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ISBN: 978 - 81 - 905947- 0 - 7 Published by: K. S. Pangtey B-5/11 Green Tower (ONGC) Golf Green Kolkata-700095 West Bengal, India Phone: 033 24296972 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. BEAUTY CONTEST MAP ENLARGEMTN COVER ON COVER THE WALL POINT OR PERIOD TOUCHING BALLS CLOSING-IN V/S ZOOMING-IN PLOTS & SUB-PLOTS PLANTS HATE GREEN KILO CASE HOUSE CATEGORY DEGREE OF DISTANCE HEAD MASTER LAT-X TELESCOPIC EFFECT NEW DELHI OR NEWDELHI WHOSE SIDE IS IT ANYWAY LOOSER CAN BE WINNER SERVING FIRST CURSE OF CURVE WHITE ALWAYS WINS HONEY COMB 07 10 15 18 23 28 30 34 40 41 43 46 51 54 58 61 64 68 75 81 91 94
TEASER - 01 BEAUTY CONTEST
Imagine a contest of beauty pageant. Participants come onto stage one by one in front of Judges for each event. The participants and Judges do not know each other. The Judges are asked to award points on a scale from 1 to 10 (no fractions) to each candidate. If you are made one of the judge and is asked to choose one out of following choices for the first participant in first event which one would you choose ? (a) 01 (c) 02 (e) 09 (b) 05 (d) 10
THE EXPLANATION: The contests are generally conducted to select a winner from among a group of contestants. In a contest, it is not important how much marks or points (absolute) an individual gets, rather the whole process is to make a proper sorting from among a chaotic group through a comparative analysis. Sorting cannot be done in isolation, it can only be done if there are more than one candidates put
together and compared together. If the winner candidate gets 5 point on a scale of 1 to 10, it does not mean that she or he is not worth 10, it merely indicates that all other candidates have points less than 5. When 1st candidate comes onto stage, judges may find it difficult to award a point as they would not know whether she is best or worst among all candidates. Judges would normally rely on their own past experience to make an imaginary benchmark or standard and attempt a comparison with that. Therefore the whole process would be highly influenced by an individual’s experience which would amount to biased judgment, especially during initial stage. If 1st candidate is awarded 1 point, for example, it would mean that an assumption has been made that all remaining candidates are better than her and would get either one or more than 1 point. Now if all remaining participants turn out to be worst than 1st candidate then there would be a big dilemma as no numbers are available less than one hence all shall end up having 1 point each. Similarly if 1st candidate is given 10 points same situation would arise in reverse order Let us compare beauty contest (crude comparison) to a “ball game” where participants are replaced by balls of various sizes chaotically placed in a cluster. These balls are required to be sorted out based on their sizes.
CHAOTIC CLUSTER OF BALLS OF DIFFERENT SIZES
The balls are ten in numbers and named as A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J & K and judges award points on the basis of their sizes on a scale of
The smallest one gets 1 and largest one gets 10 points. • If D is awarded 1 or 2 (minimum marks). if D is awarded 10 or 9 marks (maximum) the result will be 99% wrong. The sizes of balls are not known to judges prior to contest. • However. at least half of the remaining candidates would get correct markings. In case D is awarded 5 marks (mid point of scale). • • 7 . BALLS SORTED AS PER SIZES The name and diameter of balls are shown in a table below: SN ITEMS D 1 BALL CHARACTARISTICS B 2 I 3 G 4 E 5 H 6 A 7 J 8 C F 1 Ball Name 2 Ball Size (Dia) (cm) 9 10 Let us imagine that D is the first one paraded in front of judges. the result would be correct up to 99%. if E gets 5 point (middle). the result would be 100% correct.1 to 10 (no fractions). however. the result of contest would be 50% correct and if awarded 10 or 9 marks (maximum) still result would be 50% correct. Suppose E is the first candidate paraded in front of judges and is awarded 1 or 2 marks (minimum).
e. if points are chosen from middle of the scale (5) the answer would always be 50% to 100% right and will never be 100% wrong. (a) If points are picked up from extreme ends of a scale (1.5 so that a fair amount of points are available on either side and a dead end is avoided. what will be the scale of enlarged map? (a) 1:50 (b) 1:71 (approx) (c) 1:75 8 . 10) there is a danger of going 100% wrong or right by 0%. So the probability of choosing points correctly would always vary from 0% to 100%. The probability of choosing points correctly would always vary from 50% to 100% and will never be less than 50%. ******** TEASER . (b) However. (c) Therefore the correct way would be to choose the mid-point for initial participants so that the danger of going wrong by 100% is avoided and a fair amount of points are made available on either side for awarding later participants and a dead end is averted. 2 or 9. Following conclusion can be drawn from the analysis. i.Awarding of marks at extreme end is a total gamble and there is every danger of going wrong by 99% and candidates may end up getting incorrect marks.02 MAP ENLARGEMENT If a map (A). To be on safe side the correct way would be to choose the midpoint. having a size equal to A4 paper and scale of 1:100 is enlarged by 200% (2 times) (B).
A: MAP OF AN AREA WITH SCALE B: MAP SHOWN AT ‘A’ ABOVE IS ENLARGED THE EXPLANATION: We know that a scale or ratio of 1:100 means 1m on map equal to 100 m on ground. 9 . Larger the map narrower the ratio of a unit distance on map to unit distance on ground. Both are linked in such a way that size is inversely proportional to scale (ratio). Distance on map 1 : 100 = ____________________________ 1 = ____________ Distance on ground 100 When a map is enlarged or compressed. (i) scale of map (ii) size or dimension (length & width) of map. two things change.
is enlarged by 200% (2 times) in same way as a map is enlarged.A map is a kind of a scaled down model of an area (2D) where an actual surface area is represented on a paper (media) suitable for human use. 1.three dimensional) 1) If a scaled down model of an actual line (one dimensional). the ratio of model (enlarged) to that of actual one would become 1:50 (exactly half). ENLARGEMENT OF AN AREA (2D) 10 . Line (length .two dimensional) 3. Area (length & width . ENLARGEMENT OF A LINE (1D) 2) If a map (scale down model) of an area (earth surface). having a scale of 1:100 is enlarged by 200% (2 times) the scale of enlarged map would become 1:71 (approx) and not half as in case of a line. Three types of similar relationship (between actual and model) can be envisaged. Volume (length. having a ratio of 1:100.one dimensional) 2. width& depth .
The area being a 2 dimensional entity. ENLARGEMENT OF A SCALE MODEL (SOLID: 3D) 11 . Area = = = = = X x Y 2(X) x 2(Y) 4 (X x Y) 200% x 200% 400% or CHANGING SCALE OF AN AREA (2D) 4) On same analogy. the map shall have to be enlarged by 400% (4 times) and not 200% (2 times) as would be in case of one dimensional objects such as a line. enlargement will have to be done twice along X and Y direction (length and width).3) Now if we want to change the scale of same map from 1:100 to 1:50 (half). if a scale down model (similar to map) of a 3D solid object or volume (having a ratio / scale of 1:100) is enlarged 200% the ratio would be 1:79 and not 1:50 as in case of a line and neither 1:71 as in the case of an area.
One is the surface of the object.5) Now if scale of same 3D model is changed from 1:100 to 1:50. For example the ratio of surface area would be governed by 2D conversion like that of map to ground. The solid model being 3 dimensional. Volume = = = Or = = 200% x 200% x 200% 800% XxYxZ 2(X) x 2(Y) x 2(Z) 8 (X x Y x Z) CHANGING SCALE OF 3D MODEL (VOLUME: 3D) The solid objects have two elements which can be compared for map to ground type relationship. similar to earths surface (2D) & second is volume contained within its body (3D). along X. it would be enlarged by 800% (8 times) and not 400% (4 times) as would be in case of a map. where as ratio for volume would be governed by 3D conversion formula. the enlargement will have to be done volume wise. ******** 12 . Therefore the ratio or scale would depend upon which aspect is being considered while doing enlargement. Y and Z axis.
03 COVER ON COVER Consider that there is a book with a specific cover design which is named here as K.TEASER . Whether it is possible to do so? (a) Yes (b) No THE EXPLANATION: 1) We have a book cover design named as K and its exact photograph M of smaller size (stamp size). 13 . M is identical to K in all respect. Now a stamp size (medium size) photograph (named as M) of cover of K is to be printed on the left bottom corner of same cover (as is done for the cover of this book). The smaller one M is to be placed or printed on bigger one K. Name of Book cover design Name of Stamp size photograph of K = = K M Barring size difference.
STAMP SIZE IMAGE OF BOOK COVER (M) IS PUT ON ITS COVER (K) 2) Now as K has become KM.A BOOK (M) AND STAMP SIZE IMAGE OF ITS COVER (M) When M is printed on K (bottom left corner). it is an action of ‘adding’ or introducing new things to the original cover K. Any alternation or changes made on the K would amount to changing the original design therefore K would become KM. the M (the stamp size exact image of K) will get automatically cancelled and invalid and a new stamp 14 .
