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**L-functions, Problem Sheet 3
**

Some of these exercises were already alluded to in the course. This is all Haar measurey stuﬀ. ˆ denotes the usual Fourier transform of the function f : R → C then 1) If f check ˆ(y )eiry . a) If g (x) = f (x + r) (r real) then g ˆ(y ) = f iλx ˆ(y − λ). b) If g (x) = f (x)e for λ ∈ R then g ˆ(y ) = f 2) Check that if G is the integers and we deﬁne the open sets to be [n, ∞) ∩ Z for all n, and the empty set and the whole space, then multiplication is continuous on G but inversion isn’t. 3) a) Check that if K is a normed ﬁeld, then the map K × → K 2 sending u to (u, u−1 ) induces a homeomorphism between K × (with the subspace topology induced from K ) and its image (with the subspace topology of the product topology). b) A topological ring is a ring R with a topology such that (R, +) is a topological group, and multiplication is continuous. Can you ﬁnd a topological ring with the property that the map R× → R2 analogous to that in part (a) is not a homeomorphism onto its image? 4) Let G be a topological group. Prove that {e} is closed iﬀ G is Hausdorﬀ. 5) Prove that if X is the topological space Q with the subspace topology induced from R, and f : Q → R is continuous with compact support, then f = 0. 6) G a LCHTG and notation as in the course. Say f, g, h, F ∈ K+ (G). We used both (a) and (b) below in the course when proving existence and uniqueness of Haar measure. a) Prove (f : g )(g : h) ≥ (f : h) b) Prove (η : f )−1 ≤ µF (f ) ≤ (f : η ).

b 7) Check that the matrices a 0 1 in GL2 (R) form a locally compact topological group in which the right Haar integral isn’t a left Haar integral.

8) Notation: G is a LCHTG and we ﬁx a (right) Haar integral µ on G. If f ∈ K(G) and x ∈ G then deﬁne x f ∈ K(G) by x f (g ) = f (x−1 g ). a) Check that, for ﬁxed x ∈ G, the functional f → µ(x f ) is a Haar integral, and deduce that there’s some ∆(x) ∈ R>0 such that µ(x f ) = ∆(x)µ(f ) for all f. b) Check that ∆ is independent of the choice of µ. We say that ∆ is the modular function associated to G. c) Check that ∆ is a continuous group homomophism G → R. d) Check that ∆ is the trivial homomorphism (that is, the map sending all g ∈ G to 1) iﬀ all right Haar integrals on G are also left Haar integrals. We say that a group G is unimodular if ∆ is trivial. e) Deduce the perhaps surprising result that compact LCHTGs are unimodular. f) Compute ∆ explicitly for the group in Q7.

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