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1.0 2.0 INTRODUCTION DESIGN
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Subsoil Investigation Design Standard Design Calculation ISO Certification
DEFINITIONS MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
4.1 Backfill material 4.1.1 Physical Properties 4.1.2 Resistivity 4.1.3 pH value 4.1.4 Chloride and sulphate content 4.1.5 Sulphide Content 4.1.6 Redox Potential 4.1.7 Organic content 4.1.8 Microbial Activity Facing Element 4.2.1 Precast Concrete Facing Panel 188.8.131.52 Casting of Panel 184.108.40.206 Concrete Strength and Quality 220.127.116.11 Facing Finish and Tolerance 18.104.22.168 Anchorage Lugs 22.214.171.124 Lifting Hooks 126.96.36.199 Reinforcement Bars 188.8.131.52 Marking 184.108.40.206 Handling, Storage and Transportation 4.2.2. 4.3 4.4 Alternative Facing Element
Concrete Anchor Blocks Reinforcing Elements 4.4.1 Galvanised Carbon Steel Bars 4.4.2 Galvanised Carbon Steel Strips Fabrication and Galvanisation Connections Joint Materials Cushion Pad
4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8
1 Subsoil Drainage 5.3.2 Foundation Preparation 5.7 220.127.116.11 Provision of Monitoring 5.1 6.3 Concrete Levelling Pad Wall Erection 5.0 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT 6.3.5 Supply of System Component Materials Excavation Wall Erection Concrete Levelling Pad Backfill 1.3 6.1 Excavation 18.104.22.168 5.1 Installation 22.214.171.124 5.3 Method Statement Setting Out Site Preparation 5.5 5.1 Placement of fill 5.0 INTRODUCTION Page 2 of 13 .4.2 Temporary Surface Drainage Testing and Monitoring 5.6.3 Alignment and Verticality Backfilling 5.1 Pull Out Test 5.5.2 Compaction Drainage 5.2 6.3.1 5.7.2 Joint Materials and Cushion Pads 5.4 6.2 5.
supply.1 Subsoil Investigation Subsoil investigation shall be carried out prior to the commencement of the design and construction works to determine the adequacy of the subsoil to support the reinforced soil structure.The scope of this specification covers the design.3 Design Calculation 2. The requirements of the above standard shall be deemed to form part of this specification.4 ISO Certification The approved specialist contractor for the contruction of Reinforced Soil Structures shall have attained the certification of ISO 9001 unless otherwise approved by the client / owner. 3. 2. delivery and construction of reinforced soil structures with inextensible reinforcement.3. 2. 2.1 Design Report including design calculations shall be submitted by the specialist contractor and indepently audited or to be reviewed by geotechnical specialist registered with IEM / ACEM or checked by the consultant. Design Calculations and drawings shall be endorsed by a Professional Engineer. Scope of SI shall be performed by qualified P.2 2.0 DESIGN 2. 2.Eng and according to the requirements specified in “Guideline for Planning Scope of SI for Road Work”.0 DEFINITIONS Page 3 of 13 .2 Design Standard The following standard shall be adopted in the design of reinforced soil structures: BS 8006: 1995 Code of Practice for Strengthened/Reinforced Soils and other fills.3.
reinforcing element with or without the anchor blocks and other accessories.“Anchored earth” shall mean a form of reinforced soil which uses anchors embedded within the backfill soil mass to provide stability. “Inextensible reinforcement” shall mean reinforcement that sustains the design loads at strains less than or equal to 1%. 4. See section 4.O.0 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS The component materials of a Reinforced Soil structure shall consist of the backfill material. Cohesive frictional fill material may be allowable for Anchored Earth system only subject to the approval of the S. See section 4.1.1 Backfill Material The backfill material used in the Reinforced Soil structure shall be a frictional fill material or cohesive frictional fill material free from organic or other deleterious material.1 “Reinforced earth” shall mean a form of reinforced soil which uses reinforcing elements embedded within the backfill soil mass to provide stability. The use of cohesive frictional fill shall take proper consideration of the drainage requirements and the selection of appropriate soil parameters. “Backfill material” shall mean fill material in the reinforced soil structure in contact with the reinforcing elements. facing elements. “Reinforced soil structure” shall mean a structure with vertical or near-vertical face which comprises tensile reinforcements act through interface friction. bearing or other means to improve stability. 4. The backfill material shall conform to the physical. Resistance to pull out is provided solely by friction between the reinforcing element and the backfill material. Resistance to pull-out is provided by passive action of the anchor and friction along the anchor shaft.1 Physical properties Page 4 of 13 .1.1.1 “Frictional fill” shall mean fill containing less than 15 % material passing a 63 µm test sieve in accordance with BS 410. “Cohesive frictional fill” shall mean fill containing more than 15 % material passing a 63 µm sieve in accordance with BS 410. connections and facings including both selected fill and filter material. electrochemical and chemical properties detailed below:4.
