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Design Standard Design Standards consist of the specifications of materials, physical measurements, processes and performance of products.

They are established by individual manufacturers, trade or professional associations, and national or international standards organizations. Their purpose is to realize operational and manufacturing economics, to increase the interchangeableness of products, and to promote uniformity of definitions of product characteristics. Design Standards also determine the design practice. When the specifications give data on strength and performance as well as the usual dimensions, it is only necessary to compute loads approximately and then select the nearest standardsizes. Much design effort is thereby saved, especially on detailed drawings and bills of material. National Standards Organizations The principal industrial countries have official agencies, called National Standards Organizations, that approve, consolidate, and in some cases establish standards. The German Institute for Norms, and the American National Standard Institute, which issue the DIN, and ANSI (formerly ASA)standards, respectively, are among them. ANSI is a federation of about 900companies, and 200 trade, technical, professional, labor, and consumer organizations. It does not itself develop standards, but coordinates and promotes the voluntary development of national standards by industries provided that these have been established according to detailed rules for achieving a consensus among producing industries, consumers (through ANSI's Consumer council), relevant government agencies, and other interested parties. There are about 10,000 approved ANSI standards, dealing with dimensions, terminology and symbols, test methods, and performance and safety specifications for equipment, components, and products. Their major applications are in construction, electrical and mechanical products and processes, piping and welding, heating, air conditioning and refrigeration, information systems and photography. Most activities in the private and public sectors use standardized products and specify them routinely in their purchases. ANSI standards have been embodied in building codes and many other government regulations. Many of the Design Standards used in the Design and Construction of Hazardous Waste Tank Systems are approved by ANSI. After approval ANSI gives its own Standard Number, e.g., American Concrete Institute's Standard ACI 301-84 "Specifications for Structural Concrete for Buildings," was approved on December 23, 1986, and is now called ANSI/ACI 301-84

The applicant must specify the specific standard used for the tank design and the date of the applicable standard. Much information about the general applicability of the tank for the storage of hazardous waste is known by knowing the applicable tank standard. Non-standard tanks will require detailed engineering analysis to verify that such tank can safely be used in a hazardous waste facility. The applicant must provide full details of the analysis (design calculations),design (selection), and drawings. In preparing the Written Statement the applicant must closely follow the calculation steps in the design standard used Appendix A Differences between BS 2654 and API 650 The following are the principal differences between the British Standard, BS 2654 [1] and the American Petroleum Institute Standard, API650 [2]: (a) API 650 specifies different allowable stresses for service and water testing. BS 2654 specifies an allowable stress for water testing only, which will allow oils with any specific gravity up to 1 to be stored in the tank. (b) The allowable design stresses of BS 2654 are based on guaranteed minimum yield strength whereas the design stresses of API 650 are based on the guaranteed minimum ultimate tensile strength. (c) BS 2654 specifies more stringent requirements for the weldability of the shell plates. (d) The notch ductility requirements of BS 2654 are based on the results of a great number of wide pl ate tests. This system considers a steel acceptable if, for the required thickness, the test plate does not fail at test temperature before it has yielded at least 0,5%. This system gives the same safety factor for all thicknesses. In API 650 a fixed value and test temperature is given for the impact tests for all thicknesses. As the tendency to brittle fracture increases with increasing plate thickness it means that API 650 in fact allows a lower safety f actor for large tanks than f or smaller ones. (e) The steels specified by API 650 guarantee their notch ductility by chemical analysis but without guaranteed impact values. BS 2654 requires guaranteed impact values where necessary. (f) BS 2654 gives a clearer picture of how to determine the size and location of secondary wind girders.

