A Complete Grammar of Esperanto

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**Welcome To The World of Free Plain Vanilla Electronic Texts** **eBooks Readable By Both Humans and By Computers, Since 1971** *****These eBooks Were Prepared By Thousands of Volunteers!***** Title: A Complete Grammar of Esperanto Author: Ivy Kellerman Release Date: March, 2005 [EBook #7787] [Yes, we are more than one year ahead of schedule] [This file was first posted on May 25, 2003] Edition: 10 Language: English Character set encoding: ASCII *** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK A COMPLETE GRAMMAR OF ESPERANTO *** Produced by William W. Patterson, Carlo Traverso, Charles Franks and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team. We thank the Case Western Reserve University Library

Preservation Department that has given us the image files with which the present e-book has been prepared. TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE: The Esperanto alphabet contains 28 characters. These are the characters of English, but with "q", "w", "x", and "y" removed, and six diacritical letters added. The diacritical letters are "c", "g", "h", "j" and "s" with circumflexes (or "hats", as Esperantists fondly call them), and "u" with a breve. Zamenhof himself suggested that where the diacritical letters caused difficulty, one could instead use "ch", "gh", "hh", "jh", "sh" and "u". A plain ASCII file is one such place; there are no ASCII codes for Esperanto's special letters. However, there are two problems with Zamenhof's "h-method". There is no difference between "u" and "u" with a breve, and there is no way to determine (without prior knowledge of the word(s) involved, and sometimes a bit of context) whether an "h" following one of those other five letters is really the second half of a diacritical pair, or just an "h" that happened to find itself next to one of them. Consequently other, unambiguous, methods have been used over the years. One is the "x-method", which uses

the digraphs "cx", "gx", "hx", "jx", "sx" and "ux" to represent the special letters. There is no ambiguity because the letter "x" is not an Esperanto letter, and each diacritical letter has a unique transliteration. This is the method used in this Project Gutenberg e-text. A COMPLETE GRAMMAR OF ESPERANTO THE INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE WITH GRADED EXERCISES FOR READING AND TRANSLATION TOGETHER WITH FULL VOCABULARIES BY IVY KELLERMAN, A.M., Ph.D. MEMBER OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND CHAIRMAN OF EXAMINATIONS FOR THE ESPERANTO ASSOCIATION OF NORTH AMERICA, MEMBER OF THE INTERNATIONAL "LINGVA KOMITATO" ***** TO DR. L. L. ZAMENHOF THE AUTHOR OF ESPERANTO ***** PREFACE. This volume has been prepared to meet a twofold need. An adequate presentation of the International Language has become an imperative necessity. Such presentation, including full and accurate grammatical explanations, suitably graded reading lessons,

and similarly graded material for translation from English, has not heretofore been accessible within the compass of a single volume, or in fact within the compass of any two or three volumes. The combination of grammar and reader here offered is therefore unique. It is to furnish not merely an introduction to Esperanto, or a superficial acquaintance with it, but a genuine understanding of the language and mastery of its use without recourse to additional textbooks, readers, etc. In other words, this one volume affords as complete a knowledge of Esperanto as several years' study of a grammar and various readers will accomplish for any national language. Inflection, wordformation and syntax are presented clearly and concisely, yet with a degree of completeness and in a systematic order that constitute a new feature. Other points worthy of note are the following: The reasons for syntactical usages are given, instead of mere statements that such usages exist. For example, clauses of purpose and of result are really explained, instead of being dismissed with the unsatisfactory remark that "the imperative follows 'por ke,'" or the "use of 'tiel ... ke' and 'tia ... ke' must be distinguished from that of 'tiel ... kiel' and 'tia ... kia,'" etc., with but little intimation of

when and why "por ke", "tiel ... ke" and "tia ... ke" are likely to occur. Affixes are not mentioned until some familiarity with the general character of the language is assured, as well as the possession of a fair vocabulary. They are introduced gradually, with adequate explanation and illustration. Of importance in connection with word-formation is an element distinctly new-the explanation and classification of compound words. Such words, like affixes, are withheld until the use of simple words is familiar. Another new feature is the gradual introduction of correlative words in their logical order, and in their proper grammatical categories, before they are called "correlatives," or tabulated. The tabulation finally presented is a real classification, with regard to the meaning and grammatical character of the words, not merely an arbitrary alphabetical arrangement. The use of primary adverbs precedes the explanation of adverb derivation; prepositions, especially "de", "da", "je", etc., receive careful attention, also the verb system, and the differentiation of words whose English equivalents are ambiguous. A general characteristic of obvious advantage is that almost without exception new forms

and constructions are illustrated by means of words or roots already familiar. Likewise, the new words or roots of each lesson recur at least once in the next lesson, and usually in some lesson thereafter as well. Each reading exercise gives not only a thorough application of the grammatical principles of the lesson, but a review of those in the preceding lesson, and no use is made of words or constructions not yet explained. The comparative ease of the language, and the lack of necessity for reciting paradigms, permit the reading exercises to be long enough for the student to feel that he has really mastered something. These exercises are further unique, in that each after the fifth is a coherent narrative, and nearly every one is a story of genuine interest in itself. These stories, if bound separately, would alone constitute a reader equivalent to those used in first and second year work in national languages. (For list of titles, see Table of Contents.) The second element of the twofold need which this volume meets is the necessity for a presentation of Esperanto, not as a thing apart, but in that form which will make it most serviceable as an introduction to national tongues. A stepping-stone to both ancient and modern languages, Esperanto may render invaluable aid, and pave the way for

surmounting the many difficulties confronting both student and teacher. Through Esperanto, the labor in the acquirement of these languages may be reduced in the same proportion in which the pleasure and thoroughness of such acquirement are increased. For this reason, the grammatical constructions of Esperanto are here explained as consistently as possible in accordance with the usage of national languages, especially those in the school curriculum, and precise names are assigned to them. Such matters as "contrary to fact conditions", "indirect quotations", "clauses of purpose" and "of result", "accusatives of time" and "measure", "expressions of separation", "reference", etc., thus become familiar to the student, long before he meets them in the more difficult garb of a national tongue, whose exceptions seem to outnumber its rules, and whose idioms prove more puzzling than its exceptions, unless approached by the smooth and gradual ascent of the International Language, Esperanto. Ivy Kellerman. Washington, D. C., August 3, 1910. ***** TABLE OF CONTENTS. LESSON I. Alphabet.--Vowels.--Consonants.-Names of the Letters.-- Diphthongs.--