1. 4. the concentration of the sulphide shall be checked and shall not exceed 300 and 100 mg/kg for structures constructed outside water and in soft water respectively. the concentration of Chloride (Cl-) and 2 sulphate (SO4 -) shall be checked and shall not exceed the following limits:Outside water 200 1000 In soft water 100 500 Cl.1.(mg/kg) 4.79 15 .3 pH value The pH value of the material shall be in the range of 5 to 10.90 15 .2 Resistivity The resistivity of the backfill material shall be determined on a saturated specimen after one hour of soil water contact at 25o Centigrade.2 (mg/kg) SO4 .100 25 .5 Sulphide Content Where the origin of the material raises the possibility of the presence of sulphide.100 <15 Not Applicable Not Applicable Cohesiv e Frictional Fill 100 85 .1.100 40 .4 Chloride and Sulphate Content Where the resistivity of the material is in the range of 1000 to 5000 ohm-cm or the material is of industrial origin.75 15.1. Siev e Size (m m ) 125 75 14 2 600 m icrons 63 m icrons 2 m icrons Liquid Lim it % Plasticity Index % Frictional Fill 100 85 .45 0 -20 <45 <25 4. The resistivity of the material shall be greater than 1000 ohm-cm and 3000 ohmcm for structures constructed outside water and in soft water respectively.6 Redox Potential Page 5 of 13 . S. 4.1.100 9 .The grain size distribution and index properties shall comply with the following table: Percentage by M ass Passing the Size Shown B.100 15 . 4.
4. The test shall be carried out in accordance with BS 1377:Part 3.2. A method of calculating the Microbial Activity Index may be obtained by reference to TRRL Contractor Report 54 ‘Soil Corrosivity Assessment’. The concrete shall be placed and compacted to avoid honeycombs and blemishes.The minimum redox potential shall be 0.1. The panels shall only be demoulded after the concrete has achieved a minimum compressive strength of 7 MPa.2. 4.1 Casting of Panel The panels shall be cast on a flat area with the moulds properly assembled such that the joints are grout tight.8 Microbial Activity The Microbial Activity Index shall be less than 5.7 Organic Content The maximum organic content shall be 0. thicker panels with higher cement content shall be specifically designed for the intended purpose.1.1. Care must be exercised so that the inserts shall not contact or be attached to the reinforcements. 4.2 Concrete Strength and Quality Panels shall be made of vibrated concrete with the following requirements : Characteristic compressive strength at 28 days : Maximum aggregate size : Maximum free water/cement ratio : Minimum cement content 30 MPa 20 mm 0.2 Facing Element 4.2%.1.43 volts based on laboratory test on samples in accordance with BS 1377:Part 3 4.1 Precast Concrete Facing Panels 4.2.55 325 kg/m3 The cover to reinforcement shall be in accordance to BS8110 but not less than 40 mm. For sea walls or structures facing very severe exposure conditions. Page 6 of 13 .
1.1. Care must be taken to ensure that the lugs do not come into contact with any surface of the internal reinforcements of the panels or blocks.2. BS 4449:1969 and 1978. irregularities or deep cracks. They shall be hot dipped galvanised to a minimum thickness of 85 µm in accordance to BS 729.4 Anchorage Lugs The anchorage lugs shall be pre-bent.1. 4. They shall be high yield deformed bars in conformity with MS 146:1973.4.3 Facing Finish and Tolerances The finish of the exposed face of the panel shall be as shown in the drawings and shall be free of honeycombs. the height of full panels shall be within +/.1.2. Page 7 of 13 . 4.2. c. 4.5 mm while the height of half panels shall be within +/. the width of all panels shall be within +/.2. stored and transported in such a manner as to eliminate the possibilities of chipping. 4. Surface deviation from smooth formed surfaces measured over a length of 1. d.5mm the difference between the lengths of the diagonals shall not exceed 10 mm twist or warp shall not exceed 5 mm 4.3 mm. stains.2.8 Handling. holed and cast into the facing panels in accordance to the dimensions shown in the drawings.1.7 Marking The date of manufacture and type of each panel shall be clearly scribed on the unexposed surface of the panel.5 m shall not exceed 5 mm.2. Tolerance in dimensions are as follows : a.6 Reinforcement Bars Where required the reinforcement bars shall be placed in accordance with the drawings.1. Storage and Transportation All the panels shall be handled. b.5 Lifting Hooks The lifting hooks shall be pre-bent and cast into the facing panels in positions in accordance to the dimensions showns on the drawings.
