# ‫‪R. Ben-Mansour, H.M. Badr, A. Qaiyum Shaik, and N.

Maalej‬‬

‫‪MODELING OF PULSATILE BLOOD FLOW IN AN‬‬ ‫‪AXISYMMETRIC TUBE WITH A MOVING INDENTATION‬‬
‫‪R. Ben-Mansour, H.M. Badr, and A. Qaiyum Shaik‬‬
‫‪Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering‬‬

‫‪and N. Maalej‬‬
‫‪Physics Department, College of Sciences‬‬ ‫‪King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, 31261‬‬

‫اﻟﺨﻼﺻـﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺳﻮف ﺗﻘﺪم هﺬﻩ اﻟﻮرﻗﺔ ﻣﺤﺎآﺎة ﻋﺪدﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺳﺎﺋﻞ‪ -‬ﻳﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﻊ اﻟﺰﻣﻦ ‪ -‬ﻓﻲ أﻧﺒﻮب ﻣﺘﻤﺎﺛﻞ اﻟﻤﺤ ﻮر‪ ،‬ذي اﻧﺒﻌ ﺎج‬ ‫ﺎ ﺣﺮآ ﺔ اﻻﻧﺒﻌ ﺎج‪ .‬وﺗ ﻢ اﻟﺘﺜﺒ ﺖ ﻣ ﻦ اﻷﻧﻤ ﻮذج‬ ‫ﺔ دﻳﻨﺎﻣﻜﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﺒ ﻊ ﺗﻤﺎﻣ ً‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺤﺮك‪ .‬وﻗﺪ ﺗﻤﺖ اﻟﻤﺤﺎآﺎة اﻟﻌﺪدﻳﺔ ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ ﺷﺒﻜ ِ‬ ‫ﺞ‬ ‫ﺋِ‬ ‫َﺘ ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺞ ﻣﺘﻔﻘ ﺔ ﻣ ﻊ اﻟﻨ‬ ‫ﺋُ‬ ‫َﺘ ﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺤﺎآ ﺎة ﻋﺪدﻳ ﺔ ﻟﻘﻨ ﺎة ﻣ ﺴﺘﻮﻳﺔ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴ ﺔ اﻷﺑﻌ ﺎد ذات اﻧﺒﻌ ﺎج ﻣﺘﺤ ﺮك ﻣﻤﺎﺛ ﻞ ﺣﻴ ﺚ آﺎﻧ ﺖ اﻟﻨ‬ ‫ﻖ اﻟﺪم ﻓﻲ أﻧﺒ ﻮب ﻣﺘﻤﺎﺛ ﻞ اﻟﻤﺤ ﻮرذي اﻧﺒﻌ ﺎج‬ ‫ة‪ .‬ﺛﻢ اﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج اﻟﻌﺪدي ﻟﻤﺤﺎآﺎة ﺗﺪﻓ َ‬ ‫ُﻮر ِ‬ ‫ﻨﺸ‬ ‫ﻤْ‬ ‫ﺔ واﻟﻌﺪدﻳﺔ اﻟ َ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺔ‪ .‬وأﻇﻬ ﺮت‬ ‫ﺔ و أﺧ ﺮى ﻧﺎﺑ ﻀ ِ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺤ ﺮك ﺑﺘ ﺮدد ‪ 1 Hz‬وذﻟ ﻚ ﻟﺤ ﺎﻟﺘﻴﻦ ﻟ ﺴﺮﻋﺔ دﺧ ﻮل اﻟ ﺪم ﻓ ﻲ اﻷﻧﺒ ﻮب‪ :‬ﺳ ﺮﻋﺔ ﺛﺎﺑﺘ ِ‬ ‫ّادﻣﻲ آ ﺎن اﻻﻧﺒﻌ ﺎج أآﺜ ﺮ‬ ‫د رﻳﻨﻮﻟ ﺪز )‪ ،(Re=200‬ﻓ ﺈن اﻟﺘ ﻀﺎﻋﻒ واﻻﻧﻘ ﺴﺎم اﻟ ﺪو‬ ‫ﺔ ﻋ ﺪِ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺎآ ﺎة أﻧ ﻪ ﻟ ﻨﻔﺲ ﻗﻴﻤ ِ‬ ‫ﻂ أﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،‬واﻧﺨﻔﺎض اﻟ ﻀﻐ ِ‬ ‫ﺺ اﻟﺤﺎﺋ ِ‬ ‫ﻀﺔ‪ .‬وآﺬﻟﻚ آﺎن إﺟﻬﺎد ﻗ ّ‬ ‫ﺎ وﻗﻮة ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ دﺧﻮل اﻟﻨﺎﺑ ِ‬ ‫وﺿﻮﺣً‬ ‫ﻂ أآﺒ ﺮ ﻓ ﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻀﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﺪﺧﻮل اﻟﺜﺎﺑ ِ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﺪﺧﻮل اﻟﻨﺎﺑ ِ‬

‫‪* Address for correspondence:‬‬ ‫‪KFUPM P. O. Box 1724‬‬ ‫‪King Fahd University Of Petroleum & Minerals‬‬ ‫‪Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia‬‬
‫‪Paper Received 3 June 2006; Revised 1 March 2008; Accepted 4 June 2008‬‬

‫‪October 2008‬‬

‫‪The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, Volume 33, Number 2B‬‬

‫‪529‬‬

R. Ben-Mansour, H.M. Badr, A. Qaiyum Shaik, and N. Maalej

ABSTRACT The time-dependent flow in an axisymmetric tube with a moving indentation is numerically simulated using a dynamic mesh model. The model was first validated for a two-dimensional planar channel with a moving indentation. The results exhibited very good agreement with the published experimental results. The model was then used to simulate the blood flow with steady and pulsatile inflows in an axisymmetric tube with an indentation moving at a frequency of 1 Hz . For the same value of Reynolds number of 200, vortex doubling downstream of the moving indentation was more enhanced in the case of pulsatile flow inlet conditions. Higher wall shear stresses and pressure drops were obtained for the pulsatile inflow as compared with the steady inflow. Key words: blood, unsteady flow, moving indentation, pulsatile flow, stenosis

