Thracian Treasures from Bulgaria

by Evgeni Paunov (In memoriam, Pmfessor Ivan Venedikov, JanJ6,1916 Aug.19,1997, distinguished reseait~her ofthe Thracian culture.)



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(Vama An~haeological Museum Photo: Kr Geoigiev).

Fig.1: Golden animal effegies from Vama, Neolithic, ca 3000 BC

Beginning in Februaiy, 1998 the major exhibit “Ancient Gold: The Wealth of the Thracian.s“ is being shown in eight North American museums thivugh the end of 1999 ( museums are listed at the end of die article). First hosted in Japan in 1994-1995, this spectacular collection ofancient grave goodsfivm Bulgaria assembiesfor thefirst urne more than 250 atuhaeological objects of great artistic importance, datingfivm thefourth millennium BC to the thi,d centuty AD. Finds fivm fifteen ancient mound-tombs are on loan from a dozen regional and central museums in Bulgaria. Most ofthese materials have been only recently excavatedfivm Thracian mounds.

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Eig.4: Map of Thrace and adjacent pmvinces in the Graeco-Roman world.

Fig.3: Map showing locations of present-day Bulgaria (red), Thrace (light blue), Greece (dark blue), and various sites mentioned in text diers suffered great hardships, but wem also at times lavishly entertained (see box). Additional historical sources on Thrace include Homer‘s Iliad and Odyssey, Thucydides‘ Peloponnesian War, Arrian‘s March of Alexander, the

In the last few decades a number of signilicant collections of Thracian Ireasures have been discoveied in piesent-day Bulgana, pro viding much of our present knowledge of ancient Thmce. The high artistic mastery, stylistic features, and skilled workmanship of these decorative Thracian objects clearly testil~y to rich local traditions in the applied afls. They also comprise a major source of information on Thracian histor~ cultuie and alt which until now has been little exposed in American museums. Hemdotus (480-425 BC), called by Cicero “the father of history,“ has descnbed Thrace in his Histories (ca.445-44t) BC; see adjacent box) as a politically heterogenous legion whose inhabitants weie “the

Thrace durmg Greek and Roman limes.
Bulgaria is made up of parts of the thite ancient pmvinces of Moesia, Thrace, and Macedonia (fig.4), the lauer the homeland of Philip Band Alexander the Great Geogmphicaily, ‘Ibrace has vaiied in extent thmughout histoxy To the Greeks it stretched fmm the Danube to the Aegean, bounded on the east by the Black Sea and the Sea of Mannara, and on the west by the mountains east of the Vardar (Gieek Axios) River. The subsequent Roman pmvince of ihrace was bound ed by the Haemus (modern Balkan Mountains) on the north, and the Nestus (Nestos) river on the south and west. ‚Iliracian tiibes inhabited the rnountain land on either side of the Margus (Morava) and the fiat countiy between the Haemus and the Danube, lands east of the fllyrians from the Aegean tu die mouth ofthe Danube. hie ibracians spoke the same language as the Moesians, and pmbably also the Getae and Daci. They weit skilled horsemen and good infantiy from the time of the Peloponnesian Wars (429-404 BC) thiough the ieigns of the Caesais. Mommsen in bis Pn,vinces ofthe Roman Empire desciibed ‘flirace as a non-Greek land. ihrace became subject to Persia ca. 516-510 BC. Heilenistic infiuence was spxead when Philip II of Macedon subjected ‘flirace (356-342 BC) and founded Cabyle (near Jambol on the Tundja River) and Philippopolis. Philip‘s son Alexander made the Danube the northem boundaiy of Macedonia and many Thracians fought under hirn in Asia. After the death of Alexander, neither the Seleucids nor the Ptolemies were able to hold Thrace. Celts then moved into the Moeso-Thracian tenitoiy and established the Empiie of Tylis in SE ‘Ibrace near Byzantium. After subduing the Gieek infiuence in ibrace, this empire feil to the natives during the Hannibalic wars in 216 BC. After captuiing Thmce flum Philip V in the Second Macedonian War; the Romans assigned Thrace to the Kingdom of Pergamum in 197. Portions of ‘flirace weit niled as a client kingdom of Rome in the second half of Augustus‘ reign, under Rhoemetalces, the last ‚Ibracian ldng. In AD 19, Titus Tiebeilenus Rufus was sent to hbrace as govemor by Tiberius. Two years later native Thracians iose against the Romans and gained the suppott of some Moesian tribes; this was suppressed by the Moesian legions. A second uprising began in AD 25 when Thracians iefused to serve in the Roman amiy beyond their own boniers. lii AD 46, Thrace was incorporated by Claudius as a full Roman piovince with first an eques trian and then under Trajan a Senatorial govemor. A iuad system was open by AD 61. After gaining provincial status, Thrace was stable, never iequiring a legion, and was garrisoned by under 2000 tmops.

