This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77.
Test 7R Verbal 78 -137 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132. 133. 134. 135. 136. 137.
Test 7R Biology 140 - 216 140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149. 150. 151. 152. 153. 154. 155. 156. 157. 158. 159. 160. 161. 162. 163. 164. . 165. 190. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. 171. 172. 173. 174. 175. 176. 177. 178. 179. 180. 181. 182. 183. 184. 185. 186. 187. 188. 189. 191. 192. 193. 194. 195. 196. 197. 198. 199. 200. 201. 202. 203. 204. 205. 206. 207. 208. 209. 210. 211. 212. 213. 214. 215. 216.
7R Key .
In order for a reaction to be a spontaneous process.0 x 100%. frequency is 9 *109. 10.EXPLANATIONS for test 7R 1. 2. all gases. The frequency is given by 9n0. As the electrons move from A to B they convert potential energy into kinetic energy (½mv2) and gain velocity . the value for ∆Go must be less than 0. With n = 1018. and therefore higher entropy. This is basically a conservation of energy question. 11. all liquids. Therefore 34 g of ammonia is required to form 1 mole of hydrazine. The value of ∆Hf° for a substance is the enthalpy change when one mole of that substance is formed at 1 atm pressure and 25°C from the elements in their stable states at that pressure and temperature. The reaction shows the formation of hydrazine from its elements. The structure in C correctly shows each nitrogen with three bonds and a one lone pair. 8. 4. A nitrogen atom has 3 single electrons and 1 lone pair. An ion with so much mass compared to an electron will not be able to respond quickly because of its inertia. the entropy increases in this reaction. 12. The formula weight for hydrazine is 32 g/mol (14 x 2 + 4 x 1). Wavelength is given by speed/frequency = 3 *107/109 or 3*10-2 m. Each atom in this molecule has a full outer shell of electrons and all electrons are present. The passage states that the formula for hydrazine hydrate is N2H4·H2O. the weaker the base. Thus. It is the equilibrium constant for the reaction of the base with water.6 kJ/mol.5 = 109. Equation 1 shows that the Raschig process requires the reaction of 2 moles of ammonia to form 1 mole of hydrazine.6 kJ/mol.5. The molar mass of ammonia is 17 g/mol (14 + 1 + 1 + 1). 5. This is the same as 3 cm or answer A. n0. answer D is justified. Because there are 3 reactant moles. 6. which is answer C. Table 1 shows that ∆Hf° for hydrazine is 50. Gas molecules have more freedom and randomness. and 7 product moles. Since the maximum displacement occurs at A and C. Since the ions are thousands of times more massive than the electron. The formula weight for hydrazine hydrate is 50 g/mol (32 + 2 x 1 + 16). The basicity constant is a measure of the strength of a base.0/50. answer B is justified (the hydrogen ion is the lightest ion and is nearly 2000 times more massive than the electron). therefore. 7. Hydrogen has one electron. 3. The potential energy of an oscillatory motion is ½kx2 where x is the displacement. The percent by weight of hydrazine in the hydrate would be 32. 9. The lower the value of Kb. the enthalpy change for the reaction shown would be 50.
It is conservation of energy. The unpaired electrons have parallel spins.e. 4 electron pairs around an atom will result in a tetrahedral geometry. According to VSEPR theory. 16. This momentum is just enough to allow the electrons to go from B to C. 13. This is answer B. Because potassium is a Group 1 element. This reaction is exactly a reproduction of the statement of beta decay as given in the stem. another Group 1 element would be the best substitute. The new nucleus is one atomic number higher because of the emission of the electron leaving an extra proton in the nucleus. As the electrons move from A to B they convert potential energy into kinetic energy (½mv2) and gain velocity and hence momentum (mv) as they do so. 17. This momentum is just enough to allow the electrons to go from B to C. Since the reaction started with 236 nucleons and three neutrons were 3 = 233 mass units or−taken away the sum of the fragments must contain 236 nucleons. Van der Waals forces are weak intermolecular attractive forces.). It would follow that the silicon could not be purified by electrolytic techniques if the minerals do not decompose easily. the kinetic energy reconverts to potential energy—just equal to the amount of potential energy at point A. . This is given by the sum of their proton and neutrons. Elements in the same group share chemical properties. These techniques involve isolating silicon from silicate minerals by decomposing the minerals with an electrical current. The relatively low boiling point of the SiCl3H indicates that the intermolecular forces are not strong and are most likely van der Waals forces. The first 10 electrons would have the same electron configuration as Ne. 22.and hence momentum (mv) as they do so. Silicon is the fourth element in the third row of the periodic table and has 14 electrons. 19. 14. The next 2 electrons would fill the 3s orbitals and the last 2 electrons would begin to fill the 3p orbitals following Hund’s Rule (electrons will not pair up until each orbital in that sublevel has 1 electron. where x is the displacement from point B. The passage states that silicon cannot be purified by electrolytic techniques. This is basically a conservation of energy question. A1 and A2 represent the nuclear masses of the fragments of fission. As the electrons move from A to B they convert potential energy (½kx2) into kinetic energy (½mv2).e. i. The relative rate of decay for Ra compared to Pu is the inverse ratio of their halflives or 24000/1600 = 15. 21. one would assume that sodium. a beta particle (an electron) and a neutrino. 20. 18. We see the new nucleus. Fractional distillation can be used for purification when the components to be separated have different boiling points. 15. i. the kinetic energy reconverts to potential energy—just equal to the amount of potential energy at point A.
28. 24. -1. The force is the coefficient of friction between tiresµmg.23 + 0. The extra× power needed is then Pt minus the original power P or: Since cos 10o 1. The index is a measure of the ratio of the velocity in air to the velocity in the medium. The value for Eocell is equal to the sum of Eo of the half reactions. This is answer B.34 = 0.×Power P is force Since speed v is fixed we must compare the forces F and Ft. This assumption is adequate when the gas is at 1 atm. Light slows down because the index of refraction in the glass is greater than in the air.23. Pt. 25. but when the pressure is increased to 500 atm the volume of the gas molecules is no longer negligible. The passage states that the reaction is zero order with respect to bromine indicating that bromine is not involved in the rate determining step. This volume is held in a cube 10 m on a side since (10 m)3 = 1000 m3.≈ This is answer D. is Ft v. then the reaction with chlorine . If the reaction proceeds by the same mechanism with chlorine. velocity. For sound the speed becomes greater because the speed of sound in a solid is much greater than in air (the glass has stiff rigid bonds which gives rise to a speed more than 10 times greater than in air). 27.89 V. The ideal gas law makes the assumption that molecules have no volume. where µon the level road F is by notingµand road. 26. The total volume held by 106 kg of ash would be (106 kg/1000 kg/m3) = 1000 m3. We can find Now the force required to be overcome in going uphill Ft is The power in t his case.
and the maximum power is 3 watts. then a = 1 and c = 1.6 mol/L 32. the values obtained are directly proportional to the H+ concentration indicating the reaction is first order in H+. therefore bromine can be removed from the expression. V = 12 Volts. then the current I must be 3/12 or 0. 35. the values obtained are directly proportional to the H+ concentration indicating the reaction is first order in H+. The molarity of pure acetone can be calculated as follows: (0. (0. A comparison of the results for Experiments 2. This answer is implied by the passage. This is 70 MHz and is answer C.791 g/mL)(1000 mL/L)(1 mol/58 g) = 13. 34.25 A. Light in the visible region of the spectrum ranges from approximately 400 nm to 700 nm. The passage states that the reaction is zero order with respect to bromine. A comparison of the results for Experiments 2. The next region of light. therefore bromine can be removed from Equation 2. The passage states that the reaction is zero order with respect to bromine. This is found as the difference between 894 MHz and 824 MHz since these are given as the upper and lower frequencies. 33.The passage states that the reaction is zero order with respect to bromine.80 M) shows that after dividing the rates of the reactions by the rate constants. Since power P is current I multiplied by voltage V. 4 and 6 (all with acetone concentrations of 0.80 M) shows that after dividing the rates of the reactions by the rate constants. If the reaction is first order with respect to acetone and hydronium ion.791 g/mL and the molar mass is 58 g/mol. The passage states that the density of acetone is 0. This is answer C. The conversations must be on different frequencies to be unique and so no two frequencies can be used by different phones at the same time. 31.15 W/mile2 . The maximum value occurs for answer D. 30. Here we must calculate P/r2. The intensities are: A.6/4) W/mile2 = 0. 4 and 6 (all with acetone concentrations of 0. therefore bromine can be removed from Equation 2. 36. 29.will have the same rate as it does with bromine because it would be zero order with respect to chlorine. below 400 nm is the ultraviolet region.
