GP–2603 JUNE 30, 2006
Copyright 2009 by EMBRAER - Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica S.A.. All rights reserved. This document shall not be copied or reproduced, whether in whole or in part, in any form or by any means without the express written authorization of Embraer. The information, technical data, designs and drawings disclosed in this document are property information of Embraer or third parties and shall not be used or disclosed to any third party without permission of Embraer.



ORIGINAL ............0 ........... JUN 30, 2006 REVISION ............1 ............ JUL 23, 2007 REVISION ............2 ........... SEP 01, 2008 REVISION ............3 ...........NOV 27, 2009

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.................REVISION 2 62 .....REVISION 2 66 ........ added or deleted by the current revision.................REVISION 2 51 ..REVISION 2 59 ..........................REVISION 2 64 ......REVISION 2 56 ............ .........REVISION 2 57 ..........................................................................REVISION 2 58 ...REVISION 2 53 .LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION 50 ..............................................REVISION 2 61 .REVISION 2 0-LEP Page 2 REVISION 3 GP-2603 * Asterisk indicates pages revised.........REVISION 2 52 ....REVISION 2 60 ............................REVISION 2 54 .REVISION 2 65 .................................REVISION 2 63 .....................REVISION 2 55 ...

.................................................. 34 GENERAL ................................ 3 PRECISION APPROACH CATEGORIES................................................................................. 7 DECISION HEIGHT............... 11 FAIL PASSIVE LANDING SYSTEM.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12 LOW VISIBILITY TAKEOFF (LVTO) .......... 50 NON-HUD A3 APPROACHES ........................................ 6 SLANT VISUAL RANGE (SVR) ................................ 12 SECTION III – AUTOLAND SYSTEM .................................... 1 SECTION II – DEFINITIONS AND CERTIFICATION ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................GENERAL PUBLICATION TABLE OF CONTENTS LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION I – GENERAL ................... 1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................. 14 SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE ................................ 65 GP-2603 0-TOC REVISION 2 Page 1 .................. 3 AWO ..................... 41 LVTO MODE ................................................................. 3 RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE (RVR)........................ 10 LOW VISIBILITY APPROACH MINIMA ............................................ 44 HUD A3 APPROACHES ..................... 15 SYSTEM OPERATION....... 21 SECTION IV – HGS SYSTEM............................................................................................................................ 14 GENERAL ............................................................................................................. 34 SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE ...................................................... 36 SYSTEM OPERATION.....................................


Other information such as limitations and system descriptions are covered by the Airplane Flight Manual and/or Airplane Operations Manual. GP-2603 GP REVISION 2 Page 1 . etc. reduced weather minima may be significantly present in daily operations.GENERAL PUBLICATION LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS SECTION I – GENERAL INTRODUCTION Gone are the days where airlines could order extra equipment they fancied because 10% to 20% difference in the price of the airplane was not much of a concern. Presently profit margins in the Air Transport industry are tight. Investments on low visibility equipment may then be justified.). especially in the regional and short/medium haul segments. Equipment associated with Low Visibility Operations may represent significant investments for airlines. Head Up Guidance System (HGS). Although in average less than 2% of operations are performed under CAT II/III conditions worldwide. specifically related to CAT IIIa/b and Low Visibility Takeoff (LVTO) capabilities. The main focus of this publication is provide operational guidelines of such systems as predicted in All Weather Operations (AWO) regulations. depending on operator’s profile at a given airport (frequency of flights. time for arrivals/departures. This General Publication provides information for operators regarding Low Visibility equipment certified onboard EMBRAER 170/175/190/195 family. type of airport. The only way to justify their price is to prove that they are the most effective way to maintain schedule reliability without diversions and delays due to reduced operations minima.. Two systems are covered: • • AFCS equipped with Autoland.

Extending the landing capability to CAT III minima requires pilots to have visual references only a few seconds before touchdown. Operational techniques and special systems were developed to improve the rate of successful approaches. when the crew looks for clues to understand the real situation of the airplane related to the runway. mitigating human errors.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION LOW VISIBILITY ON TAKEOFF Low visibility conditions limit airplane departures and require departure alternates. • GP Page 2 REVISION 2 GP-2603 . This can be performed using HGS. LOW VISIBILITY ON APPROACH AND LANDING The most critical phase of a low visibility landing is the transition from instrument to visual conditions. since risk of overruns after rejected takeoffs are three times higher than during clear visibility conditions. This requires total crew awareness at all times and demands systems that either: • Allow the pilot to see both the landscape ahead and the relevant instrument indications while hand flying the airplane so that the transition is not required. Does not require the pilot to hand fly the airplane. Events happen in a quickly and minor momentary distractions at this moment may result in demanding situations or even a missed approach or a balked landing. but instead uses Autoland capabilities. Additional awareness about the remaining runway length is necessary.

airplane and crew requirements. GP-2603 GP REVISION 2 Page 3 . defining specific requirements for each kind of low visibility operation. It includes guidelines for CAT I. AC 120-29 “Criteria For Approval Of Category I and Category II Weather Minima For Approach” (FAA). Based on these documents. landings and taxi are established. Based on this document. PRECISION APPROACH CATEGORIES ICAO defines precision approach as “an instrument approach and landing using precision azimuth and glide guidance with minima as determined by the category of operations”. Some examples are: • • • EASA-CS-AWO/JAR-AWO (EASA). CAT II. Landing. b. as well as airport. CAT III (a.9365 where recommendations for low visibility operations on takeoffs. AC 120-28D “Criteria For Approval Of Category III Weather Minima For Takeoff.GENERAL PUBLICATION LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS SECTION II – DEFINITIONS AND CERTIFICATION AWO All Weather Operations is the operational concept established by ICAO in Doc. They are: CATEGORY I (CAT I): A precision instrument approach and landing with: • • Decision height: DH >= 200 ft RVR >= 550 m Autopilot coupled approaches may be performed down to 50 ft or minimum autopilot use height (whichever is higher) defined by the manufacturer. There categories of approach operations are set and definitions may vary throughout the regulations. and Rollout” (FAA). Taxi under low visibility (LVTO). and c). some definitions provided may offer improved systems understanding. low visibility regulations were established worldwide.

but may be used if available.DH < 100 ft • RVR >= 200 m CATEGORY IIIb: A precision instrument approach and landing with: • • Decision height: DH < 50 ft or no decision height. 50 m < RVR < 200 m – ICAO/FAA 75 m < RVR < 200 m – EASA GP Page 4 REVISION 3 GP-2603 . For CAT I. • CATEGORY IIIa: A precision instrument approach and landing with: • Decision height: . the Autoland or HGS feature is not required for the approach.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION CATEGORY II (CAT II): A precision instrument approach and landing with: • • Decision height: 100 ft <= DH < 200 ft RVR > 300 m Comments for CAT I and II Operations: • CAT I and II minima are designed to provide suitable visual references at DH in order to permit a safe manual landing or go around.

this may be performed with the Autoland 2. The visual contact at minimum RVR is usually done just a few seconds before touchdown. this kind of operation requires both rollout and taxi guidance on ground. Refer to the AFM for further information.GENERAL PUBLICATION CATEGORY IIIc: LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS A precision instrument approach and landing with no decision height and no RVR limitation. this can be performed with either Autoland or HGS guidance. GP-2603 GP REVISION 3 Page 5 . Therefore Autoland feature or HGS guidance is mandatory for CAT III. and also provide rollout guidance down to taxi speed using ILS beam signal. Special systems are required to aid or enhance the pilot’s performance during landing. Once zero RVR and ceiling is possible. all • • • NOTE: Some configurations may not be approved in certifications. Comments for CAT III Operations: • CAT III weather minima do not provide visual references to allow safe manual landings and go arounds. Special systems certified to CAT IIIb minima are designed to guide the airplane safely to the touchdown zone or go around. Within the EMBRAER 170. Special systems certified to CAT IIIa minima are designed to guide the airplane safely to the touchdown zone or go around. Within the EMBRAER 170/175/190/195 family. flare and rollout. over the touchdown zone of the runway.