Name of new book cover design Name of Stamp size photograph of KM = KM = S Now as soon the stamp size image S is placed / printed on the new book cover (KM). shall have to be made all over again and put on the new book cover KM. NEW STAMP SIZE IMAGE (S) IS PUT ON BOOK COVER (KM) 3) Now KM has become KMS. 15 . the cover gets altered and the whole process is repeated again. the S (the stamp size exact image of KM) will get automatically cancelled and a new stamp size image shall have to be put on the new book cover KMS Name of new book cover design Name of Stamp size photograph of KMS = KMS = Y Now as soon Y is placed on KMS. as indicated at (1) above will get repeated once again and KM will become KMS. with new name.size image. the process.
Indicate whether the width (X) of the wall. similar to that of China wall. width (X) and thickness or depth (Z).NEW STAMP SIZE IMAGE (Y) IS PUT ON BOOK COVER (KMS) The process continues till infinity. shall remain constant throughout its length over an undulating earth surface? (a) Yes (b) No 16 . The width (X) of a wall can also be equated to its Height (H). not more & not less. ******** TEASER .04 THE WALL The dimension of a wall is measured by its length (Y). is to be erected across an undulating earth’s surface. Now. So the process of placing or printing stamp size image on itself triggers another action and creates new cover. Therefore every time a stamp size image or photograph of a book cover is printed (placed) on itself it gets altered which in turn invalidates its stamp size image. a wall of exact 5 m height (H).
On the other hand the height of a wall (H) is measured along a vertical line (plumb line) which is perpendicular to the equi-potential surface of earth’s gravity field. sea surface can be considered to 17 .GREAT WALL OF CHINA CRISS-CROSSING MOUNTAINS THE EXPLANATION: When a wall is standing on a flat ground its dimension is defined by three elements.height (H) comes into play. Normally. This fourth element is same as width (X) when on flat ground. a fourth element or fourth dimension . However. GEOMETRICAL ELEMENTS OF A WALL The width of a wall (X) is measured along a line normal to ground surface which may not be parallel to equi-potential gravity field. when same wall is build over an inclined ground surface.width (X). they are . length (Y) and thickness (Z).
HEIGHT OF A WALL IS INDICATED BY ARROWS 18 . the width (X) will not remain same every where. therefore can be considered to be parallel to Plumb Line. trees are always perpendicular to equi-potential surface. On an average. However. irrespective of ground slope on which it grows. Width (X) would be maximum on a flat ground and would decrease proportionately along sloppy ground. TREES GROWING VERTICAL (PARALLEL TO PLUMB LINE) (OBLIQUE TO STEEP SLOPE) If height (H) of a wall (measured along plumb line) is kept constant throughout its length over an undulating ground.be parallel to equi-potential gravity field and plumb line is always perpendicular (normal) to sea surface. ground surface is not always parallel to equi-potential surface and is highly undulating.
Over flat part of staircase both plumb-line and width of wall would be parallel. the width (X) would be zero while height (H) would be 100%.Alternatively if width (X) is kept constant. However. over vertical part. Wall would have maximum height along slopes and minimum on flat surface. VARIOUS SHAPES OF WALL RESULTING DUE TO COMBINATION OF WIDTH & HEIGHT OF THE WALL 19 . WIDTH OF A WALL IS INDICATED BY ARROWS There can be varying degree of ground slopes. the height (H) of wall would not remain same everywhere. For example a stair case type slope can be likened to combination of vertical and flat surfaces. Geometrically it would amount to putting a new staircase over the ground surface. therefore H and X would be same.
The relationship between H and X can be roughly established as follows: Q X Where: X H Q = = = Wall Width Wall Height Angle between Plumb-line and ground slop = H x ________ 90 ANGLE (Q) BETWEEN GROUND SLOPE AND PLUMB LINE If Q is 90 degree (in case of flat ground) X would be equal to H.Over a slopping ground. the width (X) of wall can vary from 0% to 100%. The X would progressively decrease with decreasing Q and eventually become zero if Q is zero (in case of vertical ground). ******** 20 .
days. Same thing applies to each week (Monday to Sunday) and each day which encompasses a time period of 24 hrs. Generally. On same line January to February implies whole of January and whole of February (a total of 59 days). When we say 01 year. 21 . we actually mean a period of 12 months starting from January to December. Time segments are designated by various names such as hours.05 POINT OR PERIOD If. when one says 2000 to 2001. January (01) to May (05) is equal to 5 months and Monday to Friday is equal to 5 days. years etc which represent a specific time interval / period. starting from 00 hours to 24 hours. 10 AM (10 Hrs) to 02 PM (14 Hrs) is equal to how many hours? (a) 4 hrs (b) 5 hrs (c) Both THE EXPLANATION: Time is a continuum phenomenon however humans have segmented them for their convenience and daily uses. Similarly January month means a time period having 31 days starting from day 1 and ending at 31st day of the month. Year 2001 to year 2005 is equal to 5 years.TEASER . months. it means 2 years comprising whole of year 2000 (12 months) and whole of year 2001 (12 months) and no fractions. then.
therefore a day can not be called a day unless entire period of 24 hours is completed. has full 12 hours (00 to 12 hrs). A decade has 10 full years. used for day to day work. else it may not be called a year. Therefore each segment of time will qualify to be called by its name only at the end of its specified period. LARGE TIME INTERVAL / DIVISIONS (PERIOD) A watch. similarly a year should have 12 months. DIVISIONS OF TIME INTERVAL (PERIOD) OF A DAY (01 PM to 05 PM) 22 . a month has full 30 days (1st to 30th days) and a week has seven full days (1st to 7th day). (1st to 10th year).Any segment of a time period (say a day) has a starting point and ending point.
01 hour not included) SHORT TIME PERIOD (01 to 05 HRS) 2.When we say a match or a game will start at 01 PM or 01 hours and finish at 05 PM or 05 hours (or will last from 01 to 05 hours) it can have following meaning. 01 PM (hrs) to 05 PM (hrs) = 4 hours (00 .01 hour included) SHORT TIME PERIOD (01 to 05 HRS) 23 . 1. 01 PM (hrs) to 05 PM (hrs) = 5 hours (00 .
On human scale. whenever we say 02 inch to 06 inch it can have two meanings. space is also a continuum phenomenon and space has also been segmented for convenience and daily uses. 02 inch to 06 inch = 05 inches (2nd inch included) SHORT DISTANCE (SPACE) INTERVAL ( 01 to 06 INCH) 24 . 1. same convention is not applied when we refer in terms of years or months. meters. centimeters. 01 hours or 01 0’ Clock’ meant end of 01 hour (or beginning of 02 hours). inches etc. 02 inch to 06 inch = 04 inches (2nd inch not included) SHORT DISTANCE (SPACE) INTERVAL (02 to 06 INCH) 2.As per prevailing convention. Similar to time. on a horizontal scale. space is generally segmented into kilometers. However. feet. It never means beginning of 01 hrs hence does not include 00 to 01 hour. When we say that ‘so and so was a number one player from 01 year to 05 year it invariably means 5 years and includes year from 00 to 01 also. For example. horizontally as well as vertically.
On a vertical scale. The depth interval of oil layer can be written in two options: i. Its thickness would be measured as 10 m (as shown above). which occur in rock layers. in petroleum exploration industry. 400 m to 410 m ii. DEPTH INTERVAL OF AN OIL WELL (00 to 1000 m & 390 to 420 m) Now. For example. is extracted by drilling a well (8 to 10 inch diameter) deep into earth. oil. imagine that a rock layer containing oil has been found to occur between 400 m to 410 m in a well. The properties of rock layer containing oil and its depth from surface is recorded and measured by wire line logs (as shown below). measurement of a depth interval can also create similar anomaly. 400 m to 410 m = 10 m (400th m not included) = 11 m (400th m is included) 25 .
as per industry practice would be taken as 10 m and not 11 m. Depending upon the convention and practice. hence thickness of interval.06 TOUCHING BALLS How many balls of same size can remain in touch with each other at the same time? (a) (b) (c) (d) Four Three Six Nine 26 . The well path is measured and marked continuously so that a point will always fall on some numeral. one of the options can be followed provided it is qualified with a definition or explanation. ******** TEASER . So if top of layer falls exactly at 400 m. its depth interval would start from a point at 400 m and downward to 410 m. in petroleum industry practice. the depth interval is generally demarcated from a point on top of layer to a point at bottom of layer.However.
THREE BALLS OF EQUAL SIZE ON A FLAT SURFACE (2D) In three dimension (3D). FOUR BALLS OF EQUAL SIZE IN A BOX (3D) 27 . Three balls together forming each face of a tetrahedron. a maximum number of four balls can remain in touch with each other at a time and form a tetrahedron. a maximum of three balls can remain in touch with each other at a time.THE EXPLANATION: On a two dimensional plane (2D).
a single central ball can remain in touch with a maximum of six balls of same size at a time. SIX BALLS OF EQUAL SIZE ON A FLAT SURFACE (2D) In three dimension (3D) a single central ball can remain in touch with 12 balls of same size at a time. TWELVE BALLS OF EQUAL SIZE IN A BOX (3D) ******** 28 .On a plane (2D). making an hexagonal shape.
Closing-in is defined here as an act of physically moving closer to an object-in-view. In motion picture or television.TEASER . This is performed with the help of a magnifier such as zoom lens.07 CLOSING-IN V/S ZOOMING-IN Zooming-in is defined here as a simulation of an act of moving closer to an object-in-view with the help of a magnifier such as telescope or binoculars. One aspect which is common in both processes is that things get magnified and look bigger to the viewer. The observer and object do not move physically towards or away and remain fixed at their places and the relationship with regard to 29 . zooming-in is a process of changing rapidly from a long shot to a close-up while maintaining the subject or scene in focus or vice-versa. The process of magnification is identical in both cases? (a) True (b) Falls THE EXPLANATION: Zooming-in Zooming-in is a simulation of an act of movement toward or away from an object and not the actual act of movement.