Singly labeled SO4-2 would be prepared most quickly by reacting the unlabeled SO3 and the labeled H2O. 37. The battery supplies the energy for both processes and answer B is justified. only equilibrium constants. 43.002 A as found in Figure 2. This is answer B. .002 = 6000 D. This is so from Ohm’s law. R must be proportionately reduced. The two plates of the capacitor collect charges of opposite sign. the energy stored in the capacitor must be less than the work done by the battery during the charging process. Light is a transverse wave with its electric and magnetic fields oscillating at right angles to the propagation vector where as sound is a longitudinal pressure wave. Since energy is lost by heating the small resistor. With 12 Volts initially across the capacitor during its discharge (the capacitor will charge to the battery voltage of 12V) and a current of 0. r. (3/16) W/mile2 = 0. thus to maintain a constant current. 46. 40. 41. the rate is decreased: (1 x 10-2)2/(1 x 10-1)2 or 1 x 10-2 times. No kinetic information is given for Reactions 1 and 2. The energy stored is ½CVc2. The passage states that the reaction of H218O and SO3 is fast. The resistor is not a storage device for energy and answer C is the correct answer. At a pH of 1 the hydrogen ion concentration is 1x10-1. 45. This is answerΩresistance R must have been R = V/I = 12/0. As the capacitor discharges the voltage across it falls. Answer A correctly states the result. Because all other conditions remain the same. 39. making D the key. thus C is correct. The capacitor charges up and stores energy in the electric field between the places. The battery is the source of energy for the circuit and thus is a store of energy. where Vc is the voltage across the capacitor. As more charge arrives it is harder and harder to fill the plates until finally an equilibrium occurs. 44.12 W/mile2 D. Protonation of the oxygen would generate an electrically neutral species and the repulsion forces would be reduced. then the initial . I = V/R. 38. R must fall with V. The rate would therefore be (1. The rate law for Reaction 3 is second order with respect to hydrogen ion.067 W/mile2 C. When the pH is increased to 2. 42. Reaction 1 requires that a reaction takes place between two anions which would experience electronic repulsion due to their negative charges.0 x 10-2 M/s) x (1 x 10-2) or 1 x 10-4 M/s. the hydrogen ion concentration is 1x10-2.B. (3/25) W/mile2 = 0.6/9) W/mile2 = 0. This comes from prior knowledge brought to bear on the problem. To keep I fixed.19 W/mile2. (0.
so the freezing point of the solution would be 0oC .14 m.0oC. It is a proton donor.86oC/m. According to the information in Table 1.(4. 56.0 g/cc Thus. Density is mass/volume.75 m or 20.1 M solution of ethylene glycol would have a particle concentration of 0.75) = 4. The freezing point of water is 0oC. The densities of the four objects are: A. 48.5/1. Chlorine needs 1 electron to fill its outer shell. 55. as is shown in the energy diagram in Foil B.47.1 M.0 g/cc B. A substance boils when enough heat has been supplied to overcome the intermolecular forces.5 g/cc has the highest density. 51.20. In this reaction the oxygen is transferred from the chlorine to the nitrogen.5/0. 52.(3. Taking the index of refraction of air to be nearly 1 then: This is answer B.50) = 3. This is a Snell Law problem: where the n’s are the indices of refraction. The transition state shown in Foil C is the only transition state that indicates the bond between the chlorine and oxygen breaking and a new bond between the oxygen and nitrogen forming. The ammonium ion is an acid. . The freezing point depression depends on the number of particles in the solution.0oC or -20.7 g Pb(NO3)2/100 mL H2O) x (1000 mL H2O/1 kg H2O) x (1 mol Pb(NO3)2/331 g Pb(NO3)2) = 1. The molality (mol solute/kg solvent) can be calculated as follows: (37.0/0.7 g Pb(NO3)2/100 mL H2O. 50. This indicates that Sequence II would have the highest energy barrier.14 mol Pb(NO3)2/kg H2 O = 1. 53. The fact that ammonia has a higher boiling point that phosphine indicates that ammonia requires more heat to overcome the intermolecular forces than does phosphine and therefore the intermolecular forces in ammonia are stronger than those in phosphine. The lead nitrate would therefore have a 3-fold greater effect on the freezing point of water. A solution that is 10.86oC/m x 10.00) = 4. the solution would contain 37.75 m ethylene chloride would lower the freezing point of water by 1. The passage states that the Sequences I and III in Reaction 3 are fast and Sequence II is slow.3 M (1 mole of lead ions and 2 moles of nitrate ions for each mole of lead nitrate) while a 0. answer C with 4.0/1.50) = 4.(6.(1.5 g/cc D. The passage states that the freezing point depression constant for water is Kf = 1.1 M solution of lead nitrate would have a particle concentration of 0. A 0.0 g/cc C. 54. 49.0oC.
This is answer B.03 mol Pb(NO3)2/(0. So . The spring absorbs some of the energy and is set into oscillatory motion—this will increase the net time of the collision. Ethylene glycol has two alcohol functionalities making it a polar molecule.0 g . The interstitial fluid is hypertonic. Each car has kinetic energy of ½mv2. 59.03 mol Pb(NO3)2 90 g H2O x (1 mol H2O/18 g H2O) = 5 mol H2O Mole fraction = 0. Table 1 shows that lead nitrate has a solubility of 37. The passage tells us that during each second Car A travels 30 m and Car B travels 20 m. Table 1 shows that ethylene glycol is infinitely soluble in water at both temperatures.25) or 0. 62. Thus the total kinetic energy transformed into heat and deformation is 2 (½mv2) = (1000)(20)2 = 400. 64.1/0.4. This answer follows directly from the passage. Without the spring the collision time will be short making the deceleration and the resulting force large. Certainly the change in the coefficient of friction as one goes from soft rubber to hard would not influence the required tire pressure. Thus the answer is A. 63. 66. Thus answer D is correct in that we expect this prediction not to hold.006 61. There will be an osmotic effect because the cell wall is a semi-permeable membrane. To make up 100 m the two cars must travel 10 seconds. 60.37. The solution described in the stem would be saturated with 1. The mole fraction can be determined as follows: 10 g Pb(NO3)2 x (1 mol Pb(NO3)2/331 g Pb(NO3)2) = 0. It will be in the ratio of the inverse times or (0. where v and V are the initial velocities of cars A and B and Va is the velocity of both after the inelastic collision. 65. Since momentum is conserved and is given by mass multiplied by velocity we have mv + MV = (m + M) Va. Since acceleration is the rate of change of velocity. This is answer B.03 mol Pb(NO3)2 + 5 mol H2O) = 0.7 g/100 mL H2O at 0oC. Thus the “like dissolves like” generalization applies while temperature dependence of solubility generalization does not. 58. meaning that the concentration is greater in the interstitial fluid than in the cellular fluid.7 g) of undissolved lead nitrate remaining. Case II will have the lower acceleration (or deceleration).57. Water is also a polar molecule.3 g (39.000 J. This is answer D. Solvent will pass through the cell wall from the cell to the interstitial fluid resulting in an increase in the concentration of the cellular fluid.