• GP Page 6 REVISION 2 GP-2603 . Centerline is identified”. Rollout Point or End of Runway. The RVR is measured by three transmissometers located side parallel along the runway extension located at: • • • Touchdown zone – required for CAT II and CAT III. it refers to the touchdown zone. Generally the three RVR values are specified in the meteorological codes. The RVR is essential information for pilots under low visibility conditions. EASA CAT III Operations: JAR OPS1 requires only one RVR measuring point. The lights delineating the runway or. since it reflects the horizontal visibility in the touchdown area and along the runway extension. When only one RVR value is provided.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE (RVR) According to ICAO: “The Runway Visual Range (RVR) is the range over which a pilot of an airplane on the centerline of the runway can see: • • • The runway surface markings or. Middle of Runway – required for CAT III. if DH is not used. Some specific requirements are: • FAA CAT III Operations: All the RVR measuring points are required when operating under the weather minima for each category.

The angle defined by the SVR line and the pitch line called “down vision angle”. An obscured segment is also created. what pilots actually see on the ground at DH is a visual segment that is defined from the angle between the SVR line and the cockpit cutoff angle (down vision angle minus approach pitch angle).DGN DOWN VISION ANGLE SVR . where the pilot cannot see any surface portion due to airplane geometry. PITCH HORIZONTAL REFERENCE W PILOT EYES 100 ft (30 m) W VISUAL SEGMENT SEGMENT OBSCURED SLANT VISUAL RANGE GP-2603 GP REVISION 2 Page 7 EM170AOM980003B. But in most of situations what pilots see is not a horizontal range at DH. where he can see the runway surface from his seat position in the cockpit”. In fact.GENERAL PUBLICATION LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS SLANT VISUAL RANGE (SVR) When low visibility moisture is homogeneous it may be expected that the RVR value near the threshold to be very similar to the visibility expected at DH. but a Slant Visual Range (SVR) defined by: “A straight line between pilot’s eyes and the farthest point in front the airplane.

50 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Pilot´s Eyes Height (ft) GP Page 8 REVISION 2 GP-2603 . h = Pilot Eyes Height. therefore the SVR will generally be less than the reported RVR. below 50 ft. It is known that fog density decreases with height above the ground. At lower altitudes.95 0.75 0. NOTE: Pilot Eyes Height = Wheel Ht + Eye-to-Wheel Ht + (Eyeto-Wheel length)*sin(Θ).65 0.70 0. The SVR is a geometrical value and reflects the opacity of a horizontal sample of the atmosphere at low heights. w = Cockpit Cutoff Angle.80 0. the SVR will be nearly the same of RVR.85 SVR/RVR 0. A model for a deep stable fog was set by the UK CAA in order to determine the relation between RVR and SVR and is widely used in aeronautical industry. calculated as follows: SVR = Where: (VS + [h * cot an( w)])2 + h 2 VS = Visual Segment.90 0. This is shown in the figure below: SVR/RVR CAA UK EVALUATION 1.55 0.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION The SVR value is geometrically determined from pilot’s eyes height above the runway related to each kind of airplane.00 0.60 0.

Therefore the correct pilot’s seat position and adjustment is essential for a good recognition of runway surface at DH. it is possible to estimate the required RVR for a CAT III operation. WHITE FRONT VIEW LOWER VIEW GP-2603 GP REVISION 3 EM170AOM140008.GENERAL PUBLICATION LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS As an example. Section 14-01-10 of the Airplane Operations Manual shows the correct way for pilots adjust their seats for all operations.DGN LI NE O F SI G HT BLACK WHITE Page 9 . As geometrically demonstrated. the optimum visual segment is attained when the pilot’s eye position is as high as possible. for a typical EMBRAER 170 geometry.

o For CAT IIIb approaches the visual reference must contain at least one centerline light. FAA also allows this to be done through barometric altitude (Decision altitude . Runway edge lights.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION DECISION HEIGHT According to ICAO. Some remarks about this definition are suitable: • • • Runway elevation means the highest point in the touchdown zone.DA) or INNER MARKER if radio altimeter measurements are not reliable due to terrain irregularities. Runway centerline or. DH is primarily recognized by radio altimeter on all certifications . Touchdown zone lights or. EASA defines some references at DH: o criterion about adequate visual • For CAT II/IIIa approaches visual references are considered not less than: ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ 3 light segments of centerline on approach lights or. FAA and EASA the Decision Height (DH) is defined as: “The wheel height above the runway elevation which a go-around procedure must be initiated unless adequate visual reference has been established and the airplane position and approach path have been accessed as satisfactory to continue the approach and landing in safety”. GP Page 10 REVISION 2 GP-2603 . but.

The localizer and glide path accuracy must remain inside the following tolerances: Maximum Lateral Deviation at Reference Point ±10.5 m ±7.0 ft +10 ft / . These specifically apply to the airport and are related to ground equipment accuracy and reliability.5 m ±3 m Maximum Vertical Deviation at Reference Point ±10 ft +10 ft / . 50 ft is recommended by ICAO).GENERAL PUBLICATION LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS LOW VISIBILITY APPROACH MINIMA Minimum values for DH and RVR are commonly referred to on regulations minima. GP-2603 GP REVISION 2 Page 11 .0 ft ILS Category CAT I CAT II CAT III The Reference Point is set over the threshold at a certain height depending on GS angle and category (CAT I = 40 to 60 ft . The quality of signal of the ILS beam is related to the category of operations and consequently defines the procedure minima. Limitations referred in AFM (airplane minima). Operators may be subject to other minima determined by other considerations such as: • • • Operational approvals (operational minima). determined by local authorities Crew qualification determined training aspects (crew minima). CAT II/III = 47 to 60 ft .

The “Fail Passive System” is defined as: “A system which. there is no significant deviation to autopilot trim.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION FAIL PASSIVE LANDING SYSTEM According to ICAO: “A automatic landing system is fail passive if. in the event of a failure. under local operational approval. centerline markings and multiple RVR information. The Autoland system and the HGS for the EMBRAER 170/175/190/195 family are certified with the fail-passive concept. Takeoff RVR may be reduced below 150 m using HGS. in event of a failure. the EMBRAER 170/175/190/195 family is not certified for hybrid operations. ICAO also defines a “Fail Passive Hybrid Landing System” that consists of: “…a fail passive automatic landing system with a monitored head up display which provides guidance to enable the pilot to complete the landing manually after a failure of the automatic landing system”. Although some airplanes may have a combination of HGS and Autoland. LOW VISIBILITY TAKEOFF (LVTO) For European operators. but the landing will not be completed automatically”. For RVR between 400 m and 150 m the following airport equipment are required: RVR (m) 250 200 150 Airport Equipment Required Runway Edge Lighting or centerline markings Runway Edge Lighting and centerline markings Runway Edge Lighting. For this kind of system the pilot must take the controls of the airplane after a system failure and perform a manual landing or go-around. GP Page 12 REVISION 2 GP-2603 . JAR OPS 1 defines a Low Visibility Takeoff (LVTO) if RVR is below 400 m. flight path or attitude. causes no significant deviation of airplane flight path or attitude”. This requires a takeoff alternate airport within one hour range with one engine inoperative.

all EMBRAER 170/175/190/195 models have the capability to be operated with 125 m RVR at takeoff. The visual segments for take-off with reported RVR of 125 m are shown in the table below for EMBRAER 170/175/190/195 models: EMBRAER model EMBRAER 170 EMBRAER 175 EMBRAER 190 EMBRAER 195 Visual Segment 110 m 111 m 109 m 109 m Consequently. GP-2603 GP REVISION 2 Page 13 .GENERAL PUBLICATION LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS Embraer has demonstrated the LVTO rollout guidance for a ILS beam CAT III with RVR down to 75 m using HGS. During the takeoff the RVR and the SVR are the same.