--The Conjunction "Kaj".--The Indefinite Personal Pronoun "Oni".--The Expression of Means or Instrumentality.-Pronominal Use of Possessive Adjectives.Combinations of Consonants.--"La Arabo en la Dezerto".Present Tense of the Verb III.--"La Arabo kaj la Kamelo".--The Suffix "-Il-". The Demonstrative "Pronoun Tiu". X.--Coordinating Conjunctions. Possessive Case of Nouns.--The Negative "Ne".--"La Kato kaj la Pasero". VIII.--Prepositions. VI.-Attributive Adjectives. II. The Plural Number.-Reflexive Verbs. XIII. The Past Tense.--Formation of Feminine Nouns.--Agreement with Pronouns.--The Article for the Possessive Adjective.--Syllables.--Predicate Adjective and Noun IV. The Complementary Infinitive.--The Accusative Case.--"La . Transitive Verbs.--Possessive Form of the Demonstrative Pronoun.--The Future Tense. The Demonstrative Pronoun "Cxi tiu". Limitation of the Third Personal Pronoun.--Tenses in Indirect Quotations.--Interrogation. Nouns. VII.--"En la Parko". Indirect Statements. XIV. XI.--Verbs Preceding their Subjects.-Accent. The Accusative of Direction.-Impersonal Verbs.-.--"La Ventoflago".--The Conjunction "Nek". Personal Pronouns. IX.--Accusative Case of Personal Pronouns. XII.--Adjectives.--The Article.--Conjugation of the Verb.--Apposition. Reflexive Pronouns.--Possessive Adjectives. V.

--The Infinitive with "Anstataux".--"Diri". XXIII. "Ju" and "Des" in Comparisons.--Causal Clauses.The Preposition "Pro". "Por". XXI. XIX. The Demonstrative Adjective.Mangxo".-Accompaniment.--Prepositions Expressing Time-Relations.-. XXII. "Antaux ol".-Adverbs Defined and Classified.-Comparisons Containing "Ol". The Demonstrative Temporal Adverb.--"La Auxtuno kaj la Vintro".--"Malamikoj en la Dezerto". XVII. The Demonstrative Adverb of Manner and Degree.--Prepositions with Adverbs and Other Prepositions.--Clauses Expressing Anticipation. Clauses Expressing Duration of Time.--"En Septembro".--Formation of Opposites. XV. "Paroli" and "Rakonti". Adverbs Expressing a Part of the Whole.--The Preposition "Por". XX.--The Preposition "Inter".--"La Ruza Juna Viro".-Comparison of Adjectives.--Adverbs and the Accusative of Time.--Manner and Characteristic."Diogeno kaj Aleksandro Granda".--The .--"Pri la Sezonoj". The Demonstrative Adverb of Place.-. XVI. The Demonstrative Adverb of Motive or Reason.--"Frederiko Granda kaj la Juna Servisto".--The Expression of a Part of the Whole.--The Meaning of "Povi".-Comparison of Words Expressing Quantity. XVIII. The Accusative of Time.--"La Sezonoj kaj la Mondo".--The Adverb "For".--Derivation of Adverbs.

--"Roberto Bruce kaj la Araneo".--Word Formation.--Modifiers of Impersonally Used Verbs. XXVIII.--Adverbs Expressing Direction of Motion.--The Imperfect Tense. XXVI.The Infinitive as Subject. The Relative Pronoun.Demonstrative Adverb of Quantity.--"En Nia Domo".--"Leciono Pri Aritmetiko".--"Pri la Avo kaj la Avino".-- .--The Future Perfect Tense. XXV. The Interrogative Adjective.-The Suffix "-Ul-". XXVII. The Interrogative Adverb of Place. XXXI.--The Preposition "Cxe".--"Tempo" and "Fojo". The Interrogative Pronoun.--The Pluperfect Tense.--Formation of Cardinal Numerals.--"La Pluvego".--Compound Tenses.--Present Action with Past Inception.--The Suffix "An-".--The Past Active Participle.-.-The Suffix "-Ar-".The Orthography of Proper Names. XXIV. The Interrogative Adverb of Motive or Reason. The Interrogative Adverb of Manner and Degree. The Interrogative Adverb of Quantity.--"La Nepo Vizitas la Avinon".--The Accusative of Measure.--"Koni" and "Scii".--Adverb Derivation from Prepositions.--The Present Active Participle. XXX.--Result Clauses.--Cardinal Numbers.--The Suffix "-Eg-". XXIX.--The Progressive Present Tense.--The Suffix "Ej-".-.--"Logxi" and "Vivi".-.Salutations and Exclamations.--"En la Butiko".-The Perfect Tense. The Interrogative Temporal Adverb.--"Nia Familio".

--Fractions.Ordinal Numerals.--The Time of Day.--The Imperfect Passive Tense.--The Suffix "-Ind-".--"La Invito".-Numeral Nouns and Adverbs. XXXVI.--The Suffix "Ebl-".--"Cxe la Festo".--The Use of "De" to Express Agency. XXXIII. XXXIV.--The Suffix "-Ist-".--The Future Passive Tense. "Kiam" as a Relative Adverb.--"Antikva Respubliko". The Distributive Pronoun. Prepositions as Prefixes. XL. XXXII.--"Vilhelmo Tell kaj la Pomo". XXXVII.-. The .--"Alfredo Granda kaj la Kukoj". The Distributive Adjective.--"Kiel" as a Relative Adverb. XXXV.--Titles and Terms of Address.--"En la Stacidomo".-Descriptive Compounds.-The Suffix "-Obl-".--The Periphrastic Future Tenses. "Kiom" as a Relative Adverb.--"La Cxapelo sur la Stango".--The Future Active Participle.--"Kie" as a Relative Adverb.-Possessive Compounds.-.Dependent Compounds. XXXIX. XXXVIII. "Kia" as a Relative Adjective.--The Suffix "-Uj-".--Expression of the Highest Degree Possible.--Reciprocal Expressions.--"La Hxinoj".--"Alfredo Granda kaj la Libro". The Present Passive Tense.-The Present Passive Participle. The Distributive Adverb of Place.--Word Derivation from Prepositions.--Word Derivation from Primary Adverbs.--The Preposition "Po".Compound Tenses of Impersonal Verbs.--The General Meaning of "De".

--The Suffix "-Ajx-".--"La Nesto sur la Tendo"."Cxe la Malnova Ponto". The Negative Adjective.--The Preposition "Laux".The Suffix "-Ad-". XLIII.--"La Filozofo Arhximedo". The Negative Pronoun.--The Distributive Adverb "Cxiom".--The Past Passive Participle.--Emphasis by Means of "Ja". The Indefinite Pronoun. The Negative .Distributive Temporal Adverb.--The Passive Periphrastic Future Tenses.--The Suffix "-Em-".--"La Cxevalo kaj la Sonorilo". The Indefinite Adjective.--"Sur la Vaporsxipo".--The Indefinite Adverb "Iom". XLVI.-The Pluperfect Passive Tense.--The Future Perfect Passive Tense. XLIX.--The Adverbial Participle.--The Expression of Material.-Causative Verbs.-. XLIV.--The Generic Article.--The Suffix "-Et-".--The Indefinite Adverb "Ial". The Indefinite Temporal Adverb.Predicate Nominatives.-.--The Distributive Adverb "Cxial".--The Perfect Passive Tense.--The Prefix "Ek-".--The Use of "Mem". XLVII. XLVIII. The Indefinite Adverb "Iel".--The Suffix "-Ec-".--The Indefinite Adverb of Place.--"La Perdita Infano".--"Arhximedo kaj la Kronoj".--The Negative Temporal Adverb. XLV. The Future Passive Participle.--"La Donaco".--The Adverb "Jen". XLII.-.--The Negative Adverb of Place. The Distributive Adverb "Cxiel".--The Suffix "Id-". XLI.--Participial Nouns.--"Du Artkonkursoj".-The Prefix "Re-".

