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PETE L. CLARK

1. Rings Recall that a binary operation on a set S is just a function ∗ : S × S → S : in other words, given any two elements s1 , s2 of S , there is a well-deﬁned element s1 ∗ s2 of S . A ring is a set R endowed with two binary operations + and ·, called addition and multiplication, respectively, which are required to satisfy a rather long list of familiar-looking conditions – in all the conditions below, a, b, c denote arbitrary elements of R – (A1) a + b = b + a (commutativity of addition); (A2) (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) (associativity of addition); (A3) There exists an element, called 0, such that 0 + a = a. (additive identity) (A4) For x ∈ R, there is a y ∈ R such that x + y = 0 (existence of additive inverses). (M1) (a · b) · c = a · (b · c) (associativity of multiplication). (M2) There exists an element, called 1, such that 1 · a = a · 1 = a. (D) a · (b + c) = a · b + a · c; (a + b) · c = a · c + b · c. Comments: (i) The additive inverse required to exist in (A4) is unique, and the additive inverse of a is typically denoted −a. (It is easy to check that −a = (−1) · a.) (ii) Note that we require the existence of a multiplicative identity (or a “unity”). Every once in a while one meets a structure which satisﬁes all the axioms except does not have a multiplicative identity, and one does not eject it from the club just because of this. But all of our rings will have a multiplicative identity. (iii) There are two further reasonable axioms on the multiplication operation that we have not required; our rings will sometimes satisfy them and sometimes not: (M′ ) a · b = b · a (commutativity of multiplication). (M′′ ) For all a ̸= 0, there exists b ∈ R such that ab = 1. A ring which satisﬁes (M′ ) is called – sensibly enough – a commutative ring. Example 1.0: The integers Z form a ring under addition and multiplication. Indeed they are “the universal ring” in a sense to be made precise later.

Thanks to Kelly W. Edenﬁeld and Laura Nunley (x3) for pointing out typos in these notes.

1

1. . 12 instead of 0. Nevertheless noncommutative rings are important and fundamental: the basic example is the ring of n × n matrices (say.e. . . . Best of all is a ring which satisﬁes (M′ ) and (M′′ ): a ﬁeld. In other words. i. The addition operation is familiar from “clock arithmetic”: with n = 12 this is how we tell time. Serre’s Corps Locaux. (One has to keep this in mind when reading certain books written by Francophone authors and less-than-carefully translated into English.” . R (of real numbers) and C (of complex numbers). some people used the term “ﬁeld” as a synonym for “division ring” and therefore spoke of “commutative ﬁelds” when necessary. and then applying the function modn to force the answer back in the range 0 ≤ r < n. and it is tempting to think of the elements 1A very long time ago. Truth be told.1: There is a unique ring in which 1 = 0. and perhaps also with the existence of ﬁnite ﬁelds of prime order (more on these later). This leads us to the quotient construction. Modern mathematics has tended to explore the theory of commutative rings much more deeply and systematically than the theory of (arbitrary) non-commutative rings. There is a function modn from the positive integers to Zn : given any integer m. We call this the zero ring.) However. modn (m) returns the remainder of m upon division by n. let Zn denote the set {0. . (However. . the only element of the ring is 0 and the addition laws are just 0 + 0 = 0 = 0 · 0.1 I hope you have some passing familiarity with the ﬁelds Q (of rational numbers).. n − 1}. and the Zn ’s are constructed from Z in some way so that the ring axioms become automatic. we deﬁne a +n b := modn (a + b). if r is any element of such a ring. a ·n b := modn (a · b). then r = 1 · r = 0 · r = (0 + 0) · r = 0 · r + 0 · r = 1 · r + 1 · r = r + r. we get r = 0. A ring (except the zero ring!) which satisﬁes (M′′ ) is called a division ring (or division algebra). except that we use 1. e.2 PETE L. . the unique integer r satisfying m = qn + r. employing the standard operations of + and ·. . .n: For any positive integer. . which we will present later. CLARK Example 1. it is a bit of annoyance: often in statements of theorems one encounters “except for the zero ring. . The deﬁnition we have given – the most “naive” possible one – is not quite satisfactory: how do we know that +n and ·n satisfy the axioms for a ring? Intuitively.g. and in relatively recent literature it was not standardized whether “corps” meant any division ring or a commutative division ring. Indeed. especially number theory. That is. this satisﬁes all the axioms for a commutative ring. We then deﬁne operations of + and · on Zn by viewing it as a subset of the positive integers. 11.” Example 1. subtracting r from both sides. military time does indeed go from 0 to 23. 0 ≤ r < n. with real entries) for any n ≥ 2. In some sense a ﬁeld is the richest possible purely algebraic structure. we want to say that the integers Z form a ring. . 2. the Bourbakistic linguistic philosophy that the more widely used terminology should get the simpler name seems to have at last persuaded the French that “corps” means “(commutative!) ﬁeld. The analogous practice in French took longer to die out.) The (commutative!) rings Zn are basic and important in all of mathematics.

To see whether a homomorphism of rings f : R → S is an injection. −1 to −1R . So a ring homomorphism f : R → S is a map such that f (0) = 0.ALGEBRA HANDOUT 1: RINGS..) Recall that a function f : X → Y is an injection if x1 ̸= x2 =⇒ f (x1 ) ̸= f (x2 ). Then 0 = f (x2 ) − f (x1 ) = f (x2 − x1 ). then it has a (left and right) multiplicative inverse. If not. s1 − s2 . so f (0) = f (0 + 0) = f (0) + f (0). − and ·: i. E. for all s1 . This set contains 0. Note well that the property f (1) = 1 – “unitality” – is not redundant. so x2 − x1 ∈ K (f ).e. at least initially. continued: recall we have a unique homomorphism c : Z → R. Ring Homomorphisms Generally speaking. f (r1 + r2 ) = f (r1 ) + f (r2 ). (In this case what needs to be checked are the closure of S under +. 2 to 1R + 1R . Suppose that r is in the kernel of f . An important case is when R is a ring and S is a subset of R containing 0 and 1 and which is itself a ring under the operations of + and · it inherits from R. which would turn out to be a bit of a pain. this is the case when R = Q. so by our assumption x2 − x1 = 0.. If r ̸= 0. Otherwise every ring R would admit a homomorphism to the zero ring. f (r) = 0. 0 = 0 + 0. But then 1 = f (1) = f (rr−1 ) = f (r)f (r−1 ) = 0 · f (r−1 ) = 0. Example 2. Example 2. r2 ∈ R. the kernel of f .g. and x1 = x2 . But in general it seems better to postulate that a homomorphism preserve every structure “in sight” and then worry later about whether any of the preservation properties are redundant. s2 ∈ S .) We say that S is a subring of R. s1 · s2 ∈ S . now subtract f (0) from both sides. it suﬃces to look at the set K (f ) = {x ∈ R | f (x) = 0}. If c is injective.e. a contradiction.. i.1: For any ring R. s1 + s2 . there exists a unique homomorphism c : Z → R. Conversely. 2. then we ﬁnd a copy of the integers naturally as a subring of R. Indeed.e. there exists a least positive integer n such that . FIELDS AND GROUPS 3 of ﬁeld as “numbers” in some suitably generalized sense. an element such that rr−1 = r−1 r = 1. (And it is not hard to see that this necessarily gives a homomorphism. In fact it follows from the preservation of addition that f (0) = 0. The converse is also true: suppose K (f ) = 0 and f (x1 ) = f (x2 ). −2 to −1R + −1R and so forth. Suppose R and S are division rings and f : R → S is a homomorphism between them. f (r1 r2 ) = f (r1 )f (r2 ). the natural inclusions Q → R and R → C are both ﬁeld extensions. So any homomorphism of division rings is an injection: it is especially common to speak of ﬁeld extensions. a homomorphism between two algebraic objects is a map f between the underlying sets which preserves all the relevant algebraic structure. Namely. not want “numbers” to have. and if it contains any other element then f is certainly not injective. i. f (1) = 1 and for all r1 .1. elements of arbitrary rings can have some strange properties that we would. 3 to 1R + 1R + 1R . denoted r−1 . any homomorphism must send 1 to 1R . For example.

c ∈ R. But. In Z5 one ﬁnds – after some trial and error – that 1−1 = 1.) Such an element is called nilpotent. Integral domains A commutative ring R (which is not the zero ring!) is said to be an integral domain if it satisﬁes either of the following equivalent properties:2 (ID1) If x. The rings Z2 and Z3 are easily seen to be ﬁelds: indeed.4 PETE L.1: Let us consider the rings Zn for the ﬁrst few n. so b − c = 0 and b = c. (ID2) If a. so 2 is nilpotent and Z4 is nonreduced. so R satisﬁes (ID2). so 2n will equal either 2 or 4 in Z6 : never 0. (We take enough powers of every element until we get the same element twice. ab = ac and a ̸= 0. 3−1 = 2. and if no such n exists we say that R is of characteristic 0 (yes. CLARK c(n) = 0. and a ring is reduced if it has no nilpotent elements. 22 = 4.) (ID2) is often called the “cancellation” property and it is extremely useful when solving equations. it it may well be the case that an extension of integral domains is not an integral extension! But there is no clear remedy here. Lang’s attempted use of “entire” for “integral domain” – have not been well received. (Suppose R satisﬁes (ID1) and ab = ac with a ̸= 0.g. look. a set which we will denote by nZ or by (n). alas. in particular the characteristic of Zn is n. As an important example. 4−1 = 4 so that Z5 is a ﬁeld. aN −1 ̸= 0 and a · aN −1 = 0. This integer n is called the characteristic of R. (If N is the least positive integer N such that aN = 0 we have a. and in Z3 1 = 1−1 and 2 = (2)−1 . . one must remember not to apply cancellation without further justiﬁcation! (ID1) expresses the nonexistence of zero divisors: a nonzero element x of a ring R is called a zero divisor if there exists y in R such that xy = 0. One of the diﬃculties in learning ring theory is that the examples have to run very fast to keep up with all the deﬁnitions and implications among deﬁnitions. 3. y ∈ R and xy = 0 then x = 0 or y = 0. On the other hand there is also a notion of an “integral extension of rings” – which we will meet in Handout A3 – and. b.) 2The terminology “integral domain” is completely standardized but a bit awkward: on the one hand. For instance 21 = 2. when dealing with equations in a ring which is not an integral domain. An especially distressing kind of zero divisor is an element 0 ̸= a ∈ R such that an = 0 for some positive integer n. it would seem to make more sense to say that n has inﬁnite characteristic). and one can check that Ker(c) consists of all integer multiples of n. 2−1 = 3. In Z6 we have 2 · 3 = 0 so there are zero-divisors. the homomorphism c : Z → Zn is an extension of the map modn to all of Z. then b = c. Indeed. In the ring Z4 22 = 0. and proposed changes in the terminology – e. The converse is similar. but a bit of calculation shows there are no nilpotent elements. the term “domain” has no meaning by itself. here come some now: Example 3. 1 is its own multiplicative inverse. if we never get zero then no power of that element will be zero. 23 = 2. Then a(b − c) = 0. in Z2 the only nonzero element. so a is a zero divisor.

then for some prime p we can write n = p2 · m. . say pi . being ﬁnite. Proof: The above argument (i. Example 3. so we feel relatively sanguine about omitting the details here. They are. Eventually it will strike us that it appears to be the case that Zn is a ﬁeld exactly when n is prime. if a ̸= 0 and ab = ac. and given this clue. Proof: Consider any 0 ̸= a ∈ R. Namely. it is also a ﬁeld. This may at ﬁrst seem like cheating since a−1 is generally not an integer: however it exists as a rational number and the “computation” makes perfect sense in Q.. Consider the various powers a1 . It turns out that for any commutative ring R. in both cases the other direction requires Euclid’s Lemma: if a prime p divides ab then p|a or p|b. This realization makes us pay closer attention to the prime factorization of n. Z10 is reduced but not an integral domain. then m is not divisible by some prime divisor of n.2: Of course. A ring R is an integral domain iﬀ it is a subring of some ﬁeld. so Zp is an integral domain. the integers Z form an integral domain. and m < n. if R is an integral domain we can prove it by the above argument of exhibiting a ﬁeld that contains it: Theorem 3. and by the Euclid Lemma neither is any power ma of m. and. if n = p1 · · · pn is squarefree.e. we can multiply both sides by a−1 to get b = c. if n is not prime. . Finally. . There are many little checks to b d make to see that this construction actually works. and then a · b = 0 in Zn . not divisible by the square of any prime. If n is not squarefree. Since Z ⊂ Q. 3 is a nilpotent in Z9 . However. All of these observations are true in general but nontrivial to prove. a) The ring Zn is a ﬁeld iﬀ n is a prime. by Proposition 1 it is then necessarily a ﬁeld. and applying (ID2) we get aj = 1. b < n. one soon guesses that Zn is reduced iﬀ n is squarefree. having b = c in Q means that b = c in Z. and so forth. this says precisely that if ab = 0 in Zn then either a = 0 or b = 0.e. Any integral domain R with ﬁnitely many elements is a ﬁeld.ALGEBRA HANDOUT 1: RINGS. so for no positive integer a is ma = 0 in Zn . How do we know? Well. The last fact is the easiest: Proposition 1. Proof: In each case one direction is rather easy. FIELDS AND GROUPS 5 Similarly we ﬁnd that Z7 is a ﬁeld. so that aj −1 is the multiplicative inverse to a. i. On the other hand. and since R is ﬁnite we must eventually get the same element via distinct powers: there exist positive integers i and j such that ai+j = ai ̸= 0. just multiply by a−1 in the ambient ﬁeld) shows that any subring of a ﬁeld is an integral domain. and then the element mp is nilpotent: (mp)2 = mp2 m = mn = 0 in Zn . (We will encounter and prove this result early on in the course. it seems that whenever Zn is an integral domain.) Indeed.. The converse uses the observation that given an integral domain R. of a. elements of R. obviously. c subject to the rule that a = iﬀ ad = bc in R . 2 is a nilpotent in Z8 . But then ai = ai+j = ai · aj . . Moreover. one can formally build a ﬁeld F (R) whose elements are represented by formal fractions of the form a b with a ∈ R. b) The ring Zn is reduced iﬀ n is squarefree. Theorem 2. we want to ﬁnd a multiplicative inverse. a2 . this is a direct generalization of the construction of the ﬁeld Q from the integral domain Z. then n = ab for integers 1 < a. b ∈ R \ {0}.

. we are saying that b = pk for some k ). and let RS be the rational numbers a b such that b is divisible only by primes in S . this construction can be vastly generalized: let S be any subset of the prime numbers (possibly inﬁnite!). By convention.e. These are what they sound like. This construction gives us many “new” integral domains and hence many new ﬁelds. Conversely. Thus there are uncountably many subrings in all! 4. For instance. this shows necessity. the law T i · T j = T i+j and distributivity. bm ̸= 0. the subrings of Q. let p be any prime number. taking the convention that b > 0. the fraction ﬁeld of F [T ] is the set of all formal 3The term “quotient ﬁeld” is also used. (ii) if S ̸= S ′ .g. for any subring R of Q we have Z ⊆ R ⊆ Q. It is not too hard to check that: (i) RS is a subring of Q. . Corollary 5. . For instance. . i. Proof: R is naturally a subring of R[T ] – the polynomials rT 0 for r ∈ R and any subring of an integral domain is a domain. A polynomial ring in any number of variables over an integral domain is an integral domain. But since there is already a quotient construction in ring theory. then any two nonzero polynomials have the form an T n + an−1 T n−1 + . . . the leading term is an bm T n+m . the most technically convenient is an inductive one: R[T1 . Proposition 4. starting with a ﬁeld F .e. and it is easy to see that they are the extremes: i. . .) One gets a commutative ring R[T ]. . One can also consider polynomial rings in more than one variable: R[T1 . the union over all natural numbers n of the set of all formal expressions i=0 ai T i (T 0 = 1). When we multiply these two polynomials. . (Formally speaking we should write down these laws precisely and verify the axioms. so the product polynomial has nonzero leading term and is therefore nonzero. even by me until rather recently.) There are natural addition and multiplication laws which reduce to addition in R. so e. Polynomial rings Let R be a commutative ring. (If an ̸= 0. the polynomial ring R[X. Tn ] := R[T1 . But there are many others: for instance. + b0 with an .3 (Subrings of Q): There are in general many diﬀerent integral domains with a given quotient ﬁeld. CLARK Remark: The ﬁeld F (R) is called the ﬁeld of fractions3 of the integral domain R. since R is a domain. . suppose R is an integral domain.. + a0 and bm T m + .. and (iii) every subring of Q is of the form RS for some set of primes S . . Tn−1 ][Tn ]. Y ] is just a polynomial ring in one variable (called Y ) over the polynomial ring R[X ]. In fact. One can consider the ring R[T ] of polynomials with coeﬃcients in T : that ∑n is. and consider the subset Rp of Q consisting of rational numbers of the form a b where b is not divisible by any prime except p (so. among various possible formal deﬁnitions. The two obvious ones are Z and Q.6 PETE L. . A little checking reveals that Rp is a subring of Q. . RS ̸= RS ′ . it seems best to use a diﬀerent term for the fraction construction. R[T ] is an integral domain iﬀ R is an integral domain. let us consider the integral domains with quotient ﬁeld Q. an bm ̸= 0. this polynomial is said to have degree n. Example 3. . . . we take the zero polynomial to have degree −∞. Tn ]. but this is not very enlightening.

this is denoted F (T ) and called the ﬁeld of rational functions over F . since every root of p in R is also a root of p in the fraction ﬁeld F (R). b) a(T ) = q (T ) · (T − c). (One can equally well consider ﬁelds of rational functions in several variables. c ∈ G.) The polynomial ring F [T ]. there exists b ∈ G such that ab = ba = e.) Corollary 7. the polynomial T 2 − 1 ∈ Z8 [T ] has degree 2 and 4 roots: 1. Remark: The same result holds for polynomials with coeﬃcients in an integral domain R. where F is a ﬁeld. there exist unique polynomials q (T ) and r(T ) such that b(T ) = q (T )a(T ) + r(T ) and deg(r(T )) < deg(a(T )). (Division theorem for polynomials) Given any two polynomials a(T ). Example 4. the set of all bijections . b. Corollary 8. the converse is obvious. FIELDS AND GROUPS 7 P (T ) quotients Q (T ) of polynomials. required to satisfy the following axioms: (G1) for all a. a task we leave to the reader. Now plug in T = c: we get that a(c) = r. Example: Take an arbitrary set S and put G = Sym(S ). This may sound innocuous. has many nice properties. (Factor theorem) For a(T ) ∈ F [T ] and c ∈ F . A more concrete form of this result should be familiar from high school algebra: instead of formally proving that such polynomials exist. (G3) For all a ∈ G. in some ways it is strongly reminiscent of the ring Z of integers. but do not underestimate its power – a judicious application of this Remark (often in the case R = Z/pZ) can and will lead to substantial simpliﬁcations of “classical” arguments in elementary number theory. the following are equivalent: a) a(c) = 0.ALGEBRA HANDOUT 1: RINGS. Of course this is as good or better: all one needs to do is to give a rigorous proof that the algorithm works. zero – so r is a constant. (Hint: induct on the degree of b. a(T ) = q (T )(T − c). (a ∗ b) ∗ c = a ∗ (b ∗ c) (associativity) (G2) There exists e ∈ G such that for all a ∈ G. one learns an algorithm for actually ﬁnding q (T ) and r(T ). getting a(T ) = q (T )(T − c) + r(T ). The degree of r must be less than the degree of T − c. A nonzero polynomial p(T ) ∈ F [T ] has at most deg(p(T )) roots. e ∗ a = a ∗ e = a. but we shall not do so here.e.1: Corollary 8 does not hold for polynomials with coeﬃcients in an arbitrary commutative ring: for instance. 5.. i. 5. 7. The most important common property is the ability to divide: Theorem 6. b(T ) in F [T ]. Commutative groups A group is a set G endowed with a single binary operation ∗ : G × G → G. Proof: We apply the division theorem with b(T ) = (T − c). 3. So if a(c) = 0.

The proof6 is combinatorial: we exhibit a partition of G into a union of subsets Hi . Then. a subgroup) of the group SL2 (R). But this is a bit like saying you can put on your pants in “one step” if you hold them steady and jump into them: it’s true but not really much of a time saver. . the rotation matrices form a − sin θ cos θ subset (indeed. the n × n matrices with coeﬃcients in F form a ring under the operations of matrix addition and matrix multiplication. coming up soon). Here g ranges over all elements of G. (Lagrange) For a subgroup H of the ﬁnite group G. CLARK f : S → S . .e. so subgroups necessarily contain the identity. this is called the symmetric group of order n. such that #Hi = #H for all i. namely the subsets of the form gH = {gh | h ∈ H }. what is not possible is for them to 4Indeed there is something called the “one step subgroup test”: a nonempty subset H ⊂ G is a subgroup iﬀ whenever g and h are in H . We have notions of subgroups and group homomorphisms that are completely analogous to the corresponding ones for rings: a subgroup H ⊂ G is a subset which is nonempty. the two cosets g1 H and g2 H are either equal or disjoint – i. the order of G is #H · n. In other words. also h−1 and e = h ∗ h−1 ∈ H .e. and that f is injective iﬀ Kf = 1. (Since there exists some h ∈ H . the determinant is a homomorphism of groups. and is closed under the group law and inversion: i. GLn (F ). It is easy to check that the invertible matrices form a group under matrix multiplication (the “unit group” of the ring Mn (F ). where n is the number of subsets. this is an interesting and important group. again called the kernel of f . the key is that for g1 . for any group homomorphism f : G1 → G2 we can consider the subset Kf = {g ∈ G1 | f (g ) = eG2 } of elements mapping to the identity element of G2 .” 6This proof may be too brief if you have not seen the material before. . g2 ∈ G. Again we get many examples just by taking a homomorphism of rings and forgetting about multiplication. When S = {1. It is easy to check that Kf is always a subgroup of G1 . feel free to look in any algebra text for more detail. Recall that for any positive integer n. we have #H | #G. denoted Mn (F ). The kernel of the determinant map is denoted SLn (F )... a well-known property of the determinant is that det(AB ) = det(A) det(B ). Consider the subset of invertible matrices. and is not commutative if n ≥ 2 (when n = 1 it is just the group of nonzero elements of F under multiplication).5 For instance. . otherwise known as the group of all permutations on n elements: it has order n!. The determinant is a map det : GLn (F ) → F \ {0}. . that f (eG1 ) = eG2 is then automatic). h ∈ H then also g ∗ h and g −1 are in H . by deﬁnition. or just accept the result on faith for now. then g ∗ h−1 ∈ H . n}.8 PETE L. Theorem 9. it is the collection matrices [ of all n × n ] cos θ sin θ with determinant 1. just as for a homomorphism of rings. No matter what F is. if g.)4 And a homomorphism f : G1 → G2 is a map of groups which satisﬁes f (g1 ∗ g2 ) = f (g1 ) ∗ f (g2 ) (as mentioned above. Moreover. Example 5.1: Let F be a ﬁeld. The Hi ’s will be the left cosets of H . 5The “GL” stands for “general linear” and the “SL” stands for “special linear.

The units in Z are ±1. g. A group G is called cyclic if it has an element g such that every element x in G is of the form 1 = g 0 . so uv is also a unit. h2 ∈ H . then the order of g – i. but of course it will be if R is commutative. A nonzero ring is a division ring iﬀ every nonzero element is a unit.e. To see this: suppose x ∈ g1 H and is also in g2 H . h2 ∈ H such that x = g1 h1 and also x = g2 h2 .ALGEBRA HANDOUT 1: RINGS. Indeed. +) is a commutative group. · g or g −n = g −1 · g −1 · . The set of all units in a ring is denoted R× . up to isomorphism. and since h1 . It is not hard to show that these are the only cyclic groups. It is not hard to see that the units form a group under multiplication: for instance. If you know about such things (no matter if you don’t). . . and it is easily checked that the distinct elements of this group are 1. (R. g n := g · g · . Similarly. and then uv · (v −1 u−1 ) = (v −1 u−1 )uv = 1. But then g2 = g1 h1 h− is 2 . the (unique) inverse u−1 of a unit is a unit. for every positive integer n. The group (Z. . then they have two-sided inverses denoted u−1 and v −1 . for any h ∈ H . there is nothing to check: a ring is simply more structure than a group. . 0 is never a unit (except in the zero ring. +) forms an inﬁnite cyclic group. .. 1 −1 so g1 h1 = g2 h2 . this is true for all groups. In general. the least positive integer k such that g k = 1 – divides n. Moreover. Thus the order of g divides the order of G by Lagrange’s Theorem. Thus overlapping cosets are equal. . so the order of g is also #⟨g ⟩. which was to be shown. +) is cyclic of order n. g 2 . · g −1 for some positive integer n. If G has order n. . Corollary 10. we can equally well show that g1 H ⊂ g2 H . and g ∈ G. in which 0 = 1). Indeed. denoted ⟨g ⟩. Interchanging the roles of g2 and g1 .2: For any ring R. we get for each n a commutative group Zn just by taking the ring Zn and forgetting about the multiplicative structure. g k−1 . so that g2 H ⊂ g1 H . . for any subgroup H of any group G. the group (Zn . This means that there exist h1 . For instance. Proof: The set of all positive powers of an element of a ﬁnite group forms a subgroup. Example 5. . we showed that there is a set S – namely the set of distinct left cosets {gH } such that the elements of G can be put in bijection with S × H . Remark: In the proof that G is partitioned into cosets of H . h3 := h1 h2 also an element of H . if u and v are units. FIELDS AND GROUPS 9 share some but not all elements. R× is not commutative. Example 5. so that g1 H = g2 H . meaning that g2 = g1 h3 is in the coset g1 H . this means precisely that #H divides #G even if one or more of these cardinalities is inﬁnite.3: 1 is always a unit. this implies that g2 h = g1 h3 h = g1 h4 ∈ g1 H . An element u of a ring R is a unit if there exists v ∈ R such that uv = vu = 1. we did not use the ﬁniteness anywhere.

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