Describe how Darwin makes use of the intellectual traditions of utilitarianism and romanticism in his work.

Compare this use to how another thinker from this section of the course makes use of the past in his or her own work.

Utilitarianism is as described by Jeremy Bentham in 1776 "it is the greatest happiness of the greatest number, that is the measure of right and wrong" suggesting that progress is rather something for all and the lack of importance on order as a root to morality. In contrast but along the same lines, Darwin considers progress to occurs through variation and that there is no discoverable essence such as morality suggesting rather that it is man-made phenomena. Highlighted in the below extract: “In short, we shall have to treat species in the same manner as those naturalists treat genera, who admit that genera are merely artificial combinations made for convenience. This may not be a cheering prospect; but we shall at least be freed from the vain search for the undiscovered and undiscoverable essence of the term species.” (Darwin 1859). Darwin goes on in the Decent of man (1871) to highlight Morality as only being important when people live in groups rather than a universal law. Meaning the greatest benefit to the most is a moral compass rather than a universal law. Romanticism as defined by William Wordsworth in 1798 is "the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings". Darwin uses potential overflowing feelings in the Decent of man (1871) when he challenges the general idea from where Man descends. “that man is descended from some lowly organised form, will, I regret to think, be highly distasteful to many....... forced to acknowledge that the blood of some more humble creature flows in his veins.” (Darwin 1871) Pre-empting the potential outcry he is expecting from this finding in his research. Again, emotion is used when he specifies which gender has significant power in the role of determining variations in species. “not on a struggle for existence, but on a struggle between the males for possession of the females” (Darwin, 1859) His final statement in the decent of Man (1871) leaves no doubt to his intentions to challenge peoples paradigms of the origin of man and insight feelings in order to challenge popular belief, “Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin.” For Baudelaire progress came not from the Enlightenment but rather from the modernisation and development of the boulevards in Paris his book Paris Spleen incorporates 51 prose highlighting the intensity of experiences and in overflowing emotions with regard to morality in chance encounters. This modernisation allows for the possibility of the greatest happiness for all however, the chance encounters also give rise to intense emotions and challenges to morality. Utilitarian idea of potential of greatest happiness to all is highlighted in the idea of „putting on the right disguise to attract the right attention‟ without regard to morality. Highlighted in this extract of a chance encounter of a lady with a doctor and her slightly perverse desires. “Well, would you believe that I 'have a strange longing that I dare not tell him? - I wish he would come to see me with his bag and apron, even with a little blood on it! " (Baudelaire, 1869)

1869) The next extract highlights how the new streets give rise to the potential meeting of different classes. And I heard him gasp. “I saw in front of me a little ragged urchin. he uses potential overflowing of emotions to create a paradigm shift in the understanding of the origins of man.” (Baudelaire.” (Baudelaire. struggling for the possession of the precious booty. Darwin uses both Utilitarianism and Romanticism to illustrate and emphasise the importance of his discoveries. highlighted in prose of chance encounters on the new streets of Paris. wild and supplicating. And the intensity of the experience for the urchin on thinking white bread is „cake‟ and the potential benefit to all through these chance encounters. 1869) Going on illustrating with the use of romanticism overflowing emotions highlighted in the intensity of the experience and the overflowing emotions of the two boys in the desire to possess the bread: “They rolled over on the ground together. In line with Romanticism. neither willing to share it with his brother. hoarse voice. discounting morality and highlighting the importance of the greatest benefit to all.This question of preference of pleasure over morality is again highlighted in prose 9 the bad glazer “But what matters an eternity of damnation to him who has found in one second an eternity of enjoyment?” (Baudelaire. 1869) In conclusion. in a low. typical in the work of Baudelaire. Utilitarianism and Romanticism are both strongly drawn on and embraced in the hedonic pursuit of intense pleasure and or overflowing feelings. . the word : " Cake" I could not help laughing at the appellation with which he thought fit to honour my nearly white bread. whose hollow eyes. dark and dishevelled. devoured the piece of bread.

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