530

The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, Volume 33, Number 2B

October 2008

The indentation accelerates into the channel for the 532 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. Ben-Mansour. t ) = ⎨0. They found that both dynamic pressure and wall shear stress were very high.M. proximal to the stenosis throat in the internal carotial theory. A numerical study on pulsatile non-Newtonian flow characteristics in a three-dimensional Human Carotid Bifurcation model was carried out by Perkfold et al. The comparison between Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid models showed no change in the essential flow characteristics. y(–x) = y(x).1. Here. among different parts of arterial system. [22] predicted the three-dimensional flows through canine femoral bifurcation models by numerically solving the time-dependant three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations. Pulsatile turbulent flow in stenotic vessels was numerically modeled by Sonu and Steven [26] using the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equation approach. Uchida. PROBLEM DESCRIPTION AND MATHEMATICAL MODEL 2. The classical works of Womersley. a 2-D numerical model is used to simulate the time-dependent flow in a wall deforming channels. for validation against the published experimental and numerical results by Pedley et al. They considered both steady and pulsatile flow conditions for different Reynolds numbers.. Badr. The time varying height of the indentation is given by: h(t ) ⎧ ⎪ y w ( x. [25] carried out a numerical analysis of flow through a severely stenotic carotid artery bifurcation. e.5h(t ){1 − tanh[a( x − x2 )]} ⎪ 0 ⎩ h(t ) = 0.38b) occurs at the middle of the period. The velocity distribution resulting from its oscillatory blood flow has been extensively studied. They considered both Newtonian fluid and non-Newtonian fluid obeying the power law.e. Recently. They considered both Newtonian and non-Newtonian behavior of the blood. He and Ku [23] studied the unsteady entrance flow development in a straight tube. The effect of blood velocity pulsations on bioheat transfer in 2-D straight rigid blood vessel was numerically studied by Oana and Scott [24]. it can be concluded that no work has been published on the subject of pulsatile blood flow in an axisymmetric tube with a moving indentation. ω is the radial frequency 2π/t0 .g. A. The shape of the indentation is the same as that considered by Pedley and Stephanoff [2]. Their results showed that the pulsating axial velocity produces a pulsating temperature distribution. and N. but could have logical significance. non linear viscoelastic.R.1. They found that the non-Newtonian characteristics might not be an important factor in determining the general flow patterns for these bifurcations. [21].14.1. Pulsation of blood flow is also an important factor dominating the unsteady flow phenomena in a cardiovascular system. Pulsatile blood flow may show very different features between normal physiological and pathological situations. x3 = 6.5 (x1+x3). Yong and Ahmed [17] developed a general method for simulating fluid flow with moving and compliant boundaries on unstructured grids using ALE approach. They also observed vortex shedding downstream of the most severe occlusion. Description of the Problem The first problem considered is that of 2-D flow in a channel with a moving indentation as shown in Figure 1. x1 = 4b. Xu et al. Stroud et al. Maalej arteries and the wall shear stress was calculated using a finite-difference scheme. They observed the variations in the entrance length during the pulsatile cycle.5b.5hmax [1 − cos(ωt )] for 0 < x < x1 for x1 < x < x3 for x > x3 (1) (2) where a = 4. because it complicates the vortical flow under time-varying inflow and pressure conditions. With regard to the pulsation effect on the vortical blood flow many points still remained unclear. The model is then extended to simulate the steady and pulsatile blood flow in an axisymmetric tube with an indentation moving at a frequency of f w = 1Hz . Volume 33. The geometry is symmetric around x = 0. and Chang gave the fundamentals of oscillatory flow field theory. 2. x2 = 0. 3]. b is the unblocked channel height and is taken as 1 cm. however a minor difference was found in the secondary flow. [2. Atabek. incompressible material and blood as an incompressible Newtonian fluid whose motion is non linear. Number 2B October 2008 . i. Based on the cited literature. Mirsa and Sing [20] investigated the pulsatile flow of blood through arteries by treating the blood vessel as a thin walled anisotropic. Two-Dimensional Channel Flow with a Moving Indentation 2. still or exercising under normal physiological conditions [19]. The model is first used to simulate the flow in a 2-D planar channel with a moving indentation. The maximum blockage of the channel cross section (hmax = 0. The model will be used to investigate and compare the flow behavior between a pulsatile blood inflow and a steady inflow conditions. This frequency is chosen close to typical heart beat frequencies. They adopted a new dynamic mesh method to handle the large deformation of the flow field. In the present study. or even at different tiniest. H. Qaiyum Shaik.

