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**Number Theory: Elliptic Curves (M4P32, M5P32), Problem Sheet 1
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1) Let k be a ﬁeld, and ﬁx n ≥ 1. For i with 1 ≤ i ≤ n+1, let φi : k n → Pn (k ) be the maps (a1 , a2 , . . . , an ) → [a1 : a2 : . . . : ai−1 : 1 : ai : ai+1 : . . . : an ], as in lectures. a) Write down an injective map ψi : Pn−1 (k ) → Pn (k ) (make sure it’s welldeﬁned) with the property that Pn (k ) is the disjoint union of the images of φi and ψi (hint: given [y1 : y2 : . . . : yn ] in Pn−1 (k ), insert a zero in the appropriate place). b) Check that the union of φi (k n ) for 1 ≤ i ≤ n + 1 is equal to all of Pn (k ). c) Find a point of Pn (k ) which isn’t in φi (k n ) for 1 ≤ i ≤ n. Can you ﬁnd another one? 2) For each of the polynomials f ∈ C[x, y ] below, work out all the singular points on the graph f = 0 in C2 (don’t worry about points at inﬁnity). (i) f (x, y ) = y − x2 (ii) f (x, y ) = y 2 − x2 (iii) f (x, y ) = (3y − 7x + 6)2 (iv) f (x, y ) = y 2 − x3 (v) f (x, y ) = y 2 − x2 (x + 1) (vi) f (x, y ) = y 2 − x4 − 1 Now re-do part (vi) with the base ﬁeld equal to the ﬁeld with two elements. Note that the answer is quite diﬀerent! 3) Back to K = C. Let f (x, y ) = y 2 − x4 − 1 and let F (X, Y, Z ) denote its homogenisation. i) Check that P := [0 : 1 : 0] ∈ P2 (C) satisﬁes F (P ) = 0. ii) Check that P is a singular point on the curve F = 0. Hint: this is a point at inﬁnity, so one has to use a φi other than φ3 . Only one of the other two choices works; for this choice, dehomogenise and do the calculation in the corresponding aﬃne space. 4) Let F ∈ k [X1 , X2 , . . . , Xn+1 ] be homogeneous and let f = F (x1 , x2 , . . . , xi−1 , 1, xi , xi+1 , . . . , xn ) be a dehomogenisation of F . Assume f = 0. Let P ∈ An (k ) be a point on the graph f = 0 and let Q ∈ Pn (k ) denote φi (P ). Prove that P is a singular point on f = 0 if and only if Q is a singular point on F = 0. Hence the two notions of singularity I gave in lectures coincide, when they both make sense. 5) Verify B´ ezout’s theorem, to the extent that this is possible without a deﬁnition of “multiplicity”, for the following pairs of examples (let the ground ﬁeld be the complex numbers) i) f = x − 2y , g = x2 − y 2 ii) f = x − y , g = x2 + y 2 iii) f = x − y , g = x − y − 1 iv) f = y 2 − x3 + 1, g = x − 1

y ) = x2 + xy + y 2 − 3 (hint: x = y = 1 is a solution) (ii) f (x. depending on when you are reading this) that if a conic has a singular point then it factors into two linear factors. then g (x) must be a square in C[x]. y ) = y 2 − g (x) factors as f (x. where f (x. even though C is algebraically closed. Now use Q7. y ) = (ay + p(x))(by + q (x)) with a. Prove. Hint: if it were to factor then consider. y ) = x2 + y 2 (v) f (x. (ii) Prove that the polynomial y 2 − x is a polynomial of degree 2 over C which does not factor over C into two polynomials of degree 1. y ]. common sense and. b) = 0. that if the polynomial f (x. by checking that f (x. y ) = x2 + xy + 3x (iii) f (x. b such that f (a. factoring. 8) I proved in lectures (or will prove in lectures. q (x) ∈ C[x]. but the degrees of the factors when considered as polynomials over y only. not the usual notion of degree. b ∈ C and p(x). if possible. by equating coeﬃcients of powers of y . y ) = y 2 − x3 has a singular point but is an irreducible element of C[x. Show that the corresponding result is false for polynomials of degree 3. . y ) are the polynomials below: (i) f (x. y ) = x2 − 4xy + 4y 2 (vi) f (x. y ) = x2 + x + y 2 + 2y (hint: x = y = 0 is a solution) (iv) f (x. to ﬁnd all rational a.6) Use the “draw a line through a known point” trick. y ) = y 2 − 2x2 7) (i) Let g (x) be a polynomial in C[x].

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