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Engineering Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/engstruct

3-D steel frames

Hoang Van Long ∗ , Nguyen Dang Hung

LTAS, University of Liège, Chemin des Chevreuils, 1, B 52/3, 4000 Liège, Belgium

article info a b s t r a c t

Article history: This paper proposes a way to local buckling check according to Eurocode-3 for plastic-hinge analysis of

Received 21 January 2008 3-D steel frames with I-shaped sections. A useful technique for determination of stress distribution on

Received in revised form cross-sections under axial force and bi-bending moments is proposed so that the concept of classification

1 April 2008

of cross-sections may be directly used. Cross-section requirements for plastic global analysis in Eurocode-

Accepted 1 April 2008

Available online 27 May 2008

3 are applied for a local buckling check. Two three-dimension steel frames with diverse configurations of

member size are considered by a second-order plastic-hinge analysis with the proposed technique. Useful

Keywords:

information for checking local buckling of a large number of plastic-hinges is completely presented.

Local buckling © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Plastic-hinges

Space frames

outstanding flanges or webs under compressive stress. At the

In general, either the plastic zone or the plastic-hinge approach plastic-hinge with a large rotation, cross-sections are at risk of local

is adopted to capture both material inelasticity and geometric buckling, even with rolled sections that are generally considered

nonlinearity of a framed structure. In the plastic zone method, as compact sections [13]. Therefore, local buckling needs be taken

according to the degree of refinement, a structural member is into account in the analysis and design procedure of structures,

devised into a mesh of finite elements, composed of three- especially, with the frames in which some parts work in the plastic

dimensional finite-shell elements or fibre elements. Thus, this range. There are two directions for the consideration of local

kind of approach may describe the “real” behaviour of structures, buckling, either by plastic zone analysis or by the application of

and it is known as the “quasi-exact” solution. However, although Standards. The first direction leads to an increase in computation

tremendous advances in both computing hardware and numerical time, but it is partially improved by the utilization of mixed

technique are achieved, the plastic zone method is still considered element analysis [3]. A way of the latter direction is presented

as an “expensive” method requiring considerable computing in [10], in which practical equations of Load and Resistance Factor

burden. In the plastic-hinge method, only one beam-column Design specification of American Institute of Steel construction are

element per a physical member can model nonlinear properties applied. Aside from this research, almost all plastic-hinge analysis

of structures. It leads to a huge reduction of computation time. assume that all sections are compact, and that local buckling will

With this advantage, the plastic-hinge method is more widely be examined last in the design procedure.

used in practice than the plastic zone method. However, plastic- The local buckling phenomenon of steel frames is considered in

hinge analysis embeds some disadvantages when more complex Eurocode-3 by the concept of classification of cross-section [14].

member behaviour need to be considered, such as: distributed Classification of cross-sections depends on the width-to-thickness

plasticity, strain hardening, warping-flexural effect, local buckling, ratio of parts subject to compression. It is only achieved when the

geometric imperfection, and residual stress. Consequently, much stress distribution on the cross-section is determined. However,

research in recent years [1–12] aims to improve both the we observe that engineers still need an efficient way to determine

plastic zone and plastic-hinge methods. Under the subject of the position of the neutral axis of a yielded I-shaped section (in

“the nonlinear advanced analysis of steel frames”, one may find space behaviour). On the other hand, local buckling needs to be

different models where the computation cost is reduced while the automatically verified throughout the process of global analysis

“real” behaviour of structures is progressively approached. of these structures. This is the fundamental reason for our work:

an algorithm for determination of stress distribution at a plastic-

hinge with special behaviour in such a way that the concept

∗ Corresponding author. of classification of cross-sections in Eurocode-3 can be directly

E-mail address: VanLong.Hoang@student.ulg.ac.be (H. Van Long). applied. This subroutine has been installed in the CEPAO computer

0141-0296/$ – see front matter © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2008.04.002

3106 H. Van Long, N.D. Hung / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 3105–3113

Table 1

Classification of cross-sections

Class Web Flange

d/tw ≤ 36ε/α when α ≤ 0.5

2 d/tw ≤ 456ε/(13α − 1) when α > 0.5 b0 /tf ≤ 10ε/α

d/tw ≤ 41.5ε/α when α ≤ 0.5 q

3 d/tw ≤ 42ε/(0.67 + 0.33ψ) when ψ > −1 b0 /tf ≤ 21ε 0.57 − 0.21ψ + 0.07ψ2 when − 3 ≤ ψ ≤ 1

d/tw ≤ 62ε(1 − ψ) −ψ when ψ ≤ −1

p

4 A part which fails to satisfy the limit for Class 3 should be taken as Class 4

q

where: ε = 235/fy , d, b0 , tf , tw , α, ψ are indicated in Figs. 1 and 2.

