud security Information security Infrastructure security 19 20 21 22 22 23 24 02
5. Business value of cloud computing Conclusion References
T. Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale similar to a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network.e. I propose an effectual and adaptable scheme with salient qualities. automation speeds up the process and reduces the possibility of human errors. it is an important aspect of Quality of Service.Abstract Cloud computing is the use of computing resources (hardware and software) that are delivered as a service over a network (typically the Internet). autonomic computing automates the process through which the user can provision resources on-demand. and makes it available as a soft component that is easy to use and manage. On the other hand. the identification of misbehaving servers. This scheme achieves the data storage correctness allow the authenticated user to access the data and data error localization. The goal of Cloud Computing is to allow users to take beneﬁt from all of these technologies. Virtualization abstracts the physical infrastructure. Cloud computing has gained a lot of hype in the current world of I. virtualization provides the agility required to speed up IT operations. Cloud computing entrusts remote services with a user's data. Cloud computing is the use of the Internet for the tasks performed on the computer and it is visualized as the nextgeneration architecture of IT Enterprise. To ensure the correctness of users‘ data in the cloud. software and computation. By doing so. and reduces cost by increasing infrastructure utilization. Cloud Computing is the result of evolution and adoption of existing technologies and paradigms. 03 . and help the users focus on their core business instead of being impeded by IT obstacles.. which is the most rigid component. By minimizing user involvement. where the data and services will not be fully trustworthy. i. The name comes from the common use of a cloud-shaped symbol as an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it contains in system diagrams. In this article. Cloud computing is said to be the next big thing in the computer world after the internet. In comparison to conventional ways Cloud Computing moves application software and databases to the large data centers. without the need for deep knowledge about or expertise with each one of them. The ‗Cloud‘ represents the internet. I focus on secure data storage in cloud. The Cloud aims to cut costs. Cloud computing is related to several technologies and the convergence of various technologies has emerged to be called cloud computing. At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of converged infrastructure and shared services. The main enabling technologies for Cloud Computing are virtualization and autonomic computing.
The name comes from the common use of a cloud-shaped symbol as an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it contains in system diagrams. and focus on projects that differentiate their businesses instead of infrastructure. with improved manageability and less maintenance. 04 . and enables IT to more rapidly adjust resources to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand. Proponents claim that cloud computing allows companies to avoid upfront infrastructure costs. Proponents also claim that cloud computing allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster.Introduction Cloud computing is the use of computing resources (hardware and software) that are delivered as a service over a network (typically the Internet). software and computation. Figure01: cloud computing logical diagram End users access cloud-based applications through a web browser or a light-weight desktop or mobile app while the business software and user's data are stored on servers at a remote location. Cloud computing entrusts remote services with a user's data.
with applications hosted centrally. SaaS providers generally price applications using a subscription fee. SaaS is sometimes referred to as "on-demand software" and is usually priced on a pay-per-use basis. Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale similar to a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network. Cloud computing is an important topic. However. Figure02: Evolution toward cloud computing 05 . In addition. Cloud providers manage the infrastructure and platforms that run the applications. there could be unauthorized access to the data. users are provided access to application software and databases.In the business model using software as a service (SaaS). One drawback of SaaS is that the users' data are stored on the cloud provider's server. but an evolution that has taken place over several decades. As a result.Proponents claim that the SaaS allows a business the potential to reduce IT operational costs by outsourcing hardware and software maintenance and support to the cloud provider. towards meeting other IT goals. as shown in Figure 02. existing cloud infrastructures and their applications are described. This enables the business to reallocate IT operations costs away from hardware/software spending and personnel expenses. it is not a revolutionary new development. At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of converged infrastructure and shared service. updates can be released without the need for users to install new software. The following section introduces an infrastructure framework for a data canter and discusses the virtualized environment and infrastructure management. Evolution of cloud computing This section reviews the history of cloud computing and introduces the IBM vision for cloud computing that supports dynamic infrastructures. Subsequently.