The interface between them is designed to contain enough information so that the pilot can correctly predict the airplane's behavior. The fail-passive Autoland system available for the E-jets allows CAT IIIa operations with decision heights not less then 50 ft. AUTOLAND 2 remains engaged until 12 kt of groundspeed. When performing an Autoland approach the pilot and the autopilot share authority over the control of the airplane. This allows heightened confidence that the system will perform as desired. However. The mode AUTOLAND 1 allows CATIIIa operations with a RVR not less than 200 m (656 ft). AUTOLAND 1 is disengaged 5 seconds after touchdown. obtaining data. The Autoland feature is probably the most effective way to reduce crew workload during the approach and landing phases. while not overloading him with unnecessary information. commercial airplanes incorporate more automation which helps the pilot by performing computations. GP Page 14 REVISION 3 GP-2603 . ability to self adapt and so on. humans are very bad at multitasking. The mode AUTOLAND 2 allows CATIIIb operations with a RVR not less than 400 ft (FAA/ICAO)/150 m (EASA). It is widely known that humans have many extraordinary abilities that no computer can match like pattern recognition.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION SECTION III – AUTOLAND SYSTEM GENERAL As aviation technology evolves. and completing tasks.

it only serves the purpose of verifying the proper function of the parallel rudder servo. This pedal command does not cause any surface movement. In Autoland-equipped airplanes. GP-2603 GP REVISION 3 Page 15 . the priority is selectable by the pilot via the MCDU menu. The Yaw Damper is required in order for the system to Arm/Engage Autoland. but are also controlled by the AFCS. YAW AXIS SYSTEM The Yaw axis system provides turn coordination and yaw damper functions. the priority is automatically transferred to the standby channel. For additional information refer to the AOM. Its failure while Autoland or Go-around modes are active will disengage the autopilot.GENERAL PUBLICATION LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE As there are many capabilities and system requirements that must be met by an airplane certified for automatic landings. to minimize exposure of the Autoland system to latent failures. If both channels are equally capable. Upon Autoland engagement. These functions operate independent of the automatic pilot and flight guidance system. and many of those are already met on the standard configuration of the E-jets. In case of failure of the active channel. only a brief description of the architecture related to the Autoland system is found below. The commands are sent directly to the rudder primary actuator control electronics (P-ACE) via the flight control modules (FCM) in the MAU. and is comprised of two channels designated as AFCS1 and AFCS2. PRIMUS EPIC AFCS The AFCS is hosted in the Primus Epic MAU. the priority being determined based on system/function availability requirements and capability. Although disturbance to the airplane due to channel transfer will be minimal. as it does for all AFCS functions. the AFCS swaps the active channel at the beginning of each new flight. yaw axis control is provided also through a parallel rudder servo. They work on an active/standby configuration. Only the Hi-Priority AFCS channel commands the AP/YD system. This servo engages at Autoland engage and at coupled Go-around. the parallel rudder servo is tested by commanding a small and slow movement of the pedals in both directions.

THRUST MANAGEMENT SYSTEM The thrust management system is configured in a dual redundant architecture designed for increased system availability and is comprised of thrust rating selection (TRS). and improving airplane cruise performance. the amplitude of the commands to track the glideslope become smaller. During Autoland operations the automatic pitch trim adds a nose up trim bias into the horizontal stabilizer trim command at 800 ft radio altitude. with the exception of the ILS receivers and radio altimeters. RADIO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The radio navigation system required for Autoland operations is basically the same installed on the standard airplanes. ETTS and TRS priority channel can be selected via the MCDU. reducing the control column force maintained by the Autopilot servo. The AT. Dual radio altimeters are required for Autoland operations. Pitch trim commands are also inhibited during flare. the signal from the radio altimeter is used by the AFCS to define the gain of the autopilot when Autoland is engaged. Electronic Thrust Trim System (ETTS) and Autothrottle (AT) functions. GP Page 16 REVISION 3 GP-2603 . There is no change or specific configuration of the TMS functions for Autoland operations. the priority will be automatically transferred to the other channel. Like in the AFCS only one channel of the TMS operates at a given time and in case of a failure in the active channel. in order to prevent a nose down transient in the event of an autopilot disconnect during flare. below 50 ft radio altitude). de-rotation or rollout modes (i. In additional to its normal functions. hence minimizing transient responses after AP disengagements. This means that when the airplane comes closer to the ground.e. the AP pitch trim system positions the horizontal stabilizer surface to off-load the aerodynamic force held by the elevator to maintain a particular flight condition.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION AP PITCH TRIM SYSTEM Also computed by the AFCS.



Dual ILS receivers are normally installed, but for Autoland operations, to ensure signal separation and integrity, second GS antenna and localizer are installed for safety and reliability reasons. Also the related software (VIDL) installed on standard airplanes needs to be updated in order to perform automatic landings. To improve safety, a Radio Tune inhibit does not allow the pilot or other airplane systems to change the Nav Radio frequency while the Autoland mode is engaged. The Autoland system also monitors the Nav Radio frequency to identify faults, which could result in a change of the Nav Radio frequency.



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SYSTEM CONTROLS Although there are no additional controls for Autoland operations, some of the buttons have new functions and/or behaviors. These differences are described below. The approach pushbutton (APP) is used to engage the highest available approach mode, for CAT I, CAT II and AUTOLAND. A second press will disarm or deactivate the mode. When the AUTOLAND mode is already engaged, a second press will not deactivate the mode. Autoland will only disengage if: • The autopilot (AP), yaw damper (YD), TOGA or autopilot quick disconnect buttons are pressed, • Pitch trim is actuated, • The flap/slat lever is moved to a position other than 5, • The control column is forced, through the forward and after movement. The following controls are also inhibited when AUTOLAND is engaged: • The pushbuttons for source selection, lateral modes, speed modes and vertical modes, including SRC, NAV, HDG, BANK, VNAV, FLCH, ALT, VS, FPA, IASMACH and APP pushbuttons. • The course selection knob, • The FD buttons, • Touch control steering handle.



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Below is a brief description of these annunciations. FMA Indications for AUTOLAND follow the same philosophy of other modes of operation and are exemplified in the picture below. For more details refer to the AOM.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION DISPLAYS AND ANUNCIATIONS Autoland mode has specific FMA annunciations. • AP RUDDER NOT AVAIL . EICAS messages and aural warnings. • AUTOLAND OFF . The EICAS messages related to Autoland system are the following: • AUTOLAND 1 NOT AVAIL .displayed to indicate that Autoland was disabled via the MCDU.displayed to indicate that Autoland 2 is not available due to the lack of a required system element. • AUTOLAND 2 NOT AVAIL .displayed to indicate that Autoland 1 is not available due to the lack of a required system element.displayed to indicate that autopilot rudder control is not available. PFD AUTOLAND ARMED ACTIVE LATERAL FD MODE AUTOLAND ENGAGED ACTICE FD MODE EM170AOM980015A. GP Page 20 REVISION 2 GP-2603 .DGN SOURCE ACTIVE AT MODE ARMED AT MODE AUTOLAND 1 AP SPD T AT ENGAGE STATUS AUTOLAND 1 ALIGN RLOUT FLARE D-ROT ARMED LATERAL FD MODE ARMED VERTICAL FD MODE An aural alert “NO AUTOLAND” will be issued together with the NO AUTOLAND FMA indication in case of system failure.

Prior to flare mode engagement. This requires specific training. at 50 ft radio altitude. There are only four additional FGCS modes related to Autoland operations: Flare. VERTICAL MODES 1) Glideslope Mode The glideslope mode provides glideslope beam capture and tracking until the transition to the flare mode at approximately 50 ft radio altitude. Localizer and Glideslope modes are basically the same as in APPR 1 or APPR 2 operations. identify any abnormal behavior and if necessary take control of the airplane.GENERAL PUBLICATION LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS SYSTEM OPERATION Although Autoland systems are a great advance that allows the airplane to literally “land itself”. GP-2603 GP REVISION 3 Page 21 . This mode is automatically armed. and engaged. and the dependence on the glideslope deviation is reduced to zero after 2 seconds and a 3 degree flight path angle will be maintained. 2) Flare The Flare mode provides vertical guidance and control for the transition from glideslope control (-3 degrees flight path angle) to main gear touchdown during Autoland operations. guidance is based solely on inertial data. the glideslope control law will continue to track beam deviation. use of appropriate procedures and knowledge of the airplane system. The pilot must be prepared to monitor the system performance. the control law is the same as that for APPR 1/2 approach. for Autoland operations only. AUTOLAND OPERATIONAL MODES There are six FGCS modes that can be active during Autoland operations. Derotation. when Glideslope engages. In case a valid radio altimeter signal is not present. Below 100 ft radio altitude. conducting an Autoland is far more complex than pressing a button labeled “LAND”. Align and Rollout. and includes landing the airplane within the longitudinal runway dispersion requirements.

together with rollout mode.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION 3) Derotation (D-ROT) The Derotation mode is a vertical guidance mode. and engages at 150 ft radio altitude. it commands a nose down pitch rate to bring the nose gear into contact with the runway. Rollout arms when Align mode is engaged. which occurs at 150 ft radio altitude. Derotation arms when Flare mode is engaged. It disengages when the autopilot is manually or automatically disconnected. and engages at main gear touchdown. This mode uses the same control law as that for APPR 1/2 approach. 3) Localizer Mode The localizer mode provides localizer beam capture and tracking to the point at which the align mode engages. and engages at main gear touchdown. and aileron control is used to arrest the resultant drift to allow the airplane to continue to track the localizer centerline. and disengages when the autopilot disengages (manually or automatically). During this mode. 2) Rollout (RLOUT) Rollout mode uses pedal control to maintain the airplane on the runway centerline while the nose is lowered and after the nose gear touches the ground. the ailerons are gently moved toward neutral. When active. GP Page 22 REVISION 3 GP-2603 . remaining engaged until main gear touchdown. The maneuver is sometimes referred to as cross control since the rudder and aileron commands are in opposing directions for coordinated flight. Align mode arms when Localizer mode is engaged. Rudder control is used to align the airplane heading with the runway heading in crosswinds. together with Derotation mode. LATERAL MODES 1) Align The Align mode utilizes aileron control in conjunction with rudder control to align the airplane with the runway prior to touchdown. and automatically arms during Autoland operations.