Herodotus on Thracians and their ritual:
“They have many names, each tribe according to its region.

All these Thracians are alike in their usages, save the Getae, and
the Trausi, and those that dweil above the Crestonaeans. “...They worship no gods but Ares, Dionysus, and Artemis. But their princes, unlike the rest of their countiy men, worship Hermes above all gods and swear only by hirn, claiming hirn for their ancestor. “...Among those of them that are rich, the funeral rites are these: They lay out the dead for tbree days, then after killing all kinds of victims and first making lamentation they feast; after that they make away with the body either by lire or else by bur ial in the earth, and when they have built a mound they set on foot all kinds of contests, wherein the greatest prizes are offered for the hardest fasbion of single combat.“ (History V, 3-8)

Geographies of Strabo and Pliny the Elder, Athenaeus‘ Connoisseurs in Dining, and many other Greek and Roman works. Thracian mineral resources and fertile soils combined to make this area prosperous during die Neolithic and Chalcolithic phäses of Balkan piehistory, much of whose chronology derives from a teil in South Bulgaria in die vifiage of Karanovo. Intensive cultur ab and trade contacts with Anatolia and East Mediterranean basin arc clearly displayed in die sophisticated forms and omaments of Balkan Neolithic pottely. By die Late Chalcolidiic cra (laie 4th millennium BC), gold and silver played an incieasingly important role. A rich cemetery found in a level ground setting near Vama on die Black Sea coast has yielded a great variety of fine gold objects and adornments weighing over 6 kg from die Chalcolithic (fig. 1). During die subsequent Bronze Age, along widi evidence of die rapid development of pottery, impressive examples of gold deposits continue to appear in burials. The V~lchitr~n ieasuie, found in Central North Bulgaria in 1925, and dating from die end of die Late Bronze Age (ca. 1300-1000 BC), is -markable for its precise craftsmanship (fig.2). This cache, consisting of 13 gold articles weighing a total of 12.5 kg, had a omewhat heterogenous assortment of seven lids and six othe vessels, including a large kyadios, a tnple ieceptacle and four ups. These vessels. guished by die simplicity of dieir shapes and die subtlety of dieir design, widi some showing dose parallels with items from Mycenae, and providing clear evidence for die extensive c contacts of Thrace widi die Mycenaean world. Apart from Bronze Age deposits at V~lchi • near Sofia, die bulk of Thracian treasures in die exhibit were man ufactured between die 5di and 3rd century BC, die penod of great est economic, political and Representing die heyday of its kings and its rich tribal chiefdoms, die same 5th-3rd century BC period saw die poliuical apex of die