Volume 33. l2 = 18 cm 2.M. Geometry of planar collapsible channel (not to scale) b=1cm. we first introduce the following dimensionless variables. The governing equations can be expressed as: Conservation of Mass: ∂U ∂V + =0 ∂x ∂y Conservation of X-momentum: (4) ∂U ∂U ∂P 1 ⎡ ∂ 2U ∂ 2U ⎤ α 2 ∂U + +U +V =− ⎢ 2+ ⎥ Re ∂τ ∂X ∂Y ∂X Re ⎢ ∂Y 2 ⎦ ⎥ ⎣ ∂X Conservation of Y-momentum: ∂V ∂V ∂P 1 ⎡ ∂ 2V ∂ 2V ⎤ α 2 ∂V +U +V =− + ⎢ 2+ ⎥ ∂X ∂Y ∂Y Re ⎢ Re ∂τ ∂Y 2 ⎥ ⎣ ∂X ⎦ (5) (6) where Re is the Reynolds number based on the channel height. H. St is the Strouhal number and α is the frequency parameter respectively defined as Re = where ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. t is time. and t0 is the indentation motion period. Y= . Number 2B 533 . U= p x y t u v . Figure 1.τ= 2 b b t0 U0 U0 ρU 0 (3) where u and v are the dimensional velocity components in x and y directions respectively. X= . V= . It accelerates towards the wall for the third quarter of the period. U 0t0 α = Re × St (7) τ =0 (8) October 2008 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. Y ) = 0 at U 0b ν . l1 = 10cm. and then decelerates back to its flush position in the final quarter of the period. The flow downstream in the channel is therefore accelerated for the first and third quarter of the period and decelerated for the second and final quarter of the period. P= . the flow is assumed to be steady and fully developed in the entire flow domain and the velocity components are given by U (X . St = b . Ben-Mansour. Maalej first quarter of the period and goes on advancing but decelerates in the second quarter of the period. Y ) = 6 Y (1 −Y ). ρ is the density of the fluid. V (X .2. At the start of fluid motion (τ = 0). p is the pressure. U0 is the average velocity at inlet.R. Badr. A. Qaiyum Shaik. and N.1. Governing Equations In order to write the governing equations in dimensionless form.

l1 = 10cm. y (–x) = y(x). These are expressed as: U = 0. Volume 33.597St [1 − tanh [ab (X − x 2 / b )]] sin (2πτ ) b P = Pamb (= 0) At the exit section. t ) = ⎨r0 − 0.5 (x1+x3).095ab sec h[ab( X − x2 / b)](1 − cos(2πτ )) at Y = yw/b and 0</X/<X3 0.5h(t ){1 − tanh[ a( x − x2 )]} ⎪ r0 ⎩ for 0 < x < x1 for x1 < x < x3 for x > x3 (12) (13) h(t ) = 0. x2 = 0. 534 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering.2. and hmax = 0.5. the no slip condition is applied while the velocity components at the moving indentation are derived from Equations (1) and (2). x3 = 6. 0. Y .14. The geometry is symmetric around x = 0. r0 is the radius of the cylinder and is taken as 1cm. ω is the radial frequency. H. thus at X = l2/b (11) The choice of a uniform pressure conditions at the exit instead of a fully developed flow is done because it is not known apriori that the flow is fully developed at the exit or not. at the walls. and N. x1 = 4b. l2 = 18 cm r0 − h(t ) ⎧ ⎪ rw ( x. and at the exit of the flow domain. Y . 2. Figure 2. V ( X = −l1 b .38r0 specifies the maximum blockage of the cylinder cross-section at τ = 0. 2.2.2.1 Description of the Problem The geometrical model of two-dimensional axisymmetric cylinder is shown in Figure 2. As a matter of fact it turns out that the flow may reverse backward when the deformable part of the tube is expanding. i.2. Number 2B October 2008 . the pressure distribution is considered to be uniform. This practice is a safer practice and is recommended by CFD books such as Versteeg and Malasekera [28]. Maalej The boundary conditions are expressed in terms of the conditions at the inlet. The velocity profile at inlet (X = –l1/b) is assumed to be parabolic and invariant with time.R.τ ) = 6Y (1 − Y ).5hmax [1 − cos(ωt )] where a = 4.e. Governing Equations Using the nondimensional variables.5b.τ ) = 0 (9) At the stationary wall (Y = 1). U= V = 2 V =0 at Y=1 (10 a) (10 b) (10 c) −V . The time varying radius of the indentation is given by the analytic function. thus U ( X = −l1 b . Qaiyum Shaik. Flow in an Axisymmetric Cylindrical Tube with a Moving Indentation 2. A. Geometry of axisymmetric collapsible tube with moving indentation (not to scale): r0=1cm. Badr.M. Ben-Mansour.

Qaiyum Shaik. V (X .τ = 2 U0 U0 r r t ρU 0 0 0 0 (14) where u and v are the dimensional velocity components in x and r direction respectively. Badr.095ar0 Sec h[ar0 ( X − x2 / r0 )](1 − Cos (2πτ )) 2 (21 b) (21 c) V = at R = rw/b and 0 </X/<X3 Outlet Conditions 0.R. (15) 1 α 2 ∂U ∂U ∂U ∂P 2 ⎡ ∂ 2U ∂ 2U 1 ∂U ⎤ +U +V =− + + ⎢ 2+ ⎥. the velocity components are derived using Equations (1) and (2) and are given by: U= −V 0. ρ is the density of the fluid. P = Pamb (=0) (22) October 2008 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering.τ ) = 2(1 − R 2 ).τ ) = 0 Wall At the non-moving wall. π Re ∂τ ∂X ∂R ∂X Re ⎢ ∂R 2 R ∂R ⎥ ⎣ ∂X ⎦ 1 α 2 ∂V ∂V ∂V ∂P 2 ⎡ ∂ 2V ∂ 2V 1 ∂V V ⎤ +U +V =− + − ⎢ 2+ 2+ ⎥ R ∂R R 2 ⎥ π Re ∂τ ∂X ∂R ∂R Re ⎣ ∂R ⎢ ∂X ⎦ (16) (17) where Re is the Reynolds number based on the channel height. Maalej U= u v p x r t . Ben-Mansour. a steady Poiseuille flow with an average velocity U0 is assumed at the entrance of the flow domain. the velocity components are given at R = 1 and X>X3 U = 0. Number 2B 535 .e. at X = –l1/b U ( X = − l1 b . R. R ) = 2(1 − R 2 ). Volume 33. R ) = 0 Boundary Conditions at τ =0 (19) Inlet conditions: At the inlet. which are defined as Re = where ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. The governing equations are the continuity and Navier–Stokes equations that can be expressed as: ∂U 1 ∂ ( RV ) + =0 ∂X r ∂R .. t is the time.. R = . and t 0 is the moving indentation period. r0 is the radius of the cylinder. thus 2Ur0 ν . α is the Wormersley. and N.V = . U0 is the average velocity at the inlet. V ( X = − l1 b . R. α = r0 ω υ (18) U (X .597St ⎡1 −Tanh [ar0 (X − x 2 / r0 )]⎤ ⎦Sin (2πτ ) r0 ⎣ At the outlet it is considered that the pressure boundary is satisfied.P= . p is the pressure. At the start of motion (t = 0). at X=l2/b. X = . H. a parabolic velocity profile is introduced. V =0 (20) (21 a) At the moving indentation. parameter.M. i.e. i. A.