Design Codes The following codes in their latest edition shall form the basis for design, fabrication, inspection, testing and acceptance of storage tanks : API Standard 650 : Welded steel tanks for oil (Latest edition) storage

IS : 875 (Part 3) : Code of practice for design loads, wind loads(other than earthquake) For building and structures. IS: 1893 API : 2000 IS : 2007 IS : 2008 : Criteria for earthquake resistant design of Structures. : Venting atmospheric and low pressure storage tanks. : Method for calibration of Vertical Oil Storage tanks. : Method for computation of capacity tables for Vertical Oil Storage tanks : Protection against ignitions arising out of static, lightning and stray

API : RP 2003 currents ASME Sect IX

Welding

OISD-129 : Inspection of storage tanks. OISD-117 OISD-118 OISD-105 : : : Fire Protection facilities for Petroleum depots and Terminals. Layouts for Oil & Gas installations. Work permit system.

2.9 History of the design and construction regulations The storage of large volumes of products which were in the main highly flammable is a subject which was bound to attract regulation and standardization from a number of interested parties. 2.9.1 American Standards Tank owners, tank makers, fire officials and insurers in the USA were the first to address this subject and an association of tank manufacturers, later to become the Steel Tank Institute (STl) was formed in 1916. At or around the same time Underwriters Laboratories Inc (UL) was developing its safety standards for atmospheric storage tanks. The first Standard for above ground steel storage tanks was produced by UL in 1922. UL 142 was entitled Steel Above-ground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids. The same organization published the first edition of lL 58 entitled Standard for Steel Underground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids in 1925, a reaction to the increasing number of urban petrol stations in the USA. The National Board of Fire Underwriters (NFBU) published NFBU 30 around 1904 with the unwieldy title Rules and Requirements for the Construction and installation of Systems for Storing 250 Gallons or Less of Fluids Which at Ordinary Temperatures Give Off inflammable Vapors, as Recommended by its Committee of Consulting Engineers. Over a period of time the NFBU became the National Fire protection Association (NFPA), an organization which is familiar to us today. NFBU 30 became NFPA 301 published in 1913, and today this document has become NFPA 30 (Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code) first published in 1957. NFPA Codes are influential worldwide in both the ambient and the low temperature storage industries. The American Petroleum Institute (APl) was formed in 1919 and went on to produce two of the most influential Codes in the areas of ambient tankage (APl 650, formerly API 12C) and low temperature tankage (APl 620). These documents and their influence will be discussed in later Chapters at some length. API 12C is one of a family of Codes covering liquid storage tanks. The full set contains the following: . 124 : Specification for oil-storage tanks with riveted shells.

This covers material selection, design, fabrication and erection requirements for vertical, cylindrical, above ground steel tanks with riveted shells in nominal capacities of 240 bbl (38 m3) to 255,000 bbl (40,545ms) (in standard sizes) for oil storage. . 128 : Specification for bolted production tanks. This covers the material selection, design and erection requirements of vertical, cylindrical, above ground, bolted steel production tanks in nominal capacities of 100 bbl ('16m3) to 10,000 bbl (1590m3) (in standard sizes) for oilfield service. it also includes appurtenance requirement. . 1 2C : Specification for welded oil storage tanks. This covers the material selection, design, fabrication and erection requirements for vertical, cylindrical, above ground, closed and open top, welded steel tanks in various sizes and capacities, for oil storage. lt also includes appurtenance requirements and recommendations for the use of low alloy high strength steels, and aluminum alloys, in tank construction. The second edition of this part was published in 1936, so it must have its origins at an earlier date. . 1 2D : Large welded production tanks. this covers the material selection, design, fabrication and erection requirements for vertical, cylindrical, above ground, welded steel, production tanks in nominal capacities of 500 bbl (80 m3) to 3,000 bbl (477m3) (in standard sizes) for oilfield service. . 12E : Specification for wooden production tanks. This covers the material selection, design, fabrication and erection requirements for vertical, cylindrical, above ground, closed top, wooden production tanks in nominal capacities of 130 bbl (21 m3) to 1,500 bbl (239 m3) (in standard sizes)for oil field service. . 12F : Specification for small welded production tanks. this covers the material selection, design and construction requirements for vertical, cylindrical, above ground, shop welded, steel, production tanks in nominal capacities of 90bbl(14 m3)to 400 bbl(63 m3)(in standard sizes up to a maximum diameter of 12 feet)for oilfield service. . 12G : Specification for aluminum alloy welded storage tanks. This covers the material selection, design, fabrication, erection and testing requirements for vertical, cylindrical, above ground, closed and open top, welded aluminum alloy storage tanks in various sizes and capacities. The latest editions of the American Standards which interest tank designers and builders are: . API 650 - Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage: Tenth Edition. November 1998