--Interjections.--The Verb "Devi". The Imperative Mood.--The Use of "Al" to Express Reference.-Further Uses of the Accusative.--"La Gordia Ligajxo".--The Use of "Ajn". Summary of Conditions. LVI.--The Use of "Mosxto". "Neniel".--Independent Use of the Conditional Mood. Conditions Contrary to Fact.--Resolve and Exhortation.--The Suffix "-Ing-".--"La Filozofo Sokrato".-. LVII.--Formations with "Ig-" and "-Igx-".--Less Peremptory Uses of the Imperative.--"Aleksandro Granda". "Neniom". L. Permission and Possibility.--Clauses of Imaginative Comparison. The Pronouns ending in "-O". LI.--The Suffix "-Estr-".--"La Krepusko".--"La Reirado de la Dekmilo".Adverbs "Nenial".--Commands and Prohibitions. LV.--"La Marsxado de la Dekmil Grekoj". The Imperative in Subordinate Clauses.--Synopsis of the Conjugation of the Verb. LVIII.--"La Ostracismo de Aristejdo".--The Preposition "Je".--The Prefix "Ge-".Factual Conditions. The Position of Unemphatic . LIV.--"Pri la Gravitado". LIII.--The Suffix "-Igx-".--The Suffix "Um-".--The Prefix "Dis-". LIX.-The Suffix "-Op-". The Conditional Mood.--Compound Tenses of the Conditional Mood.--"La Glavo de Damoklo". The Pronoun "Ambaux".--Correlative Words.--Less Vivid Conditions. Clauses Expressing Purpose.--The Preposition "Sen". LII.--"La Monahxoj kaj la Azeno".-The Suffix "-Acx-".

***** A COMPLETE GRAMMAR OF ESPERANTO. c. r. hx. o.--Some Intransitive Verbs. k. Such a vanish must not be given to any of the . "aye". as in "day".--The Suffixes "-Cxj-" and "Nj-". ***** LESSON I.-Correspondence.-The Prefix "Pra-". like "a" in "fate". d.--Elision. z. 2.--Weights and Measures. p. v. u. sx.--The Prefix "Eks-". [Footnote: This "long a" sound in English frequently ends with a vanish. cx.-"Pri La Kamero". t. ux.--a brief terminal sound of "short i" which makes the vowel slightly diphthongal.--The Suffix "-Er-". jx.--"Kelkaj Leteroj". s. INDEX. "e" as in "fiance". The vowels of the alphabet are pronounced as follows: "a" as in "far". e. n. i. h.--The Prefixes "Bo-" and "Duon-". j. m. g. 1. ENGLISH-ESPERANTO VOCABULARY. Some Transitive Verbs. The Esperanto alphabet contains the following letters: a. LX. f. ESPERANTO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY . VOWELS. l.Pronouns.--The International Money System. ALPHABET. gx.--Abbreviations. b.

Spanish "j". "ch" in machine". "z". "gx" like "g" in "gem". "l". "u" as in "rude". "much". "beyond". "basis". "s" in "visual". "jx" like "z" in "azure". "r" is slightly trilled or rolled.Esperanto vowels. "n". "hx" is produced by expelling the breath forcibly. There are only a few words containing this consonant. 4. Irish "gh". and the remaining eleven as follows: "c" like "ts" in "hats". "tsetse". Classical Greek Greek: "chi" etc. "for". [Footnote: As in pronouncing German and Scotch "ch". 5. "cx" like "ch" in "chin". CONSONANTS.] "i" as in "machine". "v". Russian "x". The consonants "b". "j" in "jar". "rural". "p".] "j" like "y" in "yes". "s" like "s" in "see". "t". "rash". "sx" like "sh" in "shine". are pronounced as in English. as . "o" as in "toll". "d". The vowels are named by their sounds. "m". NAMES OF THE LETTERS. 3. "big". See Diphthongs. "f". "ux" like "w" or consonantal "u". with the throat only partially open. "g" like "g" in "go". "k". "h".

p. birdo". The diphthongs in Esperanto contain an i or u sound as the second element. "mo". "oj" like "oi" in "coin". These are used in speaking of the letters. ro. do. whether within a word or at its beginning. "po". "oy" in "boy". "aux" like "ou" in "out". "cxo". etc. by one breathimpulse. they are written with "j" and "ux" instead. "ej" like "ei" in "vein". "ro". "so". "gxo". "zo". "eux" like "ayw" in "wayward". There are no silent letters. "ko". is pronounced with its full value. and in spelling words. "ho". COMBINATIONS OF CONSONANTS. as "ko to po" for "k. "jo". "go". in a combination of two or more consonants. "uj" like "ui" in "ruin". "jxo". "hxo". "do". "ey" in "they". t.). "to". . "ow" in "owl". 5. i. like English "naive". Their pronunciation is as follows: "aj" like "ai" in "aisle". but in order to avoid confusion with combinations of vowels not forming diphthongs (as in "naiva"." (= etc. "uxo". The names of the consonants are "bo". o. Each consonant. "no". DIPHTHONGS. "sxo". 6.given in (2). "fo". "lo". Diphthongs are combinations of two vowels uttered as a single sound.). or like E(h)oo" pronounced together. "u(e)y" in "gluey". "co". in pronouncing them in abbreviations. as "bo. "vo".

The division of syllables within a word is as follows: a. "gv". "sv". not that in "singer". The "n" and "g" are pronounced separately in the combination "ng". "well-laid". producing the sound of "ng" heard in "linger". Each of two similar letters is clearly sounded. "a-e-ro". d. "gvidi". The combination "sc". "be-la". c. e. as in "ekzisti". SYLLABLES. "ellasi". "scias". as "pa-no". b. "execute". as in "tablo". pronounced together rapidly. as "mis-cias" for "mi scias". "ekzameno". "angulo". in such words as "knabo". b. if that word ends in a vowel. "kvin". A single consonant goes with the following vowel. 7. A consonant followed by "l" or "r" (which are liquids) goes with the "l" or "r". is equivalent to the combination "sts" in "laST Said". must not be modified to the "gs" or "ks" represented by "x" in "exist". "a-kra". "sviso". . "firST Song". The combination "kz". "a-gra-bla". "kv". in such words as "lingvo".a. like "interrelate". as "interrilato". The "s" in a word beginning with "sc" may be sounded with the end of the preceding word. Thus. as in "escepte". Each word contains as many syllables as it has vowels and diphthongs. both consonants are clearly sounded in the groups "kn".