etc. METHOD OF SOLUTION The computational fluid dynamics software package Fluent 6. pressure forces.1.1. In this method. even when they appear in a computer program.5. Number 2B October 2008 . Qaiyum Shaik. the flow domain is divided into sub-domains or control volumes with one control volume around every grid point. The coupling of pressure and velocity is achieved using the Semi-Implicit Method for Pressured-Linked Equation (SIMPLE) algorithm [29]. areas. Ben-Mansour. Flow in a Two-Dimensional Channel with a Moving Indentation–Benchmark Comparison 4. A. the edges between any two-mesh nodes are idealized as a network of interconnected springs. 4. the discretized equation represents the same conservation principle over a finite region as the differential equation does over an infinitesimal region [28]. Three meshes with different sizes were tested: Mesh 1 with 10 173 nodes.1 with dynamic mesh model (released in 2005 by Fluent Inc. diffusivities. Volume 33. the coefficients in the equation can be identified.5 The motion of the moving indented wall was described by means of a user-defined functions (UDF) using the dynamic mesh model. The initial spacing of the edges before any boundary motion constitutes the equilibrium state of the mesh. A non-uniform unstructured grid (shown in Figure 3) is used for numerical simulation. Thus. Section of the planar channel grid (55 637 nodes) at two time instants (a) τ = 0 and (b) τ = 0.1. Grid Independence Test A number of grid independence tests were carried out in the present study. Mesh 2 with 38 310 nodes and Mesh 3 with 55 637 nodes. The code is based on the Finite Volume Method that is well documented in the literature. In the spring-based smoothing method.R. Badr.M. Spring-based smoothing method is used to update the volume mesh in the deforming regions subjected to the wall motion. H. The grid is refined downstream of the indentation where the flow is affected by its movement. A section of the fine grid (Mesh 3) is shown in Figure 3 for the time instants τ = 0 and τ = 0. This direct interpretation of the discretized equation makes the method easy to understand in physical terms. as familiar quantities such as flow rates. and N. volumes.5 and τ = 0. Maalej 3. Figure 4 shows the comparison of longitudinal velocity calculated on different grids at the centre of the channel at τ = 0. Each differential equation is integrated over this control volume to yield the discretized equation. Second order upwind descritization was used for the momentum equation. Figure 3. The UDF was written in C programming language.) was used to solve the Navier–Stokes equation for the two-dimensional unsteady flow. δt = t0/1000). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4. These comparisons show that there is no significant difference in the longitudinal velocity between the meshes with 38 310 and 536 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. A displacement at a given boundary node will generate a force proportional to the displacement along all the springs connected to the node [30].7 (both obtained with time step.

0306 m2/min.M. separation occurs in the lee of the indentation. With the coarse grid (10 173 nodes). Number 2B 537 . Only the section downstream of the indentation is shown since the flow upstream is not affected much by its movement. A train of vorticity waves is generated downstream of the indentation. Qaiyum Shaik.7. A.12] and a brief summary is presented here. using a time step δt = t0 /2000. Figure 4.25. Maalej 55 637 nodes. Flow Development The volume flow rate Q0 per unit depth upstream of the moving indentation is assumed invariant. Comparison of X-Velocity component using three different grids at two different times: (a) τ = 0. Badr.5 and τ = 0.7 (both obtained with δt = t0/1000). Comparison of predicted wall shear stress using three different grids at two different times: (a) τ = 0. and the resulting vortex grows rapidly. H. Ben-Mansour. using a time step δt = t0 /1000. Figure 6(i)(a–l) shows the predicted velocity streamlines at times ranging from τ = 0.5 and (b) τ = 0.1 to τ = 1.7. for the planar channel Figure 5.R. Hence the finer Mesh 3 is adopted.2. and N. every cycle. the wall shear stresses were underestimated and smooth streamlines could not be obtained. The flow development is found to be the same as that of Pedley [11. A second vortex of opposite sign forms on the upper wall at some distance downstream of the first and a third appears still further downstream on the lower wall and so on until there is a sequence of such vortices of October 2008 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering.5 and (b) τ = 0.2 and τ = 0. The first case considered is that of Re=507 that corresponds to Q0 = 0. At some time between τ = 0.1. for the planar channel 4. Figure 5 shows the comparison of the wall shear stress calculated on different grids at τ = 0. Volume 33.