06 . it‘s important to distinguish between grid computing and cloud computing. the focus is on moving a workload to the location of the needed computing resources. From this point of view. workload rebalancing. such as servers. Private clouds are generally restricted to use within a company behind a firewall and have fewer security exposures as a result. Companies can choose to share these resources using public or private clouds. ● In grid computing. In the 1990s. These applications reside in massively scalable data centers where compute resources can be dynamically provisioned and shared to achieve significant economies of scale. usually scientific in nature and requiring exceptionally high levels of parallel computation. including computing resources. while a cloud can provision and support a grid.The trend toward cloud computing started in the late 1980s with the concept of grid computing when. It is an emerging model through which users can gain access to their applications from anywhere. refers to leveraging multiple resources. depending on their specific needs. applications and processes. which are mostly remote and are readily available for use. a large number of systems were applied to a single problem. can be dynamically shaped or carved out from the underlying hardware infrastructure and made available to a workload. More recently software as a service (SaaS) has raised the level of virtualization to the application. the concept of virtualization was expanded beyond virtual servers to higher levels of abstraction—first the virtual platform. The strength of a cloud is its infrastructure management.0 applications. In addition. Utility computing offered clusters as virtual platforms for computing with a metered business model. enabled by the maturity and progress of virtualization technology to manage and better utilize the underlying resources through automatic provisioning. through their connected devices. to deliver a ―service‖ to the end user. Usually a grid is a cluster of servers on which a large task could be divided into smaller tasks to run in parallel. individual problem. re-imaging. or to run a specific application. storage. a grid could actually be viewed as just one virtual server. Cloud computing. Grid computing specifically refers to leveraging several computers in parallel to solve a particular. ● In a cloud environment. with a business model of charging not by the resources consumed but by the value of the application to subscribers. such as a three-tier Web architecture running traditional or Web 2. at any time. for the first time. systematic change request handling and a dynamic and automated security and resiliency platform. utility and SaaS. monitoring. computing and extended IT and business resources. a cloud can also support nongrid environments. and subsequently the virtual application. Public clouds expose services to customers. The concept of cloud computing has evolved from the concepts of grid. Grids also require applications to conform to the grid software interfaces. which has no specific underlying infrastructure. on the other hand. network. That said. including storage and network resources. businesses and consumers on the Internet.
) • Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels) • Utilisation and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised. users can connect from anywhere. However. and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure..Characteristics of cloud computing • Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way that a traditional user interface (e.g. mobile phone). most of them concluding that costs savings depend on the type of activities supported and the type of infrastructure available in-house. In addition. • Security could improve due to centralization of data. but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data. Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security. PC. user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible.g.. the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems that are being shared by unrelated users. in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. Cloud computing systems typically use Representational State Transfer (REST)-based APIs. as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. • Cost is claimed to be reduced. Applications can be easily migrated from one physical server to another. • Multitenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for: • Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet. Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems. etc. • Virtualization technology allows servers and storage devices to be shared and utilization be increased. Pricing on a utility computing basis is finegrained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (inhouse). This is purported to lower barriers to entry. 07 . etc.The e-FISCAL project's state of the art repository contains several articles looking into cost aspects in more detail. electricity. • Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e. increased security-focused resources.. a computer desktop) facilitates interaction between humans and computers. and the lack of security for stored kernels.
g. 08 . and reported. storage. to scale rapidly outward and inward commensurate with demand. •On-demand self-service allows users to obtain. laptops. • Performance is monitored and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface.• Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used. mobile phones. A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities. Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.. bandwidth. in some cases automatically. • Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier. Resource usage can be monitored. the capabilities available for provisioning often appear unlimited and can be appropriated in any quantity at any time. •Broad network access Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e. configure and deploy cloud services themselves using cloud service catalogues. •Resource pooling The provider's computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model. controlled. and workstation. without requiring the assistance of IT. which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery. because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer and can be accessed from different places. providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service. •Measured service. without users having to engineer for peak loads.. processing. •Rapid elasticity Capabilities can be elastically provisioned and released. To the consumer. with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. self-service basis near real-time. such as server time and network storage. • Scalability and elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained. as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with each service provider.g. tablets. and active user accounts).