1. Selecting member sizes for the structure and assuming that all

cross-sections have Class 1.

2. Analyzing the structure by the plastic-hinge method and

determining internal forces at cross-sections.

3. Determining stress distribution at cross-sections.

4. Classifying cross-sections; and checking local buckling based on

cross-section requirements for plastic global analysis.

Step 3 and step 4 may be realized at any time of the analysis pro-

cedure as long as internal forces at cross-sections are computed.

In Sections 3 and 4, step 3 and step 4 will be described in detail,

respectively.

deduced from equilibrium and compatibility conditions. However,

the problem becomes complicated due to the inherent form of

I-shaped sections and the inelastic properties of the material.

Therefore, it is interesting to establish a simple and clear algorithm

for this problem.

Under the combined effects of axial force and bending moment,

only normal stress is effected on the cross-section. The plastic-

Fig. 1. Stress distribution in outstanding flanges and webs.

hinge concept indicates that a cross-section is fully yielded

by compression (−fy ) or tension (fy ) separated by a neutral

program, a package of plastic-hinge analysis and optimization for

line. In global plastic analysis of structure, the plastic-hinge is

frameworks [15,16]. Some numerical examples will exhibit the

efficiency of the proposed technique. assumed to occur when the force point reaches the yield surface:

Φ (N, My , Mz ) = 0. In the present work, passive plastic-hinges

define the plastic-hinges without plastic deformation. Conversely,

2. Conception of local buckling in Eurocode-3

one has the active plastic-hinge.

Based on local buckling resistance, Eurocode-3 provides a

classification for beams and columns in four classes [14]: 3.1.2. Assumptions

– Class 1 cross-section permits the formation of a plastic hinge In Eurocode-3’s guidance, stress distributions over sections

with the rotation capacity required from plastic analysis; are simplified (see Fig. 1); it does not include all possibilities

– Class 2 cross-section allows the development of a plastic hinge of locations of the neutral axis of a section in space behaviour.

but with limited rotation; Moreover, it is complicated to determine the “real” stress state

– Class 3 cross-section where local buckling is liable to prevent over sections. Therefore, the following assumptions are made in

development of plastic moment resistance; the present work.

– Class 4 cross-section where local buckling will occur before the

attainment of yield stress in one or more parts of the cross- 1 The neutral axis is a straight line, it divides the cross-section

section. into two parts, one is in compression and other is in traction.

2 The cross-section is idealized as a section composed of three

The classification of a cross-section depends on the width-to-

rectangular strips (Fig. 2(a)).

thickness ratio of parts subject to compression. Table 1 presents the

3 The area of the compressed zone and the tensional zone are

limited width-to-thickness ratios for compression parts (outstand

flanges or web) in which stress distribution is shown on Fig. 1. approximated as shown in Fig. 2(b).

When a local buckling check is taken into account, the 4 The bending moment with respect to the weak axis,Mz , is only

procedure for analysis of a steel frame includes four steps as supported by two flanges.

follows: 5 Residual stress is neglected.

H. Van Long, N.D. Hung / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 3105–3113 3107

Table 2

Location of the neutral axis (NA) and corresponding equilibrium equations

Location of NA Notation Unknowns Equilibrium equations

b1 , b2 My = fy t (b − b )h0

NA passes through two flanges (Fig. 3(a)) NA1 f 1 2 (a1)

|Mz | = fy tf [b1 (b − b1 ) + b2 (b − b2 )] (a2)

|N| = fy [2tf (b − b1 − b2 ) + hi tw ] (a3)

NA passes through the web and a flange (Fig. 3(b)) NA2 b1 , z1 |Mz | = fy tf b1 (b − b1 ) (b1)

|N| = fy (2z1 tw + 2b1 tf ) (b2)

My = fy [h0 t (b − b ) + (h2 /4 − z2 )tw ]

f 1 i 1 (b3)

NA passes through the web and two flanges (Fig. 3(c)) NA3 b1 , b2 |Mz | = fy tf [b1 (b − b1 ) + b2 (b − b2 )] (c1)

|N| = f [h0 tw (b1 − b2 )/(b − b1 − b2 ) + 2(b1 − b2 )tf ] (c2)

y

My = fy [h0 t (b − b − b ) + (h2 /4 − z2 )tw ] (c3)

f 1 2 i 1

Note: With NA1, b2 may have disappeared; with NA2, b1 or z1 may have disappeared.