As the indentation grows. vortices E and F are relatively weak. thus only visual comparison is possible. the positions of separation and reattachment (change of sign in wall shear stress) and thus the movement of vortices along the wall. H. Volume 33. Maalej alternating sign. This trend ultimately creates a wavy core flow along the channel. Separation occurs at the sections where both positive and negative velocity vectors exist. A. b) and Figures 9(a. At time τ = 0. As the indentation recedes late in the cycle. 538 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. The first four vortices marked A. Figure 6(ii) shows the instantaneous streamlines obtained by the Pedley at different instants. and E) appeared downstream of the indentation as shown in Figure 6(i)(g).5 > 0).5 (maximum shear stress occurs then). Vortex A (marked in Figure 6(i)(f)) is strongest at τ = 0. Number 2B October 2008 . C. are the strongest. The shear stress variation along the indentation and the opposite wall also indicates an acceleration of the flow in this region when the indentation is moving inwards (τ < 0.5) and a deceleration when it is retracting (τ > 0. b) show the variation of the wall shear stress on the lower (indented) and upper (unindented) wall respectively at various time intervals during the cycle. there is again vorticity of uniform sign at each wall. Figure 7 shows the longitudinal velocity profiles at different cross sections of the channel at various time intervals. the vortices shrink in size and strength and are swept downstream of the indentation. Figures 8(a.M. the profiles become distorted due to the upward movement of the indentation. peaks in other vortices occur later. It should be noted that the two sets of figures are plotted on different scales. Predicted velocity streamlines downstream of indentation at various nondimensional times τ for the planar channel The velocity profiles at inlet are parabolic throughout the cycle. Qaiyum Shaik. Figure 6. C.6. It can be observed that a qualitative agreement exists between the present numerical results (Figure 6(ii)) and Pedley’s [2]. five vortices (marked A. Figures 8 and 9 also show that the steadiness of the flow upstream of the indentations is hardly affected by the indentation motion. B. When the indentation moves back.R. bounded by a wavy core flow. B. and D in Figure 6(i)(f). but at τ = 1. the profiles tend to go back to their original shapes. Ben-Mansour. Badr. They indicate the strength of the vortices. D. As time increases not only the number of vortices increases but also the subsequent extent of existing vortices and the amplitude of the core waviness also increases. and N.

and N. October 2008 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. Grid Independence Test A number of grid independence studies were carried out for the axisymmetric case.75. Qaiyum Shaik.R. 3] is shown graphically in Figure 10. Hence Mesh 3 is used in the computational scheme.25. Number 2B 539 . Mesh 2 with 10 828 nodes and Mesh 3 with 55 425 nodes. Wave-crest positions as functions of time are obtained from the turning points in the axial direction of stream function at the centre of the channel.M. According to the Pedley and Stephanoff.1. A section of the Mesh 3 at τ = 0 and τ = 0. with discrepancies within the range of the experimental scatter. Flow in an Axisymmetric Cylindrical Tube with a Moving Indentation 4.5 is shown in Figure 11. An unstructured grid has been used for the current computation. Maalej A quantitative comparison between the present results and the experimental and numerical result by Pedley [2. A. the abscissa is defined as x* = ( x − x1 )(10St )1/ 3 / b Figure 7. (c) τ = 0.5.2. 4. The main features of the flow were captured with the coarse grid but the details of the flow could not be captured using this grid. Badr. (b) τ = 0. (d) τ = 1 for a 2D planar channel It can be observed from the figure. H. Three meshes with different sizes were tested: Mesh 1 with 9 194 nodes. Velocity profiles at different cross sections of the collapsible tube at various time intervals (a) τ = 0. Volume 33. Ben-Mansour.2. This comparison is shown as the time evaluation of the positions of crests/troughs of the wave after the indentation. that there is a good agreement between the present numerical result and experimental result.

the density and dynamic viscosity of blood are taken as ρ = 1060kg/m3 and µ = 3. Qaiyum Shaik. Case I: Steady Flow at Inlet In many studies.2. The average velocity was chosen to give a Reynolds number of Re = 200. Q0 is 6.2. respectively. In the present work.6×10–4.4 540 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering.1 to 0. for the 2D-planar channel 4.71×10–3N. Maalej Figure 8.5 and (b) τ = 0. Time Dependence Test Two time increments were used for the coarse grid calculations: δt = t0/1000and δt = t0/2000. Ben-Mansour. For this Re.6 to 1. A. Figure 13 shows comparison of pressure drop at various locations and for different time increments. The other parameters for this case are St = 0. NonNewtonian flow models are presently under investigation. Volume 33. the fine grid calculations were carried out only with δ t = t0/1000.2.5 and (b) τ = 0. The pressure drops along the indentation are plotted against time at different points and are shown in Figure 12. two different cases considering the two different fluid properties have been simulated. The frequency of wall oscillation was set at value 1Hz representative of biomedical flows. Predicted wall shear–stress distributions during one cycle along the indented (collapsing) wall (a) τ = 0.6 to 1.s/m2. Badr. The figure shows insignificant change between the two time increments. blood is assumed to be a Newtonian fluid and the same assumption is adopted in this work. H.57 and α = 13. for the 2D-planar channel Figure 9.R. For isothermal conditions. and N. 4.M. the volumetric flow rate upstream of the moving indentation. Predicted wall shear–stress distribution during one cycle along the unindented wall (a) τ = 0.3. Hence. Number 2B October 2008 .

Badr. H. Volume 33. A. Section of the axisymmetric collapsible tube grid (55 425 nodes) at (a) τ = 0 and (b) τ = 0. and N.M. Points at which the pressure is monitored against time for the axisymmetric collapsible tube October 2008 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. Number 2B 541 . Comparison of predicted and experimentally observed position of wave crests and troughs corresponding to eddies B. Maalej Figure 10.5 Figure 12. Ben-Mansour. Qaiyum Shaik. C and D as functions of time for the planar collapsible channel Figure 11.R.

Volume 33. a permanent region of flow reversal exists distal to vortex A. Comparison of pressure drop histories (a) P1-P2 and. A. computed with two different time increments for the axisymmetric collapsible tube Figure 14(a–r) show the velocity streamlines at τ = 0. In the first quarter of the period. τ = 0. Badr. downstream of the indentation.R. Ben-Mansour.2 and 0. Figure 14. Number 2B October 2008 .1 to 1. the fluid is squeezed towards the axis of the tube (Figure 14 (a)(II)). Qaiyum Shaik. (b) P2-P3. and N. Maalej Figure 13. The resulting vortex A grows in size and strength. As a result. as the indentation accelerates into the tube. At some time between. H.M. Velocity streamlines at different time instants τ inside the axisymmetric collapsible tube for steady-inlet blood flow (case I) 542 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering.25 (Figure 14(b)(II) and 14(c)(II)) separation occurs in the lee of the indentation and a vortex (labeled A) appears.