. • No miscompares on PFDs. 1) AUTOLAND arm APPR PUSHBUTTON .... maintain hand and feet on the controls for the entire approach and be prepared to take any corrective action if necessary... It considers that Autoland is available and was not deselected by the pilot on the MCDU.... When AUTOLAND 1/2 arms......DGN .. LOC GS If not already set.. GP-2603 GP REVISION 2 Page 23 EM170AOM980018A.. • RA/BARO set to RA. AUTOLAND 1 AP SPD T AT arm.... check the following conditions: • Autoland is enabled via the MCDU....... • Both NAV set to the same correct LOC frequency. • Both PFDs set to correct LOC inbound course (V/L). PRESS The highest integrity approach mode available will Considering AUTOLAND 1/2 is available it will arm. It is possible to terminate Autoland 1/2 Arm using the same means available for APPR 1/2 Arm. • Autobrake set at any landing mode (Autoland 2 only). glideslope and localizer (GS/LOC) modes arm or activate... Glideslope and Localizer mode capture and track requirements are the same as for APPR 2 operation. IAS mode is set automatically by EDS at Autoland Arm.... • LOC 1 on left PFD and LOC 2 on right PFD.. • Minimums set at 50 ft or above. the pilot must monitor the system behavior..GENERAL PUBLICATION AUTOLAND NORMAL OPERATION LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS While performing an automatic landing....... • AP and YD are engaged.... In case AUTOLAND 1/2 does not arm. Below is a step-by-step example of the scenario that will pass during normal approach with Autoland and autothrottle engaged...

AUTOLAND 1 SPD T AUTOLAND 1 SPD T AP AT ALIGN RLOUT GS FLARE EM170AOM980039A. AUTOLAND 1 SPD T AUTOLAND 1 SPD T AP AT LOC ALIGN GS FLARE Switching the Minimums from RA to Baro. • Flaps are in position 5. or dialing the Minimums to any value is allowed after Autoland engages.DGN AP AT ALIGN RLOUT GS FLARE EM170AOM980021A. 3) ALIGN mode engage At 150 ft radio altitude. • LOC/GS modes captured. While Autoland is engaged prior to align mode.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION 2) AUTOLAND engage AUTOLAND 1/2 will transition to Engaged when the following set of conditions is satisfied: • Autoland 1/2. the align mode automatically engages and the rollout mode arms. is Armed. the parallel rudder provides commands to hold zero degrees of sideslip angle.DGN AP AT LOC ALIGN GS FLARE GP Page 24 REVISION 3 GP-2603 . With the conditions satisfied the Align and Flare modes will arm. • Radio altitude is less than or equal to 1500 ft (referred to as the Autoland engage height) and greater than 800 ft.

Rollout and Derotation engage. AUTOLAND 1 RETD AP AT ALIGN RLOUT FLARE D-ROT EM170AOM980041A.DGN EM170AOM980042A.DGN AUTOLAND 1 RETD AP AT ALIGN RLOUT FLARE D-ROT 6) ROLLOUT and DEROTATION modes engage At main gear touchdown.GENERAL PUBLICATION 4) FLARE mode engage LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS At 50 ft radio altitude. the Retard mode engages retarding the thrust levers to idle. no aural alert). AUTOLAND 1 AP AT RLOUT D-ROT AUTOLAND 1 AP AT GP-2603 RLOUT D-ROT GP REVISION 2 Page 25 EM170AOM980040A.DGN AP AT ALIGN RLOUT FLARE D-ROT . The autothrottle also disengages normally (annunciation in green. the Flare mode automatically engages and Derotation mode arms. Runway centerline is maintained while the nose is lowered. AUTOLAND 1 SPD T AUTOLAND 1 SPD T AP AT ALIGN RLOUT FLARE D-ROT 5) Retard mode engage (Autothrottle engaged only) At 30 ft radio altitude.

Autoland 2 will disconnect automatically once the ground speed is at or below 12 kt.DGN 7) Autopilot disconnection The autopilot automatic disconnection logic is different in both Autoland modes: Autoland 1 will disconnect automatically 5 seconds after transitioning to RLOUT and D-ROT.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION The flashing AT disconnect annunciation may be cancelled by pressing the AT quick disconnect pushbuttons on either throttle lever. AUTOLAND 1 AP RLOUT D-ROT EM170AOM980043A. The autopilot visual and aural warnings are initiated. After Autopilot disconnection the AUTOLAND 1/2 status is removed and the flight director modes and cues are removed.DGN AUTOLAND 1 AP GP Page 26 REVISION 2 GP-2603 . AUTOLAND 1 AP EM170AOM980044A. The pilot must then take control of the airplane.

The crew is advised of the promotion from either APPR 1 or APPR 2 to AUTOLAND 1/2 by flashing the new.GENERAL PUBLICATION LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS After the pilot presses the quick disconnect button. MODE PROMOTION FROM APPR 1/2 TO AUTOLAND Promotion to AUTOLAND 1/2 from the APPR 1/2 Arm or Engage state is possible when the airplane is above 800 ft RA provided the criteria to arm or engage AUTOLAND is met. FAILURE TO ENGAGE AUTOLAND If Autoland is armed but unable to engage because the flaps are not set to 5. in order to make smoother corrections. the visual and aural warnings cease. MODE PROMOTION FROM AUTOLAND 1 TO AUTOLAND 2 Promotion to AUTOLAND 2 from AUTOLAND 1 Arm state is possible when the airplane is above 800 ft RA provided the criteria to arm Autoland 2 is met and Autoland 2 is available. active state for 5 seconds.DGN . Autoland will continue to be armed until either the flaps are set to 5 or the airplane descends below 800 ft RA. and correction of the autopilot may cause passenger discomfort. When operating with crosswind the airplane may not touch the runway parallel to the centerline. The flight crew may elect to manually disengage the Autopilot at nosewheel touchdown. In the case where Autoland is armed and the airplane descends below 800 ft RA the following events occur: GP-2603 GP REVISION 2 Page 27 EM170AOM980045A. Transition from APPR 1 Arm or Engage to APPR 2 Arm or Engage state will occur per the normal course of events.

in part as a function of height above terrain. GP Page 28 REVISION 3 GP-2603 . an amber flashing “DH” setting on the PFD will also be displayed. loss of Autoland engage results in a red “NO AUTOLAND” annunciation displayed at the top left side of the FMA and a single “NO AUTOLAND” aural alert.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION • AUTOLAND 1/2 disarms and the annunciation is removed. inverse video for 5 seconds and then steady. Below are two examples of failures during Autoland operations. and different modes of failures could result in different reversions. • Below 800 ft and above 200 ft – automatic priority transfers result in loss of AP or Autoland depending on the nature of the failure. the pilot may continue the approach and perform a CAT I landing. This will cause the Autoland unique modes (ALIGN. If weather conditions permit. • The Minimum digits on the PFD flash amber inverse video for 5 seconds and then steady. Localizer and Glideslope miscompares will cause the reversion from LOC/GS to FPA/ROLL. Any reversion from Autoland will degrade to the highest capable category/flight director mode. • Below 200 ft – transfer of control always results in loss of autopilot and Autoland Engage. FAILURES DURING AUTOLAND ENGAGE When Autoland is engaged. In any case the autopilot remains engaged. the AFCS reacts differently to failures. and flashes amber. D-ROT and RLOUT) to be removed from the armed/active FMA fields. The visual warnings can be canceled by pressing. FLARE. the AP quick disconnect button. When appropriate. Note that they are only examples. • APPR 1 ONLY is displayed at the top left side of the FMA. and flashes inverse video for 5 seconds. • APPR 1 engages and is displayed at the top right side of the FMA. • Above 800 ft – automatic priority transfers may allow AP and Autoland to stay engaged.