as "TA-blo". 9. sxafajxo. 10. eksplodi. lingvo. LESSON II. 8. "sunombrelo". obei. knabo. kvieteco. ecx. pacienco. d. sklavo. svingi. treege. nescio. fresxa. hodiaux. sensencajxo. monahxo. najbaro. fojo. "a-GRA-bla". vasta. dauxri.c. ekzemplo. pagi. sxargxi. ACCENT. malluma. gvidi. justa. as "dis-meti". NOUNS. cxevalejo. cxiujn. "sank-ta". as "sus-pek-ti". posxo. samideano. meze. scio. edzo. Prefixes are separated from the words to which they are attached. the syllable division is made before the last consonant of the group. duobla. and correctly accented) Afero. "deks-tra". sankteco. kuirejo. jxauxdo. forrajdi. Words which are the names of persons or . largxa. auxskulti. trairi. atmosfero. cxielo. sencxesa. jugxi. centono. gxojo. sxipo. lauxdi. WORDS FOR PRACTICE. "sus-PEK-ti". obeu. arbaranoj. ellerni. aero. gxuste. as "cxef-urbo". mangxo. Otherwise. "malakra". Words of more than one syllable are accented upon the syllable before the last. and compound words are divided into their component parts. (To be pronounced aloud. geometrio. krajono. Euxropo. palaj.

"pomo" may mean "apple" or "an apple". flava = yellow. THE ARTICLE. ATTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVES. The definite article is "la". The ending. as "la knabo". forta = strong. "la cxevalo". bela birdo = a beautiful bird. tablo = table. but none for the plural. the. Therefore "knabo" may mean "boy". an" for the singular. The ending of adjectives in Esperanto is "a": bela = beautiful. floro flava = a yellow flower. When directly preceding or following its noun. the boy. .things are called nouns. 13. the apple. An adjective is said to modify a noun whose quality it expresses. A word used with a noun (expressed or understood) to express a quality or characteristic is called an adjective. the table. granda = large. 11. cxevalo = horse. it is called an attributive adjective: la granda cxevalo = the large horse. the horse. forta knabo = a strong boy. "la pomo". PRESENT TENSE OF THE VERB. or "a boy". pomo = apple. Esperanto has no indefinite article for either singular or plural. or final letter. In English there is an indefinite article "a. ADJECTIVES 12. of nouns in Esperanto is "o": knabo = boy. "la tablo".

3. is shining. is singing. flugas = flies. (To be memorized in this and in all following lessons. is flying. is walking. is sleeping. pomo = apple. dormas = sleeps. flava = yellow. subject: suno. floro = flower. When representing an act or condition as a fact. Blanka . VOCABULARY. tablo = table. 1.) bela = beautiful. is sleeping. and dealing with the present time. La granda tablo. they are said to be in the present tense. brilas = shines. the sun shines (is shining). The person or thing whose action or condition the verb expresses is called the subject of the verb: La suno brilas. subject: knabo. is running.14. blanka = white. Bona viro. birdo = bird. knabo = boy. granda = large. suno = sun. is flying. marsxas = walks. a boy runs (is running). Knabo kuras. dormas = sleeps. kuras = runs. 15. 2. kaj = and. bona = good. viro = man. Words which express action or condition are called verbs. The ending of all Esperanto verbs in the present tense is "-as": kuras = runs. kantas = sings. is running. luno = moon. READING LESSON. violo = violet. flugas = flies. cxevalo = horse. brilas = shines. la = the. is shining. forta = strong.

from "viro". 11. 16. 9. A good large table. Birdo flugas kaj knabo kuras. 1. the form which indicates more than one person or thing. La bela birdo kantas. and the boy is-singing (sings). 14. 10. 3. 4. men. La knabo kantas kaj la viro dormas. The sun shines. The plural number of nouns. La bela cxevalo kuras. The strong man is-sleeping (sleeps). LESSON III. La suno brilas kaj la luno brilas. Granda forta tablo. Flava birdo. A yellow violet and a white violet. that is. 10. 16. Bela granda pomo. 7. 5. 12. The beautiful yellow bird is-flying (flies). 4. 20. An apple large and good. man. The good boy iswalking (walks). 6. 8. The moon is-shining (shines). 13. La bona flava pomo.floro. La granda cxevalo dormas. from "tablo". 6. Violo flava. 11. and a man walks. 8. 19. La suno brilas. "tabloj". 7. La bona knabo kantas. 12. 17. La bela luno brilas. [Footnote: "-oj" is pronounced like "oy" in . A strong horse runs. is made by adding "-j" to the noun. 9. 5. 18. table. 15. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 2. A beautiful flower. THE PLURAL NUMBER. Forta knabo kuras. The large yellow apple. La bona viro marsxas. The white bird is-singing (sings). Cxevalo blanka marsxas. tables. as "viroj".

as when used with the verbs "to be.] 18. The verb is also invariable in form: La viroj marsxas. the bird is beautiful. belaj birdo kaj floro (bela birdo kaj bela floro). it is called a "predicate adjective": La birdo estas bela. good men. An adjective modifying two or more nouns used together is of course given the plural form: bonaj viroj. the men are walking. the man is. the man. that is. 20. La viro estas. the men are strong. as "la viro". La suno kaj la luno brilas. See 5. being given the plural form by the addition of the ending -j. An adjective modifying a plural noun agrees with it in number. La viroj estas. When the adjective is a part of that which is told or predicated of the subject of the verb. The article is invariable. "la viroj"." etc. the men walk.. A noun may also be used as part of the ." "to seem.] 17. 19. the men. grandaj cxevaloj. See 5. La knabo sxajnas bona. the boy seems good. beautiful bird and (beautiful) flower. [Footnote: "-aj" is pronounced like "ai" in "aisle". the sun and the moon are shining. PREDICATE ADJECTIVE AND NOUN. large horses. the men are. does not change in form when used with plural nouns. La viroj estas fortaj."boy".

9. sidas = sits. La knaboj sxajnas fortaj. lie. rozo = rose. sit. gxardeno = garden. VOCABULARY alta = high. 5. La violoj en la kampo estas belaj. La kolomboj estas belaj birdoj. La knabo kaj la viro sxajnas fortaj. seem. are. 21. verda = green. 10. folio = leaf.predicate. the dove is a bird. La alta viro estas en la gxardeno. 8. domo = house. estas = is. the boy and the man seem strong. 3. 1. tall. is lying. segxo = chair. Belaj birdoj sidas sur la verda arbo. Predicate nouns and adjectives agree in number with the word or words with which they are in predicate relation: Rozoj estas belaj. cxambro = room. Fresxaj floroj kusxas sur la tablo. sur = on. roses are beautiful. kolombo = dove. en = in. La bonaj knaboj estas en la domo. Blanka cxevalo estas en la kampo. Rugxaj pomoj estas sur la tablo en la cxambro. La cxambroj en la bela domo estas grandaj. rugxa = red. longa = long. 7. sxajnas = seems. kusxas = lies. La kolombo estas birdo. violets are flowers. arbo = tree. La luno kaj la suno sxajnas grandaj. fresxa = fresh. 2. 11. READING LESSON. La fortaj viroj . is sitting. and is then called a "predicate noun": Violoj estas floroj. 4. 12. kampo = field. 6.

