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Euso Project

Î Euso Physics

Î Detection of UHECR showers through fluorescence + Cerenkov

Î Euso detector : who is doing what ?

Î Acceptance et counting rates

Î q and E

Î Horizontal showers and neutrinos

Î LPM effect

Î Euso status : NASA, ESA,…

Î B phase and after…

Î Conclusions

Î and the Lidar…

B phase and after… Î Conclusions Î and the Lidar… P. Gorodetzky, J. Dolbeau, T. Patzak,

P. Gorodetzky, J. Dolbeau, T. Patzak, E. Plagnol, P. Salin

P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

EUSO Physics I

Euso objective : Physics above the GZK effect Extreme energies 10 20 -10 21 eV physics Astronomy through UHECR and neutrinos

0 -10 2 1 eV physics Astronomy through UHECR and neutrinos P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003

P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

0 -10 2 1 eV physics Astronomy through UHECR and neutrinos P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003

Euso Physics II

A non observation of the GZK effect would open the road to "new physics" :

• Topological defects,

• Super-massive particules,

• Lorentz invariance.

But does not close the door to a classical explanation :

• Strong magnetic fields ( 0.1µG et Fe) influence, (Astro-Ph/0209192v1) :

( ≈ 0.1µG et Fe) influence, ( Astro-Ph/0209192v1) : Magnetic fields generate isolation zones (< 10

Magnetic fields generate isolation zones (< 10 Mpc) :

no exits, no returns

Isotropy

Caustics effects on the doublets.

High statistics are necessary

P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

Euso Physics III

The AUGER detector will solve the Agasa-Hires case

However, its rate (60 evts/year for E > 10 20 eV (if E -2.7 )) will limit its ability to study the UHECR above 10 20 eV.

Whatever AUGER solution is :

EUSO will be able to study, in a detailed manner, physics above the GZK cutoff, EUSO will be able to study the new physics (Super-GZK) or the ones of the strong magnetic fields (isotropy, correlation).

P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

UHECR shower detection by fluorescence Original idea by John Linsley in 1979 (Airwatch)

Large observation area, jumbo mass and, above 5 km…immune from aerosols

A UHECR shower is seen as the displacement of a particules front.

A fraction (<1%) of the deposited energy will go as a N 2 fluorescence.

The direction and arrival time correlation of these photons allows a measure of the energy, initial direction and nature of the UHECR.

measure of the energy, initial direction and nature of the UHECR. P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003
measure of the energy, initial direction and nature of the UHECR. P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003

P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

What EUSO looks like

What EUSO looks like P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003
What EUSO looks like P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

What EUSO looks like P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

The EUSO detector : Who does what ?

Ground Segment : Portugal

S.A. (LIDAR) : Switzerland - Italy

Electronics : France - Italy Analog - Digital

Mechanics : France - Italy

Photo-detector : Japan 200 000 pixels

- Italy Photo-detector : Japan ≈ 200 000 pixels Optics : USA f ≈ 2m P.
- Italy Photo-detector : Japan ≈ 200 000 pixels Optics : USA f ≈ 2m P.
- Italy Photo-detector : Japan ≈ 200 000 pixels Optics : USA f ≈ 2m P.
- Italy Photo-detector : Japan ≈ 200 000 pixels Optics : USA f ≈ 2m P.

Optics : USA f 2m

: Japan ≈ 200 000 pixels Optics : USA f ≈ 2m P. Gorodetzky - TAUP

P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

US Optics I

US Optics I P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003
US Optics I P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003
US Optics I P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

US Optics I P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003
US Optics I P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

US Optics II

US Optics II P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003
US Optics II P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003
US Optics II P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

US Optics II P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

French activities : LAPP, LPSC et APC/PCC

Annecy

Grenoble

Collège de France

Simulations - ESAF Atmosphere Analog electronics Front End Analysis, Lidar Communication Outreach F.Vannucci
Simulations - ESAF
Atmosphere
Analog electronics
Front End
Analysis, Lidar
Communication
Outreach
F.Vannucci

Mechanics and thermal study of the focal surface

T ext -T int
T
ext -T int

Thermal conductivity of FSA

(Summer, 6 m 2 , 850/200W)

-T int Thermal conductivity of FSA (Summer, 6 m 2 , 850/200W) P. Gorodetzky - TAUP

P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

And elsewhere… Italy-Alenia Germany (Munich) calibrations ESA Japan USA USA
And elsewhere…
Italy-Alenia
Germany
(Munich)
calibrations
ESA
Japan
USA
USA

P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

Acceptance and counting rates I

Shower, detector and trigger simulation:

Shower production : Corsika -> parameterization GIL Photons production : Fluorescence (Kakimoto et al.) and Cerenkov Atmosphere transport : Rayleigh, Mie, Ozone (LOWTRAN7) Optics : Transfers and aberrations Photo-detectors : Filters and quantum efficiency Trigger : Thresholds and persistence (N thre , N pers )

: Thresholds and persistence (N t h r e , N p e r s )
: Thresholds and persistence (N t h r e , N p e r s )

P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

: Thresholds and persistence (N t h r e , N p e r s )

Acceptance and counting rates II

The absolute threshold is anchored by W and the detection efficiency. The trigger performances determine the acceptance evolution versus energy.

determine the acceptance evolution versus energy. The asymptotic efficiency will be determined by the cloud

The asymptotic efficiency will be determined by the cloud coverage.

P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

by the cloud coverage. P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

Efficiency times the power -2.7 law

Clouds effects I

The cloud coverage will play an important role :

• Eventually mask part of the shower (S max ),

• Increase the Cerenkov light reflection;

The cloud coverage is given by the ISCCP database : 280x280 km 2 pixel size:

Longitude, latitude, every 3 hours --> altitude, albedo, cloud fraction.