a) The scenario starts with AUTOLAND 1 engaged with LOC/GS modes active.DGN . NO AUTOLAND SPD T AP AT APPR 2 LOC GS EM170AOM980047A. AUTOLAND 1 engaged is replaced by APPR 2 engaged and the modes ALIGN and FLARE are removed. left side of the FMA and a single aural warning “NO AUTOLAND” will be given. The red "NO AUTOLAND" annunciation flashes inverse video for 5 seconds at the top.GENERAL PUBLICATION LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS • Example 1 : Autoland reversion to APPR 2. AUTOLAND 1 SPD T AP AT ALIGN ALIGN GS FLARE b) One of the radio altimeters fails. because it is not possible to perform an APPR 2 with a 50 ft DH. a radio altimeter failure will cause the reversion to APPR 2 and the AP will remain engaged. they will also flash amber inverse video for 5 seconds. The minimums are set to RA for a 50 ft DH. As the minimums were set to 50 ft.DGN NO AUTOLAND SPD T AP AT APPR 2 LOC GS GP-2603 GP REVISION 2 Page 29 EM170AOM980046A. In this particular example.

DGN EM170AOM980048A. LOC GS In this moment the crew must decide if it is safe to continue the approach of if a go around is required. With this action the aural alert and the “APPR 2 ONLY” annunciations are canceled. the crew must reset either of the displayed PFD minimums to a CAT II range (> 80 ft).DGN APPR 2 ONLY SPD T AP AT APPR 2 GP Page 30 REVISION 2 GP-2603 . and the color of the minimums on the PFD return to normal.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION After 5 seconds the red “NO AUTOLAND” is replaced by amber “APPR 2 ONLY” annunciation. c) First possibility .Continuing the approach. APPR 2 SPD T AP AT LOC GS EM170AOM980049A. In order to continue the approach.

DGN AP AT TRK GA . If the crew decides to abort the approach.Aborting the approach.GENERAL PUBLICATION LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS d) Second possibility . This will cancel the aural alert and the “APPR 2 ONLY” annunciations. the pilot must press the TOGA button or move the thrust lever to TO/GA. GA GA AP AT TRK GA GP-2603 GP REVISION 2 Page 31 EM170AOM980050A. and the color of the minimums on the PFD will return to normal.

SPD T SPD T AP AT FPA ROLL The AP visual and aural alerts are cancelled by pressing the AP quick disconnect. AUTOLAND 1 SPD T AP AT ALIGN RLOUT FLARE D-ROT b) The parallel rudder servo fails. This will result in loss of autopilot.DGN AP AT FPA ROLL EM170AOM980051A. The minimums are set to RA for a 50 ft DH. The armed modes RLOUT and D-ROT are removed.DGN .LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION • Example 2: Autoland Fail Scenario Resulting In Loss of AP. a) The scenario starts with Autoland 1 engaged with ALIGN/FLARE modes active. If visual conditions permit. the crew may consider continuing the approach. This example shows the annunciation sequence following failure of the parallel rudder. GP-2603 GP Page 32 REVISION 2 EM170AOM980052A. The active modes ALIGN and FLARE are replaced by FPA/ROLL which flash for 5 seconds before going steady. otherwise a go-around is required. The red "AP" annunciation flashes on the FMA and the aural "Autopilot" is annunciated continuously until canceled by the crew.

AUTOBRAKE FAILURE If the Autobrake fails during airplane rollout the Autoland 2 mode will not disengage and the crew is responsible for brakes application.GENERAL PUBLICATION LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS ENGINE FAILURE In the absence of other system failures. The aural “AUTOBRAKE” is issued. the operational state of the engines does not adversely affect Autoland availability. GP-2603 GP REVISION 3 Page 33 . Steady state asymmetric thrust compensation will be applied via the parallel rudder servo allowing the airplane to perform successful automatic lands with one engine inoperative.

Conformal display of flight path and acceleration allows the crew to precisely fly the airplane in all phases of flight from takeoff through enroute and terminal area maneuvering to a precision landing with enhanced operational safety. The image produced by the HGS is generated by a holographic device that generates symbols which are optically at a focal distance compatible with the outside landscape seen through the windshield. flight path. Aiming and touchdown points on the runway do not move with head movement. All displayed information is derived from airplane equipment and sensor data.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION SECTION IV – HGS SYSTEM GENERAL The Head Up Guidance System (HGS) is primarily a display device. among others. and optionally low visibility takeoff. The system has been designed with human factors considerations such as: • • There is no need for the pilots to adapt eye focus when switching from landscape to symbology. which provides attitude. landing and rollout guidance to the pilot in symbolic format. speed. All information is shown in the pilot’s forward field of view eliminating transitions from head-down to head-up flying. GP Page 34 REVISION 2 GP-2603 .


The HGS may be implemented in a Dual or Single configuration: SINGLE CONFIGURATION One set designed to support Low Visibility Takeoff guidance (LVTO) and CAT III approaches down to 50 ft DH. GP-2603 GP Page 36 REVISION 2 EM170AOM980054A. including landing and rollout guidance. illuminated with a green light. Overhead Unit: generates the display image on a micro Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). Combiner (HUD – Head-up display): provide conformal display on a projection screen image at optical infinity.DGN RALT 2 MCDU 2 . The system architecture is the following: IRU 1 RALT 1 OHU COMBINER MAU 1 HUD COMPUTER MAU 1 IRU 2 MCDU 1 MAU 2 The HGS computer will drive annunciations for both PFDs 1 and 2.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE Each HGS set is composed of three basic Line Replaceable Units (LRUs): • • • HGS computer: central processor unit. providing pixilated image and control data.

GENERAL PUBLICATION LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS DUAL CONFIGURATION Two sets designed to support Low Visibility Takeoff guidance (LVTO) and CAT III approaches down to 50 ft DH.DGN MAU 2 MCDU 2 The left HGS computer will drive annunciations on PFD 2. the remaining HGS operates as a single HGS. while the right HGS will drive the annunciations on PFD 1. If one combiner is stowed or one HGS is failed. including landing and rollout guidance. GP-2603 GP REVISION 2 Page 37 . The system architecture is the following: IRU 1 RALT 1 OHU 1 MAU 1 HUD COMPUTER 1 COMBINER 1 MAU 1 MCDU 1 IRU 2 RALT 2 MAU 2 OHU 2 HUD COMPUTER 2 COMBINER 2 EM170AOM980055A.

which is accessed pressing the “MENU” key on the MCDU keyboard. however can be manually modified by entering the new value on the scratch pad – using the alphanumeric keyboard of the MCDU – and pressing the LSK at the side of the RWY Length value. select symbology features and enable HUD A3 approach mode (dual installation).DGN The HGS page presents 4 different options: • RWY Length The runway length information is displayed in green numbers underneath the inscription “RWY LENGTH”. GP Page 38 REVISION 2 GP-2603 . It is automatically set by the FMS. HGS RWY LENGTH 11000 FEET RWY ELEVATION 22 FEET CONBINER MODE AUTO DECLUTTER FULL HUD A3 ON OFF MAINT EM170AOM980056A. On ground it is used to perform maintenance operations. The link to access the HGS page on the MCDU is available on the “MENU” page.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION MCDU INTERFACE The MCDU can be used by the flight crew to enter runway data.

however can be manually modified by entering the new value with the appropriate signal (+ or -) on the scratch pad – using the alphanumeric keyboard of the MCDU – and pressing the LSK at the side of the RWY Elevation value.GENERAL PUBLICATION • RWY Elevation LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS The runway TDZE information in feet is displayed in green numbers underneath the inscription “RWY ELEVATION”. It is automatically set by the FMS. GP-2603 GP REVISION 2 Page 39 . • DECLUTTER Pilots may manually declutter the Combiner display during any phase of flight if the presentation of the tapes and HSI are not critical. • FULL Pilots may manually choose to maintain or restore the full symbology on the Combiner display after an automatic or manual removal of the tapes and HIS. The following options can be selected by pressing the LSK correspondent to the “Display Control” indication. • Combiner Mode The removal and re-appearance (Declutter) of the HGS Airspeed and Altitude Tapes and HGS information can be controlled by the flight crew thought the display control option. The functions of the three Combiner Mode settings are: • AUTO The HGS automatically removes the airspeed and altitude tapes and the Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) during the approach phase. • HUD A3 Enable or disable the HUD A3 approach mode.

