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IJRMEC

Volume2, Issue 7(July 2012)

ISSN: 2250-057X

EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING AMONG BANK EMPLOYEES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SELECTED PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS IN INDIA
A. Mani Assistant Professor - Faculty of Management Studies, VMKV Engineering College, Salem. Tamil Nadu Dr. P.A. Joy Associate Professor in Accounting and Commerce, St., Johns College, Dr. B.R. Ambedkhar University, Agra, India.

ABSTRACT
Effective training is an investment of human resources of an organization, with both immediate and long-range returns. Banking sector have a separate policy in the aspects of training employees irrespective of the cater. The training should have a mandatory affair in an effective and efficient manner. The present study focus on an effectiveness of the training among bank employees to analyse the training system and context of public and private sector banks in India. The purpose of study to select six banks for covers all the regional heads of India and interview schedule used for data collection. The collected primary data has converted into tabulated and percentage anlaysis, Z test, t-test and Rank analysis are used. The study concludes that a separate body should be allocated to continuously assess the technological and social changes to inherit the same in the aspect of training. Only customer satisfaction being mantra for success where banking sector is not at all an exceptional case a psychological aspect of analysis should have in depth attention to attain the customer satisfaction. Keywords: Training and Development, Effectiveness, Enthusiasm, Facilities, Utilization Customer Satisfaction.

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IJRMEC INTRODUCTION

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Training is indeed an ancient art. It had been practiced in one form or the other since the beginning of human civilisation. However, the emergence of training as a modern science is of recent origin. Today it comes under the most dynamic and fastest growing area of modern management i.e. the Human Resource Management (HRM). Although training is applicable to all spheres of human activities, its importance in the corporate world is infinite. Here, it is a logical extension of the formal education-life of a person. Once the student gets a job in any organization, she/he generally happens to be confused by the mismatch between the theory that she/he has learnt, and its practical implementation. Similarly, to cope with the fast changing business environment, one needs to have a thorough knowledge of the latest developments in his field of specialisation. As viewed from the world of Business, what was studied in college is yesterdays knowledge, and what will be needed for a career, is tomorrows knowledge. No matter how much education one has, it is not enough. Unless one devotes time & energy to continuing his education, he will soon become an educational drop out. In this regard, it is rightly said that education starts at the womb and ends at the tomb. Therefore, the process of education needs to continue even after entering into the corporate world, which will enable them to update their occupational skills, enhance their knowledge and develop their personalities for the purpose of achieving the organisational objectives. And this part of adult or continuing education has now come to be known as the Corporate Training. Today MNCs [Multi National Companies] are spending billions of dollars in developing their most valuable assets the Human Resource (HR), through training. The need of the hour, especially when the business worldwide is going through a tough time due to the economic recession, is to place the training and development at the heart of the business strategy, so as to enable the organization to build its competence as a domestic & international player. Training is thus to be used as the most effective tool in developing the Resources. The training system should be pro- active and should have the foresight of the changed environment in the future, so as to convey a positive message to the staff that their future is safe, if one is interested to unlearn & re-learn.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Prior studies relating to training evaluation (e.g., Kirkpatrick 1994, Bramley & Kitson 1994, Clements and Josiam 1995, and Bedingham 1997) indicate that companies use different levels of analysis to evaluate training effectiveness. Some companies follow a traditional approach that focuses on trainees attitudes or reactions to a training programme (e.g. trainees opinions about training materials, delivery methods, effectiveness of the trainers, usefulness of the training programme etc). Others extend the training evaluation to incorporate some measured outcomes of the training programmes (e.g. skills learned or knowledge gained, measured changes in trainees behaviour on the job after the training etc). Still other companies seek to measure the net financial effects of the training programmes (or their returns) to the company as a whole, or to its individual departments. Bramely and Kitson (1994) indicated that measuring the effectiveness of a training programme at the reaction level and / or the levels of skills learned or knowledge gained are the most common approaches that companies use. However, Tan Hall and Boyce (2003) indicated that trainee reactions to training programme tended to be poor predictors of training success. Perdue, Ninemeier, and Woods (2002) assessed perceived relative effectiveness of alternative training methods (in relation to specific objectives) among managers of private clubs. They used an email questionnaire to collect their data from a random sample of 123 private club managers in USA. The results indicated that one to one training is considered the most useful overall method and the preferred method for all objectives except inter-personal skill development. The use of video-tapes ranked fifth best as an overall training method. Audio conferencing, paper and pencil methods, programme instruction, audio-tapes, computer conferencing, and self-assessment were considered the least effective training methods. Buch and Bartly(2002) examined the relationship between learning styles and preferences for alternative delivery modes used by most organisations today. Delivery modes included computer-based methods, TV-based methods, print-based methods, audio-based methods, and classroom-based methods. Learning styles included convergers, accommodators, divergers and assimilators. The authors used a questionnaire to collect their data from a sample of 165 employees of a large US financial institution. The results support the notion that learning styles should be taken into account when making decisions regarding the use of delivery modes available today for training purposes. It was found that convergers had a strong preference for International Journal of Research in Management, Economics and Commerce www.indusedu.org 44