• IMAGE OF AN OBJECT SEEN BY NAKED EYE ZOOMIN-IN: IMAGE OF AN OBJECT SEEN WITH THE HELP OF A MAGNIFIER (OBJECT IS ENLARGED) 30 . • All objects seen within view-field progressively appear bigger. Geometrically following things happen in zooming-in process. near or farther within view-field magnify at same rate.angle and depth between observer and object remain unchanged. The process of zooming-in can be equated simply to the process of enlargement of a 2D picture where only X and Y (length and width) is stretched and 3rd axis Z (depth) does not play any role. All objects. The process can be likened to enlargement or stretching of a photograph on a paper (2D). with respect to depth and angle does not change while zooming-in or zooming-out. hence the viewer’s relation with object.
When viewer moves toward an object. The nearer one magnifies at much higher rate than the farther one.Closing-in: The closing-in process involves both viewer and object and they come closer progressively to each other and eventually come into physical contact. Geometrically following things happen in closing-in process: • • • All objects within a view-field progressively appear bigger. 3rd dimension (Z-axis) comes into play as a result of movement of the viewer. The image of each objects seen within the view-field magnify at different rate depending on its depth and angularity. width and depth) and each point on an object is at a different depth and at different angle at a given time and space with respect to viewer. with respect to depth and angle constantly change while closingin or closing-out. X. All objects. Y and Z (length. The nearer objects magnify at much higher rate then the farther objects. seen within view-field magnify at different rate. the depth and angle of object keep changing and become pronounced at close range. In real world the three dimensional (3D) objects have three axis. The image on our retina forms in 2D format (length & width) however as viewer moves toward an object. hence the viewer’s relation with object. IMAGE OF AN OBJECT SEEN BY NAKED EYE 31 .
is that in case of closing-in nearer object magnify at much higher rate than the farther one where as in case of zooming-in all objects within viewfield magnify at same rate.08 PLOTS & SUB-PLOTS A square piece of plot / land (green) with open space and road (brown) on all side is to be divided into many sub-plots (parts). with regard to magnification.CLOSING-IN: IMAGE OF AN OBJECT SEEN AT CLOSE RANGE BY NAKED EYE (OBJECT IS ENLARGED) Conclusion: In both processes objects within view-field magnify and appear progressively bigger. With following conditions. 1) All sub-plots should be equal in size 2) All sub-plots should be equal in shape 3) All sub-plots should have equal accessibility to road and open space present on all sides Under aforementioned conditions. ******** TEASER . this piece of land can be divided into how many maximum sub-plots (parts) 32 . The major difference between two. however similarity ends here.
(a) (b) (c) (d) 4 8 12 2 SQUARE PLOT WITH ROADS ON ALL SIDES THE EXPLANATION: Division of a square plot of land: The land being an areal quantity. it can have only two dimensions (2D). Corners (C) Sides (S) =4 =4 SQUARE PLOT WITH 4 SIDES & 4 CORN 33 . hence the sum total of length of sides and angle of corners when divided should remain constant (4C + 4S). therefore individual sides or individual corners can be divided 2 times only to make them symmetrical on either side of a line. The square plot of a land has 4 corners (4C) and 4 sides (4S) and each side has fixed length and each corner has fixed angle.
(1) When divided into 2 sub-plots: 2 Plots = 2 x (2C+1S+½S+½S) Or = 2 x (2S+1C+½C+½C) = (4C + 4S) = (4S + 4C) SQUARE PLOT DIVIDED INTO 2 EQUAL PARTS (2) When divided into 4 sub-plots: 4 Plots = 4 x (1C+½S+½S) Or = 4 x (1S+½C+½C) = (4C + 4S) = (4S + 4C) SQUARE PLOT DIVIDED INTO 4 EQUAL PARTS (3) When divided into 8 sub-plots: 8 Plots = 8 x (½C +½S) = (4C + 4S) 34 .
4 and 8 equitable sub-plots only and cannot be divided into 3. 9 or more number of sub-plots. The relationship between the number of corners or sides and the maximum possible sub-divisions or sub-plots equal in all respect can be established in following manner: P Where. pentagonal.SQUARE PLOT DIVIDED INTO 8 EQUAL PARTS Keeping in focus the conditions laid down above. To make identical sub-divisions (sub-plots) corners and sides would have to be equally shared without changing their original positions. The corners and sides of a square or a hexagonal shaped land have fixed number of corners and sides and are linked together in a definite pattern. The shape of a piece of land can be trigonal. 6. The sub-divisions or sub-plots are in a way symmetrical divisions and their number is dependant on the shape of a plot. 7. 5. circular and so on. hexagonal. P C Square plot (4 sided) = Cx 2 = = Maximum number of sub-plots number of corners or sides 35 . it is observed that a square land can be divided into 2.
C P = = = = 4 Cx2 4x2 8 8 EQUAL DIVISIONS Trigonal plot (3 sided) C P = = = = 3 Cx2 3x2 6 6 EQUAL DIVISIONS Pentagonal plot (5 sided) C P = = = = 5 Cx2 5x2 10 36 .
10 EQUAL DIVISIONS Hexagonal plot (6 sided) C P = = = = 6 Cx2 6x2 12 12 EQUAL DIVISIONS Round plot (infinite sided) C P = = = = infinite Cx2 infinite x 2 infinite 37 .
but plants hate green color? (a) True (b) Falls THE EXPLANATION: The color of any object is due to its inherent quality of dislike for that color. ******** TEASER .INFINITE EQUAL DIVISIONS An infinite number of radial rays can be drawn from the center of a circle (round plot) outward. In other words all colors are consumed by the object except the one that is reflected and reaches to the eyes of viewer. But 38 . Therefore green color is the enemy of plants. We love green color and want to green whole earth but what we do not realize is that had plants liked it we would not have seen green as we see it today. A circle can have any number of sides and corners hence it can be divided into an infinite number of equal parts or sub-plots.09 PLANTS HATE GREEN We talk of greening our earth.
especially in written form. This principal is used universally by all kinds of creature. Therefore when we say let us green earth. when used in combination with other similar short forms or numerals. its a selfish way of seeing through the eyes of humans and not plants.why plants hate it and we love it. For example in metric system K is commonly used in 2000.10 KILO CASE If Y2K stands for year following is correct ? (a) 1 KM2 (b) 1 KM2 (c) Both THE EXPLANATION: In day to day life. May be it’s a deliberate ploy used by plants so that animals are befriended for their own survival. space and energy. then indicate which of the = 1000 M2 = 1000000 M2 39 . Such short forms. may be perhaps to save time. If sun suddenly starts beaming only green color it would be soothing to our eyes but it will be an end to the majority of plant life. it’s a misnomer. like colors of flowers. has the potential of creating confusion. The K is one of the most used single alphabet in modern times which is a short form for Kilo. especially in the minds of students not conversant with such usage. The K symbol is used extensively as independent entity or in combination with other alphabets or numerals. for deriving equations or formula. the long words are frequently squeezed or compressed and are represented by a single alphabet. ******** TEASER .
the confusion level is zero because K and M. 1KM2 = = = = 1xKx MxM 1 x 1000 x M x M 1000 x M x M 1000 M2 iii However since general convention provides that both K and M must be written together as KM or Km for Kilometer.combination with other alphabets such as KG or Kg (Kilo-gram). used in combination with other alphabets such as M as a single dimensional entity. 2. whether allowed independently or together. 32 or 1 x 2 x 32. 40 . 1 KM ii = = 1xKxM 1 x 1000 x M Problems may start cropping up when KM is squared (multi dimensional) as this involves multiplication of itself. hence must be squared together as KM2 or as K2 M2. Since K and M also represent independent entity confusion may be created that whether both are part of same unit or not? There is a possibility that K would be perceived as an independent alphabet separate from M and only M is squared (M2) and not K. When K is used in combinations: i The equations. KM or Km (Kilo-meter). This scenario is very much possible on the assumption by an individual that K being a dominant alphabet is separate even when combined with alphabet like M. Y2K (Year 2000) and so on. the end result will remain same. KL or Kl (Kilo-liter). such as 1232 which would be red as 123 x 123 and not as 1. This is similar to a numerical quantity squared. where K.