Case 1:

If

(

cy ≤ 1

(1a)

2cy ≤ cy2 + cz ≤ 2

s

b cy cz cy2

b1 = 1 + − 1− −

2 2 2 4

s (1b)

b cy cz cy2

.

b2 = 2 1 − 2 − 1 − 2 −

4

Case 2: If

Fig. 2. Simplified shape and simplified stress distribution. c√

z ≤ 1

1 − cz (cn + β) + cn − β (2a)

≥γ

cz

3.1.3. Formulation

then the NA2 is agreed, and:

Since the neutral axis is a straight line, its position may be deter-

mined by two geometry parameters. In principle, the distribution b

p

b1 = 1 − 1 − cz

of stress on the cross-section must satisfy three equilibrium con- 2 (2b)

ditions according to N, My , Mz . However, one equilibrium equation h h i

z1 = i cn − (1 − 1 − cz )γ .

p

among them is constrained by Φ (N, My , Mz ) = 0. Therefore, two 2

necessary parameters to locate the position of neutral axis are de-

Case 3:

termined by two suitable equilibrium equations. A way to find the If the both conditions (1a) and (2a) are not satisfied, the NA3 is

formulas is summarized as follows: adopted, and:

– First, grouping the location of the neutral axis and writing the b

q

corresponding equilibrium equations (equilibrium between the

b

1

= 1 − 1 − cz + ξ cz

2

stress and internal forces), they are reported in Table 2. The b

q

1 − 1 − ξcz

b2 = (3a)

description of the location of the neutral axis is abbreviated to: 2 p

1 − ξcz − 1 − cz + ξcz

NA1 or NA2 or NA3.

p

hi

β.

z1 =

– Next, let us introduce the following non-negative parameters in 2 ( 1 − ξcz + 1 − cz + ξcz )

p p

with:

and the given internal forces. s

( )

1 1

cy =

My

; ξ= 1− 1− [( x2 − 2 + cz ) + 4cz − 4] ,

2 (3b)

2 cz2

fy h0 (b/2)tf

|M z | while x must satisfy the following equation:

cz = ;

fy (

b2 /4)tf γ 2 x4 + 2βγ x3 + (cn2 + β2 − 4γ 2 + 2γ 2 cz )x2

|N |

cn = ; + (4βγ cz − 8βγ)x + 2β2 cz − 4β2 = 0. (3c)

fy hi tw

Eq. (3c) may be solved by the Newton–Raphson iteration, it

β = h0 /hi ;

becomes better with the following bounds:

btf

γ= . p √ p

hi tw 2 − c ≤ x ≤ 2 2 − c when c ≥ 1

q p z z

√ p

z

(3d)

– Finally, the equilibrium equations are solved, taking into 2( 1 − c + 1) − c ≤ x ≤ 2 2 − c when c < 1.

z z z z

account the existential solution condition, we obtain the

following results:

Remark (The derivation of Eqs. (1a)–(3d)).

3108 H. Van Long, N.D. Hung / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 3105–3113

Table 3

Coefficient α (see Figs. 1 and 3)

Location of NA Flange Web

α = b1 /b0 if N ≤ 0 α = 0 if N ≤ 0

NA2 α=1 α = (d/2 + z1 )/d if N > 0

α = (d/2 − z1 )/d if N ≤ 0

α = (d/2 − z1 )/d if N ≤ 0

α = 0 if N ≤ 0 or cn < 0.5

α = 0 if N ≤ 0 and cy ≥ 1.5 α = 0 if N ≤ 0

Note: N > 0: compression; N < 0: tension; take α = 1 if α > 1.

(c)). If αz > 2 then one takes αz = 2, it agrees with the fourth

assumption that is above mentioned.

– The values b1 and b2 in Eq. (1b) are the solution of the system

of Eqs. (a1) and (a2) in Table 2, while Eq. (1a) is obtained by the

condition of 0 ≤ b2 ≤ b1 ≤ b/2.

– Solving the system of Eqs. (b1) and (b2) in Table 2 one obtains

the values b1 and z1 in Eq. (2b). Eq. (2a) is deduced from the

condition of b∗ ≥ b/2, with b∗ (Fig. 3(b)) is calculated by the

geometric relation with b1 and z1 :

b∗ = (b/2 − b1 )(h0 /2 + z1 )/(h0 /2 − z1 ).