such as Xen or KVM.) IaaS clouds often offer additional resources such as a virtual-machine disk image library.such as Strategy-as-a-Service. Google Compute Engine. Azure Services Platform. etc. To deploy their applications. In this model. SingleHop. ReliaCloud. In 2012. Other key components in XaaS are described in a comprehensive taxonomy model published in 2009. runs the virtual machines as guests. ReadySpace Cloud Services. raw (block) and file-based storage. Collaboration-as-a-Service. providers of IaaS offer computers . SAVVIS. Business Process-as-a-Service. Database-as-a-Service. Rackspace Open Cloud. Oracle Infrastructure as a Service. Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) Platform as a service (PaaS) Software as a service (SaaS) Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) In the most basic cloud-service model. Examples of IaaS providers include: Amazon EC2. customers can use either the Internet or carrier clouds (dedicated virtual private networks). IP addresses. platform as a service (PaaS). Joyent. load balancers.Models of cloud computing System models Cloud computing providers offer their services according to several fundamental models: infrastructure as a service (IaaS).physical or (more often) virtual machines . HP Cloud. (A hypervisor. IaaS-cloud providers supply these resources on-demand from their large pools installed in data centers. and software bundles.and other resources. and Terremark. 09 . recognized service categories of a telecommunication-centric cloud ecosystem. cloud users install operating-system images and their application software on the cloud infrastructure. firewalls. the cloud user patches and maintains the operating systems and the application software. virtual local area networks (VLANs). DynDNS. Cloud providers typically bill IaaS services on a utility computing basis. and software as a service (SaaS) where IaaS is the most basic and each higher model abstracts from the details of the lower models. iland. For wide-area connectivity. Linode. network as a service (NaaS) and communication as a service (CaaS) were officially included by ITU (International Telecommunication Union) as part of the basic cloud computing models. LeaseWeb. NaviSite. Pools of hypervisors within the cloud operational support-system can support large numbers of virtual machines and the ability to scale services up and down according to customers' varying requirements.
Examples of PaaS include: AWS Elastic Beanstalk.com. OpenShift. Cloud Foundry. the underlying computer and storage resources scale automatically to match application demand such that cloud user does not have to allocate resources manually. cloud providers deliver a computing platform typically including operating system. Force. Application developers can develop and run their software solutions on a cloud platform without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers.Figure03:system models Platform as a service (PaaS) In the PaaS model. programming language execution environment. and web server. Heroku. With some PaaS offers. database. Windows Azure Cloud Services and OrangeScape. EngineYard. Google App Engine. Mendix. 10 .
Cloud users do not manage the cloud infrastructure and platform where the application runs. which simplifies maintenance and support. cloud applications can be multitenant. 11 .Figure04: functions of different system models in cloud computing Software as a service (SaaS) In the SaaS model. This eliminates the need to install and run the application on the cloud user's own computers. Cloud applications are different from other applications in their scalability—which can be achieved by cloning tasks onto multiple virtual machines at run-time to meet changing work demand. This process is transparent to the cloud user. To accommodate a large number of cloud users. cloud providers install and operate application software in the cloud and cloud users access the software from cloud clients. who sees only a single access point. any machine serves more than one cloud user organization. that is. Load balancers distribute the work over the set of virtual machines.
The pricing model for SaaS applications is typically a monthly or yearly flat fee per user. Figure05: layered infrastructure 12 . test environment as a service. business process as a service. communication as a service.It is common to refer to special types of cloud based application software with a similar naming convention: desktop as a service. so price is scalable and adjustable if users are added or removed at any point.
public cloud service providers like Amazon AWS. Microsoft and Google own and operate the infrastructure and offer access only via Internet (direct connectivity is not offered). These services are free or offered on a pay-per-use model. Generally. storage. figure06: Cloud computing types 13 .Deployment models Public cloud Community cloud Hybrid cloud Private cloud Public cloud Public cloud applications. and other resources are made available to the general public by a service provider.
Community cloud Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security. etc.). This capability enables hybrid clouds to employ cloud bursting for scaling across clouds. jurisdiction. community or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together. allowing IT organizations to use public cloud computing resources to meet temporary needs. offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. Such composition expands deployment options for cloud services. 14 . so only some of the cost savings potential of cloud computing are realized. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. compliance. Figure07: Deployment models Hybrid cloud Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud).