Xenophon describes a Thracianfeast, ca.400 BC:
“After sacrificing some of the oxen they have captured and other animals too, they provided a feast which was quite a good one, though they ate reclining on bw couches and drunk out of horn cups which they had corne across the country. When they had poured the libations and sung the Paean, first of all two Thracians stood up and performed a dance to the flute, wearing fuil armour. They leapt high into the air with great agility and brandished their swords. In the end one of thern, as everybody thought, struck the other one, who feil to the ground, acting all the tirne.... Then sorne more Thracians carried the stripped man out, as though he was dead, though actually he had not been hurt in the slightest.“ (Xenophon, Anabasis, VI, 1,4-6) “lt was then (in winter) easy to see why the Thracians wear fox skins round their heads and ears, and why they have tunics that cover their legs and not only the upper part of the body, and why, when they am on horseback, they wear long cloaks reach ing down to their feet instead of our short coats.“ (VII, 4,4)

Fig.5: Thracian tomb-heroon under Ostmusha mound near Shipka, ca 350-330
BC (Courtesy ofDr G. Kitov, photo by E. Paunov).

Fig.2: Gold vessels frnm the Vä1chitr~n Treasure, l3th-l2th centuiies BC (National
Archaeological Museum Sofia~ Photo by 1Cr Georgiev).

biggest and most numerous people in the world, next to the Indians; were they under one niler, or united, they would in my judgement be invincible and the stnngest nation on earth; but since theie is no way or contrivance to bring this about, they aie for this reason weak....“ Other comments on Thracian cultuie during the penod of these
exhibition materials am provided by the Greek general and military historian Xenophon. During bis march upcountry (Anabasis) within Persia and Thrace during wars of4Ol-399 BC, he and other Greek sol

Thracian Odiysian kingdom in die Balkan Peninsula reached by Kotys 1(386-359 BC), rival ofking Philip II of Macedon in die first years of bis reign. Following a series of wars of annexation and affiances, die Odrysian kings reunited die greater part of Thrace after die Median wars and, between 475 and 350 BC, played an important role in die history of Southeastem Europe, by striving to create a unified and strong European state similar to die Persian empire. Thracian economic, political and cultural ties widi die Eastem Mediterranean, Near East, Balkans, and Black Sea hinterland states distinguished it as a powerful center of die world in die immediate vicinity of die high cultures of Greek cities