Answer D states precisely this and only D is consistent with this result. This value will be (4/16)3 = (1/4)3 = 1/64. We still must know the angle of refraction and . The other three answers all stress the possibility of coincidence. Answers C and D make no sense and are wrong. The relatively small trigger unleashed a quake that was basically ready to go with a small provocation. The speed of a wave v is given by its wavelength λ divided by its period T: The order of magnitude is then thousands of meters per second or answer B. The Doppler Effect will cause a bunching or squeezing of the waves moving with the rupture and an elongation of the waves opposing the rupture. Answer A certainly makes sense qualitatively. Thus energy is required to make the transition from n = 2 to n = 3 and the atom gains energy.This is answer C. This is answer C. Because the H+ accepts the electron readily from Cd. Thus for two different values of d. Answer B sounds good but the passage argues against elastic oscillations causing lasting deformations. According to the relation given in the passage.25) = 2500 N/m2 This is answer C. To find the relative refractive index to air one needs both the incident and refracted angles. This is answer C. Since we would expect the quake information to propagate in all directions. 75. 72. 73. The difference in pressure in a fluid on Earth is: (change in × g ×(density of fluid) height) = (1000)(10)(0. 69. it can be determined that H+ has the highest electron affinity. Lasting deformations go as (L/d)3 according to the passage. The reaction equation shows the reduction of H+ by Cd. the energy of an electron in orbit n = 3 is less negative or greater than the energy in orbit n = 2. 70. d1 and d2. 71. Since the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection we will know the angle of reflection. the ratio of lasting deformations will go as (d2/d1)3. 67. Thus A is the best answer. it does not support the coincidence hypothesis to learn that subsequent quakes occurred in all directions. 68. 74.
82. 77. By reasonable implication. It follows that the author would focus on human inventiveness as the key to survival on Mars. The author states that the human capacity for reasoned judgment sets it apart from other creatures: “What seems simple to us is far beyond them.033 moles of aluminum. This thesis is implied or stated by the author throughout the passage. “it’s almost as if we move so fast that we are invisible [to other creatures]. and they are still trying to pretend that the world is the same as it was before we arrived.” This view is reinforced by the author’s point about the superiority of cultural over genetic adaptation: “When human beings encounter new circumstances. Changes brought on by human judgment are natural. 78. combustible.” The author elaborates by focusing on human problem-solving and inventiveness as a means of adaptation.” according to the author.this is answer B.” Compared with other creatures. human beings tend to cut the loop short by noticing the new. None of the other answers will allow one to know the angle of refraction. The range at which the color change takes place depends on the point at which HIn is converted to In-. adaptation rarely depends on which individuals are genetically best suited to adjust….” 79. domesticable…. the author would say the same for a species with greater capacities than humans. and this depends on the pKa of the indicator. 76.” occurs rapidly because of human agency: “…I don’t think [North America] is a poorer place now than it was twenty thousand years ago. instead asserting that change. A faraday is equal to one mole of electric charge. or 0. 80.” The speed of human adaptability accounts for humans’ “wholly unpredictable [evolutionary] leap forward. The author emphasizes how life historians support this particular argument: “What alarms so many life historians is not that extinctions are occurring but that . 0. Because each aluminum ion gains 3 electrons. 81. No. then Homo sapiens was an astonishing and wholly unpredictable leap forward in this respect…. puzzling over it…attempting to find out immediately what is edible. The superiority of human cultural adaptation over genetic adaptation is a key feature of the author’s central argument that humans are conscious agents of change on this planet. This implies that human adaptability is a natural occurrence.1/3 moles of aluminum.” the author does not share their alarm. including the view that such adaptation is natural to a peculiarly human evolution: “If we believe that all life shares a certain quality of sensitivity. While the author acknowledges the concerns about the rates of extinctions. saying these are what “alarms so many life historians.” The author sets this view against the view of “human presence is a sort of monolithic [natural] disaster” that is making the world’s “‘natural’ continuance impossible. or self-awareness. The indicator will change color over a specific pH range.1 faraday of charge will reduce 0. “one of the most reliable constants.
adaptation rarely depends on which individuals are genetically best suited to adjust….” 84.” The author strongly implies that only humans took this opportunity in the form of cultural adaptation. The author establishes the central thesis in the first paragraph. combustible.” The author is convinced that human potential allows for rapid and beneficial adaptation: “Consciousness. and attempting to find out immediately whether it is edible. which does not represent to the senses of flat two-dimensional picture with precise boundaries but a central focus with a periphery of vaguely apprehended and seemingly distorted objects. The author is fairly direct on this point.” The author discusses the role of imagination and intellect being “like a map” in helping the artist interpret perceived reality by means of. becomes part of the act of seeing.” 83.” the author states: “When humans encounter new circumstances.” 87. after questioning the belief of many people “that these changes [brought about by human cultural adaptation] are often for the worse. Plainly. telling their friends. After stating that no artist prior to Cézanne had attempted to view the world objectively. for the artist. an actuality we can see but never grasp. the Impressionists.” The author devotes much of the remainder of the passage to discussing how much of art previous to Cézanne represented an interpretation of reality by bringing “extravisual faculties” such as imagination and intellect into play. the more we are obliged to yearn for disasters.” Instead.” the author states: “The more convinced we are that our species is a plague.” The author elaborates on this by stating the differences between sensual perception and art: “This intervention seemed to be made necessary by the very nature of perception. Mind. citing the singleminded determination of [Cézanne] to see the world objectively. puzzling over it.they appear to be occurring at a greater rate than they have at all but a few times in the past…. Here are qualities that. In discussing “cultural adaptation. had seen their world subjectively—that is to say.” Interpretation. as it presented itself to their senses in . domesticable…. The author says: “[Cézanne’s] immediate predecessors. 86. 85. and it is the very persistency with which they pursue this idea that endows it with power. The author states this idea outright: “Great revolutionary leaders are people with a single and a simple idea.” and then states: “One might conclude from the history of art that reality in this sense is will-o’-the wisp. Insight. Cézanne by seeing the world as object attempted to succeed in this “where [his predecessors] had failed. and pointing out how several periods in art history had attempted to make art “imitative. “a system of perspective. if not exclusively human. our planet contained vast opportunities for creatures willing to shape it consciously toward their ends.” 88. seem appallingly rudimentary elsewhere.” the author points out that “there always intervened between the visual event and the act of realizing the vision an activity which we can only call interpretative. humans adapt “by noticing the new. for example.