A primary advantage of cloud bursting and a hybrid cloud model is that an organization only pays for extra compute resources when they are needed. computing environments can be dynamically created. it can improve business.Cloud bursting is an application deployment model in which an application runs in a private cloud or data canter and "bursts" to a public cloud when the demand for computing capacity increases. and use cloud resources from public or private clouds. during spikes in processing demands. essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept. companies and individuals are able to obtain degrees of fault tolerance combined with locally immediate usability without dependency on internet connectivity. because it provides important advantages in sharing. When done right. Virtualization allows a set of underutilized 15 . but every step in the project raises security issues that must be addressed to prevent serious vulnerabilities. They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy. reduce costs and thus enhance business value. expanded. security and certainty of in-house applications. multiple users and applications can share Physical resources without affecting one another). Cloud computing architecture Virtualization Virtualization refers to the abstraction of logical resources away from their underlying physical resources in order to improve agility and flexibility. Virtualization is therefore extremely well suited to a dynamic cloud infrastructure. and manage them" and thus do not benefit from less hands-on management. Hybrid cloud architecture requires both on-premises resources and off-site (remote) server-based cloud infrastructure. In a virtualized environment. and requires the organization to revaluate decisions about existing resources. shrunk or moved as demand varies. Hybrid cloud provides the flexibility of in house applications with the fault tolerance and scalability of cloud based services. Undertaking a private cloud project requires a significant level and degree of engagement to virtualize the business environment. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. build. By utilizing "hybrid cloud" architecture.Cloud bursting enables data canters to create an in-house IT infrastructure that supports average workloads. Hybrid clouds lack the flexibility. Private cloud Private cloud is cloud infrastructure operated solely for a single organization. manageability and isolation (that is.
IBM pioneered this space in the 1960s. There are many forms of virtualization commonly in use in today‘s IT infrastructures. depending on the context. but can also be applied to storage. networking and application.Physical servers to be consolidated into a smaller number of more fully utilized physical servers. contributing to significant cost savings. Logical partitions (LPARs) and virtual machines (VMs) are examples of this definition. A common interpretation of server virtualization is the mapping of a single physical resource to multiple logical representations or partitions. which could be the subject of their own papers Figure08: The cloud computing adoption model 16 . Virtualization technology is not limited to servers. and virtualization can mean different things to different people.
typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over a loose coupling mechanism such as a messaging queue. The hypervisor allows a guest operating system. server virtualization is accomplished by the use of a hypervisor to logically assign and separate physical resources. Each guest operating system is protected from the others and is thus unaffected by any instability or configuration issues of the others. hypervisors are becoming a ubiquitous virtualization layer on client and server systems.How does server virtualization work? In most cases. Architecture Cloud architecture. Figure09: Cloud computing sample architecture 17 . the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing. Elastic provision implies intelligence in the use of tight or loose coupling as applied to mechanisms such as these and others. There are two major types of hypervisors: bare-metal and hosted hypervisors. Today. running on the virtual machine. to function as if it were solely in control of the hardware. unaware that other guests are sharing it.
The Intercloud The Intercloud is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds"and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based. It brings a systematic approach to the high-level concerns of commercialisation. Cloud engineering Cloud engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computing. Physically. performance. standardisation. which the customers can themselves use to store files or data objects. risk. Figure10: Secure Data Storage in Cloud Computing 18 . developing. and governance in conceiving. in the background. software. Data storage & security Secure Data Storage in Cloud Computing Cloud storage is a model of networked enterprise storage where data is stored in virtualized pools of storage which are generally hosted by third parties. operating and maintaining cloud computing systems. virtualize the resources according to the requirements of the customer and expose them as storage pools. Hosting companies operate large data centres. information. and quality engineering. the resource may span across multiple servers. web. security. The data canter operators. and people who require their data to be hosted buy or lease storage capacity from them. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems. platform. The safety of the files depends upon the hosting websites.
the homomorphic token is introduced. since it can be the first step to fast recover the storage errors. Infrastructure Public cloud computing requires a security model that reconciles scalability and multitenancy with the need for trust. Cloud security Principles for Securing the Cloud: Secure Identity. To do that. possibly due to server compromise and/or random Byzantine failures. The first part of the section is devoted to a review of basic tools from coding theories that are needed in our scheme for file distribution across cloud servers. which can be perfectly integrated with the verification of erasure-coded data. Important building blocks of trust and verification relationships include access control. users store their data in the cloud and no longer possess the data locally. Figure11:cloud security 19 . our main scheme for ensuring cloud data storage is presented in this section. in the distributed case when such inconsistencies are successfully detected. Thus. To address these problems.In cloud data storage system. data security. to find which server the data error lies in is also of great significance. and extendable into the cloud. and verify cloud processes and events. chosen to preserve the homomorphic properties. Then. Besides. the correctness and availability of the data files being stored on the distributed cloud servers must be guaranteed. The token computation function we are considering belongs to a family of universal hash function. information and infrastructure to the cloud. Information. implemented with existing products and technologies. they must be able to trust cloud systems and providers. compliance and event management – all security elements well understood by IT departments today. One of the key issues is to effectively detect any unauthorized data modification and corruption. As enterprises move their computing environments with their identities. they must be willing to give up some level of control.