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computer-based delivery while assimilators had a strong preference for print-based delivery. However, there was a strong overall preference for classroom-based delivery, regardless of the learning style. Klink and Streumer (2002) examined the effectiveness of on-the-job training and some potential factors that explain effectiveness of two samples drawn from two Dutch companies. The first sample consisted of 36 tele-sales staff who were trained to improve the quality of the telephone sales call, with the underlying objective of increasing sales. The second sample consisted of 45 new counter clerks (working for post offices) who were trained on how to behave and function independently at the post office counter. The authors used pretest-post-test design for the first sample and two post-tests for the second sample (one at the completion of the course and the other 10 to 15 weeks later). They collected their primary data using questionnaires and tests. Secondary data about sales were collected from the organisations Management Information Systems. In India research in the field of training is very less. One of the exceptions is the study conducted by Riyaz Rainaye. He examined the training policy and practice in SBI and Jammu and Kashmir Bank (JKB) Limited to assess the effectiveness of the various facets of training. He collected the data by administering the questionnaire Training Effectiveness developed by T. V. Rao (2000). Sample size for the study was restricted to 200 cashier-clerks and 100 managers from each bank. He came out with the following conclusions. In JKB, line managers are not well involved in employee development; induction training is not of sufficient duration, training is not evaluated properly, senior executives do not interact properly with subordinate employees; training objectives are not sharply perceived and achieved; there is no concentration on development of human skills. However, standards of external training programmes and in-bank programmes, are well maintained. In SBI even though management claims excellence barring a few improvements needed in Training Need Analysis (TNA) and transfer of training to the job, its own clerks doubt the claim. Statement of Problem The economic development of any country is directly related to the development of banking system of that country. Financial development has helped the industrialisation process in developed countries by facilitating the mobilisation of capital for large investments. Well functioning banks or other financial intermediaries like venture capital funds, also spur International Journal of Research in Management, Economics and Commerce www.indusedu.org

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technological innovation by identifying and funding entrepreneurs who are perceived to have the best chances of developing new products successfully and for implementing innovative production processes. In India, the Banking sector today, is going through a period of transition. Beginning with the introduction of New Economic Policy (NEP) by the Government of India in the year 1991, unprecedented changes have occurred in terms of regulatory aspects, institutional arrangements, ownership pattern, procedural changes and the onset of competitive functioning. Advancement in technology and communication has caused a complete turn around in the modus operandi of the banks. Anywhere and anytime banking have become the buzzwords. The entries of new private sector banks and foreign banks have made the sector highly competitive. In order to survive and succeed in this fast changing competitive environment, banks need to organise, develop and manage their human resources effectively. Their major responsibility in this regard is to build up a right mix of skills, attitude and conceptual understanding amongst their employees. For achieving this, a continuous process of training interventions in banks is a must. Despite years of training and huge investment, the effectiveness of training programmes of the Indian public and private sector banks is a matter of concern. In many instances, it has been observed that the trainees are considering training just as an outing or a picnic. The selection of staff for the training programmes is not always need based. It is also being reported that the staff given training in a particular area are not given opportunity to utilize it, as they are appointed in some other areas. Therefore, there is a need to study the effectiveness f the training programmes by evaluating the context, inputs, process and outcomes of training between the pubic and private sector banks in India. The proposed investigation is an effort in this direction. Objectives of the Study 1. To study the training system of public and private sector banks in India. 2. To analyze the effectiveness of the training system towards selected public and private sector banks in India. 3. To find out whether there is any significant difference regarding the effectiveness of training between different public and private sector banks. 4. To suggest measures to enhance the effectiveness of the training programmes.