The author asserts Greek and Roman art was “possessed of a desire to represent the world ‘as it really is’” without offering specific examples or discussion of exactly how Greek and Roman artists attempted this. 91. the author reinforces this point.” 92. The poetic qualities of the passage occur in the emphasis on vivid physical descriptions and imagery that appeal to the senses or the emotions rather than reflect scientific accuracy: “…this sunflower became incredibly beautiful. or from various points of view.various lights. saying. Near the end of the passage. The author asserts in the beginning of the passage that Cézanne founded the modern movement with his “single-minded determination…to see the world objectively” and later implies that Cézanne’s contribution to art was revolutionary. The key to the author’s point about Cézanne is the influence Cézanne’s persistence exerted on modern art: “There is no doubt that what we call the modern movement in art begins with the single-minded determination of a French painter to see the world objectively.” The author also says that these faculties helped guide the intellect but did not grasp objective reality. including through the use of the “system of perspective:” “like a map. referring to Cézanne. a perspective in which the object could be given an exact situation. the author had discussed how reality had eluded artists before Cézanne. [perspective] serves to guide the intellect.” 90.” Prior to this statement. The argument that “extra-visual faculties” enabled artists to interpret their perception of the world through art is one of the most fully developed in the passage. Like a map. 94. discusses the persistence of great revolutionaries in pursuing an idea. perspective does not give us any glimpse of the reality..” The author. The author discusses the role of imagination in creating “an ideal space occupied by ideal forms” and the role of intellect in creating “a scientific chart.” 95. 93. it serves to guide the intellect…. “But Cézanne…did not despair of succeeding where his predecessors had failed. The author is explicit on this point. subtly . Each occasion made a different and distinct impression on their senses….” 89. The context of the phrase indicates that it refers to the inability of artists before Cézanne to effectively depict reality: “One might conclude from the history of art that reality in this sense is a will-o’-the wisp. This discovery would represent a strong challenge to the author’s premise. an actuality we can see but never grasp. drawing a direct analogy between maps and the system of perspective: “But a system of perspective is no more an accurate representation of what the eye sees than a Mercator’s projection is what the world looks like from Sirius.
especially. I felt something like a heartbeat. they registered the passage of the gods of night. is the author observing and learning from nature. I walk in the land of many gods. and become a part of the natural world and its symbiotic relationships—human awareness of these relationships may even be the key to their continuation. 98. culminating in the final paragraph with the author participating in the collective knowledge and wisdom of previous generations: “Tonight I watch the sky. but is passed on though the ages: “Without written records. The tone of the passage reflects the author’s sense of wonder at the variety and tumult of life in its changing and recurring patterns. Another implication in the passage and in final paragraph is that humans can know.’” .turning its face daily.” The author shares this sense of wonder with ancestors: “Behind me. its black center alive with a deep blue light. This is reflected in the following: “Sometimes you can hear the language of the earth…. especially birds carrying the seeds away. Once. birds carrying away the seeds of the sunflower. Whichever road I follow. Behind me my ancestors say. The emphasis in the passage is on symbiotic relationships: the sunflower as a host to various insect species. Watch and listen…. one example being the bamboo that flowers once a century on the same day no matter where they are located. thinking of the people who came before me and their knowledge of the placement of stars….” The sandstorm particularly had an impact. all are somehow one plant. The author observes: “Some current we cannot explain passes through this primitive life. noting the fine details of the world around them and the immensity above them. touches on the notion that human wonder and curiosity before the natural world will never cease. The major emphasis in the passage.” “…I never learned the sunflower’s golden language…. 100. The further implication of this is that these symbiotic relationships in nature continue even with human land use. You are the result of the love of thousands. bloom on the same day by some special hidden mode of communication. ‘Be still.” “…”bees with legs fat with pollen. Prior to describing the sandstorm and the dead horse. no matter their location. 96. in the redwood forest. my ancestors say. the author observes: “Changes also occurred in the greater world of the plant.” 97. grasshoppers with clattering wings and desperate hunger…. with the implication being that this is a means by which new flowers are planted. One example in the passage where cyclical regularity occurs is with the bamboo that blooms once a century—all plants. Nowhere does the passage suggest humans will satisfy their curiosity about nature. Watch and listen. especially the more aware a person becomes.” The author observes both changes and orderly occurrences. a hardly perceptible current that stirred kinship and longing in me…. drying out and blowing away the petals before another change came: “Then birds arrived to carry the seeds to the future.” The final paragraph. ‘Be still. as if flint had sparked an elemental fire there…. always toward the light.” The author in non-judgmental fashion simply observes these changes as necessary. Each with a share of communal knowledge.’” 99. especially in the tone and attitude. appreciate.
triadic harmonic structure. such as heartbeat. even in works by the same composer. 103. 105. I felt something like a heartbeat. This conclusion is implied more than once in the passage. the semitonal scale. in particular. 102. 104.” The purpose of this comparison is then to show how atonality largely resists the limitations of adhering to preconceived concepts of musical organization. the semitonal scale.” Other word choice. and…key center” the author refers to earlier.” The author then goes on to state that atonality is defined as “merely stipulating the absence of a priori functional connections among the twelve notes of the atonal scale.” Among these “a priori functional connections” would be the “seven-tone scale.” The word choice of take for granted implies that the composer assumes those limitations whereas the atonal system implies that a composer has far more choices: “The atonal composer…can take nothing for granted except the existence of a given limiting sound world. a key center…. a hardly perceptible current that stirred a kinship and longing in me…. The sense of unity is communicated by the author’s word choice. The idea that atonal music will have a less readily apparent structure is implied by the statement that the composer is still working under certain constraints such as “the existence of a certain limiting sound world. The author states that a composer “working within the diatonic tonal system may take for granted the existence of specific properties of that system [such as a seven-tone scale]. implies that the author’s kinship is with some of the vital life-producing currents.” .” The author further explains that the “atonal composer…can take nothing for granted” and that atonality “merely [stipulates] the absence of a priori functional connections among the twelve notes of the semitonal scale. kinship: “Once.101. triadic harmonic structure. in a redwood forest. The author supports this by explaining that Schöenberg “disclosed that the ultimate expansion of possible relations to include the whole range of combinations contained in the semitonal scale demands a revaluation of every aspect of musical language. The author first states that the diatonic tonal system presupposes “the existence of specific properties of that system: a seven-tone scale. trees. The “absence of a priori functional connections among the twelve notes of the semitonal scale” means that other more readily apparent structures such as triadic harmonic structures will not be available to the listener.” The author alludes to a greater range of choice for the composer later in the passage when discussing how the general composition of an atonal work may vary greatly from one work to the next.
S. The author makes two observations revealing that the author is particularly concerned about the United States. The author encourages policies that realize the highest returns.” 111. The author points out that high-road firms emphasize investments in highly skilled workers and long-term goals.” The second concerns U.106.” 108.S. The author infers that in the atonal system the ordering is determined more by the composer’s choices than by the compositional conventions of the diatonic tonal system: “An unambiguous ordering is assumed.” The author also emphasizes what kind of investment in worker training is most desirable: “Workers who receive formal company training command higher wages than do similar workers who attend only vocational school or receive informal on-the-job instruction. The author further points out that only dominant firms “protected from domestic or international competitors by technological advantages.S.” the author specifically refers to workers who get “Some advanced education or job-related training but [are] unlikely to enter the dynamic high-road labor market…. work force that is employed by low-road firms: “About 40 percent of U.” The author later warns of this phenomenon again in discussing job-related training: “Although for a particular job.” 110. employer-based training or vocational preparation can substitute for general schooling. competitiveness in particular: “For the United States to compete in an eventual global economy based on skilled workers and quality products. The first concerns the part of U. Moreover. such a policy would be consistent with the author’s advocacy of putting policies in place that further . the author is saying such a firm is going to have to grow before it can be competitive and go public. The author emphasizes the importance of investing in worker training in high-road firms and producing “highly skilled employees who can react quickly to changing technologies and markets. In discussing the “muddy road. With this last observation. specific training degrades rapidly. The author asserts the earning power of being able to use a computer on the job: “Workers who use computers on the job also earn more than do those of the same education level who do not use computers at work.” 112. 109. and. but the degree to which this ordering actually determines the general musical procedures varies greatly from one work to another. and narrow skills seldom transfer well to new job requirements. workers receive no formal training beyond a high-school education. even though they may be by the same composer. the earning difference increases with the level of technological competence. while the author does not discuss a policy of repaying tuition. or government regulations” can afford to invest in skilled workers and long-term goals. additional employer investment in training is needed now. both of which may delay profits and discourage investors wanting short-term profits.” 107. large-scale production.