(a) NA4. (b) NA5.

– The bending moment Mz may be decomposed into two parts

ξMz and (1 − ξ)Mz , each part is supported by each flange. Fig. 4. Particular cases of location of the neutral axis.

Consequently, Eq. (c1) in Table 2 is equivalent to the following

system:

be due to the force point exceeding the “real” yield surface by a

b(b − b2 )fy tf = ξMz

considerable amount. We can say that it very rarely occurs with

b(b − b1 )fy tf = (1 − ξ)Mz , practical yield surfaces.

it gives the values b1 and b2 in Eq. (3a). Substituting the values

b1 and b2 in the geometric relation of (Fig. 3(c)) 3.1.4. Particular cases

There are two particular cases of the location of the neutral

1 b1 − b2

z1 = h0 , axis as shown in Fig. 4, these are noted by NA4 and NA5. Those

2 b − (b1 + b2 ) cases rarely happen with steel frames in practice, and they are not

one obtains value z1 in Eq. (3a). indicated in Eurocode-3. In the following, some treatments of the

cases are proposed.

The value ξ in Eq. (3b) obtained by the following put: NA4 is a particular case of NA1 when b2 ≥ (b − tw )/2, with

b2 is determined by Eq. (1b). To apply the classification of the

q q

x = 1 − ξcz + 1 − cz + ξcz .

rule of cross-sections in Eurocode-3, one considers that the whole

Writing b1 and b2 in Eq. (3b) under formulation of x and substituting web is in compression if N is compression and cn ≥0.5 (Table 3).

then in Eq. (c2) (Table 2), one obtains Eq. (3c). Because b1 ≥ b2 , one Contrarily, the web is in traction (no local buckling).

has 0 ≤ ξ ≤ 1/2, it leads to Eq. (3d). NA5 is the particular case of NA2 when b1 = 0 and z1 > hi /2,

If the value of x obtained by (3c) violates the condition (3d) with b1 and z1 are calculated by Eq. (2b). In the case where N is

the real value ξ in Eq. (3b) is then not found. This statement may compression, there is always a flange is in compression. Contrarily

H. Van Long, N.D. Hung / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 3105–3113 3109

(N is traction), the following rule may be adopted (Table 3): (1) compact under κN, κMy , κMz . In the other case, if sections are non-

If cy ≥ 1.5 then one flange is in compression and other is in compact under κN, κMy , κMz , the method leans towards secure (no

traction. (2) When cy < 1.5 the whole section is in traction (no economy). Let us note that the internal force state of κN, κMy , κMz

local buckling). is a fictive state for examination of the real state (N, My , Mz ). In

fact, from the elasto-plastic state to the plastic state of sections,

components of internal force change non-proportionately.

3.1.5. Coefficient α

Table 3 presents the values of this coefficient according to the

4. Classification of cross-sections and local buckling check

stress distribution at the plastic-hinges. The coefficient α is used to

classify the cross-sections (see Section 4).

4.1. Classification of cross-sections

3.1.6. Verification With the parameter α for yielded and elasto-plastic sections

The mentioned formulas are completely deduced by an analytic (see Section 3.1.5 and 3.3) or the parameter Ψ for elastic sections

way. However, they are only considered as “exact” solutions when (see Section 3.2), cross-sections are classified by Table 1. Class 1

a “real” yield surface is used. Unfortunately, most yield surfaces or Class 2 or no class are three possibilities for yielded and elasto-

for an I-shaped section (in space behavior) are established by the plastic sections while elastic sections have Class 3 or Class 4.

approximate way [18]. Therefore, a post-process of verification is

then necessary. From the location of NA obtained by proposed 4.2. Local buckling check

formulas, the axial force and two bending moments (N̄, M̄y , M̄z ),

the absolute values, may be determined by three corresponding Applying the cross-section required for plastic global analysis

equilibrium equations (Table 2). The following coefficient: in Eurocode-3, the following rule may be adopted:

q q – Cross-sections in which the active plastic hinge occurs must be

N2 + My2 + Mz2 − N̄2 + M̄y2 + M̄z2

Class 1.

ζ= q (4) – At passive plastic-hinge and elasto-plastic sections, only Class 1

N2 + My2 + Mz2 or Class 2 is allowed.

– Cross-sections working in the elastic range must be Class 3.

permits us to evaluate the degree of precision of the solution. The

When above requirements are satisfied, sections resist the local

value of this coefficient needs to be reported in the output so that

buckling phenomenon. Conversely, the sections are in the risk of

exceptional cases are eliminated. Analysis of a large number of

local buckling.

plastic-hinges will highlight this coefficient.