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Hypothesis

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1. There is no significant difference regarding the reaction of bank staff relating to the effectiveness of training context between the public and private sector banks in India. 2. There is no significant difference regarding the reaction of bank staff relating to the achievement of training outcome between the public and private sector banks in India. Methodology Research methodology is a way to solve a research problem in a systematic manner. In it, various steps that are generally adapted by a researcher in studying the research problem and the logic behind them are explained in detail. The methodology used in the present research is explained below: Sampling Design 1. Sampling Unit Select Public and Private Sector Banks in India constitutes the sampling unit. 2. Source List/ Frame Source list includes bank employees includes manager, cashier, clerk employees, trainees, and faculty members of the training centers, ex- trainees and other stakeholders of the public as well as private sector banks in India. 3. Sampling Procedure Multi stage sampling method is used in the present research. In the selection stage six banks were selected (four from Public Sector and two from Private sector). More banks have been selected from Public sector banks keeping in view the volume of business transactions. 4. Size of Sample Zemke and Kramlingers Sample size table1 has been used to determine the number to samples to be selected. The sample size used in the study is 400 which provides accurate results regarding the population under study. 5. Selection of Banks - Six banks were selected (four from Public Sector and two from Private sector) representing all the four regions of the country (on the basis of their headquarters) for detailed study. The chosen public sector banks are 1. State Bank of India [SBI] (Head quarter in Mumbai, Maharashtra -Western Region), 2. Allahabad Bank (Head quarter in Kolkata, West Bengal -Eastern Region), 3. Indian Bank (Head quarter in Chennai, Tamil Nadu -Southern Region) and
1

R Semke/ T Kramlinger, Figuring Things Out, Massachusetts, Addison- Wesley Publishing C. Inc., 1982.

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4. State Bank of Patiala [SBP] (Head quarter in Patiala, Punjab -Northern Region). Among these banks two are from State Bank Group (SBI & SBP) and two from the Nationalised Banks (Allahabad Bank & Indian Bank). The Private sector banks are: 1. HDFC Bank (Head quarter in Mumbai, Maharashtra -Western Region), and 2. South Indian Bank (SIB) (Head quarter in Thrissur, Kerala -Southern Region). Sources of Data: Data from both the primary and secondary sources have been included in the study. The primary source consists of the staff of the select public and private sector banks as mentioned above. For collecting primary data various tools like Questionnaires, Structured Interview Schedule, and Telephonic interview have been used. The secondary sources include the publications of:, RBI and other banks; Bank Training institutes like NIBM, BTC, and the Apex Colleges and Training centers of the banks. Limitations of the study 1. The study concentrate both public sector banking as well as private sector banks are conducting training programmes in regional offices or in other conference halls where as public sector banks have its own training colleges according to the population and survey. 2. We cannot expect both private and public sector banking procedures follows uniform services and also training given to the employees is different. Hence; it is limited to certain service factors to be evaluated for the training programme. 3. The employees of the banks are so faithful to their organizations that they do not want to say negatives of their organizations, especially in the case of Public Sector Banks. They may have affected the efficacy of the data collected to a certain extent. 4. The rules for appointment of personnel in the public sector and private sector differ. This may have some adverse effects on the employee productivity figures for Public Sector Banks and this may make the direct comparison of the two categories of banks less useful. 5. The study limited to 400 as sample size due to the geographical coverage of public and private sector banks in India.

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Data Analysis and Interpretations I. Demographic Distribution of Respondents A total of 427 respondents participated in the survey. They belong to different banks (from both public as well as private sector), different age groups, different levels of seniority and expertise and from both sexes. A detailed distribution of the respondents on the basis of the demographic parameters such as age, gender and designation is presented below. Age The distribution of the respondents on the basis of Age has been analysed. It is found that the respondents were distributed more or less evenly between the different age groups. However, the Bank wise analysis shows a huge difference in the age category of public as well as private sector banks. Table 1: Distribution of Bank staff on the basis of Age Public Sector Banks Category 20 - 30 30- 40 40 50 50 - 60 Total No 12 71 125 83 291 % 4.12 24.4 42.96 28.52 100 Private Sector Banks No 67 17 16 36 136 % 49.26 12.5 11.76 26.47 100 No 79 88 141 119 427 Total % 18.5 20.61 33.02 27.87 100