” The author . In discussing automated production processes. which is why the association of death with old age has become a recent phenomenon. many very competent workers will face an employment market of many very undemanding jobs. The author states that advertisements for retirement living made promises of the good life and reflected a sense of optimism and common goals: “Lured by glossy advertisements depicting a life of warm friendships and endless pleasures. This explains why there is a greater percentage of these firms in the U. and a third quarter died by the age of forty-five…. The author explains increasing disparity in earnings by how earnings increase when computers are used at work.worker training goals. 117. work force. The author further notes that by 1980 average life expectancy was 73. it follows that a person who lived to age forty and began having children at age twenty could see 50 percent of these children die.” 113.” To put it another way. 115. and maternal mortality.S. which “was mainly due to success in reducing infant. offers by way of warning the caveat that all trained workers may not benefit from advanced training: “If the investment in workers outpaces the number of good jobs. The author. many retirees welcomed these new complexes as a new adventure. the author advocates “encouraging workers at all stages of their operation to demonstrate expertise and responsibility. childhood. The author notes that 75 percent of all people who died did so by age 45. adding that “earning difference increases with the level of technological competence.6 years.” 116. since there are going to need to be more of these firms with fewer workers in order to accommodate the U. many more people now live past age 60. another quarter died before the age of twenty.” Using a computerized bulletin board to share tips with one another is a way of empowering workers by giving them expertise and responsibility.” Therefore. policies that “encourage the coordination of employer-provided training and broader schooling.” This observation is most consistent with this example in instances where former low-level workers get more sophisticated equipment and training when they move into managerial-level positions. so it logically follows that a firm that emphasizes cutting jobs is likely going to have fewer workers. 114. The author states that the low-road emphasizes downsizing and outsourcing to cut labor costs. 118. for example. The author cites the following mortality figures: “A quarter of the people born in seventeenth-century France died during their first year. in advocating training workers for high-skilled positions.S.. 119.
” 123. and longevity. By referring to the school readiness theory of education as a “usual practice…of treating learning as an abstraction. the director’s statement supports the optimistic assumptions made by the author and the fact that many retirement communities have “evolved from mere developers’ tracts into communities with traditions of their own.” 120.” The author implies that any educational theory that goes counter to the kind advocated by Piaget and Gesell is “ineffective. not a struggle.” This comparison supports that thesis. The author points out that the outlook behind this theory was opposed by educational theorists Jean Piaget and A. school readiness is too impersonal and standardized whereas developmentally appropriate instruction. The author points out: “Developmentally appropriate instruction…appears to be a hard sell to decision makers concerned with uniformity. The author’s thesis is that the appearance of retirement communities is a kind of frontier: “Old age is hardly new. 122. shows that people are not living appreciably longer in actual years but that more people are living into old age and that life expectancy depends on health in earlier years. which has increased comparatively little. This statistic underscores this crucial difference between life expectancy. This analogy is most apropos because the author contends that. in discussing longevity. much like a form letter. much like a personal note to a friend. with the added benefit of “higher percentages on standardized tests. personally meaningful education for children.” 125. is focused on the individual needs of children and is designed to be personally meaningful to them. . but for an entire generation to reach old age with its membership almost intact is new.” This statement implies that uniformity is more convenient than an individualized approach. a view supported by observers of modern education: “Most modern observers of children think that if a task is developmentally appropriate and has personal meaning for a child. it is approached as a pleasing challenge.” 124.later notes that surveys of elderly showed that these promises largely proved to be true as the elderly found the friendship and leisure in these retirement communities that was advertised.” the author is implying that this theory is generally accepted.L. The author. Gesell who advocated developmentally appropriate. The emphasis in the passage is that the current rate of longevity is unprecedented and that the comparison between now and seventeenth-century France documented this. Therefore. which has increased dramatically. The author states: “In the literature promoting their approach. the advocates of generalized readiness are clearly directing their appeal to school administrators. 121.
of the road. no position. an individual could accept the decision on the basis that the decision is likelier to achieve a better outcome. or right side. 128. At most this new information is simply a variation on the exact same argument. and to ‘err is human’ applies to us all. introducing the example of people driving on the right side of the road in another country neither weakens nor lends further support to the central thesis than is already in the passage. not because the government mandates driving on the left side. no body of people. individual responsibility for decisions. no individual can have moral authority over any individual. hence. 132. The author commits somewhat of a logical fallacy by asserting that it is impossible to surrender responsibility. The author discusses the importance of developing a test to validate curricular reforms and educational effectiveness.” The author also states: “No government. This hypothetical finding theoretically represents a strong challenge to the assertion that the individual is the final moral arbiter.” The author also points out that “the final arbiter is the individual.” The author concedes that a government leader or official may be more well informed or expert in a particular issue. the central thesis is unchanged by knowing this. 129. . The author already gives the example of driving on the left side of the road. because it greatly increases the individual’s burden of proof and. 127. . even if that assertion remains a valid argument. but even the decision to decide whether the government is right or wrong still is the responsibility of the individual. Even if people drive on different sides of the road in different countries. 130. The author also devotes the first two paragraphs to explaining why reformers should take care to prove their reforms are needed and credible. a person surrenders responsibility involuntarily.126. because that person would be incapable of making the decision whether to be responsible or abdicate responsibility.The author would likely doubt the accuracy and quality of the report since that is how the author reacted to efforts to introduce school readiness. that person surrenders it. The decision to drive on the right side of the road in a country where it is the law to do so has the same obvious benefits in that country as it does in a country where it is the law to drive on the right side of the road.” In the case of someone with the hypothetical psychological condition referred to in the question. This theme runs throughout the passage. The author reinforces that argument by saying: “A government is made up of individuals who are fundamentally similar to me.” even if the government has good reason to require a particular behavior. A responsible individual would obey the law because of these obvious benefits. One could do so freely—although the author is right in saying that once you make that choice you have “enslaved your will to some else’s will. The author states: “You cannot hand over your autonomy willy-nilly to…the government or any one else. nonetheless. Therefore. therefore. so the argument that politicians could “decide anything” is relevant. The objector does not say that politicians are better decision makers than anyone else. 131.
or right side. 137. is one of the destabilizing factors in human history.” 135. The role of Milan and Nicomedia as functional capitals shows how historical changes occur gradually. Ethnic diversity. Therefore. Edmund Burke. Gibbon “was a conservative along the lines of his contemporary. The decision to drive on the right side of the road in a country where it is the law to do so has the same obvious benefits in that country as it does in a country where it is the law to drive on the right side of the road.S. The ethnic conflict in Bosnia reflects Gibbon’s view of history as well as view of human nature that extends from his historical analysis: “[Gibbon] instructs us that human nature never changes and that humanity’s predilection for factionalism. At most this new information is simply a variation on the exact same argument.133. not because the government mandates driving on the left side. of the road. who saw humankind’s best hope in moderate politics and flexible institutions that would not become overbearing.” . Even if people drive on different sides of the road in different countries. According to the author. therefore.” The author also observes that a state or an empire can endure only if it generally limits itself to adjudicating disputes among its citizens. in Gibbon’s view. a stable society that is ethnically diverse would most challenge Gibbon’s view—his view might hold up if this society were explained by a system of limited government that adjudicated these ethnic differences. A responsible individual would obey the law because of these obvious benefits. with its checks and balances among the three branches of government. is the determinant of history.” The role of the U. introducing the example of people driving on the right side of the road in another country neither weakens nor lends further support to the central thesis than is already in the passage. 136. The author already gives the example of driving on the left side of the road. is to limit government in this way. because these roles came “decades before the formal division of the Empire into western and eastern halves and almost two centuries before Rome officially ceased to be the imperial capital…. the central thesis is unchanged by knowing this. augmented by environmental and cultural differences. 134. Constitution.