C and D category as per their sizes in ascending order. could be constructed initially.1KM2 = = = = = 1 x KM x KM 1xKx KxMxM 1 x 1000 x 1000 x M x M 1000000 x M x M 1000000 M2 To avoid confusion or any other anomalous perception once for all. Kilometer or any similar quantity or entity should better be either denoted by one alphabet. where A is smallest and D is largest house. the completed houses were graded and grouped in A. C & D pattern was a full proof method? (a) Yes (b) No 41 . B. such as T or R or if two alphabets are essential then it could be placed within a bracket (KM)2 then squared. ******** TEASER . B. While making allotment.11 HOUSE CATEGORY In a particular locality. Whether the categorization of houses in A. large number of residential houses were to be constructed in different sizes. scattered haphazardly. Due to certain problems only few houses of different sizes.
therefore unidirectional pattern has the danger of running out of alphabets for new houses and bidirectional pattern would be preferred. where A is at bottom or in descending order where A is at top. Therefore this type of grading or categorization is unidirectional or one way expandable. As alphabets are not available prior to A. A is a starting point or dead end. If houses are required to be constructed in sizes smaller than A (in case of ascending order) or bigger than A (in case of descending order) it will not be possible to assign category in same series. especially if more houses of different sizes are yet to be constructed. But there is an anomaly in this system. Alphabets are available only beyond D hence growth is assumed beyond D only. Unidirectional (one way expansion) growth pattern: In A. C and D grading system. B.THE EXPLANATION: The grading of houses are generally done either in ascending order. growth is not assumed prior to A. HOUSES NAMED (NUMBERED) FROM BEGINNING OF A SERIES LEAVING NO NUMBERS AT BEGINNING 42 .
HOUSES NAMED (NUMBERED) FROM MIDDLE OF SEIRES LEAVING NUMBERS AT BOTH ENDS Multi-expansion growth pattern: In uni-directional or bi-directional pattern. F. Like J(1).Bi-directional (two way expansion) growth pattern: In a bidirectional grading nomenclature (categories). For example house categories can be named as J. K and P or A second series can be added to the first series. say between K and L we will again run out of alphabets. J(2). as no gap is left in-between. middle (in-between) expansion is not possible. K(2) and so on. if houses are required to be constructed in the middle (inbetween) of the series. the grading is done with no dead end. therefore a multi-directional pattern would be most suitable to accommodate all possibility of future expansion. What would happen if houses are required to be constructed in the middle of series say between J and K? Two things can be done to accommodate middle expansion: (i) (ii) Sufficient gaps can be created in bi-directional series such as D. K(1). However. 43 . K. L and M so that plenty of alphabets are made available at either end for future expansion of houses at both end.
also called topographic map. otherwise we will end up having multiple series with confusing and chaotic house addresses within same locality. ******** TEASER . by definition.12 DEGREE OF DISTANCE A contour map. the ratio of a unit distance on a contour map at any point to that on ground is always same. is a map of a surface showing undulations with the help of lines joining equal elevation.HOUSES NAMED (NUMBERED) WITH GAPS LEAVING NUMBERS BETWEEN TWO HOUSES Since more houses are yet to be constructed and also because original plan of construction of new houses may change in terms of size depending on requirement. On a regional scale. the nomenclature of the categories of houses (already completed) shall have to be in such a way to accommodate future houses without disturbing the existing series of categories. (a) (b) True Falls 44 .
The 3D perception in our brain is caused due to 2D image received from two different eyes set at an angle with respect to center of an object. The Mean Sea Level (MSL) is generally taken as “base” or datum surface. on which contours are 45 . visually representing different elevations of land came into general use. CONTOUR MAP WITH VARIABLE SHADING The pattern of contour lines can depict landforms. As the use of shading became systematized the contour lines. During earlier days relief on a map used to be shown with the help of variations of light and shade to give effect of 3D objects in 2D images. Areas of tightly spaced contour lines describe steep changes in elevation and sparse contours depict flat areas.THE EXPLANATION: A map or any drawing made on a flat sheet of paper are 2D transformation of 3D objects. Even the image formed on our retina (eye) is in 2D format. Contour map is a graphical conventional method for showing changes in height or depth on a 2D map with the help of lines that connect points of equal elevation called contour lines.
Two things can happen while making contour maps (especially on a regional scale) of earth surface. With each contour line representing a standard distance above or below the base line. making a regional contour map is a tricky one. RIGID CAKE CURVED AND FLATTENED RIGID HEMI-SPHEROID (EARTH) CURVED AND FLATTENED 46 . When flattened or stretched it cracks vertically (when one axis is curved) and also horizontally when both axis are curved. i.referenced or plotted. However earth. the distance measured on a contour map. one can accurately calculate height or depth simply by counting the lines from the base line. The globe surface is curved along two directions X & Y axis. in accordance with its scale should match to that on ground. being a spheroid. Theoretically.
the plumb lines (or longitude lines) that converge downward towards center of earth are made parallel with constant distance between longitudes.ii. 47 . The tall mountain (vertical component: height or depth) is squashed onto a 2D flat base or datum surface. When rubber sheet is flattened the distance between summits (S1 – S2 – S3) of cones progressively decreases where as distance between base (root) of cones (R1 – R2 – R3) does not change. LONGITUDE LINES BECOME PARALLEL ON FLATTENING The earth surface can be likened to a curved rubber sheet over which cones (similar to mountains) are placed. TALL OBJECT SQUASHED ON A FLAT SURFACE While making contour maps. irrespective of undulations.
S3) in a contour map. does not change. such as Mean Sea Level (MSL). Therefore one (single) scale may not be applicable to measure a ratio between a unit distance on map to that on the ground at all points in a regional map. such as Himalaya or Tibetan Plateau. are squeezed on to a smaller area on a datum plane.RUBBER SHEET WITH CONES (CURVED & FLATTENED) CONTOURES OF CONES PLOTTED ON RUBBER SHEET Where as the distance between summits of cone (S1. The contour map assumes that the distances between S1 to S2 to S3 is same as that between R1 to R2 to R3. CONTOUR MAP OF AN UNDULATING SURFACE (2D) 48 . the depths of oceans are brought-up and stretched. S2. irrespective of bending or flattening of rubber sheet. the bigger area of a mountain. In a regional contour map. Conversely.
One out of following kings had an asymmetrical body. It is a saga of victory of god Ram. ******** TEASER .Although a single scale has been provided for above contour map. the demon king (b) Sugreev. the vulture king 49 . There may be huge elevation difference between them. with the help of god Hanuman over the evil Ravan. which one was that? (a) Ravan. RELIEF MAP OF TIBETAN PLATEAU AND INDIAN PLAIN (ONE SCALE MAY NOT BE APPLICABLE) Similarly a single scale may not be applicable for a map or a photograph of large area depicting Himalayas. the ratio (map to ground) may be different for depths (dark region) and different for high ground (light region). Tibetan plateau and Indian Planes together. The saga is entwined with multiple kings and warriors. the monkey king (c) Jatayu.13 HEAD MASTER Ramayan is one of the greatest epic of Hindu (Indian) Mythology.
characteristics such as angles. The glide reflective symmetry results from the transformation called glide reflection and is actually a combination of a reflection and a translation. There can be several different types of symmetry and in each type. The distance to the center of rotation is kept constant and the amount of turning called the angle. a line. 50 .THE EXPLANATION: Symmetry is the preservation of form and configuration across a point. and sizes are maintained. which is the turning of a shape around a center point or the center of rotation. which is just another term for "movement" with specific direction and magnitude. The main types of symmetry include: a) rotation. shapes. is measured in degrees. The rotational symmetry results from the transformation called rotation. Translation is making a copy and then moving it. b) translation. distances. The translational symmetry results from the transformation called translation. The Reflection symmetry is the most familiar type of symmetry which is also known as line or bilateral symmetry. Reflection may happen first or second but the figure that results after a reflection and translation is called glide reflection of the original figure. or a plane where shape on one side match exactly to the shape on another side. This result from the transformation called reflection occurring across a line or the axis. c) glide-translation and d) reflection etc. side lengths. The corresponding point is at same distance from the axis as is the original point.
attached to a single neck. the monkey king. The central head.SYMMETRICAL IMAGE ON EITHER SIDE OF A VERTICAL LINE (Reflection symmetry) Human and animal bodies are bilateral symmetries because one half (right side) is exact correspondence of other half (left side) on opposite side of a dividing plane passing through the center of the body. TEN HEADED RAVAN WITH SINGLE NECK 51 . was flanked by four heads on one side and five heads on other side making total ten. the bear king among others. the monkey god. the Sugreev. Ten heads of Ravan was arranged in ‘T’ shaped pattern. the vulture king and Jamvant. In the Hindu epic Ramayan. Ravan was the demon king and he had ten heads on his solder. Jatayu. The Ravan had tormented god Ram and had abducted his wife Sita. God Ram killed the demon king Ravan over a long battle with the help of Hanuman.
X 52 .14 LAT. Ravan had inherited a defective body. In terms of assymetricity. To create a perfect symmetrical body for Ravan with ten heads. TEN HEADED RAVAN WITH TWO NECKS ******** TEASER . It is possible that he was constantly troubled by the assymetricity of his body manifesting in his violent behavior and hot headedness. the heads must have to be arranged in a ‘Y’ shaped pattern with two central heads attached to a ‘Y’ shaped neck. The neck would be branching so that five (5) heads are equally divided on either side and are balanced.Therefore the unequal number of heads on either side of central head created an imbalance and assymetricity in the body of Ravan. the demon king.
These coordinates appear on all standard maps and on some they may be the only way of locating and referencing a specific point. the longitude and the parallels of latitude. The equator is 0° latitude and the North Pole and South Pole are 90° N and 90° S latitudes. (a) Latitude lines Latitude lines on the earth's surface are drawn connecting all points equidistant (parallel of latitude) from the equator and form a set of rings around the globe. The length of one degree of latitude averages about 69 mile (110 km). Chomolungma or Sagarmatha) and at its root is always same: (a) True (b) Falls THE EXPLANATION: The earth's surface is divided by an imaginary set of grid lines. it increases slightly from the equator to the poles as a result of the earth's polar flattening.The latitude reading / value (Degrees) on the summit of a mountain. with positive values going north and negative values going south. (say Everest. which are referred as geographic coordinate system. respectively. 53 . The latitude value is measured from the equator.