that protective barrier that secures infrastructure is diffused.Identity security End-to-end identity management. third-party authentication services. and utilizing a risk-based authentication model that is largely transparent to the users will actually reduce the need for broader federation of access controls. data must be held securely in order to protect it when multiple customers use shared resources. communities of interest and users. In the near future. granularity of role-based access control at the level of user groups or business units is acceptable in most cases because the information remains within the control of the enterprise itself. federation within and across enterprises. or even block level to meet the demands of assurance and compliance. public clouds will need granular authorization capabilities (such as role-based controls and IRM) that can be persistent throughout the cloud infrastructure and the data‘s lifecycle. sensitive data will require security at the file. Identity security preserves the integrity and confidentiality of data and applications while making access readily available to appropriate users. than perhaps for PAAS and SAAS. controls on physical access. field. access to hardware and software and identity controls all combine to protect the data. Support for these identity management capabilities for both users and infrastructure components will be a major requirement for cloud computing. Virtualization. 20 . The data needs its own security that travels with it and protects it. but in order to handle sensitive data and compliance requirements. data isolation will be more important and executable for IAAS. and federated identity will become a key element of cloud security. security will have to become information centric. For information in the cloud. It will require: Data isolation: In multi-tenancy situations. More granular data security: As the sensitivity of information increases. and identity will have to be managed in ways that build trust. the granularity of data classification enforcement must increase. In the cloud. More granular authorization: Authorization can be coarse-grained within an enterprise or even a private cloud. To compensate. In current data center environments. and risk-based authentication that measures behaviour history. encryption and access control will be workhorses for enabling varying degrees of separation between corporations. Additional tiering of authentication will be essential to meet security SLAs. Information security In the traditional data canter. current context and other factors to assess the risk level of a user request. This will mean adopting techniques and technologies that are already standard in enterprise IT such as strong authentication (multifactor authentication with one-time password technology). It will require: Strong authentication: Cloud computing must move beyond weak username-and-password authentication if it is going to support the enterprise.
built with inherently secure components. For these flexibly deployed components. It will require: Inherent component-level security: The cloud needs to be architected to be secure. as well as management across the cloud and throughout the data lifecycle. PAAS or IAAS. For some categories of data. Infrastructure security The foundational infrastructure for a cloud must be inherently secure whether it is a private or public cloud or whether the service is SAAS. device fingerprinting to ensure secure configuration and state will also be an important security element. either the end-to-end system needs to be proprietary. Governance and compliance: A key requirement of corporate information governance and compliance is the creation of management and validation information – monitoring and auditing the security state of the information with logging capabilities. a way of setting broad-brush controls on which users have access to which data. Here. not only is it important to document access and denials to data. but to ensure that IT systems are configured to meet security specifications and have not been altered. supported securely. log collection and report. Expanding retention policies for data policy compliance will also become an essential cloud capability. deployed and provisioned securely with strong interfaces to other components. Enterprises will need to know what data is important and where it is located as prerequisites to making performance cost/benefit decisions. In essence. Effective data classification: Cloud computing imposes a resource trade-off between high performance and the requirements of increasingly robust security. Here. with vulnerability-assessment and change-management processes that produce management information and service-level assurances that build trust. But more granular data-centric security requires that policies and control mechanisms on the storage and use of information be associated directly with the information itself. or a federation of vendors offering consistently deployed security policies. Data classification is an essential tool for balancing that equation. just as it is for the data and identities themselves More granular interface security: The points in the system where hand-offs occur – user-tonetwork. as well as ensuring focus on the most critical areas for data loss prevention procedures. a de facto standard.Consistent data security: There will be an obvious need for policy-based content protection to meet the enterprise's own needs as well as regulatory policy mandates. server-to application require granular security policies and controls that ensure consistency and accountability. information centric security will necessitate encryption in transit and at rest. Information rights management: IRM is often treated as a component of identity. cloud computing infrastructures must be able to verify that data is being managed per the applicable local and international regulations (such as PCI and HIPAA) with appropriate controls. 21 . finally. and.