the brooding behavior is eliminated. that of rats is at 150 cal/g/day. connective tissue cells are known to divide a total of 50 times before dying. According to the passage. such as Vitamins C and E. Thus. Thus. If a certain endocrine gland is removed. According to the item. and mice indicates that metabolic rate for humans is at 25cal/g/day. 143. but Theory II would be supported if the cells undergo more than 20 additional divisions. and other molecules in the cell. If the cells undergo 40 divisions after treatment. The information presented in the item stem. so the female resumes regular feeding and her life cycle is extended. Thus the generation of free radicals. and therefore slow the rate of aging and cell death. and metabolic rate can be reduced somewhat by limiting dietary intake. Thus. According to Theory II. The results presented under Theory II indicate that rats with a minimal diet live approximately 60 weeks longer than rats that are fed more food. According to Theory II. can reduce the amount of damage caused by free radicals. thus rendering them harmless. 142. Additionally. This is consistent with Theory II. This theory also indicates that addition of antioxidant vitamins. regardless of the conditions and treatments. and subsequent evidence of a free-radical-induced DNA damaged product in urinary output. This provides the strongest support for Theory I because it shows that various characteristics of the organism’s life (brooding and feeding behavior) are hormonally controlled. supporters of Theory II would predict that the rats in the “fasting” group would outlive the rats in the “fed” group by some finite amount.140. but eats less than normal while caring for them. Vitamins C and E would not facilitate aging caused by free radicals. This damage is caused by free radicals. lifespan is proportional to metabolic rate. . and that of mice is greatest at 180 cal/g/day. can alter the behavior and lifespan of the organism. the metabolic rates of mammals are directly proportional to the rate of generation of free radicals. Assuming that connective tissues have already undergone 30 divisions prior to treatment with Vitamin E. comparing humans. RNA. aging and cell death is caused by the accumulation of damaged DNA. Theory I would be supported if the cells undergo 20 more divisions before dying. the female octopus broods her eggs. rats. is consistent with the graph shown in foil A. Foil A shows a direct relationship between metabolic rate (x-axis) and the urinary output of a free-radical-induced DNA damaged product (y-axis). The item asks the examinee to identify the process that would not lead to free-radical-induced aging. and source of hormones. removing the endocrine gland. this would clearly support Theory II. Vitamins C and E remove free radicals. 144. 141. according to Theory I. According to Theory II. then dies after the eggs hatch.
150. The physician’s observation is consistent with an injury to muscle or organs. and hypothalamus. her vessels would dilate for short periods of time to enable a sufficient supply of blood (and oxygen) to her cells. According to the passage. 148. Occasionally. . but not bone. her cells had an increased need for oxygen. After her first diving experience. According to the item. respectively. 151. 146. she noticed an elevated pulse rate and ventilation rate. C. At first. cerebellum. Control of heart rate. the physician detected myoglobin in Sarah’s urine. Sarah was in excellent physical condition prior to her trip to the Caribbean Sea to go skin diving. she noticed an elevated pulse rate and ventilation rate. muscle coordination. she noticed an elevated pulse rate and ventilation rate. Sarah went skiing in the mountains of Colorado. After her first diving experience. The analog of Compound 8 would undergo a Wittig reaction with Ph3P=CH2 to form the double bond in Compound 1. The Cahn-Ingold-Prelog system. As the week progressed. however. According to the item. but were still higher than usual. susbtituents are listed in order of decreasing atomic number. Sarah noticed that her skin blood vessels were usually constricted to conserve body heat in the cold environment of the Colorado mountains where she went skiing. The increased urine production can be explained by an increased blood pressure caused by adrenaline. After Sarah’s accident. Nitrogen has the highest atomic number and therefore the NHCHO group has the highest priority. and appetite is maintained by the brain stem. she also noticed that she produced more urine than usual. C. Due to the physical exertion of skiing. 152. According to the passage. and N.145. The most likely explanation for her body’s response was the activation of her sympathetic autonomic nervous system—the “fight or flight” response caused by adrenaline. The atoms directly bonded to the chiral carbon atom (x) are H. 147. 149. these rates dropped. released in response to excitement or anxiety—the fight or flight response. Myoglobin is the substance that holds oxygen in the muscles and organs. Sarah was in excellent physical condition prior to her trip to the Caribbean Sea to go skin diving. According to the passage. This prolonged increase in heart rate and breathing rate was most likely the cause of hypoxia (insufficient oxygen to the body cells) caused by insufficient blood hemoglobin to supply oxygen for exercise at the low oxygen pressure found at high altitudes.
thereby interfering with the process of DNA polymerization. 159. This is done by producing antibodies to the gp120 proteins on the viral surface. this RNA core would be transformed into DNA by reverse transcriptase. According to the passage. The number of stereoisomers can be calculated using the formula 2n. during the infection of a helper T cell. dumping its RNA core into the cell. when an AIDS virus has been incorporated into a CD4 cell. Thus. Antibiotics that are effective in interfering with bacterial (but not eukaryotic) ribosomes are ineffective at combating viruses because viruses typically lack ribosomes. AZT becomes incorporated into the growing DNA chain in place of a regular nucleotide (which would have the hydroxyl group on the 3’ carbon). However. the variability of the antibody-evoking region of the gp120 protein makes it difficult for B cells to produce antibodies that neutralize the AIDS virus in the host because antibodies are very specific 158. a process that normally occurs in the host cell. Then the viral coat fuses with the membrane. the viral genetic information is located in the CD4 cell’s nucleus—incorporated into the host’s DNA. AZT is effective for treating AIDS because it is missing a hydroxyl group on the 3’ carbon. 155. According to the passage. and one carbon–carbon double bond. where n is the number of stereocenters in the molecule. . The hydrogen on α-carbons c and d are most acidic. 156. a normal site for the bonding between a phosphate and sugar in the growing DNA polymer. 157. Thus. reverse transcriptase uses viral RNA as a template for making viral DNA inside the cell of the host. Once dumped. 154. Compound 1 has 4 stereocenters. According to the passage. one method of combating the AIDS virus is to interfere with the binding of the virus to the helper T cell. This process is the reverse of RNA synthesis. but has not yet been replicated.153. 160. one ester group. and the viral DNA would then become incorporated into the host cell’s chromosomes until activated (replicated) at a later time. It can be determined that the hydrogen at carbon c is removed because alkylation occurs at this carbon. The compound contains one ketone group. gp120 proteins of the viral coat first bind to the CD4 antigens on the cell membrane. a drug that interferes with ribosome function would have no effect against a virus.