. API 620 - Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks: Tenth Edition, February 2002 API 620 provides rules for ambient tanks for pressures up to15 psig and is not restricted to vertical cylindrical forms. it has been used to produce designs for such interesting vessels as the noded hemispheroids. it also contains two Appendices for low temperature tank design. These are: . Appendix R - Low pressure storage tanks for refrigerated products. This covers design metal temperatures from +40'F to -60 "F. . Appendix Q - Low pressure storage tanks for liquefied hydrocarbon gases. This covers design metal temperatures down to -270'F 2.9.2 British Standards The first UK Standard for welded steel storage tanks was BS 2454: Part 1:1956 Vertical Mild Steel Welded Storage Tanks with Butt Welded Shell for the Petroleum industry: Part 1 Design & Fabrication. This was prepared for BSI by the Petroleum Equipment Industry Standards Committee, which consisted of representatives of the following organizations: Council of British Manufacturers of Petroleum Equipment Engineering Equipment Users Association Institute of Petroleum Ministry of Fuel and Power Oil Companies Materials Committee Association of British Chemical l\4anufacturers British Chemical Plant Manufacturers Association British Electrical and Allied Manufacturers Association British iron and Steel Federation Institute of Welding Tank and industrial Plant Association

It seems perhaps a little unnecessary to list all of the participating organizations in the preparation of this national Standard, but it serves to illustrate the width of industrial knowledge canvassed at that time and the size of the committee involved in the production of the document. This is something which contrasts with the present day where it is often difficult to assemble a viable committee to write or edit a Standard.

This Standard classified tanks into a number of categories: Non-pressure fixed roof tanks Pressure fixed roof tanks (limited to 128 ft diameter) Open-top tanks

It also proposed standard shell plate sizes and tank diameters giving effectively a standard range of tanks. This followed the shell approach, which will be discussed later. This standardization on was a reaction to the level of tank building activity within the petroleum industry at that time. A range of standard tank sizes which had in effect been pre-designed was clearly in the interests of the industry in speeding up the fabrication and erection process and opening up the business to companies who perhaps did not have the facilities to carry out the detailed design aspects of this work. The tanks were referred to by a coding system, which contained information on the tank diameter, shell height, pressure category and plate width. Hence the customer needed only to order a BNPB 1608, for the tank manufacturer to know that anonpressure fixed roof tank of 160 ft in diameter with eight shell courses each 7.25 ft wide" was required. Extracts from this Code are shown in Figure 2.10, explaining the coding sys-::m and show a few of the standard capacity/shell plate thickness tables. Unlike the API Standard of the same period, the British Standard required a design product specific gravity of 1.00 in all cases. This was quite deliberate and allowed for the tank to be used for any product commonly encountered in the petrochemical industry without fear of over-stressing the tank shell. it is not uncommon for tanks to change their service from one product to another during the course of their operating lifetime and having tanks designed "bespoke" for particular product gravities runs the risk of misuse, particularly when records are not well maintained or dimmed with the passage of time. The allowable shell stress based on the available carbon steels of the time was 21,000 lb/in2 and the joint efficiency factor was 0.85 in all cases. The two further parts of BS 2654 followed: BS 2654: Pan2: 1961 Site erection, inspection and testing This covered tolerances, site welding, tank testing and inspection in detail. Much of these Standards owed a great deal to the API Standards which proceeded them. Indeed BS 2654: Part 2 gives a specific acknowledgement to this effect in its introduction.

