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Setnor School of Music Syracuse University Why is it important to know about and understand the different jazz styles? Because that knowledge: -allows you to understand the historical evolution of the music from style to style -allows you to perform the music in an authentic manner -allows you to develop specific techniques on your instrument that are appropriate for performing a jazz style (usable technique or technique that gives you freedom) -allows you to develop authentic “vocabulary” for use in your improvisations -allows you to perform with a sense of understanding that promotes a higher-level of performance with others Jazz styles can be explained through the examination of: Melody, Improvisation, Harmony, Rhythm, Forms used in compositions, Instrumentation or ensemble size, Roles of the instruments, The music’s use in society. Where do we begin? At the turn of the 20th century in New Orleans we had several types of music present in everyday life (European, African, & American influences): Folk music Blues Spirituals Ragtime Popular music of the day (marches, quadrilles, classical music) Early Jazz (Pre 1930’s) New Orleans Style & Chicago Style Melody: Loosely stated, usually by the lead instrument (trumpet). Improvisation: Collective improvisation (New Orleans Style), Single soloists with collective improvisation (Chicago Style). Harmony: Simple, triads and seventh chords. Rhythm: Emphasis on syncopation, the development of swing feel moving away from the “stiffness” of ragtime. Forms used in compositions: Blues (8, 10, and 12 bar), pop tune forms. Simple composition techniques (non-written) that allow for greater improvisation.
What do you hear? Melody: Very complex. clarinet. pop tune forms. Instrumentation or ensemble size: Larger group with 3-5 trumpets. Great use of mutes with brass instruments. usually written based on chord changes of another popular swing period tune. dancing. listening entertainment. Rhythm: Emphasis on complex rhythms. Be-Bop (1940’s – mid 1950’s) . hard accents at change of melodic direction. usually march-like with syncopation. funerals. Hard for the inexperienced listener to connect solo lines with the chord changes due to the complexity. Tuba – bass notes. drum set. virtuosic in nature – designed to exclude! Sometimes only at end or no melody at all! Improvisation: Solo improvisation for a longer period (several choruses). Swing music had great popular appeal. The music’s use in society: Dancing. Forms used in compositions: Blues (12 bar). drum set evolution (high-hat and ride cymbals. Trombone – simple figures that outlined the chords and creating lower harmonies. baritone) becomes the main reed instruments with continued use of the clarinet. gatherings. Roles of the instruments: Trumpet – lead. occasionally saxophone. 3-5 trombones. composed counter melodies and background lines for melody and solo statements. Banjochords. focus now on solo improvisation in a shorter period of time. Standardized solos on popular tunes. usually by an instrument section(s). No more standardized solos. . listening entertainment. Very little collective improvisation instead trading 4’s. 8’s. triads. piano and/or guitar replacing the banjo. Simpler composition techniques that allowed for greater improvisation opportunities. Clarinet – ornamentation of the melody. Instrumentation or ensemble size: Small group with trumpet. piano and/or guitar. celebrations. swing eighth-note patterns move more towards an even feel with accents being the focal points.13ths. chorus approach used to create excitement.Instrumentation or ensemble size: Small group with trumpet. Harmony: very complex. Forms used in compositions: Blues (12 bar). and ninth chords. Swing Period (1930’s to late 1940’s) Melody: Strictly stated. trombone. Drums – simple time keeping. Greater use of written arrangements. individually ruled the day. seventh chords with altered upper extensions b/# 9ths. The music’s use in society: Daily activities. string bass replacing the tuba. b/nat. 2 tenors. Rhythm: Emphasis on swing feel moving to consistent use of swing eighth-note patterns. Development of the bandleader as main public figure. saxophones (2 altos. Greater use of non-written arrangements in performance. Complex composition techniques that allowed for less improvisation. string bass. feathered bass drum) Roles of the instruments: Depends solely on the composition. #11ths. saxophone(s) trombone. Ensemble’s color and texture was key element. Improvisation: Strong movement away from collective improvisation. Harmony: more complex. tuba. drums. pop tune forms. varied woodwind instruments in saxophone section. seventh. Very little packaging for improvisations. banjo.