and starting with a single egg. The item asks which evolutionary mechanism would most likely explain the presence in humans of CD4 receptors on the helper T cells that bind to the gp120 proteins of the AIDS virus.161. followed by C-4 and then C-6. 166. The O has the highest priority. 163. assuming that each cell underwent division 10 hours after its previous division. 167. embryonic mouse cells divide every 10 hours at o 37 C. At the end of 70 hours (approximately 3 days). indicating that there is a high rate of mutation in the gp120 protein of the virus. and gradually increasing during interphase. 164. The O . At C-7 again the molecule is drawn so that the hydrogen is pointing away from the viewer. The function of a B lymphocyte is to produce and secrete antibodies when it encounters a foreign particle or substance. 165. 162. is pointing away from the viewer. The mechanism that can best account for this oscillation in the concentration of cyclin is translation of cyclin mRNA (creating the protein from mRNA template) followed by proteolysis (destruction) of cyclin protein during mitosis. there would be 128 cells. a virus that infects only B lymphocytes would be expected to affect the production of antibodies. x cells would be present after three days (or 24 x 3=72 hours). even in a single generation time for humans. This answer is supported by the information in the passage. At C-5 the molecule is drawn so that the hydrogen. which enhances the ability of natural selection to make a difference on the viral population. Under such circumstances. In addition to having a high rate of mutation. reaching a minimum at the end of mitosis. the group with lowest priority. but that this virus infects only B lymphocytes (not the T cells invaded by AIDS virus). Tertiary alcohols react much more quickly with HCl than do other types of alcohols. According to the item. The graph shown in the item indicates that the concentration of cyclin rises and falls in a regular manner throughout the cell cycle. reaching a peak just at the beginning of mitosis. This reaction is an example of the formation of a hydrazone by the condensation of a hydrazine with an aldehyde. gradually declining during mitosis. the generation time for a virus is quite short. The groups are oriented in clockwise order of decreasing priority indicating that C-5 has an R-configuration. The item indicates that there is a virus similar to the AIDS virus. The number can be calculated by tracking the doubling time: 1 → 2 → 4 → 8 → 16 → 32 → 64 → 128 → 256. The most likely scenario is natural selection favoring chance mutation(s) of the virus. Thus.
or RNA. 169. 171. followed by C-8 and then C-6. 170. The item asks what process would be most disrupted by an inflammation in the colon. . It avoids attacking tissues of its own body because it suppresses cells that are specific to its own body’s antigens (surface molecules that would otherwise initiate an immune response). this would allow the contents of the gastrointestinal tract to enter the peritoneal cavity. The passage presents information about inflammatory bowel disease. DNA segments. Membranes surround this cavity. not on the chromosomes. Antigens are carried on the surface of cells. however both stereoisomers of this compound would be present. The Grignard reagent is CH3MgBr prepared by the reaction of CH3Br with Mg in diethyl ether. Assuming the genetic and autoimmune theories of inflammatory bowel disease are true.has the highest priority. The passage states that Compound 5 undergoes a regiospecific DielsAlder reaction indicating that Compound 6 was added so that the Cl and CN groups are present in the position in the ring as shown in Compound 7. the latter of which is associated with inflammation of the colon. The immune system is designed to attack foreign material in the body. 173. 172. Step 4 involves the addition of an acetyl group (CH3CO) to Compound 4 which is an acetylation reaction. then the absorption of water is the most likely process to be disrupted. then the gastrointestinal antigen being targeted must be located on the surface of proteins encoded by the genes for the disease. Since the primary process that takes place in the colon is absorption of water. If an ulcer penetrated the walls of the intestine. The Grignard reagent will add a methyl group to the ketone generating a tertiary alcohol. 174. The groups are oriented in counterclockwise order of decreasing priority indicating that C-7 has an Sconfiguration 168. 175. An ulcer in the small intestine would not allow the contents to enter the lumen because this is the normal place in which the contents are found. which would prevent further transport of the gastrointestinal contents through the rest of the body. including Chron’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
placebo + vitamin E. one would predict that blood pressure would be lowest in the capillaries. The passage describes a study in which the blood flow of participants was measured before and after 60 days of exposure to one of four treatments.176. eating habits) during the course of the experiment. the fatty acid used was a 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid. One hypothesis suggests that the decrease in blood flow to the skin results from a change in the activity in the sympathetic nerves to the skin. but it does not show clear evidence of Medelian inheritance. An alternative method for examining the effects of fatty acids on blood flow would be to measure changes in blood pressure. if it were. They made sure that skin temperature was constant during the blood flow . Pressure would be even lower in the veins. Researchers collected information about each subject’s age. According to the item. 180. fatty acid. The passage describes a study in which the blood flow of participants was measured before and after 60 days of exposure to one of four treatments—after collecting lifestyle information abut each subject. This hypothesis would be supported if researchers observed a change in the norepinephrine content of blood draining from the skin. fatty acid. The treatments included placebo. Inflammatory bowel disease appears to have a genetic component. The passage indicates that vitamin E is an antioxidant that reduces in vivo oxidation of ingested fatty acids. To interpret the results of the passage. The most likely explanation for the difference in blood flow between the fatty acid group and the fatty acid + vitamin E group is that the products of fatty acid oxidation (which would be formed when vitamin E is absent) reduce blood flow. placebo + vitamin E. 177. The treatments included placebo. or arterioles. but this option was not offered. It blood pressure were measured. As shown in Figure 1. 182. etc. The passage indicates that vitamin E is an antioxidant that reduces in vivo oxidation of ingested fatty acids. the fatty acid group showed a reduction in blood flow by more than 40%. arteries. The difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids is that saturated fatty acids lack carbon-carbon double bonds (because all carbons are saturated with hydrogen). 179. dietary habits. and fatty acid + vitamin E. and fatty acid + vitamin E. as compared to the heart. while the fatty acid + vitamin E showed an increase of about 10%. This means that the trait cannot simply be “recessive” since. it would show Mendelian inheritance patterns. 178. 181. researchers must assume that subjects do not alter their lifestyle (eg.
The proton NMR shows 9 equivalent H and an additional H downfield.5) = 50. If the ratio of R to R’ in the product mixture is 2:1. Both organelles appear to be membranes with many folds. The total area is (45 + 3 + 1 + 0. 186. then the starting triglyceride must consist of two R-containing esters and one R’-containing ester. 189. 187. 190. 183. An organism that causes human disease is isolated and studies. Researchers would conclude that the organism is a bacterium rather than a virus if the organism reproduces in a culture medium lacking host tissue. The percentage sec-butyl alcohol would therefore be 3/50 = 6%. 184. . The passage states that sec-butyl alcohol is the second most abundant product. 185. This was dependent variable. bands characteristic of -OH groups are found near 3500 cm-1. The one variable that was not controlled or accounted for was skin blood flow. therefore all should have -OH groups. Bacteria do not require host tissue to reproduce. whereas viruses do. 188. All of the products are formed from the quenching of various carbocations. The 9 hydrogen on the 3 methyl groups are all equivalent. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum most resembles the Golgi apparatus in an intact eukaryotic cell when viewed under the microscope. The peak in the chromatograph with area of 3 would correspond to the sec-butyl alcohol. The passage states that alkyl groups bonded to a carbocation center may stabilize the carbocation through hyperconjugation. This is consistent with the structure of t-butyl alcohol. In the infrared spectrum.measurement. If ethanol was heated with sulfuric acid the oxygen of the ethanol would be protonated in the first step with the alcohol acting as a base accepting a proton from the acid and forming water as a leaving group.5 + 0.