BS 2654: Part 3: 1968 Higher Design Stresses allowed the use of stronger steels and higher joint efficiencies. BS 4360:1968 was published in the same year and added to the steels referred to in BS 2654: Part 1 (i.e. BS 13 and BS 1501- 101) a range of steels with differing strength grades and toughness measured by Charpy V-notch impact testing. Figure 1 first appeared in this Standard relating the minimum design metal temperature during operation, the minimum water temperature during hydrostatic testing and plate thickness to the required Charpy V-notch test temperature. The higher joint efficiency of 1 .0 was accompanied by an enhanced requirement for radiographic weld inspection.

The three parts of BS 2654 were consolidated into a single volume some time ago and the current version is: BS 2654:1989: British Standard Specification for the Manufacture of vertical steel welded non-refrigerated storage tanks with butt-welded shells for the petroleum industry. This Standard has not been updated since 1989 as may have been expected because of the "standstill" imposed whilst the European Standard covering the same subject area was being prepared.

For the storage of low temperature products, the British Standards followed the practice adopted by API in providing separate rules for temperatures down to -50 'C and for temperatures from -50 'C down to -196 'C. Rather than using the API method of having two appendices covering the specific requirements of the two temperature ranges with the main body of the code addressing more general issues, it was decided to produce two separate codes. These were: B54741 : 1971 Vertical Cylindrical Welded Steel Tanks for low temperature service. Single wall tanks for temperatures down to - 50 "C. BSI London (now superseded by BS 7777: 1993). BS 5387 : 1976 Vertical Cylindrical Welded Storage Tanks for low temperature service. Double Wall Tanks for Temperatures down to 196'C. BSI London (now superseded by BS 7777 : 1993).

These Standards only considered single containment storage systems. As will be described, various events created the need for a Standard which provided a framework for double and full containment systems for low temperature products. Following the work of the EEIV1UA storage tank committee described in Section 2.9.6, a new British Standard was issued in 1993 which addressed all of the low temperature products and all forms of containment. This was:

BS 7777:1993 Flat-bottomed, vertical cylindrical storage tanks for low temperature service: Parts 1 to 4.

2.9.3 The European Standards Around 1993 the European Standard Committee TC 265 was formed. The secretariat of this committee was given to the British Standards Institution (BSl) and most of the meetings were held at BSI headquarters in London. The work of the committee was divided into: A Standard for ambient temperature tanks entitled:

Specification for the design and manufacture of site built, vertical, cylindrical, flatbottomed, above ground, welded, metallic tanks for the storage of liquids at ambient temperature and above - Part 1 - Steel Tanks ( prEN 14015-1). Note: Part 2 is intended to cover aluminum alloy tanks and will possibly follow later. it is currently suffering from limited industrial interest. A Standard for low temperature tanks entitled:

Specification for the design, construction and installation of site built, vertical, cylindrical, flat-bottomed steel tanks for the storage of refrigerated, liquefied gases with operating temperatures between - 5 0C and -165 0C (prEN 14620 -Parts 1/2/3/4/5) Note: The pr prefix indicates a provisional Euronorm, i.e. one where the committee responsible has finished its complete draft which is then issued for public comment. The comments received are reviewed by the committee and the draft edited prior to the Standard being issued as a full Euronorm without the prefix. The work proceeded slowly, not least because of difficulties in resolving strongly held views from the various national delegations regarding differing practices in the countries which they represented. Indicative of the rate of progress was the comment by John de Wit, then chairman of CEN TC 265, that a final draft of the low temperature document would not be ready until the end of 1995. The group working on the ambient tank Code issued a draft for public comment in 2000. Comments have been received and

Comparison Fixed and floating roof design

The requirements here are similar to that of BS 2654 and API 650

Floors

The requirements for tank floors is similar to BS 2654 and API 650 Minimum plate thickness for stainless floors is given as 5 mm for lap-welded floors and 3 mm for butt-welded floors. For Carbon steel floors this are 6 mm and 5 mm respectively Shells

Minimum nominal shell thickness. The table of minimum nominal shell thickness for carbon steel tanks is similar to that of BS 2654 except that at the larger tank diameters, thinner platting than BS2654 is allowed, although this is still thicker than that in API 650. A table of minimum nominal shell plate thickness is included for stainless steel shells Calculated shell plate thickness.

