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NON-SEQUENTIAL FALLACIES

1. ARGUMENTUM AD HOMINEM (ATTACK AGAINST THE PERSON) is a fallacy that focuses on the personality of the man rather than the merit of his argument 3 FORMS a. ABUSIVE a form of argument that attacks the person instead of proving or disproving the issue Ex. His face is disgusting. I will not listen to his speech even if it turns out to be good. His sexual preference is doubtful, therefore, I will not take his side. b. CIRCUMSTANTIAL a form of argument that focuses on the circumstance that the person, who makes the assertion, is in and not on the true issue. Ex. No matter what you say, this court will not listen to you because you are merely an illiterate person. They say that the president is corrupt, of course, they are opportunists. c. TU QUOQUE (YOU, TOO) it is a form of argument that a person formulates as an attempt to throw back the accusation hurled against him by the accuser with the purpose of avoiding the issue Ex. Opposition senators: The government is vent on deceiving the people. Governments side: Look whos talking. Rape suspect to the accuser: I did not rape you; you planned it so that I may happen. 2. ARGUMENTUM AD POPULUM (APPEAL TO THE PEOPLE) is a fallacy that tries to ignore the issue in favour of an appeal for popular sympathy. Ex. Everybody is doing it, why cant we? The recent survey dictates that the government is ineffective to fight terrorism. This must be true. 3. ARGUMENTUM AD MISERICORDIAM (APPEAL TO PITY) a fallacy of ignoring the issue by appealing for humanitarian consideration. Ex. Student to a teacher: Sir, please give me a high grade, otherwise, I will lose my scholarship. Glorias defenders: If Gloria M. Arroyo will be ousted who will replace her? Wife of the accused rapist to the victim: Please drop the case, just forget the thing that my husband did to you for the sake of our children. 4. ARGUMENTUM AD VERACUNDIAM (APPEAL TO INAPPROPRIATE AUTHORITY) this fallacy emergences when the appeal is made to certain figure with no authoritative claim on the issue at hand. Ex. This skin whitening is effective because it has been endorse by my favourite movie star. She wants to know what priests would say about the issue on responsible parenthood. 5. ARGUMENTUM AD BACULUM (APPEAL TO THE STICK) a fallacy of accepting an argument due to some physical or moral pressure Ex. Father to a child: You must follow every word that I say or else you will not receive any allowance from me. Teacher to a student: You must accept my argument because I am your teacher.

6. PETITIO PRINCIPII (BEGGING THE QUESTION) a fallacy in which something which is still to be prove is already assumed to be true. Ex. Question: What is Natural Science? Answer: It is a science of nature. He is a moral man because he s a good person. 7. ARGUMENTUM AD IGNORANTIAM (APPEAL TO IGNORANCE) a fallacy which maintains that a statement is false because it has not been proven to be true or true because it has not been proven to be false Ex. God doesnt exist because science cannot affirm nor deny His existence. Nobody said I am an evil person; therefore, I must be a good person. 8. ACCIDENT a fallacy that confuses anyone from determining that what is true in general is also true to some specific cases Ex. All humans are intelligent creatures; But, Rodrigo, is not an intelligent person; Ergo, Rodrigo is not human. Every human must have two legs; ergo, all those who have lost one leg are not really humans. 9. FALSE CAUSE a fallacy that implies that what is not true cause is assumed to be the cause of something Ex. It rained today because I heard you sang last night. I did not war m lucky tie today thats why I did not pass the job interview. 10. ILLICIT GENERALIZATION a fallacy which makes false generalization based on insufficient evidence. Ex. Her boyfriend is a two-timer. Ergo, she claims that all men are two-timers. Pedro was humiliated by an American who spoke same derogatory remarks about his Filipino origin. It follows than that all Americans are racists. 11. ARGUMENT FROM SILENCE fallacy which speaks that a fact is not true or did not occur because no recorded document will attest to such a fact Ex. You said that you fell victim to a robber yesterday, how come that it is not stated in the news today. There is no recorded song that will prove that you can sing very well. 12. NON SEQUITUR (IT DOES NOT FOLLOW) a fallacy of stating a given fact that will inevitable result to a particular consequence Ex. If you have a degree, you will surely be rich later on. You are a fitness buff; ergo, there is no way you will become sick later.