All other points on the earth have longitudes ranging from 0° to 180° E or from 0° to 180° W. By international agreement.(b) Longitude lines: Longitude lines are a set of north-south rings crossing the equator at right angle and converging at poles. is designated the prime meridian. as a line from which if a weight is suspended it is directed exactly toward the earth’s center of gravity. England. A plumb line is defined. The Angle ‘LAT-X’ The height of an elevation or depression on earth is measured along the plumb line. the meridian passing through the original site of the Royal Greenwich Observatory at Greenwich. and all points along it are at 0° longitude. 54 . These lines form great circles and always divide earth into two.
However. so that height or depth are calculated by counting contours up or down from the reference or base plane.R line) are always oblique to each other. While making a contour map. 55 . NORTHERN HEMISPHERE SHOWING ANGLE LAT-X As we know. to 90 degrees at poles. barring equator. irrespective of height hence would have same latitude value. is transferred straight down onto a base plane along plumb line and not along latitude line. the latitude plane does not pass through earth’s center hence both plumb line and latitude line do not fall on same plane and cut each other therefore are oblique to each other. on a contour map both S and R would be located exactly at same place. On the other hand. the location of a point on earth surface. The plumb line cuts latitude at an angle which increases from zero degree at equator. This angle is referred to as “LAT-X” here. The crux of the anomaly lies in the phenomenon of obliqueness of latitude plane with respect to plumb line. and fall on same plane and do not cut each other. such as a mountain top. the Latitude lines and plumb lines (S . Except along equator.The longitude plane and plumb line pass through the center of earth. contour maps are generally made on a base or reference plane. hence the location of S and R would not be at same point with respect to latitude values.
the summit (S). LATITUDE LINES CUTTING A BUILDING DIAGONALLY Therefore. ******** 56 . contrary to a contour map where both S and R are placed at same point. The staircase is always diagonal cutting ground and 1st floors at different points. shall not have same latitude (staircase) as that at root (R) or ground floor. like first floor. Walking along the staircase from ground floor to first floor is like walking along a latitude plane. The slope of staircase would depend on angle ‘X’ and gap between two floors. The floors are linked by a stair case which is parallel to latitude plane.CROSS SECTION (X-Y) SHOWING S-R LINE (PLUMB LINE) OBLIQUELY CUTTING LATITUDE LINES The summit (S) and root (R) of a mountain can be likened to two floors of a building with S being first floor and R being ground floor.
with respect to each other. or the tall building would be exactly same in both aerial photograph and contour map: (a) Falls (b) True THE EXPLANATION: The aerial photograph is a method of creating 2D image of relief of an undulating surface by means of variations of light and shade. compare an aerial photograph (seen from top) of a mountain with contour map of same mountain or an aerial photograph of a tall building with contour map of same building. The shape of the mountain.15 TELESCOPIC EFFECT On a local scale. length and width.TEASER . The contour maps are systematized form of showing same variations of light and shade by means of lines connecting equal elevation or depth. have been maintained taking into account the element of height. The most important thing in determining shape and size of 3D objects in contour map or aerial photograph is whether relative position of each point. The contour map (especially on a local scale) maintains the relative position of each points with respect to each other as seen in ground 57 .
However. • In the map view (contour map) of the structure (B). it deforms the feature and distorts the relative position of points seen in ground. Take for example a pyramid shaped structure with staircase type slopes as shown in figure below (A). In an aerial photograph (C). Single scale would not be applicable for all steps in the aerial photograph (C). taken from very close range from top. The objects seen within the ‘view finder’ have to be adjusted for depth element because photographs or image in 2D formats lack depth. The nearer objects appear bigger and farther one becomes smaller telescopically. • • • 58 . even though aerial photographs do not hide anything. The ratio between top and bottom steps with respect to size and position would not be same as would be in reality. irrespective of their depth or height from reference level (datum level) on which map is made.at all level. Each step shall have to have its own scale depending upon its depth from the level on which photograph is referenced. The ratio of an area between top step and bottom step would remain same as would be in reality. Therefore shape of object get distorted proportionately with depth in an aerial photograph. the step closer to the viewer would appear bigger than the step away from viewer (towards bottom). The ratio would depend on how close the photograph is taken from. the relationship between each step with respect to their size and position remain constant irrespective of relative distance of each step from top to bottom. Single map scale would be applicable for each step. One scale would not be applicable for all the objects seen within same photo-frame and shall vary according to depth.
It may appear like an inverted pyramid. only the top stair would be visible in the aerial photograph and all below would be hidden behind. TALL BUILDING SEEN FROM ABOVE ROOF IS MUCH BIGGER THAN BASE ******** 59 .SHADED CONTOURS (B) & PHOTOGRPH (C) OF A PYRAMID (A) SEEN FROM TOP • In an extreme case (D). D: A PYRAMID SEEN FROM TOP AT CLOSE RANGE E. like a tall building seen from above (E).
prefixed to the name of Delhi was adopted. because this side of city was new at that time. If that happens New Delhi would be called as? (a) New New Delhi (b) New Newdelhi (c) Brand New New Delhi THE EXPLANATION: During Moghul raj. was expanded and the expanded part of city was named as New Delhi. probably to reflect the new development and to distinguish it from old city of Delhi at that point of time. The New. 60 . In 1912. In 1912. Delhi was the capital city of India. perhaps to reflect the new development and also keeping in line the new trend prevailing during those days. during British Raj the Delhi (which was the capital city of India during Moghul Raj). Let us assume that another expansion of New-Delhi on same style is again undertaken today and expanded part of city is proposed to be renamed in same manner as was done earlier so that it reflects new development. They constructed a new city adjacent to Delhi which was completed in 1931 and was named as New Delhi.16 NEW DELHI OR NEWDELHI New Delhi is the capital city of India.TEASER . British Raj moved the capital of India from Calcutta to metropolis of Delhi.
it would be called New Newton and old part of the city would always be called as old Newton. today’s new is tomorrow’s old. New and Delhi may not remain separate words in same sense as it was thought initially but both may merge and become a single word Newdelhi in same way as Newton or Newman are single words. Like new year becomes old within few weeks and new baby becomes old within few months. new means recent but how recent cannot be known. it can only be sensed relatively.Literally. is to be renamed in same way as that of Delhi to reflect new expansion. having no relation with the literal meaning of new Imagine that if an old city. NEW CITY AND OLD CITY SIDE BY SIDE 61 . If new regime decides to name the expanded part of the city in same way as was done earlier why it can’t be re-named as New New Delhi (or New Newdelhi) again? With the passage of time. therefore New added by British raj to Delhi may not convey same meaning today. named after Newton. as it would have conveyed at the time of its naming. Since its formation. New Delhi has expanded in all direction. Time does not stop for any one. virtually adding several new city to it.
dogs. 62 . houses. ******** TEASER . books. left. cars. planes. front and back sides.17 WHOSE SIDE IS IT ANY WAY Every object such as. have their own right. (a new word) with no relation with its literal meaning. CLUSTER OF NEW & OLD CITY SIDE BY SIDE This process can continue till big cities stop growing and adding new cities. the expanded and new part of the city can be easily renamed again as New Newdelhi and old part can continued to be called Old Newdelhi. watches or TVs. humans.If New Delhi becomes Newdelhi.
hence left hand side of driver is also left hand side of the car. we refer left or right side in same way as it would be in case of a car or a plane or a dog or a human? Similarly when we say clockwise or anticlockwise we refer to it from watch’s own side? (a) Falls (b) True THE EXPLANATION: When humans are driving cars. both car and driver face in same direction. CARS AND HUMANS FACE SAME DIRECTION WHEN DRIVING HENCE BOTH HAVE SAME SENSE OF RIGHT AND LEFT 63 .When we refer left or right side of a book or a watch or a TV or a road.
The left side of the man (reader) is also the left side of book and his right side is the right side of the book.When a woman looks into a mirror everything gets reversed. Book itself does not have its own left or right side. Her left hand becomes right hand of her image in mirror because both of them are facing each other and the image behaves as if she is an another person looking at her. RIGHT IS RIGHT (NOT LEFT) WHEN REFERRING TO BOOKS 64 . Had it been so our right would have been left side of the book. the left and right side of book does not get reversed. even though both book and man are facing each other in same way as he would be facing his image in the mirror. RIGHT IS LEFT (AND VICE VERSA) WHEN LOOKING INTO MIRROR However. when a man is reading a book.
we are explicitly referring to the direction from viewer / user point of view.Similarly when we are facing a watch and referring to a direction called ‘clockwise’ or anticlockwise’ movement. The opposite sense of rotation would be ‘counterclockwise’ or ‘anticlockwise’. What would be the ‘clockwise’ movement ? WHAT IF CLOCKS HAD HANDS & LEGS AS WE HAVE (CLOCKWISE MOVEMENT WOULD BE REVERESED) 65 . (in same way as car’s steering is moved when turning to right). The circularity of clockwise movement would be from top to right. CLOCKWISE MOVEMENT (GENERALLY LEFT TO RIGHT) Assume that a watch has grown its own hands and legs and is behaving like a human being.
buildings. trains. (Anticlockwise movement would be opposite to that): In strictest sense. ******** TEASER . the “clockwise” movement is a misnomer because we never consider watch having left / right side like us.Clockwise movement would be. but we refer it from our own point of view. The left or right side of an object is dependant on whether they face in same direction or opposite direction as that of humans (user) while in use. On the other hand. they have left and right side similar to humans.18 LOOSER CAN BE WINNER 66 . animals etc face in same direction as humans while in use. there was perhaps no need to assign left or side to them but was always referred from user’s point of view. As the reader and the book or the TV or the photograph or the watch always face each other when in use. cars. User centric world view: 1. Hence it can be called ‘viewer-wise clock-movement”. All man made materials or even natural ones are referenced from user (humans) point of view because we are the ones who use them and we are the ones who require communication in such languages which fundamentally is based on naming of each and every possible aspect perceived by humans. from TOP to LEFT (in same way as car’s steering is moved when turning to left) and not TOP to RIGHT as is normally considered. 2.