8’s. trading 4’s. The music’s use in society: Dancing. Forms used in compositions: Blues (12 bar). usually hard-driving. it was harder for the inexperienced listener to connect solo lines with the chord changes due to the complexity. Improvisation: Solo improvisation for shorter periods ( based on a chorus). Use of counterpoint in melody and improvisation development. seventh chords with altered upper extensions b/# 9ths. written based on original chord changes of newly composed tunes. trading 4’s. piano and/or guitar. softer textures.Roles of the instruments: Depends solely on the composition.13ths. Given the focus on melodic development it was easier for the inexperienced listener to connect solo lines with the chord changes. Development of the soloists as main public figures. more melodic in nature (funky. saxophone main woodwind instrument. fiery. Ensemble’s featured lightweight. Subdued playing with the use of counterpoint during improvisation. Great use of mutes with brass instruments. or pastel tone colors. slow vibrato or no vibrato at all. pop tune forms. Roles of the instruments: Depends solely on the composition. dry. .13ths. The music’s use in society: Dancing. Instrumentation or ensemble size: mid-size group (4-10 players) with trumpet(s). Cool Jazz/West Coast (1950’s) . Harmony: very complex.What do you hear? Melody: Very complex. melodies. 8’s. Little packaging for improvisations. b/nat. Rhythm: Emphasis on complex rhythms. swing eighth-note patterns have an even feel with accents being the focal points. Ensemble’s featured thinner textures. seventh chords with altered upper extensions b/# 9ths. Like Bebop. Advanced composition techniques that allowed for greater melodic development. Development of the soloists/bandleader as main public figures. Virtuoso performances during improvisation. listening entertainment. saxophone(s)/woodwind(s) trombone(s). #11ths. more melodic in nature. A great deal of packaging for improvisations. roots in black gospel music). saxophones doubled with woodwind instruments. earthy. #11ths. Rhythm: Emphasis on complex rhythms. Hard Bop (1950’s) . Lost some popular appeal due to Be Bop’s complexities. French horn(s). b/nat. Improvisation: Solo improvisation for longer periods (based on a chorus). string bass. Great use of mutes with brass instruments. softer accents with a focus on melodic direction.What do you hear? Melody: Very complex. listening entertainment. approach still used but to create contrasting colors and interest. lack of visual appeal. usually written based on chord changes of another popular tune. approach still used but to create intensity and interest. Harmony: very complex. drum set. harder accents with a focus on swing eighth-note patterns that have an even feel with accents being the focal points. Greater use of written arrangements in performance.
The Evolution of the Soprano Saxophone in Jazz Early Sidney Bichet Swing Johnny Hodges Don Redman Woody Herman Budd Johnson Hard Bop John Coltrane Jerome Richardson Steve Lacy Free Jazz Pharaoh Sanders Sam Rivers John Surman Anthony Braxton Post-Bop & Wayne Shorter 1970s Dave Liebman Steve Grossman Joe Farrell Tom Scott Roland Kirk (Manzello) The Evolution of the Alto Saxophone in Jazz Swing Johnny Hodges Benny Carter Woody Herman Bebop Charlie Parker Sonny Stiff Cool Style Lee Konitz Art Pepper Paul Desmond Bud Shank Lennie Niehaus Herb Geller Charlie Mariano Hard Bop Lou Donaldson Leo Wright Cannonball Adderley Jackie McLean Gigi Gryce Sonny Criss Charles McPherson Oliver Nelson Frank Strozier Phil Woods Jerome Richardson James Spaulding Free Jazz Ornette Coleman Eric Dolphy Marion Brown John Handy John Tchicai Anthony Braxton 1970s Eric Kloss Bary Bartz .
The Evolution of the Tenor Saxophone in Jazz Swing Chuck Berry Arnett Cobb Herschell Evans Lucky Thompson Coleman Hawkins Ben Webster Paul Gonsalves Lester Young Ike Quebec Illinois Jacquet Flip Phillips Budd Johnson Bebop Gene Ammons Dexter Gordon Wardell Gray James Moody Frank Foster Jeddik Harris Cool Style Allen Eager Stan Getz Zoot Sims Al Cohn Richie Kanuca Bill Perkins Jimmy Giuffre Warner Marsh Hard Bop Sonny Rollins John Coltrane Sonny Stitt Hank Mobley Johhny Griffin Yusef Lateef Charlie Rouse Stanley Tutrrentine Booker Ervin Roland Kirk Free Jazz Archie Shepp Pharaoh Sanders Gato Barbieri John Gilmore Dewey Redman Albert Ayler Post-Bop & 1970s Joe Henderson George Coleman Sam Rivers Wayne Shorter Joe Farrell Billy Harper Charles Lloyd The Evolution of the Baritone Saxophone in Jazz Swing Harry Carney Bebop Serge Chaloff Cecil Payne Cool Style Gerry Mulligan Hard Bop Sahib Shihab Pepper Adams Nick Brignola The Evolution of the Flute in Jazz Bebop Jerome Richardson Frank Wess Bud Shank James Moody Leo Wright Paul Horn Free Jazz Eric Dolphy Charles Lloyd Sam Rivers Post-Bop & 1970s Joe Farrell Hubert Laws Roland Kirk Jeremy Steig Charles Lloyd Chris Hinze Jan Garbarek .