During the second third of the cycle. of opposite sign. Case II:Pulsatile Flow at the Inlet Eventually we are interested in simulating pulsatile blood flow. which represents a more realistic model of physiological blood flows. the pressure differences increase again with time resulting in a sinusoidal history similar to the imposed moving wall condition. H. the reverse flow region at the downstream moves back into the indentation and collides with the upstream coming flow.4. Qaiyum Shaik.6 to 1. At τ = 0. For the first quarter of the cycle. Volume 33. Ben-Mansour. while for the second quarter. Hence. Maalej At τ = 0. Figure 15(a) and 15(b) show the variation of the wall shear stress on the upper (indented) wall at various time intervals during the cycle. Badr. The wall shear stress upstream of the indentation is dominated mostly by the forward flow but downstream of the indentation it is strongly affected by the vortices. forms near vortex A (Figure 14(g)(II) and the vortex A grows further in size and moves towards the axis of the tube.45 a second vortex (labeled B). The pressure differences P1–P2 and P1–P3 are positive in the first and last thirds of the cycle. Number 2B 543 . downstream of the indentation.65 (Figure 14(k)(II). A. the flow is fully disturbed in the indentation. the pressure drops P1–P2 and P1–P3 are both negative indicating a pressure rise across the collapsing part of the tube. In this case a sinusoidal time-varying wave is combined with a steady velocity are imposed at inlet of the collapsible axisymmetric tube. the reverse flow from the downstream of the indentation sweeps out vortex B. the pressure drops decrease with time.5 and (b) τ = 0.07m/s and Um = 0. assumed values of U0 = 0. The vortex forming downstream of the indentation gives high velocity gradients.55 (Figure 14(i)(II). for a steady-inlet blood flow (case I) Figure 16 shows the history of pressure drops (P1–P2 and P1–P3) during one complete flow cycle. and N. The shear stress variation along the indentation also indicates an acceleration of the flow in this region when the indentation is moving inwards (τ < 0. They indicate the strength of the vortex. As the indentation recedes back to its original position. the pressure drops increase with the time. vortex A almost blocks the core flow and the thickness of the reversal flow region increases. The average inlet velocity selected.2.R. the position of separation and the position of reattachment (change of sign in wall shear stress) and thus the movement of vortex along the wall. High wall shear stresses are observed downstream of just downstream of the indentation. Figure 15. At τ = 0. 4.1 to 0. Hence the average (over the inlet) velocity imposed at the inlet (Figure 17) can be written as: U (inlet ) = U 0 + U m sin(2πt ) Note here that the frequency of the wall motion is the same as the frequency of the sinusoidal portion of the inlet velocity. Vortex separation can be observed from these figures. As the indentation starts receding.0455m/s. Wall shear stress distributions during one complete cycle along the indented wall of the axisymmetric collapsible tube: (a) τ = 0.M.5 ) and a deceleration when it is retracting (τ > 0. at τ = 1 (Figure 14(r)(II)). resulting in a time- October 2008 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. Both pressure drop histories are similar in shape but different in magnitude. indicating a pressure drop.5). which results in high wall shear stress.

In order to take into account the no-slip flow behavior at the walls. Average (over area) velocity waveform during one cycle of pulsatile blood flow at the inlet of the axisymmetric collapsible tube 544 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering.089×10–3 m3/min. H. t ) = (1 − ( y / R) 2 )(U 0 + U m sin(2 π t )) Figure 16. the final form of inlet velocity is given by: U (inlet . Maalej averaged volume flow rate of Q0=6. and N. Badr.M.R. History of pressure drops (P1-P2 and P1-P3) during one flow cycle inside the axisymmetric collapsible tube with a steady inlet blood flow (case I) Figure 17. y. Number 2B October 2008 . Volume 33. Ben-Mansour. A. Qaiyum Shaik.6x10–4m3/min and a peak volume flow rate of 1.

Qaiyum Shaik. the recirculation zone upstream of the indentation is pushed into the indentation. Ben-Mansour. Velocity streamlines at various times τ for unsteady (pulsatile) blood flow (case II) at the inlet of the axisymmetric collapsible tube At time τ = 0. As a result a permanent region of flow reversal exists distal to vortex A. the fluid is squeezed towards the axis of the tube (Figure 18 (a)(II). Figure 18. At τ = 0. vortex (labeled B) of opposite sign forms near vortex A (Figure 18(f)(II)) and the vortex A grows in size and moves towards the axis of the tube. the extent of the reversal flow region. At some time between. Simultaneously. The resulting vortex grows in size and strength. As the flow accelerates through the end of the pulse.55 (Figure 18(i)(II)). At τ = 0.1 to 1. vortex A splits into a pair of co-rotating vortices (vortex A and vortex C) downstream of the indentation (Figure 18(h)(II)). As the indentation recedes October 2008 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. and N.5. Number 2B 545 .4 a second.75 because of the decelerating flow. Badr. the reverse flow from the downstream of the indentation sweeps out vortex B and vortex C. A. As τ increases these vortices grow in their size and strength and moves towards the axis of the tube. Furthermore.65 (Figure 18(k)(II)). at τ = 0. vortices A and C almost block the core flow in the tube.R. at the downstream of the indentation increases with the time.M. At τ = 0.5. downstream of the indentation. H. Volume 33. as the indentation accelerates into the tube.2 and 0. Maalej Figure 18(a–r) show the velocity streamlines at τ = 0.25 (Figure 18(b)(II) and 18(c)(II) separation occurs in the lee of the indentation and a vortex (labeled A) appears. In the first quarter of the period. a small recirculation zone appears upstream of the indentation and exists until time level τ = 0. τ = 0.

