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CHEN Zhiqiu LIU Yun LUO Jianjun JIANG Hong

Astronautic School Northwestern Polytechnical University Xian, China Astronautic@yeah.net

AbstractAccording to the design requirement of UAV (The unmanned aircraft vehicle) the models of threat, UAVs dynamics, guidance and trajectory planning are established. Trajectory planning adopts genetic algorithms(GAs) and genetic coding uses distance, corner program. Through simulating by Matlab/Simlink software, the result proves the trajectory planning according with dynamics characteristic. Keywords-UAV;GAs;Trajectory Planning

4. The damage probability of the threat source can be regarded as aim condition coordinate damage probabilities which formula is G0 (r ) = e r . The UAVs damage probability of all the threat sources can be expressed as

2

2 0

I.

INTRODUCTION

UAV mentioned in this paper is a type of no remote sensing and no remote controlling equipments, auto guiding after takeoff and auto working after flying into the working space. UAV adopts GPS and the voyage forecast guidance method. The information of GPS is basic guidance parameters. When GPS information loses, the voyage forecast guidance method works to guide it flying on the scheduled path by the information of estimated wind velocity before failing or weather forecast before takeoff or the sensors on UAV. Guiding paths include a cruising path, a working path, and a self-destruction path. Every path can upload over 3 voyage points in advance. The required path mainly is a cruising path between takeoff and arriving at working area. The main target is to avoid threat area, adapting flight capability and improving survival capability of UAVs. II. THE MODEL OF THREAT In order to save fuel and reach the maximal distance, UAVs always fly with a fixed height, leveling off and small yaw angles. The threat sources mainly are the radar fence, the aerial defence, the climate condition, etc. Because UAVs fly in a high altitude, the terrain threat will not be effective. The 3D path planning problem can be changed to the 2D plane. All the threat sources shape can be simplified to the combination of columns and tapers. The main danger for UAVs is the effect of the radar fence and the aerial defence. There are the assumptions of the threat model sources. 1. The character of radar detection does not change. There are no communications between them. 2. UAVs Radar Cross-Sections(RCS) are same. UAV can be considered as particle. 3. All the threat sources can be considered as a rotundity an its radius is r0 .

978-0-7695-3562-3/09 $25.00 2009 IEEE DOI 10.1109/ICCMS.2009.34 7

Hence, the average damage probability of UAV in the flight course can be expressed as

Pn =

l( d1 , d 2 ,d n+1 ) n +1 i =1

2 2

f n ( x, y )dl .

i

III.

There are the assumptions of the dynamics model. 1. UAV is a rigid body with changing weight for fuel consuming. 2. The wing and body do not have elasticity. There are no peg-top effects on the circumrotating parts of UAVs body. 3.The assumption is an instantaneous balance. 4. UAVs always fly with a fixed height, small attack and yaw angles. sin ,sin ,cos cos 1 . 5. The control is almost perfect. Then the model of dynamics can be given. 1. The dynamics formula for the center of mass in the flight path coordinate. dV m = P X dt mV d V = P + Z dt 1 2 X = 2 V SCD Z = 1 V 2 SC Z 2 CZ = CZ + CZ y y my = y my y

2. The kinematics formula for the center of mass in the ground coordinate.

V.

dx = Vx = V cos V dt dz = V = V sin z V dt

= = V + 3. The thrust model of engine N T= V is the thrust of engine

Trajectory planning adopts genetic GAs and genetic coding uses distance, corner[1] program. The Point A is the starting point. Then point B,C,D can be expressed in the formulas.

xC = xD + d 2 cos(1 + 2 ) yC = y D + d 2 sin(1 + 2 ) Therefore, point n can also be expressed in the formulas. xn = d1 cos 1 , yn = d1 sin 1

xi = xi+1 + d n+1i cos( j )

j =1 n +1i

xD = d1 cos1 , yD = d1 sin 1

N H = A N0

yi = yi +1 + d n +1i sin( j ) , (i = 1, 2, n 1)

j =1

n +1 i

N0

NH

d4

1 4

is the power in the sky. 4. The control model of engine In order to ensure the flight in the sky to reach the maximal distance, the thrust in Z axes and the lift must be bigger than the weight of UAV. mg = P + Y 1 Y = C y V 2 S 2

d3

d1

d2

Figure 2.

IV. THE MODEL OF GUIDANCE Because the position parameters are precise in GPS, in the simulation the parameters can be considered as no error. Through integral dx, dy the position parameters ( x, y ) can be calculated. UAVs fly in the beelines between the guidance points and with horizontal swerving between the straight flight course.

T h e start o f cru ise

The codings use read coded genes. Every individual is a trajectory. There are n points in the trajectory. The coding is k xik = dik,1dik,2 dik,n dik,n +1 ik,1ik,2 ik,nik,n +1 . xi is No. i individual in No.

k generation population.

VI. INITIALIZATION POPULATION

maximal yaw angles. Lmin is the minimal flight distance. The chromosomes in xi0 (i = 1, 2, , N ) can be expressed as

di0, j =

( j = 1, 2,3,, n)

is a normal random

Y aw o r n o t

Y aw N Y aw en d Y

G o straigh t

The

k i

fitness

function

for

xik (i = 1, 2, N )

is

C alcu late th e d istance to th e nex t p oint > T h e con firm in g d istan ce < OR = G u idan ce en d o n th is p oin t Y N ex t G uid an ce path N

. In the formula T is the individual evaluation function. FAng is a sign which is bigger than normal in the first yaw angle. When it is bigger than normal or not, FAng will be 1 or 0. FDis is a sign which is longer than normal for distance. When it is longer than F normal or not Dis will be 1 or 0. p Ang and pDis are penalty functions.

k i

i =1

VIII. CROSSOVER OPERATION The crossover operator adopts arithmetic crossover. k k d ik 1, j = d i1, j + (1 ) d i 2 , j , k k k d i 2, j = (1 ) d i 2 + d i 2, j ( j = 1,2, , n) k k k i1, j = i1, j + (1 ) i 2, j , k k k i 2, j = (1 ) i 2 + i 2, j ( j = 1,2, , n)

Figure 3. The number of generation is 5. The level of satisfaction 0.9058, 0.9200.

ik, j = ik, j + n 2 ( j = 2, n) ;

n1 and n 2

distribution.

EVALUATION FUNCTION T

Figure 5. The simulation trajectory of dynamics

Pn 1 Pn 1 Pn 2 Pn 2

Pn1

Pn1

Pn 2

Pn 2

XII. CONCLUSION From the result of the simulation and calculation the level of satisfaction for the trajectory planning has been increased and the yaw points, angles, voyage are decreased with the increasing number of generation. All the threat sources are avoided. When the number of generation is 20, all the results are similar and approach the same trajectory. The conclusion proves that the algorithms are effective and steady. From the result of the simulation trajectory for dynamics, UAV can fly on the planning trajectory and go through the yaw points in permitted errors. The actions and yaw angles are small. All the actions do not exceed the acceleration in design. The simulation proves that the planning is credible for UAVs. REFERENCES

[1] Hebert Jeffrey M Air Vehicle Path Planning, Doctor paper AFITDSENG/01042001

+ L =1

probability and voyage. Pn '' = 0 ( Pn Pn '') P '' P P ( x ) = n n ( Pn ' < Pn < Pn '') Pn '' Pn ' ( Pn Pn ') P ' =1 n XI. SIMULATION AND CALCULATION The population size is N = 50 .The crossover size is 0.9 The probability of mutation is 0.1. The trajectory is calculated and the simulation of trajectory is shown in following charts.

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