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 8. 13. 14. 5. 21. 13. 20. In the garden are yellow roses. The trees in the garden are tall and green. Fresxaj rozoj sxajnas belaj. Belaj birdoj flugas kaj kantas en la kampo. 1. The boys in the room in the house seem tall. La knaboj dormas en la granda domo. 17. La kolomboj sur la arboj kantas. Red and yellow apples lie on the big table. . Fortaj cxevaloj marsxas kaj kuras en la verdaj kampoj. kaj verdaj folioj estas en la gxardeno. 18. Longa tablo estas en la domo. Fresh violets are beautiful flowers. 4. The house is long and high. and the rooms in the house are large. 14. The men are-sitting (sit) on chairs in the garden. La folioj estas verdaj kaj rugxaj. TRANSITIVE VERBS. Green leaves are on the trees in the large garden. The horses in the green fields seem strong. 3. 10. The rooms in the house are long. Rugxaj.sidas sur segxoj en la longa cxambro. 9. 19. La arboj estas altaj kaj verdaj. 2. 6. 15. 11. 12. yellow and white. Doves are-singing (sing) in the garden. 7. The leaves are long and green. flavaj. LESSON IV. The men in the large house sleep. The flowers on the table are red. 16. 15. The birds in the field are doves.

the boy finds flowers. On the other hand a "transitive verb" expresses an act of the subject upon some person or thing. expressing a state or an action limited to the subject. La knabo trovas florojn. The person or thing acted upon is called the "direct object" of a transitive verb. 23. THE ACCUSATIVE CASE. and not immediately affecting any other person or thing. An attributive adjective modifying a noun in the accusative case is made to agree in case. . if the word to be put in the accusative case is in the plural number. and is given the ending "-n". "la knabo trovas -. as. This prevents any doubt as to which of two or more nouns in a sentence is modified by the adjective.] 24. the man has a chair. Florojn belajn la viro havas. by addition of the same accusative ending "-n". the boy finds a beautiful flower.--. and the word to which it is attached is said to be in the "accusative case": La viro havas segxon.--". as "la knabo kuras". The verbs so far given have been "intransitive verbs". This is called the accusative ending. [Footnote: The ending "-n" follows the ending "-j". the boy finds -. the boy runs.22. and permits of variation in the order of the words: La knabo trovas belan floron.

27. the man has a large chair. the men are-notsitting on chairs. "ne" may precede that word: Violoj ne estas rugxaj. La cxevalo estas kaj granda kaj forta. the man both walks and runs. it usually immediately precedes the verb. which is invariable as stated in 18.the man has beautiful flowers.". both the boy and the man are tall. For emphatic negation of some other word than the verb.. When used as a sentence-negative. nor is the accusative ending ever attached to the article. and .. THE CONJUNCTION "KAJ". the conjunction "kaj" is used for both words. the horse is both large and strong. In the expression "both . La viroj ne sidas sur segxoj. A predicate adjective or noun (19) is never in the accusative case. and "no" when used as an answer to a question. Rugxan rozon la knabo havas. 25. La knabo havas kaj rozojn kaj violojn. 26. being merely repeated: La viro kaj marsxas kaj kuras. La viro havas grandan segxon... the boy has a red rose. Kaj la knabo kaj la viro estas altaj. the boy has both roses and violets. violets are not red. The negative word meaning "not" when forming part of a sentence. is "ne". La kolombo kantas. THE NEGATIVE "NE". ne .

ne verda. 15. Sed ili ne trovas fruktojn en la gxardeno. 1. havas = have. koloro = color. 14. 3. READING LESSON. rompas = break. Florojn blankajn ili ne vidas. La knaboj ne estas en la cxambro en la blanka domo. no. frukto = fruit. VOCABULARY apud = near. La alta arbo havas verdajn foliojn sur la brancxoj. herbo = grass. in the vicinity of. diversa = various.flugas. trovas = find. has. La knaboj vidas . La domo estas blanka. kaj ili estas felicxaj. Ili estas en la granda gxardeno. sees. La floroj havas diversajn kolorojn. sed la florojn ili ne kolektas. La felicxaj knaboj vidas la belan gxardenon. La knaboj rompas brancxon. Ili vidas florojn apud alta arbo. 8. finds. sed kusxas sur la mola herbo. La gxardeno sxajnas kaj longa kaj largxa. La knaboj ne sidas sur benkoj en la gxardeno. not flying. 5. not green. La knaboj kolektas kaj rugxajn kaj flavajn florojn. ne = not. vidas = see. 7. nigra = black. 4. 12. La kolomboj sidas sur la arboj. the house is white. sed = but. 2. brancxo = branch. breaks. 11. 9. broad. ili = they. largxa = wide. eats. felicxa = happy. 13. collect. Ili vidas florojn sur la brancxoj. the dove is-singing. 6. kaj kolektas la fruktojn. mangxas = eat. 10. kolektas = gather. benko = bench. mola = soft.

They see both the birds and the flowers. 4. 17. The men sit on benches in the garden. sed la cxevaloj ne vidas la knabojn. THE COMPLEMENTARY INFINITIVE. 3. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. The doves are not sitting on the tree. The boys do not sleep. but they lie on the soft grass. 19. 14. 10. and they seem happy. LESSON V. La fresxa herbo estas verda kaj mola. They are near the tall tree in the garden. 15. The men have strong black horses. 7. 28. The rooms in the house are both long and wide. The house is long. but they do not see the fruit. 12. Green leaves are on the trees. The boys break branches and gather the apples. 2. 5. 20. 11. Felicxaj estas kaj la knaboj kaj la cxevaloj.la belajn birdojn. La cxevaloj ne dormas. ili mangxas. 16. La knaboj vidas la cxevalojn. 8. 9. Fortaj nigraj cxevaloj mangxas la herbon en la kampo. They find leaves on the tree. but the grass is green. 1. they are flying near the trees. 18. broad and high. The flowers have various colors. Beautiful red roses are lying on the table in the house. 21. The infinitive is a form of the verb which . 13. The large red apples are near the yellow roses. La pomo estas bona frukto. The horses eat the fresh green grass in the field. 6.

the sentence is rendered interrogative by use of the word "cxu". Unless some directly interrogative word (as "who. birds like to sing. the boy wishes to have a horse. An interrogative sentence is one which asks a question. it may itself have a direct object: La knabo volas kuri. and has some of the characteristics of a noun. Birdoj sxatas kanti. 29.expresses merely the general idea of the action or condition indicated. Ili volas trovi florojn." "why. "esti". La knabo volas havi cxevalon. to have. to run." "when.) is used. An infinitive used to complete the meaning of another verb. Since there is no inversion of order. as "kuri". 30. INTERROGATION. This interrogative particle is placed at the beginning of a sentence." to introduce the verb: Cxu la knabo estas bona? Is the boy good? Cxu ili havas florojn? Have they flowers? Cxu . The ending of the infinitive is "-i". "havi". there is no necessity for a word like English "do" or "does." etc. they wish to find flowers. to be. the words of which are left in the same order as for a statement. the boy wishes to run. If the complementary infinitive is from a transitive verb. is called a "complementary infinitive". serving as a direct object to a transitive verb.