In fact. 3. refer to the AOM. where practical. This is done to allow easy recognition by the pilot while causing no confusion due to ambiguity with similar information presented on other cockpit displays. Angle of Attack. For instance. Heading. The basic information provided on the HGS includes: 1. 6. The HGS presents information to the pilot in a form similar to a head-down PFD. certain compromises to the basic T may be made in order to optimize the HGS use in conditions such as crosswinds where large crab angles may be encountered. Guidance Mode and Status. 9. Attitude. the individual HGS symbols form and function are customized to be similar to those of the airplane's heads down PFD. 4. 8. Information is positioned on the HGS to conform to the "basic T" instrument conventions unless it is shown that conventions other than the basic T are safe (no loss of basic information – listed below) and provide some advantage in the interpretation and use of information on the HGS. Vertical Speed. 5. For detailed information on HGS symbology. GP Page 40 REVISION 2 GP-2603 . 7. Altitude. Flight Guidance. 2.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION HGS SYMBOLOGY The HGS is considered the PFD when the pilot is flying "head-up". Airspeed. Navigation and Position.

• Ground Roll Reference symbol. The HGS is certified for LVTO operations. TAKEOFF GUIDANCE LVTO mode is available at every takeoff from a runway with a tuned localizer signal. • Excessive Deviation symbology. • Takeoff Mode Annunciation.GENERAL PUBLICATION LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS SYSTEM OPERATION Regardless of the configuration. GP-2603 GP REVISION 2 Page 41 . Therefore it may be operated in all flight phases. • Runway Remaining readout. airspeed and Flight Mode Annunciation (FMA). altitude. the LVTO feature is not available. If this signal is not present. Embraer suggests the Pilot Flying (PF) use head up guidance. the HGS system is designed to be a supplementary display of primary flight data displayed on PFDs: attitude. a declutter feature can be used to reduce the symbology to the minimum necessary for the associated phase of flight. During normal operations. Additionally. the HGS derived ground guidance cue provides: • Appropriate steering guidance and additional symbology. while the Pilot not Flying (PNF) monitors flight parameters either on HGS or PFD. considering the following specifications: RVR Runway length Operation ≥ 300 ft 4000 to 18000 ft Single/Dual Engine Operation In the LVTO mode.

Manually flown approaches are not authorized. Pilots must be aware that the ILS signal and sensibility displayed on PFDs may not reflect the pictorial information on the HGS. For CAT II approaches only autopilot coupled approaches may be flown. It is mandatory to disengage the autopilot after the landing configuration is achieved but above 500 ft. using the Initial Climb symbology. reducing the possibility of unstabilized approaches.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION APPROACH GUIDANCE It is statistically proven that HGS guidance significantly enhances pilot’s skills and provides better accuracy for ILS approaches. • HUD A3 approaches The HGS uses its own calculation guidance. The HUD A3 guidance can be used to perform CAT I. • Non HUD A3 approaches The HGS it is a repeater of the PFD and therefore can be used to perform CAT I or II approaches only. Below DA/DH. CAT III with Autoland is allowed. The airplane may be flown manually or with autopilot engaged for CAT I flight director approaches. the flare cue on the HGS shall not be used as a main driver for the flare due to the quality of the localizer and glide slope signal. GO AROUND GUIDANCE In case of go-around complete guidance will be provided to accomplish the maneuver. In this case. II or III approaches. GP Page 42 REVISION 3 GP-2603 . the landing maneuver may be done manually in visual conditions. which is different from Flight Director information.

• AOA limit and stick shaker symbol. HGS requires flight simulator training for operational approval. The takeoff symbol is displayed above the Airplane Reference symbol and will settle toward the Airplane symbol as the tail strike becomes probable. The use of HGS for CAT III approaches requires operational approval by the Civil Aviation Authorities. • Takeoff The Tail Strike Pitch Limit symbol is displayed during liftoff. GP-2603 GP REVISION 2 Page 43 . • Windshear alert messages and escape guidance. This symbol is used with the Airplane Reference symbol to show when the pitch limit is reached. OTHER GUIDANCES Other suitable guidance and alerts are also available in the HGS system such as: • EGPWS messages. The Tail Strike Pitch Limit symbol is enabled during the takeoff roll and uses pitch angle. CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Even if not used for CAT III approaches. rotation. The symbol will be displayed as long as the approach is in a possible tail strike configuration. Specific training programs must be approved in this case.GENERAL PUBLICATION LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS TAIL STRIKE ALERTING: TAKEOFF AND APPROACH The HGS includes a tail strike alerting function that is active during takeoff and approach operations. and initial climb if the attitude of the airplane is such that a tail strike is likely to occur. pitch rate and altitude to provide sufficient warning for the pilot to recognize and prevent a potential tail strike. • TCAS symbology with fly-to or stay-clear zones. This will be displayed above the Zero Degree Pitch Line and under the Airplane Reference symbol. a potential tail strike event due to an improperly configured airplane or low-altitude go-around operation shows as the symbol “LDG ATT” on the Combiner display. • Approach On approach.

it is recommended that the HGS low-visibility takeoff procedures be used for takeoffs where conditions allow. Takeoff monitoring status is presented to the pilot in the form of an excessive deviation symbol which indicates the direction to correct in order to again. HGS provides lateral and vertical guidance for rollout and rotation to takeoff pitch angle maneuvers. the HGS takeoff function capability is also presented on the pilot not flying Combiner. PFD guidance is also available with some differences from the normal takeoff flight director guidance: • • Vertical cross bar guidance is removed. On Dual HGS configuration. Below is a step-by-step example of the takeoff LVTO Mode engaging sequence: GP-2603 GP Page 44 REVISION 2 . NORMAL OPERATION During normal LVTO operations. reversion to PFD guidance is recommended. Takeoff "excessive deviation" monitoring is active from the initiation of the takeoff roll until airplane rotation or until the airplane decelerates to below a safe taxi speed during an aborted takeoff. The takeoff function capability is presented to the pilot on the HGS and repeated on the pilot not flying PFD. The HGS determines whether the pilot is following the commands presented on the HGS accurately enough to assure that the airplane will remain within the required takeoff (lateral) limits of the runway. An expanded lateral scale remains displayed in order to assist the rollout. To maintain proficiency. attain and remain within the required takeoff limits. In case of HUD fail.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION LVTO MODE LVTO Mode is available at every takeoff from a runway with a tuned localizer signal. In addition. This is generally anytime the departing runway has a localizer beam and traffic allows for the proper execution of the procedure. HGS evaluates the ability of the overall takeoff system to successfully complete the takeoff. to be used when appropriate operational conditions are met.

DGN LVTO ROLL TO “LVTO” shows on the upper right part of the Combiner display. LVTO ROLL TO EM170AOM980058B. • Runway length between 4000 ft to 18000 ft. The necessary operational conditions for LVTO to be armed are: • Same Localizer frequency tuned and valid signal on both sides. LVTO ROLL TO EM170AOM980057B.GENERAL PUBLICATION 1) LVTO armed LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS When the airplane senses the necessary takeoff configuration and a valid ILS signal.DGN 2) LVTO engages After sensing ILS localizer locked. the LVTO mode is engaged. GP-2603 GP REVISION 2 Page 45 . the LVTO takeoff mode is automatically armed and the “LVTO” annunciation is shown in white color at the first row and first column of the PFD FMA section. It also flashes on the Combiner display for the first 5 seconds and then is steady. The “LVTO” annunciation in green color will flash in inverse video for 5 seconds.