In two particular cases (NA4 and NA5), Eqs. (a3) and (b3) in

5. Numerical examples and discussions

Table 2 are not valid. Therefore, in the case of NA4 (or NA5), N (or

My ) and N̄ (or M̄y ) in Eq. (4) are ignored. The proposed rule for local buckling detection has been

implemented in CEPAO computer program. To illustrate the

3.2. At the elastic sections technique, second-order plastic-hinge analysis for two 3-D steel

frames is realized with local buckling checks throughout the

Since the residual stress is ignored, cross-sections work in the computation time. In CEPAO, a conventional second-order plastic-

elastic range when their internal forces are limited by the elastic hinge approach is adopted to capture the P-∆ and P-δ effects.

surface: One physical member is modelled by one beam-column element,

and stability functions are used to take into account geometrical

|N| My h |M z | b nonlinearity of members. The normality rule is adopted to model

φ= + + − fy = 0,

A Iy 2 Iz 2 plastic hinges.

In the following examples, the plastic interaction function

in which, A, Iy , Iz are the area, and moment of inertia of the cross-

proposed by Orbison [17] is introduced in CEPAO:

section, respectively.

The coefficient ψ (Table 1 and Fig. 1) may be deduced from the Φ = 1.15n2 + m2y + m4z + 3.67n2 m2y + 3n6 m2z

elastic stress at the points A1, A2, A3, A4 (Fig. 1). The elastic stress + 4.65m2z m4y − 1 = 0, (5)

state is easily determined, it does not need to be presented herein.

where, n = N/Np is ratio of the axial force to the squash load,

my = My /Mpy and mz = Mz /Mpz are the ratios of the major-axis

3.3. At the elasto-plastic sections and minor-axis moments to the corresponding plastic moments,

respectively.

This kind of section is indicated by the force point that is

bounded by the elastic surface and the yield surface (i.e. φ > 0 Example 1 (Six-story Space Frame (Frame-1)). Fig. 5 shown Orbi-

and Φ < 0). It is complicated to determinate the “exact” position son’s six-story space frame. The yield strength of all members is

of the neutral axis in this case. Moreover, Eurocode-3 only gives 250 MPa and Young’s modulus is 206 GPa. Table 4 shows two con-

two types of stress distribution: elastic and plastic. Therefore, the figuration of member size. There are two loading cases: (1) Uniform

position of the neutral axis in this case may be approximately floor pressure of 4.8 kN/m2 ; wind loads are simulated by point

determined as the yielded cross-sections (plastic-hinges) with a loads of 26.7 kN in the Y-direction at every beam-column joint;

modified value of the internal forces: κN, κMy , κMz . In which, κ (2) Four nodal load of 25 kN with negative × direction that apply

at the four nodes of the highest level of the frame.

is a coefficient such that: Φ (κN, κMy , κMz ) = 0, it shows that

Three cases are considered: Frame-1a: configuration of member

κ > 1. Thus, instead of considering the sections under N, My , Mz , size 1 subjects the loading case 1; Frame-1b: configuration

we examine the sections subjected to κN, κMy , κMz . of member size 2 supports the loading case 1; Frame-1c:

To discuss above way, one may agree two following remarks: (1) configuration of member size 1 with the loading case 2. In which,

if a section is compact under κN, κMy , κMz then it is compact under the frame-1a is already analysed in almost concerned references.

N, My , Mz ; (2) if a section is non-compact under κN, κMy , κMz then it

is either compact or non-compact under N, My , Mz . Therefore, the Example 2 (Twenty Story Space Frame (frame-2)). Twenty-story

proposed method is perfectly correct in cases where sections are space frame with dimensions and properties shown in Fig. 6. The

3110 H. Van Long, N.D. Hung / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 3105–3113

Table 4

Example 1 (frame 1) – Configuration of member size

Configuration Group of member size

1 2 3 4 5

2 W18 × 86 W12 × 120 W10 × 60 W12 × 26 W12 × 53

Fig. 5. Frame-1: Six-story space frame ((a) perspective view, (b) plan view).

is 200 GPa. Uniform floor pressure of 4.8 kN/m2 ; wind loads =

0.96 kN/m2 , acting in the Y direction.

Fig. 6. Frame-2: Twenty-story space frame ((a) perspective view; (b) plan view).