Cxu persiko estas rugxa? 2. VOCABULARY (Verbs will hereafter be quoted in the infinitive form. Cxu la pomo estas frukto? Jes. gusto = taste. sed flavaj. they neither walk nor run. the adjective remains in the singular number: Ili nek marsxas nek kuras. 1. the man has neither a house nor a garden. matura = ripe. Gertrude = Gertrude.) bruna = brown. Mario = Mary. preferi = to prefer. nor.. ili estas nek brunaj nek nigraj. dolcxa = sweet. voli = to wish. the conjunction "nek" is used for both words.. La viro havas nek domon nek gxardenon. gxi = it. cxu = (30). Ne. gxi estas bona frukto. 31. sxati = to like. 5. READING LESSON.". jes = yes. Cxu la viro kaj la knabo havas pomojn? 7. nor . Jes. Ne.. gxi estas kaj rugxa kaj dolcxa. knabino = girl. 3. 6. ili havas nek .. Cxu cxerizoj estas brunaj? 4. Since an adjective modifier of two or more words connected by "nek" must necessarily modify them separately. cxerizo = cherry. nek = neither. neither the rose nor the violet is green.la kolomboj kantas? Do the doves sing? (Are the doves singing?) THE CONJUNCTION "NEK". persiko = peach. Nek la rozo nek la violo estas verda. In the expression "neither .

10. The boys do not wish to gather flowers. Gertrudo estas felicxa. La knaboj kaj knabinoj sidas sur la verda herbo. 11. Gertrudo estas alta. Have the girls beautiful flowers? 2. 20. 3. Cxu Mario havas la maturan frukton? 9. No. 8. Mario kaj Gertrudo havas la frukton. La persikoj sxajnas molaj kaj bonaj. Mario sxatas cxerizojn. 16. 22. Ili volas trovi maturajn cxerizojn kaj flavajn persikojn. 17. Yes. but they prefer to walk in the field. kaj vidas cxerizojn sur la brancxoj. Has the . they like to sit in the house. they are red and yellow. bela knabino. 1. Ili estas en la domo. 18. 19. but Mary has neither apples nor peaches. La cxerizoj havas belan rugxan koloron. No. La folioj apud la cxerizoj estas nek largxaj nek longaj. Mario rompas brancxon. sed la knaboj preferas kolekti diversajn fruktojn. Gertrude wishes to eat apples. La knabinoj volas havi florojn. 4. 12. Are ripe peaches brown? 9. They prefer to break the branches. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 15. 21. 8. kaj volas havi la belan frukton. they have fresh fruit.pomojn nek persikojn. 13. Ili ne volas mangxi pomojn. and find the sweet cherries. ili preferas la dolcxajn cxerizojn. 10. kaj mangxas la maturan frukton. 5. 14. Do the girls like to sit in the house and eat fruit? 7. 6. La persikoj havas dolcxan guston. kaj mangxas la cxerizojn.

Since the meaning of such pronouns indicates the number. 32. Second person: vi. Third person: sxi. "it". French "tu". they see the horses. no plural ending is ever attached to them. Do the girls see the beautiful black horses in the fields? 12. they (them). the person addressed ("you". First person: mi. you." "he. ni. "she". for the second person singular. Words which stand in the place of nouns. PERSONAL PRONOUNS." "which. They are considered singular or plural. ili." are called "pronouns". as in the Bible. we (us). etc. and eats ripe fruit. according to whether they refer to one or more persons. 13. or the person or thing spoken of ("he". [Footnote: There is another pronoun "ci" (thou). like German "du". "thou"). I (me). and also for intimate or familiar address when desired. Plural. as "you. li." "who. are called "personal pronouns". The personal pronouns are: Singular. Yes. but the horses seem not to see the girls. in poetry. Mary sits on the soft green grass.peach a sweet taste? 11. "we"). LESSON VI. "they"). vi. Pronouns referring to the person speaking ("I". you.] . she (her). gxi. he (him). used in solemn style. it.

aux .AGREEMENT WITH PRONOUNS. The combination of the verb with each of the personal pronouns in succession for its subject. they are not fruits. . ni estas = we are.. hodiaux = today. 33. Gertrudo. we are good and happy. cxu vi estas felicxaj? Girls. skui = to shake. it) sees. and of "vidi": mi estas = I am. Gertrude. vi estas bona. he (she. stari = to stand. toward. aux = or (aux . it) is. or adjectives modifying such pronouns. Rozoj estas floroj. cxar = because.. li (sxi. are made to agree with them in number: Ni estas bonaj kaj felicxaj.. 34.. vi vidas = you (plural) see. ili vidas = they see. are you happy? CONJUGATION OF THE VERB. ill ne estas fruktoj. Knabinoj. either . fali = to fall. vi estas = you (plural) are. gxi) estas = li (sxi. Any pronoun may serve as the subject of a verb. VOCABULARY al = to. gxi) vidas : he (she. Arturo = Arthur... Following is the conjugation of the present tense of "esti". Nouns in predicate relation with pronouns. roses are flowers.. sub = under. vi vidas = you see. vi estas = you are. is called the "conjugation" of the verb.) Roberto = Robert. kudri = to sew.. ni vidas = we see. doni = to give.. you are good. or . mi vidas = I see. ili estas = they are.