This satisfies the flight director vertical command. and while the flight director is still in TO mode. The Speed Error Tape (referenced to V2) is also displayed. The Flight Path Acceleration symbol is useful in determining a positive climb gradient and optimizing climb performance. the display appears as shown in the figure below. Speed control is achieved by observing the CAS value on the Airspeed Tape.DGN .LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION 3) Initial Climb Guidance After liftoff. No Guidance Cue is displayed after takeoff until the airplane is at 50 ft or a vertical mode change occurs. placing the Flight Path Acceleration at the “wing” of the Flight Path symbol maintains the optimal initial climb performance. The correct pitch attitude is established by positioning the Airplane Reference Symbol over the TO Pitch Reference Line. The airplane is accelerating when the Flight Path Acceleration symbol is above the Flight Path wing and is decelerating when the symbol is below the wing. GP Page 46 REVISION 2 GP-2603 EM170AOM980062A. This line is in view on the display until 3 seconds after the airplane passes through 50 ft or a new vertical mode is selected. When the desired pitch attitude and airspeed are achieved.

then it stays in red color. If the LVTO mode fails while IAS is between 40 and 80 kt. the “LVTO” annunciation in red color will flash in inverse video for 5 seconds in the first row and second column of the PFD FMA.DGN NO LVTO ROLL TO In this case of LVTO Mode disengagement (also occurs during failure to engage). Also the “LVTO WRN” annunciations are displayed in both HGS & PFDs even if only one HUD detects this condition. NO LVTO ROLL TO EM170AOM980059B. 1O 1O LVTO WRN RWY XXXX 1O 1O EM170AOM980060A.GENERAL PUBLICATION LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS ABNORMAL OPERATION There are two failure possibilities during LVTO operation and they can be monitored through FMA annunciations on the PFD. • Example 1: Failure between 40 and 80 kt. the annunciation LVTO WRN will be displayed on the PFD.DGN GP-2603 GP REVISION 2 Page 47 .

NO LVTO ROLL TO EM170AOM980061B.DGN NO LVTO ROLL TO GP Page 48 REVISION 2 GP-2603 . The annunciation flashes inverse video for the first 5 seconds on the PFD and then is steady on its usual background (“NO LVTO” shows on the Combiner display). The annunciation is on the right side of the top mode line of the PFD.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION In this case. • Example 2: Failure below 49 kt or above 80 kt. This allows the pilot to safely abort the takeoff at low speeds or continue the takeoff at his discretion for speeds approaching V1. Embraer recommends to abort the takeoff. as the airplane is accelerating through speeds in the low energy phase of takeoff run (below 80 kt). An amber “LVTO” is displayed on the PFD to indicate LVTO has lost capability below 40 kt or above 80 kt. The Expanded Lateral Deviation guidance is demonstrated to be a very useful tool in order to steer the airplane during the RTO maneuver.

GENERAL PUBLICATION LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS LVTO OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS Runway remaining is advisory information only and must not be used for performance monitoring purposes. GP-2603 GP REVISION 2 Page 49 . . The following equipment and instruments must be installed and operative: . . .2 Navigation Radios.1 Multi Control Display Unit (MCDU).2 Inertial Reference Systems (IRS). Embraer recommends not attempting rolling takeoffs during LVTO operations. PERFORMANCE For maximum demonstrated wind components for HGS LVTO operations refer to the AFM.1 Flight Management System (FMS).

The HGS computer evaluates the ability of the overall approach. and rollout operations in reduced visibility conditions to Category III minima. landing.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION HUD A3 APPROACHES The HGS is configured to provide the functions required to allow manual airplane approach. the HGS approach and landing status is presented to the pilot on the HUD and repeated to the pilot not flying. and rollout systems (including the pilot) to successfully complete a CAT III approach. and rollout capabilities are presented to the pilot on the HUD and repeated on the pilot not flying's head down display (PFD). landing. Approach. and rollout and also determines whether the pilot is flying the commands presented on the HUD accurately enough to assure that the airplane will safely touchdown within the required touchdown zone. GP Page 50 REVISION 2 GP-2603 . landing. landing. Information provided during CAT III operations includes the basic information of an optimized PFD (declutter function active) for the approach. landing. and rollout along with special information required to perform reduced visibility operations. An approach warning is indicated if any of the approach monitors detect a problem during the approach and landing. only an excessive deviation indication (arrow) is provided to the pilot. Similar to the capability status. Since the pilot can only respond to a HGS rollout monitor indication by continuing the rollout with more awareness of the appropriate rollout control. Once on the ground. Rollout monitoring is also active from rollout start until the rollout guidance is removed from HGS display. providing sufficient information to the flight crew. An approach monitoring algorithm is active from 500 ft AGL until airplane touchdown. the HGS determines whether the pilot is controlling the airplane to the ground roll commands presented on the HUD accurately enough to assure that the airplane will safely remain within the required rollout zone.

HGS Guidance cue 1 2 GP-2603 GP REVISION 2 Page 51 EM170AOM980063A. the following supplementary symbology is presented on the Combiner for the CAT III feature: 1. Flare Command 2.GENERAL PUBLICATION LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS The legend “HUD A3” is shown on the Combiner while providing HGS CAT III Guidance.DGN . In addition.

all FMA annunciations will be driven to cross-side PFDs: • • HUD 1 will drive annunciations to PFD 2.92 IN 555 CHR O7:12 555 GSPD KT M 29.DGN 18O 18O M 29.92 IN HDG 33O 6 O79 3OO 1O CHR O7:12 HDG GSPD 33O 6 O79 3OO 1O KT FMS1 3 DTK OO5 FMS1 3 DTK OO5 N H 33 VHF1 118 O25 119 O25 APP WPT VPTH MSG HDGINT NAV1 118 O3 119 O3 VHF1 118 O25 119 O25 In case of single HGS configuration. GP Page 52 REVISION 2 GP-2603 W 3O W 3O VOR1 VOR2 VOR1 VOR2 33 KPHX 5OO NM 23 MIN N H KPHX 5OO NM 23 MIN APP WPT VPTH MSG HDGINT NAV1 118 O3 119 O3 .O 1O 1O 2 1 OM 24O 2 5. HUD 2 will drive annunciations to PDF 1.O 1O 1O 2 1 OM 22 O E RF 25O OO 1OOO 22 O 2OO 19O E RF 25O OO 1OOO PFD 1 2OO 19O AP 1O 1O 1 2 4 AP 1O 1O 1 2 4 PFD 2 EM170AOM980064A. HUD 1 HUD 2 ALERTINGS ALERTINGS 236 26O 1 R AP B AT B VAPP FLARE VOR ASEL 247 OO 255OO 4OOO 4 236 26O 1 R AP B AT B VAPP FLARE VOR ASEL 247 OO 255OO 4OOO 4 24O 2 5. the annunciations will be displayed on both PFDs.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION When the airplane is equipped in dual HGS configuration.

HUD A3 SPD T AT LOC GS HUD A3 GA LOC GS AT GP-2603 GP REVISION 2 Page 53 EM170AOM980065A.DGN EM170AOM980067A.DGN GS HUD A3 GA LOC ALT AT GS 3) After LOC capture.GENERAL PUBLICATION NORMAL OPERATIONS LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS The HUD A3 Mode engagement and related FMA annunciations on PFDs are shown throughout the approach sequence. The following steps are displayed: 1) HUD A3 armed: When APPR button is pressed a white HUD A3 armed annunciation is displayed along with armed LOC and GS modes. LOC engages and flashes inverse video for 5 seconds: HUD A3 SPD T AT LOC ALT EM170AOM980066A. HDG ALT AT LOC GS 2) At localizer intercept. The HUD A3 remains armed until the airplane flies below the minimum HUD A3 engagement height (1500 ft RA). glide slope engages.DGN HUD A3 SPD T .

EM170AOM980068A. consisting of a single plus sign (“+”). RLOUT arms in the lateral and FLARE arms in the vertical FMA. HUD A3 SPD RETD T LOC FLARE EM170AOM980069A.DGN AT RLOUT FLARE GP Page 54 REVISION 2 GP-2603 . At the same time. the green HUD A3 engaged annunciation appears at the top right side of the FMA and flashes in inverse video for 5 seconds.DGN AT RLOUT HUD A3 SPD RETD T LOC FLARE AT RLOUT Starting at an altitude of 100 ft. FLARE mode engages and flashes in inverse video for 2 seconds. when radio altitude is below 1500 ft. HUD A3 SPD RETD T LOC GS HUD A3 SPD RETD T LOC GS AT RLOUT FLARE 5) Upon HGS command (at 50 ft RA).LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION 4) Provided all HUD A3 engage requirements are met. The flight director cue is removed in the PFD when FLARE is active. rises from the bottom of the display and joins the guidance cue at the point where the flare maneuver should be initiated. the Flare Command Symbol.