Source: Primary Data Table 1 reveals that out of the 136 staff surveyed, 67 (49 per cent) staff of the private sector banks belong to the 20-30 age group. In case of Public sector banks the corresponding figure is only four per cent (12 out of 291). In 30-40 age group category public sector banks have 24 per cent staff, whereas in private sector banks there are only 12.5 per cent staff belonging to the category. The maximum number of Public Sector bank staff belongs to the 40-50 age group. Out of the 291 staff surveyed, 125 staff (i.e. 43 per cent) belong to this category. In private sector banks only 12 per cent staff belongs to this category. Among the senior most staff (50-60 age group), both public sector and private sector have similar percentage of staff, i.e. 28.5 and 26.4 per cent respectively. International Journal of Research in Management, Economics and Commerce www.indusedu.org

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Gender

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There is a huge imbalance with regard to gender in the case of public sector banks. Table 2 Distribution of Bank staff on the basis of Gender Public Sector Banks Category Male Female Total No 273 18 291 % 93.81 6.19 100 Private Sector Banks No 71 65 136 % 52.21 47.79 100 No 344 83 427 Total % 80.56 19.44 100

Source: Primary Data Out of the total 291 staff surveyed 273 were males (93.8 per cent). Only 18 staff (6.19 per cent) were females. But in private sector banks the ratio is almost equal. Out of 136 staff, 71 (52 per cent) were males and 65 (48 per cent) were females. The classification of the 18 female (public sector banks) goes as follows: Trainees 5, Trainer 1, Ex-Trainees - 3, general staff 9. If analysed further 50 per cent of the female from public sector banks are general staff. The combined percentage of trainees, trainer and ex- trainees is only 50 per cent. Designation The distribution of bank staff on the basis of designation has been analysed. As the designations in public and private sector banks differ, some grouping has been done to make it uniform. The designations, Assistant Manager and Deputy Manager, have been grouped under the head Officer. Similarly Assistant Vice President has been grouped under the head Assistant General Manager. Table 3: Distribution of Bank staff on the basis of Designation Public Sector Category No Clerk Officer Manager Sr. Manager Chief Manager 16 164 59 34 16 Banks % 5.5 56.36 20.27 11.68 5.5 No 19 62 41 5 7 Private Sector Banks % 13.97 45.59 30.15 3.68 5.12 No 35 226 100 39 23 % 8.2 52.93 23.42 9.13 5.39 Total

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Asst. General Manager Total

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2 291 0.69 100 2 136 1.47 100

ISSN: 2250-057X
4 427 0.94 100

Source: Survey results conducted by the researcher As given in the table 5.3, 16 staff (5.5 percent) in the public sector banks are Clerks. In private sector banks the corresponding figure is 19 (14 per cent). It needs to be further stated that the New Generation Private sector banks do not have the designation Clerk. All the clerks in the private sector bank category belong to the Old Generation Bank taken for the study. Majority of the staff taken for the study were from officer grade. 226 out of 427 staff (53 per cent) were officers. The respective figures in public and private sector banks are 56 per cent and 46 per cent. Other classifications are as under. 100 staff belong to the manager level (23 per cent) 39 (9.13 per cent) staff belong to the Sr. Manager level, 23 staff (5.39 per cent) belong to Chief Manager level and four staff (0.94 per cent) to the Asst. General Manager level. II. Opinion of the employees and level of satisfaction For the purpose of analysis, the collected data has been quantified. The responses of the participants i.e. strongly Agree, Agree, Moderately Agree, Disagree, Strongly Disagree has been given the numerical values 5,4,3,2, and 1 respectively. The data collected from four questionnaires have been grouped under the various variables. Further the data has been analysed using various statistical tools like tabulation, simple percentage, mean, rank analysis, students t test and Z test, MS Excel has been used as the statistical package for data analysis. The success of any programme / event depends upon many factors which happen even before the programme starts, during the programme, as well as after the completion of the programme. A students successful completion of education depends upon the support from the family, facilities provided by the school / college, and education policies framed by the government, the interest of the student in the subject, his / her relationship with peers and many others. Similar is the case of training. The success of any training programme depends upon many factors in addition to the actual delivery of knowledge. Training context is defined as those situational factors which affect the training effectiveness. It includes factors before the starting of the programme [preparation, learning motivation, expectations], during the programme [areas of satisfaction / dissatisfaction, training facilities, other facilities] and after the programme [cost, organisational support, organisational support hindering or facilitating use of training]. This chapter exhibits the opinion level of trainees, International Journal of Research in Management, Economics and Commerce www.indusedu.org

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their respective banks.