No weightage is given to the games won in previous set and it does not matter whether previous set is won by 6 . (a) True (b) Fall THE EXPLANATION: Lawn Tennis is played with four tiers / steps of scoring system. The winner always wins more games than the looser. the winner gets away with 9 fewer games than the looser. A player has to win first points. 7-6. both have same value. A player has to win five (5) points first with a gap of two to win one game. then he has to win six (6) games first with a gap of two to win one set and win maximum set out of five or three to win a match. then games. 67 . 0-6. then set and only then he wins a match. 7-6.The scoring system in Lawn Tennis goes through a tortuous four course steps. Out of a total possible 51 games in the match. In case of a score line of 0-6. 7-6. In this system each set is like an independent match and have to be won separately. the looser have won 30 (58%) and winner only 21 (42%) thanks to rules framed to favor one with no breaks.0 or 76. barring tie breakers.
Entire match is one entity. you win more points you win match. a player has to win points first. First part is not forgotten 68 . then sets and only then a match is won. No segments. on the other hand is the most simplest one. Each set is like an independent match and have to be won separately and no weightage is given to points won in previous set whatever may be the margin.TENNIS MATCH: MOST TORTUOUS SCORING SYSTEM Badminton is also played on same scoring system but with one tier fewer than Tennis. BADMINTON: LITTLE LESS TORTUOUS SCORING THAN TENNIS The scoring system in basket ball. no layering. Here. no tier.
A great tempo and excitement is generated from the word go and never a dull moment creeps throughout the match. The result would have been just opposite. Hana took her chance more 69 . Navratilova: 7.6.6. Or Martina Navratilova def.15 Two-time US Open champion Martina Navratilova won a total of 18 games (6+6+6). 1. M. had basket ball type scoring system was followed. in the US Open final of 1985 but still Martina lost the match. where as Hana Mandlikova won 15 games (7+1+7). US Open Women’s Final 1985 Hana Mandlikova def. Hana Mandlikova : 18 . 7. 3 games less than the Martina.6. BASKET BALL: SIMPLE SCORING SYSTEM Some Examples of Close Tennis Matches: Women’s Events: 1.and points won from the start get full weightage and is carried forward till the end of the match.
3. who won a total of 16 (6+6+4) games in the entire match but still she lost match? The cumulative system would have produced just opposite result.6. US Open Women’s Final 1994 Arantxa Sanchez def. Or Steffi Graf def Arantxa Sanchez : 16 . Roger Federer : 39 . 2009: Roger Federer def. 6 . 7. 16-14 Or Andy Roddick def. 2 games less than Jana Novotna.4. Jana Novotna: 7.38 70 .14).4. 2. Andy Roddick: 5-7. 7-6. 2 games more than the total of 14 games (1+7+6) won by Arantxa Sanchez Vicario in US Open 1994 but still she lost the match.6. Or Jana Novotna def Steffi Graf: 16 . 1. Wimbledon Women’s Final. 3-6. 1993: Steffi Graf def.6. Steffi Graf: 1.14 Steffi Graf won a total of 16 games (6+6+4). Had it been 5 setter Martina would have definitely won the match as she showed consistency.14 Steffi Graf won a total of 14 ( 7+1+6) games. 6 . 7-6. Had the points / games scored in previous set been carried forward till the end of the match Steffi would have been a clear winner (16 . Men’s Events: 1.6. Wimbledon Men’s Final.carefully and reserved energy for the crucial set where it mattered most.
April 2007 Guillermo Canas def. a big feat indeed. Novak Djokovic 18 . Roger Federer: 7. 1987 71 . Tennis. August 2007 Novak Djokovic def.6.16 The serb. Federer could not do any thing but look to next event.6 Or Roger Federer def. Guillermo Canas of Argentina. Or Roger Federer def. Djokovic beat Roddick.16 Roger Federer faced same situation here too. Nadal and Federer.6. US Open Men's Singles Fourth Round. 6-2. 2. as he had already collected more breaks and more games than Novak. Montreal Masters Men’s Final. the top 3. 2 & 1 of tennis at that time in a row. but thanks to weird rules that did him in.6.6. But did he loose? In fact he won more games. 3. Inspite of winning more games (39) than Roger (38). Guillermo Canas: 18 . had stunned him.6. 2. Federer had said then that it was one of those matches where he should have never lost. 4th Round. 4. 7-6 in the forth round of ATP/WTA Miami Masters Series event in April 2007.One of the longest and keenly contested match ever played at the Wimbledon. Andy lost the match. The king Federer could have easily won had it been five setter. However he was very lucky in the final as he won title with a deficit of two games. Roger Federer: 7. I thought Andy had upper hand and looked more sharp than the aging war horse Roger throughout the game. I am sure. curiously does not recognise previous set. ATP/WTA Miami Masters Event. 7. why? At least I am hugely disappointed. New set starts as a new match. 7-6. 7. 2.
72 . laws of the game. Nadal had more breaks and showed more consistency and should have been given more chances to prove his prowess. M. without any break between sets would have made Pernfor winner. Wimbledon Men’s Final. 2 games more than Connors who won a total of 21 games (1+1+7+6+6). 1. At this stage the match was equally balanced and should have ended in a draw. Ivanisevic drew. G.5. 6.2 Or M.6. made by wise men had other things up the sleeves. Pernfors: 1. Roger Federer finally overcame Rafael Nadal in a five-set epic final to win his fifth consecutive championship at the All England Club.6. 5. 7-6. However.4. Connors: 23 .4. however. Roger Federer: 26 – 26.4.4. 7. Both won equal number of games (26 each) but still Nadal was denied further chance.6. 2-6.7. The dual was a photo finish and needed an extraneous and crooked process of scoring system to decide the winner. Wimbledon Men’s Final 1992 A. 6 . J. the match could have gone either way.25.21 This is considered to be one of the greatest come back match of the US Open tennis where Connors made it to quarterfinals in spite of 2 set down. A.J. Agassi: 25 . 6. 6 -2 Or Rafael Nadal drew. 4-6. Agassi def. Continuous scoring system. Locked in the toughest test. 6 . Ivanisevic: 6 . Or G. Connors def. Goran blasted 37 aces and won a total of 25 games (7+4+4+6+4) equal to that won by Agassi (25 games) and still lost. 6 . 2007: Roger Federer def. Rafael Nadal: 7-6. Pernfors def. 6 . On a cumulative basis Pernfors won a total of 23 games (6+6+5+4+2). 1.
but the performance in the immediate past (previous set) is totally ignored and a new set begins afresh from scratch. i What will be the score if Andy retains his service and breaks 1st service of Sandy (S) in the 1st set ? (a) (b) ii 6–4 6–3 What will be the score if Sandy retains his service and breaks 1st service of Andy in the 1st set ? (a) (b) 4–6 3–6 73 . cunning and to those who are conserving energy deliberately and ruthlessly pouncing on few chances coming their way. The rules seem to favor the opportunistic. It is a shame ! We see a great ambiguity here. On one hand a lot of weightage and importance is attached to the distant past performance of a player while seeding them (so to give them unfair advantage).19 SERVING FIRST Andy (A) and Sandy (S) are facing each other in a tennis match where Andy (A) is serving first in first set. it is the looser. where tempo is maintained throughout the match.Why this discrepancy? In all above matches the looser has won more or equal number of games and showed better consistency but they still lost the match. Unlike basket ball match. So it is not necessary that winner always wins more games. may win more games but still shown the door. Had points been carried forward in a seam less manner the boring moments would have been minimized and consistency would have been rewarded. Each set is like a separate match and at times players deliberately slowdown to come back in next set and dullness creeps in. tennis is played in hiccups. ******** TEASER .