6. Ni donas pomojn al ili. 5. Ni preferas sidi hodiaux en la gxardeno. fenestro = window. 19. sed vi. 9. cxar ili vidas la birdojn en la arbo apud la fenestro. 17. aux en la gxardeno? 2. kaj sidas sur la arbo. kaj la persikoj falas. sub la granda arbo. Arturo donas al vi la maturajn persikojn. 3. knabinoj. cxu vi volas sidi en la domo. 13. sed ni havas dolcxajn persikojn. 1. Ni estas felicxaj. cxar ili sxatas pomojn. 15. Mi volas doni persikon al Heleno. La birdoj estas kolomboj. sed hodiaux sxi estas en la domo. Ili estas felicxaj. 10. 8. cxu vi rompas la brancxojn? 7.beneath. kaj ili mangxas la verdan molan herbon. 18. 11. vi estas alta. Sxi preferas kudri. Roberto. cxar ni havas belajn persikojn maturajn kaj bonajn. ne estas altaj. kaj volas nek marsxi nek sidi en la gxardeno. virino = woman. 16. cxar li sxatas kolekti frukton. READING LESSON. Sxi sidas apud la fenestro kaj kudras. Ni havas nek pomojn nek cxerizojn. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. aux cxerizojn? 4. kaj kolektas la dolcxan frukton. Mi staras sub la arbo. Knaboj. sed mi skuas brancxon. Kaj sxi kaj la virino apud sxi volas kudri hodiaux. 1. Arturo. Ne. 12. 14. Does Arthur break the branch and gather . Sub la arboj en la kampo staras cxevaloj. Cxu vi havas pomojn. La frukton mi donas al Mario kaj Gertrudo.

as "kuris". and the apples fall. but they do not wish to eat. it) saw. Both Mary and the woman are sewing. vi vidis = you saw. or see the birds. 11. No. They are happy because they like to sew. and do not wish to walk in the garden today. but near it. "flugis". She is sitting in the house. 7. They give the fruit to the boys and girls. LESSON VII. Robert. "brilis". ni estis = we were. 4. The conjugation of "esti" and also of "vidi" in the past tense is as follows: mi estis = I was. 35. flew. They prefer to sew. mi vidis = I saw. The past tense of the verb expresses an action which took place in past time.the apples? 2. They have neither apples nor peaches. ni vidis = we saw. do you wish to stand beneath the tree? 5. I wish to give both the peaches and the apples to the woman. 14. or a condition which existed in past time. li (sxi. No. or walk. They are ripe and sweet. he shakes the branch. it) was. vi estis = you were. THE PAST TENSE. ran. near the window. Mary is sitting in (on) a chair near her. 13. gxi) vidis : he (she. he (she. 3. 8. 12. I do not wish to stand under it. . The ending of this tense is "-is". gxi) estis = li (sxi. shone. 6. 10. 9. They do not wish to gather flowers.

but to remain unchanged in form if it is a noun. A preposition is a word like "in. Mi vidis nek lin nek sxin. Bonaj pomoj estas sur gxi. which remains in the nominative case: La arbo estas en la gxardeno. La knabo estas apud mi. In Esperanto the preposition does not affect the form of the word governed. which is called its "complement".vi estis = you (plural) were. 36. Sub la arbo staris cxevalo. In English. ili estis = they were. Li vidis ilin kaj nin. the boy is near me. the man saw you and me." placed before a noun or pronoun to indicate some relation between this and another word. For use as the object of a verb. the complement of a preposition seems to be put in the accusative case if it is a pronoun. vi vidis = you (plural) saw. I gave cherries to him. Ni volas havi gxin. he saw them and us. PREPOSITIONS. The preposition is said to "govern" the noun or pronoun. Mi donis cxerizojn al li. ili vidis = they saw. the tree is in the garden. good apples are on it. VOCABULARY . any pronoun may be put in the accusative case by addition of the accusative ending "-n" (23): La viro vidis vin kaj min. under the tree stood a horse." "on. we wish to have it. I saw neither him nor her. ACCUSATIVE CASE OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 37.

READING LESSON. blua = blue. mola tapisxo kusxas sur la planko. 10. Li donas gxin al Mario. kaj donas gxin al Roberto. . knaboj kaj knabinoj." diris la infanoj." cxar ili estas interesaj bildoj. sxi dankas lin. Gertrudo diris "Vi estas bona al ni. Sxi diris "Cxu vi volas rigardi la bildojn?" 9. Gxi havas altajn largxajn fenestrojn. "Jes. 3. 16. 15." 13. sed Arturo nun havas gxin. 6. mi ne sxatas rigardi bildojn. 4. Sxi havis interesajn bildojn. tapisxo = carpet. agreeable. Virino marsxis tra la pordo. infano = child. tra = through. planko = floor. bildo = picture. Granda bildo falis de la tablo. Sxi marsxis de la tablo al la fenestro kaj diris "Mi preferas kudri. Sub la tablo kaj segxoj. 11. kaj verdan. mi dankas vin. La virino rigardis sxin kaj diris "Mi donis la bildojn al vi. 7. Ili staras apud la tablo. Sxi volis sidi en granda segxo apud la fenestro. en agrabla luma cxambro. La tapisxo havas belajn kolorojn. danki = to thank. de = from. ni dankas vin. kaj donis ilin al la knaboj kaj la knabinoj.agrabla = pleasant. 8. sed sxi diris "Ne. kaj sxi donis al ili la bildojn. pordo = door. 2. luma = light (not dark). 5. kaj staris apud la tablo. nun = now. Hodiaux la knaboj kaj knabinoj estas en la granda domo. 1. flavan. rigardi = to look (at). 12." 14. muro = wall. interesa = interesting. diri = to say. bluan. rugxan. Ili volis doni gxin al Gertrudo.

The carpets on the floor seem soft. They gathered fresh flowers and gave them to the woman. He looked-at the pictures on the wall. kaj nun mi volas rigardi la dolcxajn florojn. 5. and saw us in the pleasant garden. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. Helen walked near the table and shook it. 1. because they have large wide windows. but now they are in the house. Robert looked through the window. A large strong table stands near the door. 10.sed mi volas sidi apud la pordo aux la fenestro. 4. Gertrude is-lookingat the various pictures. Do the boys and girls wish to be good? 2. We can sit near the table and look through the windows. The happy children were in the garden. 8. The doors in the room are wide and high. Arthur did not see the pictures because they were lying on the floor. A pronoun which refers to the same . LESSON VIII. 3. 9. 11. 15. but they are neither interesting nor beautiful." SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 13. 12. 38. and seems to be happy. 7. kaj kudri. She gave a picture to me and I thanked her. She looks-at them. 17. 14. Mi kolektis dolcxajn violojn en la gxardeno. 6. The rooms in the house are light. and have various beautiful colors.

we have a carpet under us. Ni amuzis nin. myself. you amuse yourself (yourselves).) Vi diras al vi. 39. might or might not refer to the subject of that verb. Ni havas tapisxon sub ni. or near another person. we amused ourselves. and "vi". "He sees a bird near him. "ni". yourself. I see myself. since words such as "me. 40. while words such as "you. When the verb is in the third person. a pronoun of the third person.person or thing as the subject of the verb in the sentence. or to be a "reflexive pronoun". "mi". thyself). you say to yourself (yourselves). yourselves (thee. thou findest a house near thee. ("ci") are used for the reflexive pronouns of the first and second persons. If such a pronoun of the third person is intended to refer to the subject of . us. For example." can refer to no one else than the person or persons speaking. There can be no ambiguity. I said to myself. is said to be used "reflexively"." may mean that the subject sees a bird near himself. ourselves. used otherwise than as the subject. Vi amuzas vin. The first and second personal pronouns. but is used in some other relation than subject of that verb." can refer to no one else than the person or persons addressed: Mi vidas min. (Ci trovas domon apud ci. Mi diris al mi.