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training faculty members, ex- trainees and other stakeholders regarding the training context of

Table 4: Respondents opinion regarding Satisfaction of Training Context

Category of Factors Respondents

Public Sector Bank HS S N DS HDS

Public Sector Bank Total HS S N DS HSD Total

Overall Total

Pre-Training Factor General Staff Training Policy Trainers Training Need Analysis Trainers General Staff 11 29 22 10 8 8 4 0 5 0 4 2 0 0 1 1 74 13 17 16 16 0 2 2 0 5 0 0 7 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 37 2 2 37 2 111 18 18 111 18

9 25 23 16 1 5 5 4

74 11 17 16 0 2

Staff Participation Trainers in Determining their Training Emphasis on developing managerial competencies Emphasis on developing human relations competencies Briefing and Debriefing General Staff General Staff General Staff General Staff

9 23 23 16

74 11 19

37

111

15 32 19

74

6 16 12

37

111

16 29 19 10

74 11 16

37

111

9 33 11 20

74 11 10 13

37

111

Learning Motivation Enthusiasm to attend training Training Need Analysis General Staff 10 33 23 8 0 74 9 15 10 3 0 37 111 Trainees 54 50 9 0 0 113 28 17 1 0 0 43 156

Expectations Right understanding on the training to be General Staff 10 35 23 6 0 74 10 14 12 1 0 37 111 Trainees 23 65 19 5 1 113 9 24 7 3 0 43 156

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attended

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Training Management

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Training Facilities Trainees Trainers

47 53 13 12 2 2

0 0

0 0

113 22 18 16 1 1

2 0

1 0

0 0

43 2

156 18

Other Facilities Supportive Facilities Trainees Trainers 26 62 23 9 6 1 2 0 0 0 113 11 25 16 0 2 6 0 1 0 0 0 43 2 156 18

Post Training Factors Cost - Benefit / Economic Viability Ex-Trainees 21 40 9 5 0 75 22 14 4 0 0 40 115

Organizational Support Training Followup Evaluating Training Performance Ex-Trainees 13 29 17 13 3 75 16 15 7 2 0 40 115 General Staff 9 28 19 16 2 74 13 9 12 2 1 37 111

Organizational factors hindering or facilitating use of training Line Managers support in training utilization General Staff Ex-Trainees Provision of reflection time in training utilization General Staff Ex-Trainees Source: Primary Data 3 16 24 27 8 31 20 14 4 2 74 15 11 75 13 18 9 7 2 2 0 0 37 40 111 115 8 22 25 17 8 31 20 14 2 2 74 14 8 12 7 3 2 0 0 37 40 111 115

75 13 18

Table 4 shows that opinion of the employees category in their satisfaction of the training contest analyzed. Analysis of the data revealed that private sector bank staff are more satisfied than public sector bank staff. Age wise analysis revealed that among public sector banks, 30 - 40 age group has the highest level of satisfaction. The lowest satisfaction is among the 20 -30 age group. Among the private sector banks too the highest satisfaction is among the 30 - 40 age group. International Journal of Research in Management, Economics and Commerce www.indusedu.org

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However, here the lowest satisfaction is among the 40 -50 age group. In the gender wise analysis it was found that in public sector banks, male staff has more satisfaction than female. Among the private sector banks, both male and female staff has the same level of satisfaction. Among the various designations of the staff Officers have the highest satisfaction among the public sector banks. The lowest satisfaction has been found among the Assistant General Managers. However, among the private sector banks, it is the Managers who showed the highest satisfaction and the lowest satisfaction is among the Sr. Managers. Rank analysis of Variables in Training Context All the variables in Training Context has been consolidated and analysed on the basis of their rank and mean score. Table 5: Rank Analysis of Training Context Variables Variables Public Sector Banks Private Sector Banks Mean Preparation Learning Motivation Expectations Training Facilities Other Facilities Cost Organizational Support Organizational factors hindering or facilitating use of training Source: Primary Data It was found that among the public sector banks, Training Facilities received the highest rank with a mean score of 4.34. It has to be kept in mind in this regard that; in general, public sector banks have invested heavily on infrastructure. And that the staff is highly satisfied with the facilities provided. The second rank is for Learning Motivation (mean score 4.07) and the third Other Facilities (4.05). The lowest rank is for the Oraganisational factors hindering or facilitating use of training having a mean score of 3.28, followed by Organisational Support (3.4). It clearly indicates that the structural barriers in the public sector banks are adversely affecting the training International Journal of Research in Management, Economics and Commerce www.indusedu.org 54 3.5 4.07 3.81 4.34 4.05 4.03 3.4 3.28 Rank 6 2 5 1 3 4 7 8 Mean 3.99 4.21 3.90 4.42 4.07 4.46 3.99 4.03 Rank 6 3 8 2 4 1 6 5