5R). and a deceleration when it is retracting (τ > 0. Qaiyum Shaik.5). at τ = 1 (Figure 18(r)(II)). the position of separation and the position of reattachment (change of sign in wall shear stress) and thus the movement of vortices along the wall. Badr.5 and (b) τ = 0.R. From the figure it can also be seen that the reverse flow dominates at the downstream of the indentation as the τ increases. For the pulsatile flow case a recirculation zone is observed upstream of the indentation between the time levels τ = 0. and N. for the pulsatile blood flow at the inlet of the axisymmetric collapsible tube (case II) Figure 20(a–d) shows the comparison of axial velocity profiles of pulsatile flow and steady flow at different cross sections and time intervals. They indicate the strength of the vortex.75 because of the decelerating flow between these time levels. Wall shear stress distribution during one complete cycle along the indented wall (a) τ = 0.6 to 1. Vortex doubling can be observed from these figures. H. A. Hence. the flow is fully disturbed in the indentation region. 546 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. The velocities are maximum for the both the cases after the indentation (6. The shear stress variation along the indentation also indicates an acceleration of the flow in this region when the indentation is moving inwards (τ < 0. Maalej back to its original position.5 and τ = 0. Figure 19(a) and 19(b) show the variation of the wall shear stress on the upper (indented) wall at various time intervals during the cycle.5).M. Ben-Mansour. Number 2B October 2008 . Figure 19. the reverse flow region at the downstream moves back into the indentation and collides with the upstream forward flow. The wall shear stress upstream of the indentation is dominated mostly by the forward flow but downstream of the indentation it is strongly affected by the vortices.1 to 0. The shear stresses are higher for the pulsatile flow compare to steady flow. Volume 33. The velocity profiles also show the separation and recirculation zones.

Both pressure drop histories are similar in shape but different in magnitude. A. while for the second quarter.25 (b) τ = 0. Badr. The wall shear stresses obtained for the pulsatile flow are greater than that of the steady flow because of the higher shear rate. for both inlet velocity conditions: pulsatile (. Figure 20.75 and (b) τ = 1.. Maalej The main difference that exists between the pulsatile flow and steady flow is vortex doubling. As the indentation starts receding. Ben-Mansour. For the first quarter of the cycle. and N. Qaiyum Shaik. the pressure drops P1–P2 and P1–P3 are both negative indicating a pressure rise. During the second third of the cycle. Volume 33. Comparison of axial velocity profiles at various time instants (a) τ = 0.5 (c) τ = 0.-) and steady (––––) flow. Number 2B 547 .M. The pressure drops P1–P2 and P1–P3 are positive in the first and last thirds of the cycle. the pressure drops increase with time. at different section of the axisymmetric collapsible tube (cases I & II) Figure 21 shows the history of pressure drops (P1–P2 and P1–P3) during one flow cycle. H. The pulsatile flow case has higher-pressure drops in comparison to the steady inlet flow case. the pressure differences decrease with time. the pressure drops increase again with time resulting in a history similar to the imposed moving wall condition.R. Doubling of vortex is not observed in the case of steady flow while vortex doubling is observed in the case of pulsatile flow. October 2008 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering.

“Flow Along a Channel With a Time-Dependent Indentation in One Wall: the Generation of Vorticity Waves”. Ben-Mansour. Fluid Mech. Nature. The above model was first validated for a 2-D planar channel against Pedley’s [2] experimental work. Secomb. 190(1988). In addition. 305(1983).D. the pulsatile inlet flow condition has enhanced the vortex doubling downstream of the indentation. 337–367. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The support of King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals during the course of this study is greatly appreciated and acknowledged. 160(1985).R. Badr. Number 2B October 2008 . 692–695. T. Fluid Mech. Pedley and K. The results showed very good agreement with the experimental results. Pedley.J. Qaiyum Shaik..E.J. Lawrence. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] K.J. A. J. “Flow in a Channel with Moving Indentation”. 7. T. “Fluid Flow Along a Channel With an Asymmetric Oscillating Constriction”. CONCLUSIONS A dynamic-mesh numerical model has been developed to simulate the time dependent flow in a 2-D channel with a moving indentation. Stephanoff. pp. M.M. Maalej Figure 21. Reverse flow was found to be dominating downstream of the indentation for both the cases. and T. 6. Ralph and T. C. 87–112.J. Pedley. The wall shear stresses and the pressure drops obtained for the pulsatile case were higher than that of the steady inflow case. H. History of pressure drops (P1-P2 and P1-P3) during one flow cycle inside the axisymmetric collapsible tube with a pulsatile inlet blood flow (case II) 5. no recirculation zone was observed upstream of the indentation while a small recirculation zone was observed for the pulsatile inlet flow case upstream of the indentation. pp. The model has been extended to simulate a Newtonian-model blood flow in an axisymmetric tube with an indentation moving at a frequency of f w = 1 Hz with two variations of inlet conditions: steady and pulsatile flow inlets. 548 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. For the case of steady flow at the inlet of the tube. Volume 33.. A non-uniform unstructured grid was used for the numerical simulation.W. pp.D Stephanoff. and N. J.