5 NM LOC1 1O FLARE COMMAND SYMBOL 6) At 30 ft.O 124 GSPD 114 HDG 3OO -1O IDLE 25 125O B MIN EM170AOM980105A. HUD A3 RETD LOC FLARE EM170AOM980070A.O -3. Autothrotle RETD mode engages and flashes in inverse video for 2 seconds.GENERAL PUBLICATION LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS HUD A3 FLARE LOC RLOUT SPD 125 5 5 ASEL 122O 3O 31 32 -3.DGN CRS 31O -1O RA 6O VS -6OO DME 1 1.DGN AT RLOUT HUD A3 RETD LOC FLARE AT RLOUT GP-2603 GP REVISION 2 Page 55 .

the display declutter removes unnecessary symbology to assist with the landing rollout. reverse thrust.DGN EM170AOM980073A. A Deceleration Scale is displayed which shows the inertial deceleration of the airplane during rollout and includes the effect of braking. etc. no aural alert) and the flashing AT disconnect annunciation is cancelled by pressing the AT quick disconnect pushbuttons on either throttle lever: HUD A3 RLOUT AT HUD A3 RLOUT Following touchdown. RLOUT mode engages and flashes in inverse video for 2 seconds. runway friction. The centerline is tracked while the airplane is decelerated to exit the runway.DGN GP Page 56 REVISION 2 GP-2603 . This includes changing the localizer symbol to the Ground Localizer Scale and Pointer. The Autothrotle disengages (annunciation in green. EM170AOM980071A.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION 7) At main gear touchdown.

GP-2603 GP REVISION 2 Page 57 EM170AOM980045A.DGN . The PFD annunciation is then removed.GENERAL PUBLICATION LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS 8) RLOUT and HUD A3 are removed when the airplane reaches safety speed (groundspeed ≤ 20 kt) or turning off the runway.

• HUD failures on dual configuration In case of failure of one HUD. Below are 6 examples of the failures that may occur during HUD operations. the pilot not flying PFD receives and displays annunciations from the off-side system.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION ABNORMAL OPERATIONS • HUD failure on single configuration If a HUD failure occurs during the approach.DGN AP AT LOC GS RLOUT FLARE EM170AOM980074A. HUD A3 will flash in white inverse video until HUD A3 engages. • Example 1: HUD 3A Armed WITH Autopilot engaged above 500 ft. HUD A3 SPD T HUD A3 AP SPD T AT LOC GS 2) Crew disengages AP FMA AP annunciation toggles red inverse video for a minimum of 5 seconds until the pilot acknowledgement with the AP quick disconnect button. The messages HUD 1(2) FAIL or HUD 1(2) A3 NOT AVAIL will be displayed as applicable.DGN AP AT LOC GS GP Page 58 REVISION 2 GP-2603 . the PFD of the failed side receives the off-side system information. The advisory EICAS message HUD FAIL will be displayed and the pilot must use PFD guidance. 1) Crossing 650 ft. HUD A3 SPD T HUD A3 SPD T LOC GS AT RLOUT FLARE EM170AOM980075A.

DGN GP-2603 GP REVISION 2 Page 59 EM170AOM980076A. NO HUD A3 SPD T NO HUD A3 SPD T LOC GS AT Approach warning annunciation (APPR WRN) is displayed on PFDs. 1) Crossing 500 ft.DGN AP AT LOC GS . HUD A3 white is removed and NO HUD A3 flashes red in reverse video for 5 seconds when first displayed and then goes steady. 1O 1O APPR WRN 1O 1O EM170AOM980077A.GENERAL PUBLICATION LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS • Example 2: HUD A3 Armed WITH Autopilot engaged below 500 ft.

NO HUD A3 SPD T LOC GS AT 3) When the APPR button is pressed: . SPD T LOC GS AT RLOUT FLARE 2) If the Radar Altimeter 2 fails.No aural warning is given. .Pressing the APPR button cancels the LOC and GS modes and the FD reverts to basic modes (FPA. . an amber "NO HUD A3" annunciation will be displayed and flashes in inverse video continuously until the APPR button is pressed.CAS message HUD 1(2) A3 NOT AVAIL is shown.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION • Example 3: HUD A3 Failure Above 500 ft. . The minimums are set to RA for a 50 ft DH.DGN EM170AOM980079A. ROLL) and the NO HUD A3 amber annunciation is removed: SPD T ROLL FPA AT EM170AOM980080A.DGN EM170AOM980078A.DGN HUD A3 GP Page 60 REVISION 2 GP-2603 .Armed modes RLOUT and FLARE are removed. 1) Consider that HUD A3 is engaged with LOC and GS modes active.

DGN AT GA TRACK GA AT GP-2603 GP REVISION 2 Page 61 EM170AOM980081A. The pilot must set a new DH.DGN . APPR 2 SPD T LOC GS AT b) Go-Around: Pressing either of the G/A pushbuttons on the throttle levers remove the NO HUD A3 caution visual alert and reset the color of the Minimums displayed on the PFD to normal: GA TRACK GA EM170AOM980082A. a) Continue on Approach: Pressing the APPR button again arms a lower approach capability (CAT II or CAT I). according to the new approach type.GENERAL PUBLICATION LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS In this moment the crew must decide if it is safe to continue the approach or if a go around is required.

a go-around shall be executed. No aural warning is given. the following announcements will be displayed: Armed modes RLOUT and FLARE are removed. Visual annunciations and alerts are removed only after crew starts a Go-around or crossing 500 ft. Additionally. flashing in inverse video for 5 seconds and then remains steady.DGN HUD A3 GP Page 62 REVISION 2 GP-2603 .DGN EM170AOM980083A. 1) Consider that HUD A3 is engaged with LOC and GS modes active. SPD T LOC GS AT RLOUT FLARE 2) If the Radar Altimeter 2 fails a red "NO HUD A3" annunciation will be displayed. The minimums are set to RA for a 50 ft DH.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION • Example 4: HUD A3 Failure below 500 ft. EM170AOM980084A. CAS message HUD 1(2) A3 NOT AVAIL is shown. APPR WARN is annunciated in the PFD. NO HUD A3 SPD T AP AT LOC GS In this case.

RLOUT mode engages and flashes in inverse video for 2 seconds. LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS 1) Upon HGS command at main gear touchdown. RLOUT annunciation is removed and NO HUD A3 amber is displayed in inverse video for 2 seconds and then goes steady.DGN AT NO HUD A3 LOC GS AT GP-2603 GP REVISION 2 Page 63 EM170AOM980085A. HUD A3 RLOUT AT HUD A3 RLOUT AT 2) In case of rollout guidance failure.GENERAL PUBLICATION • Example 5: HUD A3 Failure during Rollout.DGN . NO HUD A3 LOC GS EM170AOM980086A. no aural alert). Autothrotle also disengages normally (annunciation in green.

the MISSED APPROACH procedure must be performed unless the approach is continued under visual conditions and the airplane position and attitude assure a safe landing. EM170AOM980087A. below 500 ft. if the approach conditions exceed HGS preset tolerances or localizer/glide slope signal loss.LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS GENERAL PUBLICATION • Example 6: Approach Limit Exceedance. the APPR WARN annunciation continues to be displayed on the PFD. the APPR WARN is annunciated in the PFD and HUD A3 remains green in the FMA. HUD A3 SPD T LOC GS AT RLOUT FLARE Even if the approach conditions turns into HGS preset tolerances.DGN GP Page 64 REVISION 2 GP-2603 . 1) During final approach. If the approach is continued the HUD A3 guidance must not be followed. In this case.

GENERAL PUBLICATION LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS NON-HUD A3 APPROACHES During approach. if the Combiner mode is set to AUTO on the MCDU. Flight director guidance is displayed when pitch and roll command inputs to the HGS Computer are valid. However. • Between 55 ft and 10 ft. • Flight director modes are displayed. Flare Cue symbols. consisting of two plus signs (“+ +”). The Guidance Cue is derived from the FGCS and is removed from he display at 50 ft (CAT II) or 150 ft (CAT I). Altitude and airspeed data are then displayed as digital values near the Flight Path. the symbol does not provide any guidance to perform the flare maneuver. and ILS data is also displayed. are displayed above the wings of the Flight. no approach monitoring or flare guidance is provided by the HGS. GP-2603 GP REVISION 2 Page 65 . Path symbol to alert the pilot that the flare maneuver should be initiated. Although the Flare Cue indicates that flare should be initiated. the display will automatically declutter by removing the Airspeed and Altitude Tapes and the HSI.


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