After a user‘s resources have been delivered by a cloud. middleware and software. This process reduces the time required to make those resources available to the customer from months to minutes. Thanks to a strong service management platform. and security – accordingly. After an administrator approves the order. the cloud does the rest.Resource lifecycle management: The economics of cloud computing are based on multitenancy and the sharing of resources. It also allows IT organizations to massively increase their data center resources without significantly increasing the number of people traditionally required to maintain that increase. Most companies find that this process can take upwards of two to three months. finding raised floor space and sufficient power and cooling. These are selfservice functions that can be performed 24 hours a day and take only minutes to perform. servers. storage. through any connected device. The cloud also provides a user interface that allows both the user and the IT administrator to easily manage the provisioned resources through the life cycle of the service request. the user can track the order. add them to a shopping cart and submit the order. It involves many steps. Companies that employ traditional data center management practices know that making IT resources available to an end user can be time-intensive. 22 . The applications reside in massively scalable data centers where computational resources can be dynamically provisioned and shared to achieve significant economies of scale. As a customer's needs and requirements change. remove servers. A user-centric interface makes the cloud infrastructure supporting the applications transparent to users. and even start. This lifecycle process must be managed for accountability in order to build trust. a cloud will enable users to consume IT resources in the data center in ways that were never available before. increase or decrease the allocated Processing power. add servers. For organizations currently using traditional infrastructures. change the installed software. memory or storage. a service provider must provision and decommission those resources – bandwidth. stop and restart servers. which typically consists of some number of servers and software. allocating administrators to install operating systems. business workflows and resource abstraction that allows a user to browse a catalog of IT services. and securing the environment. such as procuring hardware. The infrastructure management methodology enables IT organizations to manage large numbers of highly virtualized resources as a single large resource. Those IT organizations that are re-provisioning existing hardware resources find that it still takes several weeks to accomplish. the management costs of adding more IT resources to the cloud can be significantly lower than those associated with alternate infrastructures. A cloud dramatically alleviates this problem by implementing automation. provisioning the network. and view the health of those resources. Business value of cloud computing Cloud computing is an emerging computing model by which users can gain access to their applications from anywhere.
it is far less important to correctly predict the capacity requirements for an application than it is in traditional data centers. and in a policy-based system. lower costs and complexity and support for varied and huge workloads) and Internet users (who expect availability. dynamic allocation of computing resources for a mix of workloads on a massively scalable. The cloud computing model reduces the need for capacity planning at an application level. networks and the software provisioning process. The value of a fully automated provisioning process that is security compliant and automatically customized to user‘s needs results in: ● significantly reduced time to introduce technologies and innovations. heterogeneous and virtualized infrastructure. ● Cost elimination through greater use and reuse of existing resources. As technology such as virtualization and corresponding management services like automation. resource changes are performed dynamically. When users realize they can get resources within minutes of a request. it could take hours or days for someone to have a server restarted or hardware or software configurations changed. they are less likely to hoard resources that are otherwise very difficult to acquire. 23 . no interaction is needed at all. ● Cost savings by avoiding human error in the configuration of security.By contrast. in a non-cloud environment. procuring and building hardware and software platforms. Clouds provide request-driven. This helps IT organizations to more efficiently repurpose resources that often get forgotten or go unused. The business model of a cloud facilitates more efficient use of existing resources. resulting in better efficiency. monitoring and capacity planning services become more mature. A user who needs more resources can submit another request and obtain more resources within minutes. cloud computing will become more widely used for increasingly diverse and even missioncritical workloads. function and speed). Thus. Clouds can require users to commit to predefined start and end dates for resource requests. Today‘s IT realities make cloud computing a good fit for meeting the needs of both IT providers (who demand unprecedented flexibility and efficiency. and capacity planning is simplified because it is performed only once for the entire data center. ● Cost savings in labour for designing. The user of an application can request resources from the cloud and obtain them in less than an hour.
PAAS and SAAS services. key management for encrypted data. many of these security solutions are largely available today and are being developed further to undertake increasingly seamless cloud functionalities. issues of security standards and compatibility must be addressed including strong authentication. Fortunately. delegated authorization. data loss protections. 24 . information and infrastructure model. but before sensitive and regulated data move into the public cloud.Conclusion Cloud computing promises to change the economics of the data center. In the development of public and private clouds. and are applicable to private and public clouds as well as to IAAS. All are elements of a secure identity. enterprises and service providers will need to use these guiding principles to selectively adopt and extend security tools and secure products to build and offer end-to-end trustworthy cloud computing and services. and regulatory reporting.
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