Thus. a significant difference between the strains is that the strains express different genes. Thus. According to the passage. For the father to give the red color gene. Lipases catalyze the hydrolysis of fats and other carboxylic esters— similar to fats. According to the passage. 196. Heterozygous horses have roan color. pylori. Lipase’s ability to catalyze the hydrolysis of fats and similar molecules reveals that some enzymes interact with several different substrate molecules that have similar chemical linkages. the genes for red coat color and white coat color are codominant. The passage discusses the connection between H. such infections can be persistent. The most plausible explanation for why host antibodies are ineffective against H. . but less than 25% of people affected ultimately develop such cancer. the cagA gene product triggers the movement of leukocytes into the mucosal tissue—because leucocytes gravitate toward an inflammation. The other strain encodes a gene cagA that leads to inflammation and might be related to the genesis of gastric cancer. respectively. 197. this could lead to gastric cancer if genetic mutations occur in proliferating somatic cells that line the stomach. If a roan-colored colt (CRCW) has a white mother (CWCW). The mother could only give the white color gene. there is more than one strain of H. so the father must have given the red. According to the passage. If H. meaning he must be either red or roan.191. pylori is that antibody proteins may be denatured (destroyed) in the harsh (acidic) environment of the stomach. If the antibody proteins are denatured. 194. pylori infections in the stomach. pylori increases one’s risk of gastric cancer. pylori infection causes increased proliferation of mucosal cells in the stomach. Most people affected with H pylori do not develop cancer because they tolerate the infection without developing tumors. Without treatment by antibiotics. One strain expresses the gene vacA that encodes a toxin. pylori infection and increased risk of gastric cancer. According to the passage. 192. expression of the cagA gene leads to inflammation of the mucosal lining of the stomach. infection by H. they will not function properly. the father’s coat must be either roan (CRCW) or red (CRCR). 195. stomach ulcers and some forms of gastric cancer may be linked to H. 193. The DNA is not damaged and uncontrolled cell division does not occur. In horses. he would have to carry one or two copies of it. but not fats.
but less than 25% of people affected ultimately develop such cancer. pylori increases one’s risk of gastric cancer. The observation that the fate of an isolated AB cell is different from that of an AB cell in an intact embryo supports the hypothesis that cell-to-cell communication is involved in the determination of cell fate.198. researchers investigated the role of cell-to-cell communication by separating the cells of a two-cell embryo (AB and P1). two-cell embryos were incubated in either cycloheximide (an inhibitor of translation) or actinomycin D (an inhibitor of transcription). Pepsin is the enzyme. but no muscle. skin and muscle—their normal fate. . the AB cell from the two-cell stage of the nematode. skin. a gene therapy for gastric cancer should be directed against epithelial cells that give rise to tumors. According to the passage. AB cells of embryos treated with cycloheximide (the translation inhibitor. which would have prevented production of proteins at the ribosomes of both AB and P1 cells) produced only neurons and skin. and culturing them independently. which would have prevented production of mRNA) produced neurons. To be most effective. The cultured AB cells produced neurons and skin. which is the same location of the cancers—and the first place to focus preventative measures. 201. whereas the cultured P1 cells gave rise to all of the tissues produced by P1 cells of an intact embryo. These results indicate that the signaling interaction (between P1 and AB cells) at the two-cell stage probably involves protein. In Experiment 2. Enzymatic activity in the stomach initiates the digestion of proteins. while P1’s fate was the same regardless of whether AB was present or not). that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins into peptides and amino acids. 200. and grown in culture. researchers investigated the role of cell-to-cell communication by separating the cells of a two-cell embryo (AB and P1). secreted into the stomach. whereas the cultured P1 cells gave rise to all of the tissues produced by P1 cells of an intact embryo. and culturing them independently. goes on to produce neurons. In Experiment 1. infection by H. and muscle. The results of Experiment 1 indicate that the direction of signaling between the blastomeres of a two-cell embryo is P1 → AB (since AB’s fate differed when isolated from P1. The infection originates in the epithelial tissue. In Experiment 1. The AB cells were then isolated and washed to remove inhibitors. while AB cells of embryos treated with actinomycin D (the transcription inhibitor. Pepsin works most efficiently at the low pH of the stomach—a pH that is obtained by secretion of HCl. 202. but no muscle. since proteins of the P1 cells could not have been produced to carry the necessary message(s) to the AB cells prior to isolation. when kept in contact with the P1 cell. According to the passage. The cultured AB cells produced neurons and skin. 199.
As indicated in Figure 2. in gut differentiation only occurred in cases where an EMS cell was present. The results of Experiment 3 support the conclusion that gut specification during the four-cell stage requires cell-to-cell communication between P2 and EMS. 207. which shows that gut cells are derived from the following source: zygote → P1 → EMS → E. This result is shown in Figure 2. 209. If Chemist 2’s reaction mechanism were correct there could possibly be cross products. in which the fate of an AB cell depended on whether it was cultured in the presence of P1 or not. regardless of how long the cells were left in the four-cell stage. If the compound shown in the stem reacts in the same way an aldehyde would form and the double bond in the chain would be retained. The importance of cellto-cell signaling is supported by the results of Experiment 1. the only case in which gut differentiation resulted. 204. A negative entropy of activation indicates that the order of the transition state is increasing. In addition to this. 205. segregation of these substances during cell division would occur in the sequence of zygote to P1 to EMS to E. the only cases in which gut differentiation occurred were cases in which EMS cells were present. The passage shows that Compound 1 undergoes a rearrangement to form a ketone and the double bond in the side chain is retained. According to the information provided. . This information comes directly from the flow chart in Figure 1. which indicates that after 10 minutes in the four-cell stage. the only somatic or visceral celltype tissue that derives from a single blastomere is gut. This is true of Chemist 1’s mechanism because the molecule would have to achieve the correct conformation for the reaction to take place.203. The rearrangement shown proceeding by Chemist 1’s mechanism can give only one product. 206. The importance of segregation of cytoplasmic contents during cell division is supported by the results of Experiment 3. If the zygote contains all unique cell contents that are necessary for gut differentiation. an isolated EMS cell can lead to gut differentiation. 208. EMS and P2 cells that had zero minutes incubation in the four-cell stage still resulted in gut differentiation. The experiments indicate that nematode cells adopt different fates from those of their neighbors during development by both cell-to-cell signaling and segregation of cytoplasmic contents during cell division. was the combination of EMS and P2 cells.
213. facilitating fat digestion. This item includes a description of an experiment in which activelydividing. The N-H bond in Compound I would be capable of forming hydrogen bonds with water making it more soluble that the non-polar Compound II. 215. In humans. When the gall bladder is removed. thus leaving them with the disease (Xay). a patient will have reduced ability to digest fats. 216. the liver can partially regenerate after illness or damage. 212. synchronized cells were exposed to radioactively labeled 2deoxythymidine (the nitrogen base incorporated into DNA. 214. The mother had children with two men. The -OH stretching band appears in the IR at approximately 3500 cm-1. and not just sons from ONE cross. The mother carries the trait XAXa. The trait is most likely sex-linked because only sons are affected. and half are expected to be carriers like their mother. Bile acts as an emulsifier. the cells were rinsed to remove unabsorbed label.000 people) is sex-linked recessive. Based on the pedigree shown. The figure shows a peak in radioactivity between 3 and 13 hours . and in both cases half of her sons had the disease. After 30 minutes of exposure to the radioactively labeled substance. the most likely pattern of inheritance for this rare disease (expressed in fewer than 1 in 100. Unlike other organisms. but not RNA). Cholesterol and testosterone are only two of several steroid-based natural molecules. cholesterol is a precursor to testosterone.210. but sons from two crosses. Mitosis is the process whereby human body cells (not gametes) reproduce. Daughters cannot inherit the disease because the father always gives a “normal” chromosome (XA). The trait must be recessive since it does not appear in the parent’s generation (the parents are normal). Half the daughters will be entirely unaffected. a group of cells from the culture were examined to determine the quantity of radioactive material in the nuclei. The body makes uses of the steroid backbone of cholesterol to produce the hormone testosterone. The gall bladder stores bile produced by the liver and secretes it into the small intestine as needed. At various times thereafter. and passes the trait to half of her sons who inherit a Y from their father. but does appear in several of the children. This regeneration is accomplished by mitosis. 211.
after treatment. but not RNA or protein . since 2-deoxythymidine is a component of DNA. This peak represents DNA synthesis.
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