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effectiveness. Among the private sector banks the variable, Cost has got the first rank with a mean score of 4.46 indicating that the cost benefit ration is very good in their training programmes. This is closely followed by Training Facilities (mean score 4.42). Z Test Analysis Z Test analysis was undertaken to assess whether there is significant difference regarding the reactions of the bank staff to the training context as measured by their average score on the evaluation form with the seventy five percent mark, at five per cent level of significance with a table value of 1.96. The calculated Z value is 1.14 which is less than the table value and thus it is concluded that there is no significant difference. The results indicate that the training context is ineffective and leads the researcher to conclude that the first null hypothesis which states that the reactions of the bank staff to the effectiveness of training context (as measured by their average scores on the evaluation form) do not differ significantly from the seventy five percent mark (3.75 on the five point scale).is accepted. T Test Analysis T test (two sample assuming unequal variance) analysis was undertaken to find out whether there is any significant difference regarding the reaction of bank staff relating to the effectiveness of training context between public and private sector banks in India, at five per cent level of significance with a table value of 1.96. The calculated value came out to be - 4.71, which is higher than the table value indicating significant difference between private and public sector banks. Thus the analysis rejects the null hypothesis and accepts the alternative hypothesis that there is significant difference regarding the reaction of bank staff relating to the effectiveness of training context between the public and private sector banks in India. In the calculation, the value of private sector banks is deducted from public sector banks. Thus the negative figure of table value indicates that private sector bank training context is more effective than the public sector bank context.

RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION


Banking sector have a separate policy in the aspects of training employees irrespective of the cater. The training should have a mandatory affair in an effective and efficient manner. A separate body should be allocated to continuously assess the technological and social changes to inherit the same in the aspect of training. The primary objective of the training should focus on socio-techno changes and challenges and also a continuous survey and monitoring in the aspects International Journal of Research in Management, Economics and Commerce www.indusedu.org 55

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of customer satisfaction which covers 360 degree of the environment. Only customer satisfaction being mantra for success where banking sector is not at all an exceptional case a psychological aspect of analysis should have in depth attention to attain the customer satisfaction. In this angler any such further study can be extended from the existing study. A detailed longitudinal study which covers the entire banking industry under the auspices of the Reserve Bank of India regarding training and development will be useful as detailed information can be made available. Government should give more attention and support to the raining of employees in all the different kinds of organization taking into consideration the larger interests of the nation.

REFERENCES
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11. Hashim Junaidah, Training Evaluation: Clients Roles, Journal of European Industrian Training, 2001, p.374. 12. Hedges et. al., Costing Effectiveness of Training: Case Study 1 Improving Parcel Force Driver Performance, Industrial and Commercial Training, 1996, p.14. 13. House, E. R. (1978). Assumptions underlying evaluation models. Educational Researcher. 7(3), 4-12. 14. Hunghey et. al., Designing Effective Employee training Program, Training for Quality, 1997, p.52. 15. Hurteau, M.; Houle, S., & Mongiat, S. (2009). "How Legitimate and Justified are Judgments in Program Evaluation?". Evaluation 15 (3): 307319. 16. Klink et. al., Effectiveness of on the Job Training, Journal of European Industrial Training, 2002, p.196. 17. Klink et. al., Effectiveness of on the Job Training, Journal of European Industrial Training, 2002, p.196. 18. Leat et.al., Training Needs Analysis: Weaknesses in the Conventional approach, Journal of European Industrial Training, 1997, p.142. 19. Mann et. al., What should Training Evaluation Evaluate? Journa of European Industrial Training, 1996, p.14. 20. Pareek Udai, Trevacube: A Comprehensive Framework for Training Evaluation, Evaluating Human Resource Development, Jaipur, Jaipur HRD Research Foundation, 1997, p.115. 21. Perdue et. al., Training Methods for specific objectives: Preference of Mangers in Private clubs, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 2002, p.114. 22. Perdue et. al., Training Methods for specific objectives: Preference of Mangers in Private clubs, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 2002, p.114. 23. R Semke/ T Kramlinger, Figuring Things Out, Massachusetts, Addison- Wesley Publishing C. Inc., 1982. 24. R Semke/ T Kramlinger, Figuring Things Out, Massachusetts, Addison- Wesley Publishing C. Inc., 1982.

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