4.4. 4.2 Alternative facing element shall be subjected to the approval of S. and excessive bending stress. They shall be inspected to ensure that they are free from defects that may impair their strength and durability.2 Galvanised Carbon Steel Strips The carbon steel strips shall comply with BS 1449: Part 1 (1972) either quality KHR 34/20P or KHR 54/35P. They shall be hot dipped galvanised with zinc in accordance with BS 729 with a minimum thickness of 85 µm. 4. provided the structural strength of the alternative facing element is equivalent to the precast concrete facing panels. The sacrificial thickness to be allowed for on each surface exposed to corrosion shall be 0.3 Concrete Anchor Blocks For Anchored Earth system that requires concrete anchor blocks. 4. 4. they shall be cast with the same concrete strength and quality as stated in clause 4.4.discoloration. 4.1 Galvanised Carbon Steel Bars The reinforcing bars shall generally be in accordance with the composition and property requirements of MS 146 or BS 4449:1988.6 Connections Connections shall be as specified on the drawings and shall comprise one or more of the following:- Page 8 of 13 .2.75 mm. fractures.4 Reinforcing Elements The reinforcing elements shall either be galvanised carbon steel bars connected to concrete anchor blocks or galvanised carbon steel strips. cracks.2. The panels shall be stored in such a way that they are firmly supported and the exposed finish surface protected from staining. The concrete strength of the panels shall reach a minimum compressive strength of 23 MPa before they are allowed to be transported.O. 4. The dimensions of the blocks shall not be less than those shown in the drawings.5 Fabrication and Galvanisation The reinforcing elements shall be cut to length and threaded or holed in specified locations.1. stains.2.
method of supporting the facing panels during construction.6 and of nuts not less than 4. Page 9 of 13 . Proposals shall also include the following:a. and the names and records of experience of the supervisory staff to be used on the works. 4.8 Cushion Pad The cushion pads placed at the horizontal joint shall be made of rubber with shore hardness 85 or approved equivalent materials. f. details of all necessary temporary works including temporary drainage for the construction of the reinforced soil structures.0 5. The method statement shall contain specific working details of manpower. 5.7 Joint Materials The fillers for the vertical and horizontal joints where pads are used shall be flexible open cell polyurethane foam strips of 40 mm square cross section or approved equivalent materials.a) Precision hexagon bolts.1 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS Method Statement The contractor shall submit to the engineer method statement prior to the commencement of construction. programme of work. details of compaction methods including the thickness of compacted fill layers and capacities of the earthmoving and compaction equipment. d.8 complying with BS 3692 hot dipped galvanised in accordance with the requirements of BS 729. Black hexagon bolts.. machine and materials requested to execute the works. b) c) d) 4. The strength grade designation of bolts and screws shall not be less than 4. Plain washers shall be of either Form A or Form E to BS 4320 and shall be made from cold rolled carbon steel strip CS4 complying with BS 1449:Part 1 hot dipped galvanised in accordance with BS 729. b. screws and nuts shall comply with the dimensional requirements of BS 3692 and shall be made from steel alloy Grade 8.0. c. sequence of construction. screws and nuts shall comply with BS 4190 and shall be hot dipped galvanised in accordance with the requirements of BS 729. Anchorage lugs shall be made from carbon steel strips complying with BS 149:Part 1 (1972) either of quality KHR 34/20/P or KHR 54/35P. e.
level and alignment of each panel shall be checked immediately after its placement and again at the completion of each course.3 Site Preparation 5. 5. Except for the bottom course of panels.3.2 Setting Out The setting out shall be carried out as shown on the set out drawings. Any weak material or debri shall be removed and replaced with compacted granular material .1 Installation The facing panels shall be hoisted with the aid of a lifting device. The initial row of panels shall be braced externally.3. 5. 5.3 Concrete levelling pad The plain concrete levelling pad shall be cast accurately to line and level as detailed on the drawing 24 hours before the actual wall erection works commence.5. The spacing. The subsequent rows of panels shall be held in place by temporary clamps securing the present rows of panels to the previously erected rows which is already held firmly in place by the reinforcing elements buried in the backfill.4.4 Wall Erection 5. Excavation for the base of the wall shall be carried out in accordance with the site setting out in accordance with the drawing.2 Base Preparation The foundation base shall be graded level and well compacted for a width equal to the length of the reinforcing elements. Each row of the panels shall be followed immediately by the placement of fill and the connection of the reinforcing elements before the next successive horizontal row of panels is being erected. all others panels shall be tilted towards the fill material during placement to compensate for the Page 10 of 13 . They are placed in sucessive courses.3.1 Excavation Confirmatory tests such as Mackintosh probes or boreholes specified by designer shall be carried out to confirm the bearing capacity before excavation. Grade 20 concrete shall be used and no reinforcement is required. 5.