Some following points are discussed:

– Load factor at limit state: Load ratios according to the second- happens at the plastic hinges in the frame-1c (Table 7). In

order plastic-hinge analysis given by CEPAO are in agreement another context, at the section 7 of frame-1b (Fig. 9(b)), the risk

with other benchmarks results available from the literature (see of local buckling happens with the web of the section when

Table 5). It shows that data for the process of local buckling the load factor reached 2.13 while a plastic-hinge has been

checks are objective data and practical data. The load-deflection already formed with a load factor of 2.08. During the force

result at referenced nodes is reported on Figs. 7 and 8 while the point moves on the yield surface, the neutral axis transfers on

distribution of plastic-hinges of frame-1 is reported on Fig. 9. the cross-section leading to the risk of local buckling in the

There is no space behaviour in frame-1c. web. Developments of this process are described in Table 8 and

– Local buckling detection: It is realized after each computation Fig. 10. It shows the degree of refinement of present analysis.

step. In both frame-1a and frame-2, all sections satisfy the – Position of the neutral axis: The value of the coefficient ζ [see Eq.

cross-section requirements for plastic global analysis. It is in (4)] of 103 active plastic-hinges (of two frames) is summarized

agreement with other research in which compact sections are on the Table 9. This points out: the yield surface given by Eq. (5)

assumed. Table 6 details the necessary information of a local is in good correlation with the “real” yield surface. Stress distri-

buckling check for active plastic-hinges at the limit state of butions at the plastic-hinges obtained by proposed technique

frame-1a. The particular location of the neutral axis (NA4) may be applied in practice with a high level of reliability.

H. Van Long, N.D. Hung / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 3105–3113 3111

Fig. 10. Frame-1b: Behaviour of Section 7 (Fig. 9(b) indicates the Section 7).

CEPAO.

This technique may be installed in any plastic global

6. Conclusions analysis procedure, such as elastic-plastic analysis by the step-

by-step method or by the rigid-plastic analysis by mathematical

A way to check local buckling according to Eurocode-3 in programming. The risk of local buckling at critical sections is elim-

plastic-hinge analysis for 3-D steel frames is proposed. It may be inated according to Eurocode-3’s requirements. The present of this

concluded as follows: subroutine does not influence other results (e.g. multiplier load);

3112 H. Van Long, N.D. Hung / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 3105–3113

Table 5

Load multipliers (elastic-plastic 2nd order)

Author Model Load multiplier

Frame-1a Frame-1b Frame-1c Frame-2

Kim SE -2001 [8] Plastic hinge 2.066 – – –

Chiorean CG- 2005 [5] Distributed plasticity 2.124 (n = 30) – – 1.062 (n = 30)

Chiorean CG-2005 [5] Distributed plasticity 1.998 (n = 300) – – 1.005 (n = 300)

Cuong NH - 2006 [9] Fiber plastic hinge 2.040 – – 1.003

Liew JYR- 2001 [4] Plastic hinge – – – 1.031

Jiang XM - 2002 [3] Fiber element – – – 1.000

CEPAO - 2007 Plastic hinge 2.033 2.254 2.161 1.024

Table 6

Frame-1a: Local buckling check for active plastic-hinges at the limit state (load factor = 2.032)

Section Given forces Location of neutral axis Verified-forces Width to thickness ratios

(limit and real) of the web

and compressed outstand

flange

Sa Pb N (kN) My (kN m) MZ (kN m) NA b1 (mm) b2 (mm) z1 (mm) N̄ (kN) M̄y (kN m) M̄z (kN m) ζ (%) [d/tw ] d/tw [b0 /tf ] b0 /tf