Athena Review Vol. 1, No.4

Athena Review Vol. 1, No.4


from die Rogozen Tieasure (Museum o 134.375-350 BC and found in 1974. 1Z6 cm). Rhyton shapes frequently used in Thrace (as also in Late Bronze Age Crete.6) shows Aphrodite. Found in South Bulgaria in 1949 (flg. inscribed in Greek: “1 belong to Satokos“ (Mus~ ht. In this way. a bull. Faces in these naturalistic images are depicted in the minutest detail. B 446. these vessels. mv.000 such massive ground bar made of regularly cut stone blocks.6: Gold rhyton with ram protome fmm Panagjurishte Treasure. and Amazons. Macedonia. which also served as places for ritual “4 1 ceremonies to honor the 9“ deceased ruler. Drawin: Museum of Histoiy. mv.‘ ‚4 4~. when Dr.‘six bucrania with acoms. Courtesy Museum ofHistoiy. 157 from the Rogozen Treasure. •“ ~ 1 ilar to that used on Greek pottery.20) is by far the richest and most brilliant hoard yet discovered. the tombs consti tuted underground temples of heroes—and thus have become known as heroons. no. the artists have informed their rich Thracian clients on the identity of mythological personages. they came from a workshop at Propontis or at Western Asia Minor.8). Current views began to emerge by 1917. with ten structures found between Although many Ciassical authors men 1992 and 1996. consists of 9 vessels weighing a total of 6. in a manner sim Thracian niler in the late 4th centuly BC would have been able to pay wages to 500 mercenanes for a year with the quantity of gold in the deposit alone. As it hap pens. ht. Today Fiow‘s original viewpoint on the native origins of Thracian art is widely accepted by most classical and primitive art histori ans. and were some flatlands of the Balkan Range. the heads of stags. they remained rela tively obscure to the modern world until the penod of First World War. They were ry. ca. as is more usual. Persian and Lycian exam Several of the richest burials date from ples. Also found were a large two-handled cup. 439. The Letnitsa hoard. the Great Goddess in a chaiiot with winged horses. Bogdan D. while a third pollrays a very rare scene. Vratsa. while one example from the Borovo Treasure represents a horse (fig. captured by Philip II in 348 BC. allowing us to read that they were given to the £s‘ Thracian king Kotys 1 from the inhabi tants of the town of Beos in South-east em Thrace. Produced in the laUer part of the 4th cen tury BC.8: Silver-gilt rhyton ending in a protome of a horse from Borovo Treasure.15. 118 fmm die Rogozen Treasure. ca.11: Silver jug no. The tematically excavated. one consisting of 100 objects. Macedonian.8 cm. (including Varbitsa. / ‚ $. northem Greece and Turkey. Other vessels show Herakles flghting with Ceryneian Rind. Always in pairs. mv. and also contain covered passages 6th-3rd centuries BC. B-59. however. and Persia. Subsequently. 134. One of the most recent flnds is the splendid Rogozen Treasure. wrote a study where he argued persuasive ly for the indigenous character and style of ancient Thracian art.13: Silver gilt jug no. time. 78 Atheiia Review Voll. am fif teen squam and rectangular plaques show ing scenes from Thracian myths.4 gin. ht. were intended to be used as a feast set.100 kilograms. Athena. Brezovo. Sveshtari. traditions. 11-357. Previously.7). Fiow. At first sight their animal decoration looks Scythian. ca.‘ ca.1. -. called Haemus (fig.9-13. Included am three rhyta with a protomes of a horse (Fig. it has been calculated that a ‚. as ancient Greeks that several centers of political activity called the techniques of metal-casting and existed in Thracian lands during that time. decorated with animal motifs and hunters on horseback. In some cases. Many other Thracian monuments have also become known from southem Fig. These flnds in some ways resembling Etrurian tombs. the first direc tor of Bulgarian Institute of Archaeology. and histo share some common elements. Thracian art is integrally linked with the Kazanluk. Photo by K. To give some idea of its rel ative value. although later unpopular in Greece) often employ animal or human forms on the lower end (protome). About 15. Thracian Treasures froni Bulgaria 1 Fig. or occa rows are still visible today in the hills and sionafly of flred bricks. Fourth century Thracian treasures in the exhibit: The Panagjurishte gold hoard in south-central Bulgaria (figs 6. No. Drawing by E. 160. and the circu 350 Bulgarian tombs that have been sys lar form topped by a dome (tholos). Tsenova. with Ariadne). B. both containing silver and silver-gilt pieces. The Panagjurishte Treasure. The images of the deities are not individualized. Fig.05 in Thracian mounds in g. diam. Ancient metal work in 4th century BC Dalboki. ihe tombs as a source of histoty: The abundant archaeological material excavat Fonns of the tombs. Vratsä). the apogee of the (dromos) with painted walls and ceilings Thracian state of Odryssae. they were placed symmelrically on either side of the headstall adorning the horse‘s head. large quantities of important Thracian art objects have been recovered in Bulgaria.1O: Silver phiale no. 18) have an overall weight of nearly 20 kilograms. 