4. The direction of travel of the construction vehicle for the placement. No joint material is required between the levelling pad and the bottom course of the facing panels.5 Backfilling 5.outward movement expected during or subsequent to compaction of the fill material. No heavy vehicle weighing more than 1000 kg shall be allowed within the 1. spread. The travelling of construction vehicles especially those with crawler track wheels directly onto the reinforcing element is prohibited. 5. Page 11 of 13 .1 Placement of Fill Backfilling operation shall be carried out immediately following the completion of the installation of each row of panels. spreading and compaction of the fill shall be parallel to the alignment of the wall at all time. The deviation from the designed alignment and verticality shall not exceed 50 mm. The fill material shall be deposited. 5. Ribs and other features on the face shall align exactly with corresponding features of adjacent panel.2 Joint Materials and Cushion Pads Joint materials shall be placed in all the joints between the panels. They shall be placed on the cleaned top edges of each facing panels just prior to the placing of the mating facing panel.5.4. The degree of inclination shall be adjusted where necessary as placement and compaction of fill material proceeds to ensure that the verticality of the wall complies with the requirements.5 m zone from the rear face of the panel. Cushion pads shall be placed at the slots on the top edge of each panels before the installation of the subsequent row of panels. The timber wedges shall be removed as soon as their functions are fulfilled. 5.3 Alignment and Verticality The alignment and verticality is constantly checked with a plumb bob and adjusted with the aid of temporary timber wedges inserted into the joints between the panels. levelled and compacted in layers of thickness of not exceeding 375 mm so that each reinforcing element can be fixed at the required level on top of the compacted fill material without any voids forming directly underneath the reinforcing element. Sharp turn of vehicle causing centrifugal forces exerting toward the rear face of the panels shall be avoided.
2 Monitoring Monitoring and instrumentation of the wall .7 Testing and Monitoring 5. Laying of the subsoil pipe shall be in accordance with the levels designated on the drawings.6.1 Pull Out Test Pull out test shall be carried out by the specialist contractor as specified or as directed by the S.5.6 Drainage 5.0 ton vibratory plate compactor for at least three passess. At the end of each day any surplus backfill behind the structure shall be level-off at a gentle slope so that any surface run-off can flow into the temporary drainage. shall be a 100 mm diameter perforated PVC pipe or approved equivalent.5. trucks and heavy construction vehicles shall be kept back at least 1. The 1. 5.5kg Rammer) During the backfilling operation and compaction.7.5 m zone shall be compacted with a 1. Part 4 (4.7.2 Temporary Surface Drainage During the construction of the reinforced soil structure. where required. Page 12 of 13 . 10 mm diameter concentric holes staggered at 150 mm longitudinal spacing.O.1 Subsoil Drainage The subsoil pipe.5 m away from the back face of the facing panel.2 Compaction The fill material shall be compacted to 95% of the maximum dry density as determined in accordance with BS 1377:1990. Surface runoff water from adjacent area shall not be allowed to enter the reinforced soil structure construction area. shall be carried out as shown in drawing. The pipe shall be perforated with 4 nos.6. 5. 5. temporary drainage shall be constructed to divert any surface run-off away from the structure. 5. when indicated on drawing.
6. Page 13 of 13 . anchor blocks. anchor blocks and other accessories to the lines and grade shown on the drawings.5 Backfill The unit of measurement for backfill material shall be the compacted volume in cubic metre. reinforcing elements. 6.0 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT 6. joint materials. 6. 6. reinforcing elements. The embedded portion of the wall. 6.4 Concrete Levelling Pad The unit of measurement for the concrete levelling pad shall be the length in linear metre completed in place and accepted. joint gaps and drainage or service holes in the wall shall be included in measurement of the wall surface area.1 Supply of System Components Materials The unit of measurement for the supply of all system components materials for the wall including the facing panels. fasteners and other accessories shall be in square metres of the wall surface area. The rate shall include compensation for all labour and materials required to install the facing elements. measured along the line and grade of the pad.2 Excavation The unit of measurement for the volume of earth excavated shall be in cubic meters.3 Wall Erection The unit of measurement for wall erection shall be in square metres of wall surface area erected.
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