Jl Tukad Batanghari VIII/7A – Denpasar – Bali – Indonesia Tel: (62) 361 7910518 Fax: (62) 361 7910518

Lighting Systems

Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Basic lighting terms
Visible light ROY G BIV Color rendition Lumen Illumination Footcandles

Light sources
Natural light (sunlight)

inexpensive and can contribute much to overall lighting needs drawbacks
solar heat gain glare fading and physical deterioration of fabrics

Common artificial light sources
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incandescent l i d t lamps electric discharge lamps

Incandescent lamps
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instant starting and restarting low in cost good color rendition short lifetime poor efficiency high operating cost adds heat to building Conventional rough service or vibration Tungsten reflector



Electric discharge lamps
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longer lifetimes higher efficiency low operating cost slow starting and restarting higher cost poorer color rendition Fluorescent mercury vapor metal halide high- and low-pressure sodium

Disadvantages g
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Lighting system design elements
Light levels
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determined by the tasks or activities that will take place within a space light levels measured by portable light meters; Illuminating Engineers Society, Illuminating Society Engineering Society of North America, and the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers recommend minimum g g light levels building area method vs. space-by-space method dimming controls

Lighting system design elements

Components C t
Lamps lamp sockets ballasts (for electric discharge lamps) reflective material lenses or louvers Housing

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visual comfort probability coefficient of utilization

Lighting system design elements
Color rendition
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color of light affects appearance of surfaces, finishes, furnishings, etc. color rendering i d l d i index lighting system must comply with local safety codes all luminaires need adequate ventilation, clearance, and proper wattage acryllic diffuser or tube safety shield for some lamps in some locations (kitchens, for example) insufficient light glare widely varying light levels can be hazards must comply with local codes, which are often based on the Life Safety Code and the National Electrical Code a delay of no more than ten seconds is permitted exit signs


Emergency lighting

Lighting system maintenance
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replace HVAC filters to cut down on dust semi-annual cleaning destaticization incandescent lamps replaced more often than fluorescents lumen depreciation group replacement vs. replacement upon burnout old lamps and ballasts must be disposed of properly recycling of fluorescent lamps and ballasts available in some areas

Replacement p
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Conservation opportunities
Efficient lighting Control operating hours Replace incandescents with fluorescents when possible p Turn off lights when not needed EMS methods
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Microprocessors/computer systems Mi / t t photocell control ultrasonic or infrared sensors twist timers

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