THE EXPLANATION: Andy (A) is serving first in 1st set. 74 . (a) Andy (A) retains his service ( ) and breaks (X) service of Sandy (S) and wins first set. Table – a Games 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TOTAL Service A S Result Score 1–0 2–0 3–0 3–1 4–1 4–2 5–2 5–3 6–3 9 (5+4) the 1st X 5 4 9 (b) Sandy (S) retains his service ( ) and breaks (X) the 1st service of Andy (A) and wins first set.
the maximum gap created between A and S is of the order of 3 games where as when S breaks 1st service of A (Table-b) the maximum gap is of the order 2 games only. he wins set at 4 – 6 and plays a total of 10 games. what happens if score line is: 6 – 1 in favor of A (Table-c) or 1 – 6 in favor of S (Table-d) 75 . why this discrimination ? (c) Now. Here A and S do exactly same thing but A achieves a gap of 3 games to 2 of S without doing any thing extra. he wins set at 6 – 3 and plays a total of 9 games (Table-a) where as when S breaks 1st service of A. It can have a psychological impact on the performance of S. When A breaks 1st service of S.a).Table – b Games 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total Service A S Result X Score 0–1 0–2 1–2 1–3 2–3 2–4 3–4 3–5 4–5 4–6 10 ( 5+5 ) 5 5 10 When A breaks 1st service of S (Table . one game more than A (Table-b). where as for exactly same number of break S is required to play 10 games for none of his fault. By breaking only once in the whole set A gets away by playing only 9 games (serves five time to four of S).
So A gets 4 serves and S gets 3 serves. for same score line (6 – 1) A is required to break serve of S only two times (Table-c) where as S toils to break A three times (Table-d).a & b) are seven (1 to 7) with 4 odd numbers (1st. 76 .c Service A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total 4 3 S 1–0 1–1 2–1 3–1 4–1 5–1 6–1 7 (4+3) Games Result Score X X 7 Table – d Service A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total 4 3 S 1–0 1–1 1–2 1–3 1–4 1–5 1–6 7 (4+3) Games Result Score X X X 7 The total number of games played (in both cases) (Table .Table . A shall get an opportunity to serve odd numbers (4 times) and S shall have opportunity to serve even numbers. 4th & 6th). Therefore. By virtue of serving first. 3rd & 5th) and 3 even numbers (2nd.
it is very obvious that A is enjoying a certain amount of advantage over S only because he is serving first. Each player will be given one service alternatively at each step. Each set / match can be played in two stages. either the set is terminated.Why this inequality ? In all above cases. • 1st stage to be of 4 serves in total (2 each continuously). • • • 1) 1st STAGE: Total: 4 services (2 each with no gap). One who wins maximum points with a difference of four (4) at any step wins the set. 2nd stage would consist of maximum of six Steps (S-1 to S-6). In today’s hyper sports and intense competitive era even a hair line gap advantage may have impact on the final result. Alternatively set can continue till a difference of 4 points is achieved. irrespective of points difference and points in each set are added at the end of match and winner is decided on the basis of maximum points won cumulatively in a match. 77 . especially if winner and loser are of same caliber. Whosoever win maximum points with a gap of 4 wins the set else set goes to 2nd stage. so that equal opportunity level is achieved. What is the solution: Equality ?: Each player must be given equal number of services in each set and in each match. Set itself can be converted into a match beyond a certain point. In case of a tie at the end of 6th step.
STAGE SERVICE 1 PLAYER A S SCORE/ RESULT Go to WIN 2nd STAGE 1st STAGE 2 3 4 4-0 3-1 2-2 2) 2nd STAGE: 2nd stage consists of maximum 12 services PLAYER A 1st STAGE 1 2 3 4 4-0 3-1 2-2 S SCORE / RESULT WIN Go to 2nd STAGE STAGE SERVICE WIN S-1 S-2 2nd STAGE 5 6 7 8 S-3 S-4 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 5-1 Go to NEXT SERVE 4-2 3-3 6-2 7-3 8-4 5-3 6-4 7-5 4-4 5-5 6-6 S-5 9-5 8-6 7-7 S-6 10-6 9-7 8-8 78 .
If each set ends in 1st stage itself. Who will win? (a) One of them (K1 / K2) (b) Both 79 . games or points won in each set can be added together at the end of match and who so ever wins maximum points. ******** TEASER . Now both are competing with each other for 800 m race (cycle) together (pack running) in an indoor stadium with circular / oval track.20 CURSE OF CURVE Consider there are two humanoid robots K1 and K2. both run at same speed from start to finish. Alternatively. It would indicate that the looser is not of equal caliber and match deserves to end fast.In each set there will be seven (7) opportunity (one in 1st stage & six in 2nd stage) to win the set early. match will be over very quickly. in whole match (cumulative) with a difference of 4 shall win the match. Both have exactly identical capabilities.
80 . The lanes in 100 m sprint events are all straight and parallel hence are exactly identical.THE EXPLANATION: Game at micro-second scale: In modern day sporting events. Although variation in lane qualities may appear miniscule at human scale but can get magnified many time at sub-second (microscopic) scale. the conditions are not exactly same for all lanes. the electronic gadgets. CLOSE FINISH: REQUIRE MACHINE SCRUTINY But what is startling is that same precision of microscopic level analysis is seldom applied to the game in entirety to see whether factors other than individual efforts are influencing the results. This micro-second precision level is rigorously applied in all games and even one hundredth (1/100) of a second or one tenth of an inch is not spared in separating winner from looser. One such area is track & field event where tracks are designed in such a way that each lane is different from other and each track is curved at every turn. in 400 m oval (circular) track. There are many events where extraneous factors other than individual effort appear to be influencing the result. like 3rd umpire in cricket or stretched photographs in sprinting are used extensively in order to extract the hair line gap to decide who is in or who is out. however.
FULL CIRCULAR AND SEMI-CIRCULAR TRACKS The total length of an individual lane (circumference) in case of round track (an extreme case) can be shown as follows: L Where: L P R = Length of individual lane (say Lane-1) = 22 / 7 (Constant) = Radius of individual lane = PR2 Or in case of an oval track (semi circular track) the formula for total track length would be as follows. (assuming a 81 . take for example lane one (L-1) and lane two (L-2) are having radius R1 & R2 of 50 feet & 54 feet respectively. L Where: L P R Z = Length of individual lane (Lane-1) = 22 / 7 (Constant) = Radius of individual lane = Straight part of the track = Z + PR2 Now.
minimum lane width of 5 feet) the length of individual lanes would be as follows, (Z being constant for both lane): L1 = P(R1)2 = 22/7 x 502 = 7857 feet = P(R2)2 = 22/7 x 542 = 9165 feet
The ratio: L1 / L2 Or (R1)2 / (R2)2 = 54 / 52 = 0.86 = 7857 / 9165 = 0.86
Therefore Lane-2 is dissimilar to Lane-1 (1: 0.86) in terms of total distance (end to end). In case of 400 m or longer race, any discrepancy due to this would get multiplied. The degree of curvature or circularity for each lane can be determined by the ratio between total length of lane (circumference) and total length of maximum number of straight dashes one can make within the limits of an individual lane. C1 Where C1 D1 L1 = Degree of curvature of Lane-1 = Total length of straight dash in Lane-1 = Total length / circumference of Lane-1 (PR12 ) = D1 / L1
THE OUTER-MOST CIRCULAR TRACK HAS THE LONGEST STRAIGHT DASHES
Lane-3 has 5 straight dashes (SD) of equal length (5SD) Lane-2 has 4 straight dash of equal length and one is 1/3 (4SD+1/3SD). Lane-1 has 3 straight dashes of equal length and one is ½ (3SD+1/2SD). There are three areas of concern in case of oval / circular tracks; 1. The lanes are not 100% equal in terms of total lengths. 2. The lanes are not 100% equal in terms of curvature. 3. The ratio between curvature and straight portions of track are not 100% equal between the lanes. If two lanes are equal in terms of all characteristics, the ratio should be always 1:1 (100%) between lanes as happens in case of 100 m sprint event. Therefore anything less or more than 100% would mean un-equality among lanes, which when subjected to microscopic level would magnify many times. Who would win K1 or K2 The races are generally run in packs or individually along single lane. Pack or bunch running involves body touching and constant
fight for inner circle where as independent running does not involve body touching.
PACK RUNNING AND SINGLE LANE RUNNING
In case of pack or bunch running, as long both, K1 and K2 run on straight portion of the track, they will be running side-by-side without body touching, however the moment they enter into curved portion, the one on inside track (say K2), being nearer would occupy the inner circle and would forge ahead of K1 simply because inner side of the curve has less distance. K1, being towards outside, would immediately fall back, as he has to cover longer distance and would remain behind, thereafter till end and finish second. Therefore only one (K1) would win the race.
RUNNING AROUND BENT PART OF A TRACK
On the other hand, independent running, although does not involve body touching and fight for inner circle, one has to tackle the curvature of the track to maintain the speed and body tilt.
Any amount of variations among lanes. if one is allotted inner lane. To overcome lane curvature athletes tilt their body inside proportionate to their speed and curvature so as to avoid falling out of lane due to centrifugal force. The speed is maximum in straight portion and minimum in curved portion. maximum in inside lane and vice versa. especially in events where participants are required to run multiple times through same lane. can turn into a ‘snow ball’ on a cumulative basis. Since curvature is variable for each lane the body tilt varies from lane to lane. BODY TILTING WHILE NEGOTIATING A BEND (ii) Cumulative Effect: The tracks are generally laid in an oval shape where the ratio of straight portion to curved portion of track varies from stadium to stadium. 85 .The impact on races: the impact of circular track on results can be summarized as follows: (i) Body Tilt Effect: The inner most lane has maximum curvature and outer most the least. The variable tilting affects the speed and momentum and ultimately the result. however negligible it may be. In case of small indoor stadium. he may have to pass through curved portion more frequently than the one allotted outer most lane.