1 1 485.59 528.56 −4.65 NA2 2.96 – 69.48 485.59 514.12 4.65 1.47 41.91 18.84 8.73 6.43

3 2 539.54 662.91 −97.36 NA3 38.71 10.72 16.19 538.99 649.56 97.36 1.23 60.44 13.71 8.73 4.72

7 1 1081.82 463.86 6.06 NA2 3.87 – 159.08 1081.82 465.81 6.06 0.07 31.99 18.84 8.73 6.43

9 2 1820.08 565.43 102.55 NA2 57.03 – 113.20 1820.08 576.80 102.55 0.18 33.49 13.71 8.73 4.72

38 3 295.75 −282.76 25.31 NA2 25.37 – 14.26 295.75 275.52 25.31 1.21 59.71 18.64 8.73 6.34

42 3 488.98 −267.85 −30.10 NA2 30.92 – 41.40 488.98 265.65 30.10 0.19 46.83 18.64 8.73 6.34

44 3 603.97 −224.60 −65.58 NA3 62.16 12.80 33.09 603.96 221.07 65.58 0.19 50.14 18.64 8.73 6.34

86 4 −12.41 75.24 29.16 NA3 54.84 53.83 2.68 12.66 71.62 29.16 4.02 71.20 47.34 8.73 7.38

88 4 13.29 −80.55 28.09 NA3 51.23 50.08 2.73 13.55 76.98 28.09 3.80 68.20 47.34 8.73 7.38

97 5 11.44 317.71 4.94 NA3 3.28 2.10 0.69 11.59 306.57 4.94 3.50 69.35 28.05 8.73 7.37

98 5 11.44 −317.67 −5.01 NA3 3.32 2.15 0.69 11.59 306.48 5.01 3.52 69.35 28.05 8.73 7.37

103 5 25.09 313.83 10.47 NA3 7.07 4.51 1.54 25.43 299.98 10.47 4.37 68.79 28.05 8.73 7.37

104 5 25.09 −313.96 −10.38 NA3 7.02 4.46 1.54 25.43 300.09 10.38 4.37 68.79 28.05 8.73 7.37

105 1 29.06 536.97 14.11 NA3 5.61 3.43 1.08 29.56 520.62 14.11 3.03 69.09 18.84 8.73 6.43

106 1 29.06 −536.94 −14.18 NA3 5.63 3.45 1.08 29.56 520.55 14.18 3.04 69.09 18.84 8.73 6.43

109 5 25.51 305.69 17.65 NA3 11.20 8.63 1.60 25.87 291.20 17.65 4.68 68.75 28.05 8.73 7.37

110 5 25.51 −305.53 −17.79 NA3 11.28 8.70 1.60 25.87 291.03 17.79 4.68 68.75 28.05 8.73 7.37

115 5 18.07 287.60 29.04 NA3 17.67 15.87 1.19 18.33 276.62 29.04 3.76 69.02 28.05 8.73 7.37

116 5 18.07 −287.79 −28.96 NA3 17.62 15.82 1.19 18.33 276.72 28.96 3.78 69.02 28.05 8.73 7.37

a Remarks: S = Section (see Fig. 9(a)).

b P = Profile (see Table 4); [d/tw ] and [b0 /tf ] are the limited ratios.

Table 7

Frame-1c: Local buckling check for active plastic-hinges at the limit state (load factor = 2.161)

Section Given forces Location of neutral axis Verified-forces Width to thickness ratios

(limit and real) of the web

and compressed outstand

flange

Sa Pb N (kN) My (kN m) MZ (kN m) NA b1 (mm) b2 (mm) z1 (mm) N̄ (kN) M̄y (kN m) M̄z (kN m) ζ(%) [d/tw ] d/tw [b0 /tf ] b0 /tf

39 3 −121.54 0.00 −143.55 NA4 128.00 128.00 – – 0.00 141.72 0.16 Infinit 18.64 8.73 6.34

43 3 −121.54 0.00 −143.55 NA4 128.00 128.00 – – 0.00 141.72 0.16 Infinit 18.64 8.73 6.34

54 3 40.61 0.00 143.62 NA4 128.00 128.00 – – 0.00 141.72 0.16 Infinit 18.64 8.73 6.34

56 3 −37.93 0.00 143.62 NA4 128.00 128.00 – – 0.00 141.72 0.16 Infinit 18.64 8.73 6.34

58 3 40.61 0.00 143.62 NA4 128.00 128.00 – – 0.00 141.72 0.16 Infinit 18.64 8.73 6.34

60 3 −37.93 0.00 143.62 NA4 128.00 128.00 – – 0.00 141.72 0.16 Infinit 18.64 8.73 6.34

85 4 −0.21 −152.95 0.00 NA2 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.21 150.77 0.00 1.43 69.84 47.34 8.73 7.38

86 4 −0.21 152.95 0.00 NA2 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.21 150.77 0.00 1.43 69.84 47.34 8.73 7.38

87 4 −0.21 −152.95 0.00 NA2 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.21 150.77 0.00 1.43 69.84 47.34 8.73 7.38

88 4 −0.21 152.95 0.00 NA2 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.21 150.77 0.00 1.43 69.84 47.34 8.73 7.38