19).3). Vratsa mv. 170.4). with olfer ~ ings of rich funeral gifts. Mezek. Photo by Kr Geotgiev). horse hamess omaments decorated with fabulous ammal motifs arc wide spread among the Thracians in the 6th-2nd centuries BC. 1‘ ~. while showing Bulgaria has greatly enriched our knowl a great diversity in layout and structure. wt. the histoiy of Mogilanska mogila in Vratsa. placed five meters apart at only 0. 11 cm.7: Silver rhyton with doe‘s head from Rozovets. thirty-one of which am gilded. In this sense. The Greek artisans who made the col lection depicted various mythological sub jects on these gold pieces. and a sphinx.: Georgiev). but more precise analysis and camful study of the style reveals that the primaiy influence stemmed from skffled Thracian craftsmen and workshops. includes only Histoiy. and Hera before the judgment of Paris. Fig. no. The Lukovit collection consists ofthree small jugs. Thrace was weil known for its silver and gold mines. and Theseus in com bat with the bull of Marathon. anciently times adomed with a painted decoration. a ciassification which enjoyed great popularity at that time. Fig. Unique to this treasure.~. 13 cm). 8).3 g. no. Tsenova. Vratsa). Approximately fifty such Fig. The phiale and ampho ra-rhyton in this treasure are marked with grafflti showing the weight of the vessels in two systems of measumment: one in units of Persian darics and another in units of Alexandrian (or Attic) staters.‘ ~:‘. 95 from Rogozen Treasure. with even the irises of the eyes being marked.6). B 570 wt. Drawing by E. Bulgaria up to the present and colonies.375-350 BC c~Museuin ofHistoiy Russe. the other of 65.9: Silver phiale no. 14.‘ while one of the rhyta with a ram shaped protome (fig. Four of the vessels am inscribed in Greek. including the Pangeion gold mines near the Strymon delta. Sofia. engraving.9 g.6 gn~. horse trapping appliqu~s (fig. another from the Rozovets Treasure shows a doe‘s head (fig. Other rhytons depict a goat. including eight rhyta and one large phiale. wt. The goldsmiths preferred a clothed body as his subject. 170. The great majoiity of objects were phialai and jugs. no. consists of a magnificent set of five silver-gilt ves sels intended for the diinking of wine. na. The 165 pieces of silver in this hoard (flgs. and three full sets of appliqu~s and ornaments for horse hamesses. Vratsa). Two other important treasures from the second half of the 4th century BC found accidentally in North Bulgaria arc worthy of mention: the hoards from Lukovit and Letnitsa. Bulgaria Tombs of kings (heroons): Thracian rulers and members of the nobility were buned in monumental stone tombs. 425-375 BC (National Archaeological Museum Romania. accidentally discovered in the winter of 1985/86 in Northwestem Bulgaria. Tombs dating ed in those earthen embankments of from 5th-3rd centuries BC. and a amphora-rhyton showing scenes from the mysteries of Dionysus. 350-340 BC (Museum of large bronze receptacle. The Borovo Treasure.4 Athena Review Vol. nor am they linked in a complete artistic composition. Duvanlij. Thracian tombs: In essence. edge of Thracian life. nine phialai. found in a Fig. wt. These were found in two groups. Ezerovo. Dionysus with the nymph Eriope (not. the names of the gods are inscribed in Greek beside their images. inscibed in Gitek: ‘)This vessel belongs/ to Kotys fmni/ the inhabitants/ of Argiskes“ (Museum ofHistoiy.. 350-320 BC (Museum ofHistoiy.4 79 . ca tombs have been uncovered 325-300 BC ~Aiuhaeological Museum Plovdiv.i~b Fig.. and Shipka) show convincingly history of toreutics. diam. Photo by Kr Geotgiev).4 meters depth. 3196. tioned the Thracians. made of pure gold. most Thracian art objects were assigned to the Scythian culture. dating from ca. 42 from the Rogozen Treasure. No. Courtesy of Museum of Histoty. On the amphora there is a scene from the ‘Seven Against Thebes. Rahmanli.Thracian Treasures fron. spanning the period entrances to many Thracian tombs have between the end of 3rd millenmum to the sophisticated fa~ades comparable to 4th centuly AD.. Finds in the cunent The two main categories of chambers exhibit have been selected from more than include the rectangular plan. possi bly in Lampsacus.12: Silver jug no. 11 cm. mv. Besides the homed ram‘s head from Panagjurishte a]ready cited (fig.