Methods App. Peric.. Methods Fluids. 253–280. 1955.T. of Biomechanical Eng. Circulation. International J. and J. Forhad. Methods Fluids. N. 41(1998).. J. 897–919. Kwak. Aero. of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis. D.Y.J. J. Biomechanical Eng.J. pp. pp. A.C.I. E. 93(1996). 715.D.D.. London: Arnold 1974. Xu. “Unsteady Entrance Flow Development in a Straight Tube”.E. pp. N. and N. Marauoka. pp. and H. Biomechanical Eng. “A General Method for Simulation of Fluid Flows with Moving and Compliant Boundaries on Unstructured Grids”. A. Rosenfeld and D. “Effect of Shear Stress on Acute Platelet Thrombus Formation in Canine Stenosed Carotid Arteries: an In Vivo Quantitative Study”. Methods Engg. 504–511 X. K.. “Numerical Analysis of Flow Through a Severely Stenotic Carotid Artery Bifurcation”.. pp. Berger. pp. Numer.Y. 2-D Fluid-Structure Interaction Problems by an Arbitrary Lagrangian– Eulerian Finite Element Method. Pedley. Biomechanical Eng. 314(1996). Int. 30(1999). Perktold. pp.J. “Stokes Flow in an Elastic Tube-A Large-Displacement Fluid–Structure Interaction Problem”. 124(2002). 30(1999). Numer. pp. 49(1987). “Pulsatile Non-Newtonian Flow Characteristics in a Three-Dimensional Human Carotid Bifurcation Model”. S.K. 10(1990). 543–566.Y. “A Dual-Time Method for Two-Dimensional Unsteady Incompressible Flow Calculations”. 192(2003).R. Stroud. 865–895. Mendes and F. pp. Pedley. I. Gaitonde. M. P. Int. “Flow Studies in Canine Artery Bifurcations Using Numerical Simulation Method”. Badr. (U.).L.A. H. pp.A. Kawahara. pp. Mirsa and S. Luo and T. J. Number 2B 549 . J. 5(1998). 4439–4466. Saloner. M. J. Sonu Varghese and H. Maalej [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] M. J. J. Eng. X. Y. J. 771–790. 1201–1205. Oana and S. Luo and T.. Pedley. and D.A. I. Eng.A. X. Biol. 500–505. “Numerical Simulation of Steady Flow in a 2-D Collapsible Channel”. pp.. Numer. A. Luo and T. Resch. Lefrancois. “Fluid–Structure Interaction with Application to Rocket Engines”. Ben-Mansour. Methods Fluids. 355–360. 464–475.W. “Numerical Solution of Unsteady Incompressible Viscous Flows in Generalized Moving Coordinate Systems”.J. pp. A. Fluid Mech. AIAA Paper 89-0466. 125(2002). M.. 23(2001). Anju. Clegg. Holden. 257–277. pp. Branco. “Pulsatile Blood Flow Effects on Temperature Distribution and Heat Transfer in Rigid Vessels”. 28(1998). “Analysis of Fluid-Structure Interaction by an Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eularian Finite Element Formulation”. “Viscous and Inviscid Flows in a Channel with a Moving Indentations”. 445–460.C. Folts. “Finite Volume Method for Prediction of Fluid Flow in Arbitrarily Shaped Domains with Moving Boundaries”. Florian. David. Vandaromme. 149–197. Bull. X..H. Blood Flow in Arteries. 363(1998). Maalej. Numer. “A Study on the Nonlinear Flow of Blood Through Arteries”. and M. J. 116(1994). Dept. pp. Mech.. G. J. Math. McDonald. J. 1995. Qaiyum Shaik. Jones. “A Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Flow in a Two-Dimensional Collapsible Channel”. Gaitonde.Y. J. Biomechanical Eng. J. 113(1991). pp. “An Artificial Compressibility Method for the Solution of the 2D Incompressible Navier–Stokes Equations”. Pedley.M. Collins. 243–265.. J. S.E. M. 114(1992). New York: The Gordon and Breach Publishing Group. Folts. 231– 238.J. pp. Fluid Mech. 9–20. Heil. 191–225.L. Bristol University. A. Numer. pp. Steven Frankel.. J. [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] October 2008 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. J. Biomechanical Eng. and D. 1989. Fluids Struct. Report no. and C. He and N. Maalej and J. 1153–1166. Fluid Mech.. “The Effect of Wall Inertia on a Two-Dimensional Collapsible Channel”. “Numerical Modelling of Pulsatile Turbulent Flow in Stenotic Vessels”. K. Singh. Volume 33. Methods in Fluids.S. Zhao and A. 209(1989). Int. pp. Ralph and T. S. J. Comput. J. 2nd ed. 9(1995). Int. Demirdzic and M. Dhatt. “Increased Shear Stress Overcomes the Antithrombotic Platelet Inhibitory Effect of Aspirin in Stenosed Dog Coronary Arteries”.

Mech. and N. Hemisphere. Versteeg and W. Lebanon. H. 192(2003). Maalej [27] [28] [29] [30] Yong Zhao and Ahmed Forhad. Comput.5 P Q0 r r0 R t δt t0 U0 U u v v max V X Y Greek Symbols τ τw α µ υ ρ ω 550 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. 8. pp. NOMENCLATURE b hmax p Depth of unindented channel Maximum blockage of the channel at Dimensional pressure Non-dimensional pressure Volume flow rate Radius Radius of unintended cylinder Non-dimensional radius Dimensional time Time Step Indentation motion period Average velocity at the inlet or characteristic velocity Non-dimensional velocity component in x -direction Dimensional velocity component in x-direction Dimensional velocity component in y-direction Maximum velocity Non-dimensional velocity component in y-direction Non-dimensional x co-ordinate Non-dimensional y co-ordinate Non-dimensional time Wall Shear stress Wormersley parameter Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Radial frequency τ = 0 . “A General Method for Simulation of Fluid Flows With Moving and Compliant Boundaries on Unstructured Grids”. London: Longman Scientific and Technical. Fluent 6. Malalasekera. 1995. A.: Washington.V.. Number 2B October 2008 . USA: Fluent Inc.Engg. Volume 33. H.R.1 Manual. Methods Appl. An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics. February 2003.C. 4439–4466. Ben-Mansour. Qaiyum Shaik. New Hampshire. Patankar.K. D. 1980.M. S. Badr. The Finite Volume Method. Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow.