Sukkur Institute of Business Administration

Department of Electrical (Telecom) Engineering Digital Signal Processing LAB#05 Name: __ Score: _________________________ Roll No: _____ Date: Signature: __________

BASIC OPERATIONS ON SIGNALS Objective: Following are the main objectives of this lab. 1. To perform basic operations of signals 1 Time Scaling 2 Time Reversal 3 Time Shift 2. To perform combinations of these operations on a signal 3. To plot the signals and their operated counterparts using Matlab Equipment • IBM compatible computer • Matlab 7.10 Theory Basic Operations There are three basic operations performed on signals in a complex system. Before one models complex signals and systems, he must understand the mathematical representation and physical effect of these operations on signals. Time Scaling The time scaled version of x(t) is represented mathematically as x(bt), where b is the scale factor and is always greater than 0. Further, there are two possibilities; i.e., either b<1 or b>1. If b<1, the resulting scaling is called Expansion, and the resulting signal is called Expanded Signal. Conversely, if b>1, the resulting scaling is called Compression, and the resulting signal is called Compressed Signal. Time Reversal The time reversed version of x(t) is represented mathematically as x(-t), where minus sign shows the time reversal. The resulting signal is called Time Reversed Signal. Time Shifting The time shifted version of x(t) is represented mathematically as x(t-t1), where t1 is the amount of time by which the signal is delayed. The time shift is called Delay if t1>0 and it is called Time Advance if t1<0. If t1>0, the resulting signal is called Time

f=1.m extension. and run it. w=2*pi*f. its time delayed x(t-1).m extension. Observation Attach the plots you obtained from the above mentioned programs and also for the programs mentioned in exercises below. t1 = 1. axis([-3 3 0 5]). x = exp(t). x2 = exp(t-t1). t. x. and its time reversed version x(-t). 'red'.5t). 'red'. . axis([-3 3 0 5]). x = sawtooth(w*t). b = 2. x2.m extension. axis([-3 3 -5 5]). xrev. t. if t1<0. its compressed version x(2t). x = exp(t). save it with a valid filename with . and run it. x. t. t=-3:0. x. and run it. x2 = sawtooth(w*b*t). x2. grid on Procedure 1) Type following Program 1. save it with a valid filename with .'green'. 'blue'). t=-5:0. x1 = exp(t-t1).01:3. 'blue'). Program 3 Following Matlab program plots function x(t)=e-3t. x1. x1 = sawtooth(w*b*t). t1=-1. t.Delayed Signal. and its expanded version x(0. x1. 'green'. xrev= exp(-t).01:5. 'red'. 'blue'). the resulting signal is called Time Advanced Signal. Conversely. plot(t. 2) Type following Program 2. t.01:3. plot(t.5. 3) Type following Program 3. Programs Program 1 Following Matlab program plots function x(t)=sawtooth(wt). plot(t. save it with a valid filename with . and its time advanced version x(t+1). b=0. t=-3:0. Program 2 Following Matlab program generates and plots function x(t) = et.

Exercise 2 Plot the discrete time signal a. Also plot the following: Exercise 3 Plot the continuos time signal x(t) = t/(t2 + 4).e.. compressed version of the delayed signal. its delayed version x(t-0. T = 2 b. which generates and plots function x(t)=sin(2π fot). x[(n-2)T. x(2t-1) Review Questions 1. Ans:. i. T = 0. x(2(t0. Ans: 3.Exercise 1 Write a Matlab program. x[(n+4)T].5(t-0. x(0. Can be a signal Even and Odd at the same time? Can all the signals be categorized either as Even or Odd signal? Give examples. What is an Even Signal? Give examples. x(t+3. and expanded version of the delayed signal i.75 x[nT] = 4n 2 + n 2 . x(0.2)).6) 4. What is an Odd signal? Give Examples.e. for T=2.5t) 2. Keep f0=1. Ans: 2.8t) 3. Plot the following: 1.2)). x(1. .2) and.

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