89 4 −1.89 −152.95 0.00 NA2 0.00 0.00 0.65 1.89 150.77 0.00 1.43 70.14 47.34 8.73 7.38

90 4 −1.89 152.95 0.00 NA2 0.00 0.00 0.65 1.89 150.77 0.00 1.43 70.14 47.34 8.73 7.38

91 4 −1.89 −152.95 0.00 NA2 0.00 0.00 0.65 1.89 150.77 0.00 1.43 70.14 47.34 8.73 7.38

92 4 −1.89 152.95 0.00 NA2 0.00 0.00 0.65 1.89 150.77 0.00 1.43 70.14 47.34 8.73 7.38

a Remarks: S = Section (see Fig. 9(c)).

b P = Profile (see Table 4); [d/tw ] and [b0 /tf ] are the limited ratios.

it only points out confident signs about local buckling, and the fi- merical computations. While respecting the rule of Eurocod-3, it is

nal decision belongs to engineers (e.g. add a stiffener or change the then an efficient implementation of local buckling detection into

member size). The robustness of this algorithm is proved by nu- automatic computer code.

H. Van Long, N.D. Hung / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 3105–3113 3113

Table 8

Frame 1b – Developments at the Section 7 from plastic-hinge occurs at a risk of local buckling

Step Load Given forces Location of neutral axis Verified-forces Width to thickness ratios

factor (limit and real) of the web

N My (kN m) MZ (kN m) NA b1 (mm) b2 (mm) z1 (mm) N̄ (kN) M̄y (kN m) M̄z (kN m) ζ [d/tw ] d/tw

(kN) (%)

1 2.080 1170.12 634.17 10.52 NA2 7.83 – 179.24 1170.12 642.61 10.52 0.30 34.24 33.43

2 2.089 1173.99 633.55 10.34 NA2 7.70 – 180.09 1173.99 641.97 10.34 0.30 34.15 33.43

3 2.097 1177.23 633.03 10.19 NA2 7.58 – 180.82 1177.23 641.44 10.19 0.30 34.08 33.43

4 2.103 1179.14 633.11 9.12 NA2 6.77 – 182.43 1179.14 641.42 9.12 0.30 33.93 33.43

5 2.109 1180.93 633.18 8.02 NA2 5.93 – 184.07 1180.93 641.43 8.02 0.29 33.77 33.43

6 2.116 1182.96 633.23 6.69 NA2 4.93 – 186.01 1182.96 641.43 6.69 0.29 33.59 33.43

7 2.130 1186.42 633.14 4.62 NA2 3.39 – 189.05 1186.42 641.33 4.62 0.29 33.31 33.43a

a Risk of local buckling; [d/t ] is the limited ratio; position of the Section 7 is indicated on Fig. 9(b).

w

Table 9

Evaluation of coefficient ζ for 103 active plastic - hinges

ζ (%) 0≤ξ≤1 1<ζ≤2 2<ζ≤3 3<ζ≤4 4 < ζ ≤ 4.68

References [9] Cuong NH, Kim SE, Oh JR. Nonlinear analysis of space frames using fiber plastic

hinge concept. Eng Struct 2006;29:649–57.

[10] Kim SE, Lee J, Part JS. 3-D second - order plastic-hinge analysis accounting for

[1] Liew JYR, Chen H, Shanmugam NE, Chen WF. Improved nonlinear plastic hinge local buckling. Eng Struct 2003;25:81–90.

analysis of space frame structures. Eng Struct 2000;22:1324–38. [11] Kim SE, Lee J, Part JS. 3-D second - order plastic-hinge analysis accounting for

[2] Liew JYR, Tang LK. Advanced plastic hinge analysis for the design of tubular lateral torsional buckling. Solids Struct 2002;39:2109–28.

space frames. Eng Struct 2000;22:769–83. [12] Kim SE, Kim Y, Choi SH. Nonlinear analysis of 3-D steel frames. Thin-Welled

[3] Jiang XM, Chen H, Liew JYR. Spread-of-plasticity analysis of three-dimensional Struct 2001;39:445–61.

steel frames. J Construct Steel Res 2002;58:193–212. [13] Massonnet Ch, Save M. Calcul plastique des constructions, vol. 1. Belgique:

[4] Liew JYR, Chen H, Shanmugam NE. Inelastic analysis of steel frames with Nelissen; 1976.

composite beams. ASCE J Eng Struct 2001;127(2):194–202. [14] Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures – Part 1-1: General rules and rules for

[5] Chiorean CG, Barsan GM. Large deflection distributed plasticity analysis of 3D buiding. European Committee for Standardization; 1993.

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[6] Landesmann A, Batista EM. Advanced analysis of steel buildings using the plastic, analysis and optimization of frame structure. Eng Struct 1984;6:33–50.

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