The Evolution of the Trumpet in Jazz Early Jazz Buddy Bolden (C) (New Orleans) Freddie Keppard (C) Bunk Johnson (C) King Oliver (C) Tommy Ladnier (T) Louis Armstrong (T) Hot Lips Page (T) Jonah Jones (T) Dixieland Nick LaRocca Mugsy Spanier Red Nichols Bix Beiderbecke Jimmy McPartland Bunny Berigan Bobby Hackett Swing Bubber Miley Rex Stewert Cootie Williams Ray Nance Clark Terry Sidney de Paris Henry “Red” Allen Roy Eldridge Buck Clayton Harry Edison Cat Anderson Bebop Dizzy Gillespie Howard McGhee Fats Navarro Kenny Dorham Miles Davis Chet Baker (Cool Style) Art Farmer Shorty Rogers Hard Bop Clifford Brown Donald Byrd Thad Jones Lee Morgan Bill Hardman Nat Adderley Benny Bailey Carmell Jones Blue Mitchell Booker Little Ted Curson Freddie Hubbard Woody Shaw Free Jazz Don Cherry Dewey Johnson Marvin Peterson Don Ellis Michael Mantler 1970s Randy Brecker Lew Soloff Bobby Shew Tom Harrell The Evolution of the Trombone in Jazz Early Jazz Kid Ory Honore Dutrey Swing Jimmy Harrison Miff Mole Tommy Dorsey Jack Teagarden “Tricky Sam” Nanton Juan Tizol Lawrence Brown Bennie Morton Dickie Wells Vic Dickenson JC Higginbotham Trummy Young Bebop JJ Johnson Bill Harris Earl Swope Kai Winding Hard Bop | Post-Bop Curtis Fuller Jimmy Cleveland Bob Brookmeyer Julian Priester Garnett Brown Frank Rosolino Carl Fontana Frank Rehak Urbie Green Bill Watrous Slide Hampton Jimmy Knepper Willie Dennis Free Jazz Grachan Moncur III Roswell Rudd Albert Mangelsdorff 1970s Jiggs Whigham Bill Reichenbach The Evolution of the Vibraphone in Jazz Swing Lionel Hampton Red Norvo Bebop Milt Jackson Terry Gibbs Teddy Charles Cool Style Cal Tjader Hard Bop Victor Feldman Post-Bop & 1970s Bobby Hutcherson Gary Burton Roy Ayers Mike Mainieri Karl Berger .
The Evolution of the Guitar in Jazz Early Jazz Johnny St. Cyr Lonnie Johnson Eddie Lang Eddie Condon Swing Django Reinhardt Charlie Christian Tiny Grimes Bebop Bill de Arrango Barney Kessel Chuck Wayne Cool Style Billy Bauer Jimmy Rainey Johnny Smith Tal Farlow Jim Hall Herb Ellis Howard Roberts Hard Bop Grant Green George Benson Kenny Burrell Wes Montgomery Joe Pass Post-Bop Gabor Szabo Attila Zoller Pat Martino Jazz-Rock Larry Coryell John McLaughlin Joe Beck Free Jazz Derek Bailey Terje Hypdal The Evolution of the String Bass in Jazz Swing Jimmy Blanton Oscar Pettiford Walter Page Slam Stewert Bebop Oscar Pettiford Charles Mingus Ray Brown Milt Hinton George Duvivier Percy Heath Leroy Vinnegar Red Mitchell Hard Bop Paul Chambers Sam Jones Jymie Merritt Reginald Workman Art Davis Post-Bop Ron Carter Chuck Israels Steve Swallow Buster Williams Jimmy Garrison Scott LaFaro Richard Davis Gary Peacock Cecil McBee Eddie Gomez Free Jazz Charlie Haden Dave Holland Barre Philips Arild Andersen Palle Daniellson 1970s Miroslav Vitous Niels Hennig Orsted Pedersen George Mraz Gene Perla Stanley Clarke .
The Evolution of the Piano in Jazz Early (1900-1930) Jelly Roll Morton James P Johnson Duke Ellington Fats Waller Willie “The Lion” Smith Jimmy Yancey “Pine Top” Smith Albert Ammons Meade-Lux Lewis Earl Hines Teddy Wilson Count Basie Art Tatum (Erroll Garner) (Oscar Peterson) Thelonious Monk Bud Powell Al Maig John Lewis George Wallington George Shearing Elmo Hope (Dave Brubeck) Horace Silver Bobby Timmons Les McCann (Martial Solal) Ahmad Jamal Hank Jones Tommy Flanagan Barry Harris Red Garland Wynton Kelly Cedar Walton Lennie Tristano Herbie Nichols Richard Twardzik Bill Evans Paul Bley Clare Fischer Steve Kuhn McCoy Tyner Herbie Hancock Chick Corea Joe Zawinul Keith Jarrett Boogie-Woogie (1930-1940) Transitional (1930-1945) Bop (1930-1945) Hard Bop | Funky (1950-1965) Hard Bop (1950-1965) West Coast | Impressionistic (1950-1965) Major (1965-1975) .
The Evolution of the Drums in Jazz Early Jazz Baby Dodds Zutty Singleton George Wettling Chick Webb Sid Catlett Cozy Cole Joe Jones Gene Krupa Dave Tough Kenny Clarke Max Roach Buddy Rich Denzil Best Shelly Manne Mel Lewis Joe Morello Chico Hamilton Philly Joe Jones Art Taylor Dannie Richmond Louis Hayes Billy Higgins Roy Haynes Albert Heath Elvin Jones Alan Dawson Art Blakey Ed Blackwell Paul Motian Charles Moffett Barry Artschul Jon Chritenson Andrew Cyrille Sonny Murray Milford Graves Beaver Harris Tony Williams Jack de Johnette Joe Chambers Billy Hart Eric Gravatt Billy Cobhan Al Mouzon Lenny White Steve Gadd Swing Bebop Cool Style Hard Bop Free Jazz Post-Bop .
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