Athletes have every right to demand identical conditions on a microscopic scale. BODY TILT AT BENDS INCREASES WHEN HIGH SPEED IS MAINTAINED It is evident wide from above that the participants are not provided equal running conditions at same standard of precision as their results are subjected to.(iii) Scale Effect: The impact of curvature may appear miniscule at human scale but can get magnified many times at micro-second level. The time difference is so small (1/100 second) that it still amazes even today and creates 86 . The scale of stretching of time and space was amazing and unbelievable. It was amazing that she was made to loose by one hundredth of a second (1/100 second). The impact can be seen more easily in the events such as motorcycle / formula car race where participants need to maintain high speed over a long and tortuous track. She literally lost by a whisker. The glaring examples: The result of 400 m hurdle in 1984 Los Angeles Olympics for bronze medal was subjected to a very high degree of magnification and nothing was spared in denying PT Usha of India a bronze.
although he had broken the Olympic records.T. was denied bronze medal in 400 m race in 1960 Rome Olympics by a wafer thin margin of 1/10 seconds. FLYING SIKH MILKHA SINGH OF INDIA 87 . SPRINT QUEEN P. USHA OF INDIA Similarly. There can be no doubt that the result would have been definitely different (plus or minus) if she had been allotted another lane than she was running in. Milkha Singh of India.doubt whether it was her deficiency or track design deficiency that cost her bronze.
3. track designs as indicated below can be tried: a. • • • • 88 . The first and foremost requirement is to thoroughly analyse the existing track & field design at microscopic level with respect to its effect on the outcome of results so as to eliminate any doubt in the minds of participants. elevation.There may be hundreds of such close cases where doubts would always remain in the minds whether failure was due to extraneous causes. undulation or any other element is always constant for each lane. The dissimilarity among the lanes in a circular track is very obvious. • In an ancient Hindu Sanskrit language eight (8) is referred to as Ashtami. such as lane variation. Each individual lane is curved at two ends and the product of sum total impact of degree of curvature. What is the solution: 1. hence name Ashtamium. The races are always run in 200 m or in multiple of 200 m. 2. In order to achieve identical lane properties. especially those who loose by whiskers. ASHTAMIUM (8): 8 Shaped Track Design. variable total distance and variable straight to curved ratio. These cases should be put to modern tests involving computer software analysis to see if results were influenced by factors other than individual efforts. in terms of variable curvature. especially over long races. The lanes do not cross on same level but cross one over the other like an over bridge so as to avoid clashing of athletes. Each lane is of same length of 200 m.
• There is no need to run in packs as several tracks can be accommodated in a single stadium. SWIMMING POOL TYPE RACE TRACK Another variation could be similar to that of ‘swimming pool type’ where all tracks are parallel and straight. SWIMMING POOL TYPE TRACK DESIGN TRACKS ARE ALL STARIGHT AND PARALLEL ******* 89 . ASHTAMIUM: NEW TRACK DESIGN b. Each individual runs in his own track to and fro (by touching the end of each lane).
This aspect is very difficult to see in complicated and long winding moves. However. simple commonsense logic proves it otherwise. Therefore in order to analyse game of a chess in a transparent and convincing manner. who will win match in a best of 5 (five) games ? (a) C1 (b) C2 (c) End in a draw THE EXPLANATION: Theoretically. The game of chess in its present form is highly complicated. with identical capabilities are pitted against each other in a game of chess.TEASER .21 WHITE ALWAYS WINS Two computers C1 & C2. It is a well known fact that in the game of chess. the chess board and pieces can be scaled down to: a) 36 squares (6 x 6) with 24 pieces or to b) 16 squares (4 x 4) with 8 pieces. the balance is tilted in favor of white. 90 . the game should end in a draw as both have equal capabilities and both make no mistakes. If C1 starts with white pieces first and both make no mistakes. There is multiplicity of pieces and there are tens of moves and whole game thrives on mistakes committed by opponents.
Any body can easily understand the move and see himself whether game ends in a draw or in favor of either of one.36 SQUARES 24 PIECES 16 SQUARES 8 PIECES The simplified version will have less complicated moves and will be easily understandable even to a layman. 91 . As the number of moves become very less and short it becomes easy to foresee future best moves. In the strip down version the positions and movements of each piece remain same. This is required to see and magnify the inherent flaws in a game of chess. Let us imagine that C1 with white and C2 with black pieces play the game: (a) First move by white: White Queen to B3 (b) First move by black: Black Queen to B2.
Black is left with second best move and always remains behind white. Unlike many other sports where both opponents are allowed to fight at same time. Black receives the first lethal blow and never recovers thereafter. as would happen in case of competing machines. in chess opponents are allowed to hit alternatively and white getting first opportunity it unleashes best move.(c) Second move by white: White rook to D1 (Game is over) In this simplified game. getting the first opportunity to move always goes for best move and inflicts maximum damage and if no mistake is done. it is very evident that C1 (white) attacks from the word go and is always one step ahead of C2 (black). It is evident here that C1 (white). C2 (black) is left with no option but to be content with second best move and is always busy defending C1(white) and never gets to attack The game of chess is unique in the way that it is like a battle field where every move kills pieces (soldiers) and reduces opponent’s ability to fight from the word go. C2 (black) would never win. 92 . C1 (white) would en-cash best move and will go for a kill.
because? (a) Round combs are out of fashion (b) Bees know no other comb making (c) For economy and geometric reasons THE EXPLANATION: The honeybee. one of man's oldest friend is a social insect living in large colonies. but in chess white starting first. has 100% advantage.22 HONEY COMB Honey bees make hexagonal cells / combs. The central feature of the bee hive is its nest the honeycomb and this marvel of engineering consists of panels of sixsided cells (cylindrical cells) made of beeswax. Beeswax is produced 93 . ******** TEASER .For that matter any one who starts (attacks) first in any game has some advantage.
CLASS ONE TYPE OF CELLS (b) Class Two are those types of cylindrical cells when packed together do not fit with each other and leave gaps in between. CLASS TWO TYPE OF CELLS 94 . octagonal (eight sided) or round cells (infinite sided) and so on. They are hexagonal (six sided). The cells within the comb are used to raise young ones and store honey and pollen. There can be two classes of cylindrical cells: (a) Class one are those types of cylindrical cells when packed together fit perfectly with each other.from glands on the underside of the worker bees which they take with their mouths into the honeycomb. They can be pentagonal (five sided). trigonal (three sided) and tetragonal (four sided) cells.
as larva and young ones also have round shape and fit 100%. Geometrically the best fit or the maximum cells that can be packed in a minimum space would always produce a hexagonal (six) mesh. six cells remain in touch with the central one at a time. ROUND CYLINDERS PACKED TOGETHER 95 . This adds up to the total wall length required to be constructed in a unit hive. ROUND CELLS PACKED TOGETHER 2. The wall of individual cells have minimal contact with each other hence separate and independent walls for each cell is required to be made every time a new cell is made. However. two deficiency occur when round cells are packed together The round cells leave plenty of unused inter-cellular space. Round cylindrical individual cells are most suitable for keeping young ones.Why Hexagonal cylindrical cells: 1. This adds up to the total required area for a unit hive. When round cells or cylinders are packed together on a plane.
• Since. • • ROUND AND TRIGONAL SHAPED CELLS PACKED TOGETHER 4. hence less number of cells would fit in a unit space. although produce a perfect fit. • Round eggs or larvae closely fit in a hexagonal cell and wastage of intra-cellular gaps are minimal. are also not favored because.3. larvae are round in shape. The square and triangular shaped cells. The unused portions within cells add up to the total space in a hive. The hexagonal cells (cylindrical) are favored as it minimizes the above mentioned shortcomings in a bee hive: • The hexagonal cylindrical cells. The unused intra-cellular space. when packed together has 100% wall contact and leave no inter-cellular gaps therefore cells occupy less space in unit hive. plenty of intra-cellular space are left unused at the corners within cells. increases the net volume of individual cell and also increases the length of wall. thereby minimizing total length of wall in a unit hive. hence more material and more labor for bees. • Hexagonal cells share cell wall equally. 96 .
Take for example a plateful of oranges of same sizes and round shape. SPHERICAL OBJECTS (ORANGES) PLACED TOGETHER AND WHEN SQUEEZED TIGHTLY 6. Maximum six (hexa) oranges can remain in contact with a single central orange in a pack. The inter-orange space vanishes and the walls (peels) become common. when finger tips of both hands are joined opposite to each other on a plane (left below) gaps remain between finger tips as they are round shaped. when fingers are pressed towards each other the gaps vanish and the finger tips attain half hexagon shape. When they are squeezed tightly together. 97 . round shaped oranges convert to hexagonal oranges automatically without any change in individual orange volume. However. Similarly.HEXAGONAL CELLS PACKED TOGETHER 5.
FINGERS PUT TOGETHER LEAVE GAPS BUT WHEN SQUEEZED TIGHTLY GAPS VANISH AND HAEXAGONAL OUTLINE EMERGES These examples show that hexagonal honey combs are based on fundamental geometric and economic reasons. ******** 98 . Perhaps science of geometry was inherent in nature before humans understood and perfected it.
TURN PAGE FOR ANSWERS 100 .
a a a c 101 .b (ii) .THE TEASERS 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 THE ANSWERS b b b b c a b b a c b b a b a b a b (i) .
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