Each shell course thickness is established from the greater value derived from two formulae. This is similar to the API 650 one-foot method except that: In the first formula, the design stress is 2/3 of the material minimum yield stress and the formula includes the design pressure (in the roof space) which can be neglected if < 10 mbar, and the corrosion allowance (if any). In the second formula, the test stress is 3/4 of the material minimum yield stress and this formula includes only the test pressure (in the roof space), which is higher than the design pressure.

For both of these formulae, the maximum permitted design stress is 260 N/mm2 (as is the case in BS 2654). The API 650 "variable point" method of shell thickness calculation is not included in the Standard. Roof-to-shell compression zone

The requirements here are similar to that of BS 2654 and API 650.

Primary and secondary wind girders

The requirements here are similar to that of BS 2654 and API 650 except that, for negative pressures more than -8.5 mbar, a design methodology has to be agreed between the tank purchaser and manufacturer. Note: BS 2654 limits the internal working pressure to 56 mbar, but it is possible to design tanks for higher pressures by using the alternative Codes listed here: BS7777 (incorporating BS 4741 & 5397- Storage of products at low temperatures) and pressures up to 140 mbar. This pressure may be exceeded subject to agreement between the purchaser and contractor but for large diameter tanks the design of the roof-to-shell joint and anchorage might be limiting. API 650 Appendix F Pressures up to 2y2lbs/in2 c (172 mbar) API 620 Pressures up to 15lbs/in2 G (1034 mbar) As is the case for BS 2654, these Codes also only allow for a small internal vacuum to be present in the tank. prEN 14015 Pressures up to 500 mbar, and vacuum up to 20 mbar. Except that for a vacuum condition above 8.5 mbar, the design methodology is not given in the Code but it shall be agreed between the purchaser and the manufacturer.

Choosing BS or API shell thickness design methods The logical question which comes to mind when considering the BS and API methods for shell thicknesses is - which one is most advantageous from a commercial point of view? i.e. which gives the thinner shell for a given material? This question is not easily answered, because of the effect of the following variables in the equations; Specific gravity (SG) of the stored product. Any corrosion allowance (CA) which might be required. The varying ratio of minimum yield strength to minimum tensile strength of the range of steels used for the design of shells.

Comparison between British and American secondary wind girder requirements The differing secondary wind girder requirements, between the British and American Codes, can be compared by designing a tank shell to both Codes using the same overall dimensions and design parameters. Take the British tank design illustration in Section 3.5.2.3. Here it was demonstrated that the shell required two secondary wind girders, each being an angle section of 200 x 1OO x 12 (27.3 kg/m). Designing the shell to the American Code, and using the same design parameters (i.e. external floating roof tank 96 m diameter and 19 m high having eight2.375 m wide courses), the shell is to be designed for a wind speed of 60 m/sec and the primary girder is 1 m down from the top of the shell. Note: The shell, being over 60 m diameter, is designed to the "variable design point" method. Also, due to the lower allowable stress for the American Code, which is based on the ultimate tensile stress of the shell material, rather than the minimum yield stress in the case ofthe British Code, the lower courses are thicker than those to the British Code, whereas the two upper courses are to the minimum allowable nominal thickness for construction purooses to the American Code. (.e. 10 mm to APl, and 12 mm to BS).

BS and APl Code differences of allowable compressive stress Due to the difference in the values used for the allowable compressive stress S, (120 N/mm2 in the BS Code and 137.5 N/mm2 in the API Code), the compression area required to the BS Code is 14.6% greater than that required to the API Code.