with the great majority taken from other Thracian burial mounds or tumuli. and na. the unknown artist has created a work of art.19: Silver gilt triskeles—horse harness with stylized griffin tombs have recently been heads.3).. This immense hoard of vessels.~ burials in the Mogilanska mogila mound 1 — occuntd in about 375-340 BC. most of these tombs had . iron spearheads. with a pair of heavy gold earrings 1‘ with elaborate disc and lunate pendants . and gilt greave (knemis) and a group of four only one was absolutely untouched Greek bronze vessels for feasts.l.. arc fiat. 14. ~ 1~ J . .1. All 1581-1583. had been plun dered in antiquity. Seven more irnposing new Fig. Kotys.Thracian Treasuresfro.‘.~. killed by an won spearhead appar fraction of Thracian art objects and Kazanluk. four inscribed developed fa~ades which arc notably phialai. not only in Thrace but through out the entire Eastem Mediterranean basin. Its handlejs shaped like the so-called ‘Heracles‘ or reef knot.9.83 g. either for hirn personally or for a dose noble relatives. uncovered in the south SoJkL mv. by definition.. The dating of the Vratsa tombs. A II 1586. ht. These inscriptions contain at least ten royal Thracian names (Satokos. 159. Photo VJFOR). Kersebleptes. Didykaimos. Around the adult‘s skeleton were near Shipka (fig. or 4horse chariot (fig. Among the most interesting and 1~ unique pieces of this series is no. and exceptional in its charac ter and impact.‘ ing of six embossed bull‘s heads (bucrania) . Photo Kr Georgiev). consist ~-~.16: Gold fingerbeen created and accumulated over nearly ring with two engraved 150 years from the mid-5th century to the figuies in intaglio fivm Mafica mogila mound last quarter of the 4th centuly BC. or a team of two horses. . The best known of ) these is the Kazanluk Tomb. 155 from the Rogozen Treasure. H&otylskm. The third and last tomb of Vratsa had been partiafly robbed in antiqui ty. 3204. 157 represents the what shallow bowls with small round cen ters. Photo by Ki Georgiev). inv..4 Athena Review Vol. typical of the Hellenistic time period.n Bulgaria Great Thracian Goddess nding in a quadriga. 155 shows the same goddess riding 011 a lioness like an Amazon as part of a hunt ing motif (fig. In its second charnber were skeletons of ~ / q a man and a woman. The Mogilanska mogila mound In Vratsa has provided another important -‘: group of magnificent Thracian art objects.5 cm (Musewn ofHistoiy Vratsa. — .4 81 .15: Gold amphora-rhyton from Panagjurishte Tr~asuie.14: Silver-gilt skyphos with female and rams heads fiom Stielcha. no. richer of the two.. witb six acoms. Northwestem Thrace (fliballi). altemating — ‚I~t1. and Sauthabas. deco rated with a central medallion showing Auge and Herakles.. ~l•. The second tomb. and Disloias.z4~t ~4‘~PI 9. . The 108 phialai in the Rogozen hoard probably represent more than twice the number presently in museums collections elsewheie. 18). ca. Photo by Kr Georgiev). Not sur many bronze an~owheads. Also arnong the bones were gold buttons. figs. Two gafloping quadrigae (four-horsed chariots) with a man in a hauberk arc rep rcsented on a gold jug. ~~1 ~. li~ 1965-66. ‚).25 gin..~‘ ~. foothills of the Balkan Range man.7 The female burial in this tomb also yielded / gold jewelry and votive clay objects. ~r . wt. mv. Fig.9). 110. outwardly Thracian in its figural scenes. No. 1. with a circular form.. had 80 ~‘ ‘at. lt near Shipka. Apros.7 g Photo by Kr Geo -. Wt. pendants and rosette-shaped appliqu~s apparently sewn to bis dress. 350-320 BC. In the main chamber two skele tons were recovered an adult and a young - * ~‘I. no.4p~ \ . ~ ~.~..