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**L-functions, Problem Sheet 1
**

Some of these exercises were already alluded to in the course. The sheet has 14 questions. Analytic bits and bobs. 1) Check that the two versions of the functional equation for the Riemann zeta function are indeed equivalent, assuming Euler’s reﬂection formula and Legendre’s duplication formula. 2) Locate where Γ(z ) has poles, check they’re all simple, and compute the residue at each pole. √ 3) Check from the deﬁnition that Γ(1/2) = π . Normed ﬁelds. 4) Fill in the details of the sketch-proof in the lectures that if we can take C = 2 in part (iii) of the deﬁnition of a norm, then the norm does indeed satisfy the triangle inequality. 5) (a) Check directly that the p-adic norm on Q satisﬁes |x+y | = max{|x|, |y |} if |x| = |y |. (b) Check from the axioms that if |.| is a non-arch norm on an arbitrary ﬁeld then |x + y | = max{|x|, |y |} if |x| = |y |. 6) Check that the P -adic norm on a number ﬁeld is a norm. Hint: you might need to use standard facts about factorisation of fractional ideals into primes. Good exercises for getting a concrete understanding of Qp . 7) Let |.|p denote the p-adic norm on Q. For each of the sets of p, m, r below, either ﬁnd an x ∈ Z such that |r − x|p ≤ p−m , or show that no such x exists. (i) p = 257, r = 1/2, m = 1 (ii) p = 3, r = 7/8, m = 2 (iii) p = 3, r = 7/8, m = 7 (iv) p = 3, r = 5/6, m = 9 (v) p = 5, r = 1/4, m = 4 (vi) and invent some more until you feel you’ve got the hang of it. 8) For each of the sets of p, m, r below, either ﬁnd an x ∈ Z such that |r − x2 |p ≤ p−m , or show that no such x exists. (i) p = 3, r = −2, m = 4 (ii) p = 5, r = 10, m = 3 (iii) p = 13, r = −4, m = 3 (iv) p = 2, r = −7, m = 6 (v) p = 7, r = −14, m = 4 vi) p = 5, r = −25, m = 4 (vii) p = 5, r = 2/3, m = 3 (viii) and so on.

(ii) As is usual in Newton-Raphson. choose bn with f (an ) + bn f (an ) = 0 (checking on the way that f (an ) = 0) and set an+1 = an + bn . Prove. Fill in the details of the following sketch-proof! (i) Check that one can write f (X + Y ) = f (X ) + Y f1 (X ) + Y 2 f2 (X ) + . For each of the following 3-adic integers. Can you see why the method fails?? (c) When you’ve done Q14. Any book on local ﬁelds will contain a crib. compute an for all n ≥ 0: = 10.9) In the lectures we shows that there exists x ∈ Q3 such that x2 = 7. Hint: if you can prove this for the reals then the same proof works for Qp . check that no denominators are introduced) and f1 (X ) = f (X ). . (Hensel’s Lemma). check that if a satisﬁes f (a ) = 0 and |a − a0 | < |f (a0 )|/|f (a0 )| then a = a + b and f (a) = f (a + b) = 0. 11) We showed/will show in lectures that any p-adic integer can be written as n≥0 an pn with an ∈ {0. that is. 1. If we furthermore demand that |a − a0 | < |f (a0 )|/|f (a0 )| then a is unique. . let R denote its integers. (a ﬁnite sum) with fn (X ) ∈ R[X ] (hint: n!fn (X ) is the nth derivative of f . I don’t think I’ll actually need it in the course (famous last words. choose b0 with f (a0 ) + b0 f (a0 ) = 0 and set a1 = a0 + b0 . Let k be a complete non-arch normed ﬁeld. . prove that if ∈ Qp and we write = n≥M an pn then the an are ultimately periodic iﬀ ∈ Q. that there is x ∈ Z7 with x3 = 6 (here Zp denotes the integers of Qp ). 13) If you’re computer-savvy then compute lots of terms an in the 3-adic number = n≥0 an 3n such that a1 = 1 and 2 = 7. using the same technique. . This is a fundamental and important result! Surprisingly. 1/5. ) so I’ll relegate the proof to an exercise. 12) Recall that a real number is rational if and only if its decimal expansion is ultimately periodic. . Now set p = 3. Can you see a pattern to the an ? Do you expect to see a pattern? 14) Here’s the correct generalisation of questions 9 and 10a. 2. p − 1}. (iv) Check that f is continuous and hence that f (a) = 0 if a is the limit of the an . (iii) Repeat the process! Given an . Check that (an ) is Cauchy (hint: check that |bn | → 0) and that f (an ) → 0. . and the non-archimedean-ness of the norm guarantees that the algorithm converges. but does not apply to part (b). Then there exists a ∈ R with f (a) = 0. (vi) Finally. (v) Check that the a constructed above satisﬁes |a − a0 | < |f (a0 )|/|f (a0 )|. Prove the same thing for the p-adic numbers. 1/4. The existence of a follows from the standard Newton-Raphson argument from numerical analysis. Check that |f (a1 )| < |f (a0 )| and that |f (a1 )| = |f (a0 )|. say f ∈ R[X ] is a polynomial and assume that there exists a0 ∈ R with |f (a0 )| < |f (a0 )|2 . . (b) Check that in fact this fails for p = 2 by showing that there is no ∈ Q2 such that 2 = 3. Theorem. . −10. then n ∈ Zp . −1/2. . expand out using the expansion of f (X + Y ) above and check that we get a contradiction unless b = 0. 10) (a) Convince yourself that the same technique as in Q9 and the lectures shows √that if p > 2 is prime and n ∈ Z is coprime to p and a square mod p. explain why Hensel’s Lemma makes part (a) of this problem a triviality.

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