P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003
P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

AA Workshop

(GDR-PCHE)

-----

LMD (X) Weather forecast.

Aeronomy (Jussieu)

-----

Celeste

Hess

Magic

Auger

Euso

Clouds effects II

Clouds effects II NO CLOUDS CLOUDS Clouds reduce efficiency from ≈ 86% Î ≈ 53% P.

NO CLOUDS

CLOUDS

Clouds reduce efficiency from 86% Î 53%

P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

Clouds effects versus shower energy

E = 5 10 19 eV

Clouds effects versus shower energy E = 5 10 1 9 eV E = 10 2

E = 10

20

eV

versus shower energy E = 5 10 1 9 eV E = 10 2 0 eV

P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

E = 5 10

20

eV

shower energy E = 5 10 1 9 eV E = 10 2 0 eV P.

Duty cycle

Duty cycle (time fraction usable for measurements) depends on the "photon background" :

Without moon, this background is estimated (measured) to 300 ph/m 2 /nsec/sr It originates from the stars light and to the "Airglow" It does not depend critically on the cloud coverage ( +20%) Moonlight will limit the duty cycle.

• for12.8% of the time, moon is under horizon,

• for 18% light increase is insignificant,

• for 25% light increase < 100 ph/m 2 /nsec/sr.

To that, too short nights have to be removed (<10% of duty cycle). Euso has a warranty of a 3 years effective measurement time.

P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

Euso has a warranty of a 3 years effective measurement time. P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003

Counting rates

“Super-GZK” Hypothesis

Counting rates “Super-GZK” Hypothesis 12% --> 1000 events @ E > 10 2 0 eV Or

12% --> 1000 events @ E > 10 20 eV

Or “GZK”

1000 events @ E > 10 2 0 eV Or “GZK” for 25 % … EUSO

for 25 % …

A possible measurement …(duty cycle 12%)

A possible measurement …(duty cycle 12%) P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 -

P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

N evt GZK (E >10 20 eV) >100

Angular resolution

Precise showers analysis will be made on an “event by event” basis: each shower will get errors specifically depending of the observation conditions.

As of today, only a statistical error estimation is considered. Angular resolution : q < 1° if q shower > 60°

: ∆ q < 1° if q s h o w e r > 60° P.

P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

Horizontal showers and Neutrinos

• Shower length depends on the encountered mass Fluorescence production (O 2 being a quencher) depends only on distance (altitude < 15km) Î Shower width ( T) will then depend only on altitude.

Î Shower width ( ∆ T) will then depend only on altitude. P. Gorodetzky - TAUP

P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

Î Shower width ( ∆ T) will then depend only on altitude. P. Gorodetzky - TAUP

Neutrinos and Hadrons showers

The probability to observe an ( horizontal) hadronic shower with a maximum under 10 km is extremely weak.

Instead, this probability is maximum for neutrinos.

weak. • Instead, this probability is maximum for neutrinos. P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle,
weak. • Instead, this probability is maximum for neutrinos. P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle,
weak. • Instead, this probability is maximum for neutrinos. P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle,

P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

Euso status : NASA, ESA,…

International

Î NASA has given its OK to EUSO (if ESA ok) : 28 M$

Î Switzerland will take part to the Lidar study

Î Germany is officially part of EUSO : H.Teshima (Max Planck, Munich) ESA

Î EUSO depends on 2 ESA managements: Science et Manned flights

Î ESA phase A has ended in July (instrument) and September (Lidar)

Î ESA committees will decree at the end the year on the project and its transition in phase B…

Management et Collaboration

Î Euso “management” structure will evolve : agencies consortium

Î In France a collaboration with AUGER is taking form : AAA, fluorescence, flux comparison, hybrid events …Contacts also with AGASA and HIRES.

P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

Conclusions

EUSO physics are at the borders of “new physics” and of our universe understanding, via its most energetic manifestations.

EUSO detector will be able, after AUGER, to study physics beyond 10 20 eV with important statistics (fluxes, correlations, GZK recovery,…) whatever will be the AUGER results on the Agasa-HiRes case.

Neutrino physics are “within range”.

Detection (optics, MAPMT) enhancement should allow a decrease of the detection threshold :

2-3 10 19 eV.

EUSO detector represents the first generation of spatial detectors using the atmosphere as medium : USA and Japan are already studying the next generation.

The observable mass by EUSO is 2.0 10 12 tons with a good transparency it is an opening on future…

At the international level, USA are waiting for the ESA decision.

All laboratories have played a strong role during Phase A. They are ready to start phase B et and be even more important there :

Electronics, mechanics, lidar, simulations and analysis

We are all ready to take a very important place in this project.

P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

The atmospheric probe : a Lidar ?

Atmosphere is a complex medium and its exploitation (as a detector seen from space) is only beginning. Clouds (and other aerosols) treatment needs a control of the atmosphere conditions.

A LIDAR (Light Imaging And Ranging) is the most efficient instrument for that : It allows an

(almost) direct measurementof the transmission coefficients.

It is however a complex tool, requiring an important electrical power.

For EUSO it is an important choice … which is discussed !

No clouds

it is an important choice … which is discussed ! No clouds Example of a Laser

Example of a Laser (355nm) with EUSO as receiver

A LIDAR will also allow a statistical analysis of the clouds presence

(From G.Fiocco (Rome))

Altitude (km) P. Gorodetzky - TAUP 2003 - Seattle, Sept 5 - 9, 2003

Subvisible clouds

Altitude (km)
Altitude (km)