~ ::-:“v~~ . depicted in vigorous realism. Also depict divine and cult scenes govemed by notable is that the weight of some objects a definite canon of iconography. 4. a rectangular ground plan and two funerary chambers. Sofia. Another Phialai. Close to by treasuie-hunters.N~. 11). . Found alongside the man were gold and a silver jugs.. No.. This is one of the most unique Museum Plovdiv. \ ~-~‘ ~ ~_‘ Thracian Treasuresfrörn ~:: j4garia -‘ . A typical northem Thracian phiale (fig. ca. A6c~. F ~ V . show that the ~(.. facilitated by several Attic pottery vessels. 210. Kasanluk Southern Thrace (Odryssi). 350-330 BC (National Archaeological Mus. near Kazanluk in South Bulgaria (fig. Photo ently during combat.„ -.~ .1~ ~l — 4 . 325-300 BC (Archaeological Museum first. fig. can easily be read In terms of Persian silver for example. Despite the small surface containing the. 10) has a characteristic ~ Greek motif around the omphalos. several geographical sites in Southeastern Thrace (Beos. ‘. Atliena Review Vol. Letnitsa Treaure (National Amhaeological Museum.4 g. a wood quiver (gorythos) with different from one another.1 a bronze Chalkidian type helmet. found by the ears. and fortunately mtact. A third scene on jug 110. the Plovdiv. 350includes vessels attributed to specific work 325 BC (Museum of shops in Anatolia.. a remarkable boar hunting‘ sigloi or Thraco-Macedonian drachmae. . and fron spearheads. 1‘ A large accumulation of Thracian tombs from 4th-2nd centuries BC occuned ~ in the Valley of Roses. scene depicted on jug no. lt has been suggested that the tomb was built during the reign of king Seuthes ffl.. ‘~1~ ‚. 3203. Many of the vessels from the Rogozen Treasure arc inscribed m Greek with punched lettering.j••. some central scene on no. ca.. a silver gilt phiale imported from a Greek city on the western seaboard of Asia Minor.12) and Fig. Some Argiskes. The straps of the horse‘s bridle were richly decorated with silver appliqu~s. the largest single collection of ancient treasuit ever found in southeastem Europe. the older man was the skeleton of a young Ongoing discoveries: The new Fig. In the outer chamber were found the remains of a biga. wt 845.~. showing the Great Goddess riding on a lioness. ~ ~ ~‘ Fig 18: Silver gilt jug no. mv.17: Bmnze situla (4c BC) with head of Silenus from Malka mogila (Museum ofHistoiy Kazanlak).~ ‘~ ~ ~“ ~ -~ . a silver been robbed in ancient times. no. prisingly.- ~ ~ -. Most of the jugs are native Thracian.20: Gold phiale with negrees‘ head century BC. decorative friezes. a quiver with arrowheads. as weil as a gold hairpin and a tiny gold spoon. had Fig. Eastern Greece. 1. There is.B 448). 1695.5) They consisted of found two silver jugs. farnous for its beautiful wall paintings of the early 3rd Fig. Geiston. ‚‘II ‘~‘ 1. ca. masterpieces of Early Hellenistic pictorial art.21: Two gold necklaces from Malka mogila mound Thracian prince.. ca. Still adorning hirn were an elegant“gold wreath crowning his head. three stone tombs of noble Thracian chiefs were unearthed in the ground baffow in the heart of the city.— ~ .—-~. unusually placed face exhibition represents only a smafl near Shipka. 325-300 BC (Museu down. The Fig. 13.

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An extraordinary ~ clothbound volume provid Ing an overview of ancient [ ~ Greek civilization: geography. Martin‘s Press. AR SALEM. Vicenza: Ente Fiem Fair. Sofia. chrono logical table. Bibliography: Fiow. 31. Seite rnite. 1998 Oct. 1999 Jan. Milan. Loaded with photos and illustrations of Paleo artifacts and much more‘ References. paper. index. No. © 1993 Photographs by Evgeni Pauno~ Sofia.

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