Substrate Integrated Circuits (SICs) and Systems for RF and Millimeter-wave Applications

Ke Wu
Canada Research Chair in Radio-Frequency and Millimetre-Wave Engineering Poly-Grames Research Center Center for Radio-Frequency Electronics Research (CRÉER) of Quebec Department of Electrical Engineering Ecole Polytechnique (University of Montreal), Canada ke.wu@polymtl.ca

OUTLINE
Introduction
Drawbacks of standard planar transmission line technologies Need for compact, low-loss, low-cost integrated waveguides and circuits Integration issues

Substrate Integrated Circuits (SICs) and Systems
Performance of substrate embedded waveguides Recent achievements in the field of substrate integrated circuits (SICs) System-on-Substrate (SoS) Concepts Future challenges and possibilities

Conclusions

2

Introduction
Drawbacks of current technologies

Microstrip

Coplanar Waveguide (CPW)

EM field singularities cause high current densities in the conductor edges → high conductor losses Semi-opened and/or unbounded planar circuits are subject to packaging problem and radiation losses → high cross-talk and transmission losses 3

Performance gap at mmW frequencies • Electrically large mmW components rely on low loss technology • Gap between lossy planar waveguides and bulky metal waveguides needs to be closed. 4 .

Design Examples of Microstrip to Rectangular Waveguide Transition a) Probe Type b) Ridge Type 5 .

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Synthesized Waveguides and Substrate Integrated Circuits (SICs) non-planar structure in planar form 6 .

7 . electro-optical control and conversation ☺ Potential hybrid and monolithic features such as planar multilayer. mechanically. and thermally) miniaturization. self-packaging.Substrate Integrated Circuits (SICs) ☺ Complete integration of planar circuits (surface type) and non-planar circuits (volume type) on the same dielectric substrate and fabrication process ☺ Synthesized waveguides made of metallic fences and/or dielectric contrasts compatible with planar substrate (electrically. tunability.

Substrate Integrated Waveguide Early version of SIW filter 8 .

without cover) 9 .Substrate Integrated Non-Radiative Dielectric Waveguide SINRD LSM11 mode (only half the structure is shown) Early SINRD filter (7th order.

Substrate Integrated Image Guide Fundamental mode (only half the structure is shown) Ey11 Silicon SIIG prototype 10 .

Interfacing / Transitions ar p wS y x z b w lS Microstrip ↔ SIW Courant electrique Champ magnetique Waveguide ↔ SIIG CPW ↔ SIW CPW ↔ SIIG 11 .

In-Line Four-Pole Dual-Mode Filter 12 .

Substrate Integrated Waveguide Antennas λg/2 3λg/4 ae lf of slotted antenna leaky-wave antenna O nd es de 13 fu ite .

Integrated SIW antenna/feeder module Antipodal Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna (ALTSA) 1 x 16 SIW-ALTSA field profile 1x 8 SIW-ALTSA photo Measured radiation pattern of 1x 8 SIWALTSA at 10 GHz with 18.76dBi gain 14 .

Substrate Integrated Waveguide Directional Couplers 1 4 1 4 Weff L1 L2 Ls La Ws L2 L1 Weff 2 3 2 3 (a) (b) 15 .

Substrate Integrated Waveguide Oscillator L b ATF36077 AMPLIFIER W P_OSC Wp Lx Lp Wc Gc P_INJ 90Ω SIW CAVITY P_B JP1 LOOP LENGTH JP2 PHASE STUBS P_A 16 .

Integrated FMCW Radar System on Substrate (SoS) 17 .

Synthesized or Substrate Integrated NRD-Guide εR Standard NRD Guide εR1 εR εR1 εR Air Holes Generalized NRD Guide Substrate Integrated NRD Guide 18 .

L2 = 0. Wt = 0.737mm 19 .180mm.118mm.94 GHz 3rd Order Alumina SINRD Guide Filter S1 S2 S1 Wt L1 L2 L2 L1 L1 = 0. S2 = 1.082mm.449mm S1 = 1.

Simulated and Measured Results 5 0 -5 -10 -15 dB -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 -50 87 89 91 93 95 GHz 97 99 101 103 S 11 (sim) S 21 (sim) S 11 (mea) S 21 (mea) 20 .

System-on-Substrate (SoS) Concepts Advanced Technological Features ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ Nano-structured “zero” loss and agile/tunable substrates Traveling-wave electro-optical devices Mixed integration of different waveguides on substrate High-density multilayer integration Monolithic integration of “passive” and “active” circuits on substrate including antennas ☺ (Sub)millimeter-wave VLSI (very-large scale integration) ☺ Terahertz electronics and photonics ☺ Bridging the gap between electronic and optical systems 21 .

Complementary Modal Field Profiles E field E field a) b) 22 .

Other Examples of Multi-port SICs SIW cruciform directional coupler or cross-over 8 1 6 4 3 7 5 2 W-band multi-port receiver circuit Substrate integrated waveguide circulator 23 .

Ian Robertson. UK) 24/77 GHz dual band antenna system Traveling-wave photodetector and modulator 24 .(b) 140-280 GHz think-film SIW band-pass filter (Prof. University of Leeds.

UK) a 3 layer a/2 a/3 a/4 4 layer 25 .Substrate Integrated Folded Waveguide (SIFW) (from Dr. Young. Paul R. University of Kent.

SIW and Half-Mode SIW (HMSIW) Structures HMSIW Evolution of HMSIW from SIW SIW Dominant modes in HMSIW and SIW 26 .

SIIG W-band Antennas 94-GHz SIIG planar Dielectric rod antenna 94-GHz SIIG array antenna 27 .

Substrate Integrate Circuits (SICs) → Combining planar and synthesized non-planar guiding structures Example of a substrate integrated circuit 28 .

Conclusions ☺ Substrate integrated circuits (SICs) for low-cost/high-density RF/millimeterwave/terahertz and photonic wireless ICs and system applications ☺ Hybrid design platforms such as planar-substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) & planar-substrate integrated dielectric guides ☺ Potential monolithic SICs with semiconductor and/or smart substrate towards System-on-Substrate (SoS) approach for future millimeter-wave and photonic wireless applications ☺ Bridging the technological gap between electronics and photonics for GHz and THz innovations and discoveries 29 .

Prof. Maurizio Bozzi and his colleagues at University of Pavia (Italy) and others have made contributions to this presentation 30 .Acknowledgements ☺ Many year contributions by the speaker’s students and research fellows as well as technical support of technologists at the Poly-Grames Research Center have made this presentation possible ☺ The speaker is grateful to Canadian NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council) and Quebecois funding agency (FQRNT) for their financial support through multiple grants ☺ Worldwide collaborators including Prof. Wei Hong and his team at Southeast University (China).

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