Sub si la infanoj trovis molan tapisxon. according to the gender and number of the verb: Li amuzas sin. Arturo vidis birdon apud si. Sxi trovas floron apud si. "her(self)". Esperanto uses a special reflexive pronoun "si" (accusative "sin"). the carpet has various colors in it(self).] REFLEXIVE VERBS. they amuse themselves. "it(self)".the verb. 41. La tapisxo havas diversajn kolorojn en si. the men have chairs near them(selves). it is evident that "si" can never itself be used as subject or part of the subject of the verb. Ili amuzas sin. which means "him(self)". Mary found herself on a blue carpet. from the fact that some languages . under them(selves) the children found a soft carpet. "them(selves)". she finds a flower near her(self). the women find flowers near them(selves). A verb having a reflexive pronoun for its direct object is sometimes called a "reflexive verb". Arthur saw a bird near him(self). La virinoj trovas florojn apud si. [Footnote: From the very fact that "si" always refers to the subject of the verb. the bird hides itself under the leaves. he amuses himself. La viroj havas segxojn apud si. La birdo kasxas sin sub la folioj. the trees have cherries on them(selves). Mario trovis sin sur blua tapisxo. La arboj havas cxerizojn sur si.

they amuse themselves. it)self. I rejoice (I gladden myself). gxi) amuzas sin (sin amuzas). libro = book. German "ich huete mich".] VOCABULARY Alfredo = Alfred. aparteni = to belong.have had or still have a special reflexive or middle form of the verb. strato = street. or "alegrome". "vescor". vi amuzas vin (vi vin amuzas). antaux = before. Spanish "me alegro". French "il s'arrete". komenci = to begin. I amuse myself. to conceal. Latin "exerceor". iri = to go. I eat (I feed myself). perdi = to lose. vi amuzas vin (vi vin amuzas). ni amuzas nin (ni nin amuzas). in front of. it) amuses him (her. kasxi = to hide. I beware (I guard myself). amuzi = to amuse. griza = gray. si = himself. skatolo = small box or case. he (she. READING LESSON. they turned themselves. Johano = John. ili amuzas sin (ili sin amuzas). li (sxi. lauxdi = to praise. legi = to read. you amuse yourselves. The conjugation of a verb reflexively is therefore as follows: mi amuzas min (mi min amuzas). he halts (he stops himself). [Footnote: As Greek "etraponto". . or they have certain verbs whose use is chiefly or exclusively reflexive. etc. I exercise myself. you amuse yourself. (40). we amuse ourselves. to express an act of the subject on or for itself.

ni perdis gxin. kaj la knaboj trovis la knabinojn. 10. kaj la knaboj iris al la domo. Tra la fenestro antaux si Johano rigardas la virojn kaj la virinojn sur la strato. 7. but I do not praise myself." 14. En la skatolo estis libro. Johano komencis amuzi sin en luma cxambro en la domo. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. kaj Johano trovis Alberton. 3. The book in the gray box does not belong to me. cxar vi donas al mi la skatolon kaj la libron. 5. kaj ne volas segxon. 6. Ili marsxis al la pordo. 2. near the door. Li diris al Alfredo "Cxar ni trovis gxin. kaj trovis rugxan skatolon antaux si. Alfredo sin kasxis en alta arbo." 16. 8. 4. Johano kasxis sin. . Mario kaj Gertrudo sin kasxis apud la floroj. La knabinoj ne volas perdi sin en la agrabla kampo. I found it in front of me. Johano kaj Alfredo amuzis sin en la gxardeno. Li kaj Alfredo volis iri al la strato kaj amuzi sin. mi volas legi la libron. 4. 1. 3. Li havas molan grizan tapisxon sub si. 9.1. La muro havas interesajn bildojn sur si. 11. kaj Johano diris al si "La libro ne apartenas al mi." 15. kaj ili diris al sxi "Cxu la libro apartenas al vi? Ni trovis gxin en skatolo. Virino antaux pordo komencis rigardi la knabojn. kaj Alfredo trovis Johanon." 13. La virino diris "Jes. 2. 12. They hid themselves. You began to praise yourselves. kaj mi dankas vin. Sxi iris al la strato.

the boy praises him . 11. never refer to the subject of the verb. 7. 13. but we like to amuse ourselves in the house. 42. I sat on the bench in the garden. 6. 15. She found herself in a beautiful light room. LIMITATION OF THE THIRD PERSONAL PRONOUN. but always to some other person or thing: La knabo lauxdas lin. "gxi". 10. They hid themselves in the leaves and began to sing. 8. and flew to the branches. "sxi". The pictures had boys and girls in them. when used otherwise than as subjects. 5. Did you see the doves near the flowers in front of (before) you? 14. LESSON IX. 17. Since there is a special reflexive pronoun of the third person. The carpet on the floor had various colors in it. 16. 12. "ili". Alfred amused himself on the street. and began to read an interesting book. The book belongs to her. but it fell from the box. because it has ripe cherries on it. The child is in a pleasant room. The table has red and blue and yellow flowers on it. 9. The birds sit on the tree. "li". The birds saw the fruit on the tree in front of them. The trees have good fruit on them.and I stood near them. the third personal pronouns. and the high wall had pictures on it.

my house and my gardens are large. my. "via". La knaboj kasxis ilin. "sxia"." which indicate ownership or some possessive relation. Words like "my.(another person). "lia". he has his (another person's) horse. your (plural). La birdo vidis gxin. "ilia". although really they are not pronouns at all. Cxu vi legis sxiajn librojn? Did you read her books? [Footnote: Sometimes these words are called possessive pronouns. are called "possessive adjectives". your ("cia". Ili trovis ilin apud si. his." "his. as "mia". La birdoj flugis al ili. "nia". she gives apples to her (to another person). Possessive adjectives are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the adjective ending "-a". John is sitting in your chair. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES. our. Sxi donas pomojn al sxi. Li havas lian cxevalon. "via". they found them (other persons or things) near them(selves). 43. The limitation in the use of the third personal pronouns ("42") is also true of the adjectives derived from them: Mia domo kaj miaj gxardenoj estas grandaj. but pronominal adjectives with a possessive meaning. thy).] . her. its. the bird saw it (something else than the bird). their. "gxia". Johano sidas sur via segxo." "your. the boys hid them (other persons or things). the birds flew to them.

but not his. "hers". Mario estas en sia cxambro. etc. The reflexive possessive adjective of the third person is "sia". Johano perdis siajn librojn. theirs seem to be good. PRONOMINAL USE OF POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES. . "yours". the birds flew to their tree. La via estas granda. they have theirs. Possessive adjectives may be used predicatively.. Esperanto uses the regular possessive adjectives preceded by the article: La granda libro estas la mia. as "the book is mine. I have my books on my table." Instead of having special forms. his. John lost his (John's) books. their. Mary is in her room. the large book is mine. her. Ili havas la sian. La iliaj sxajnas esti bonaj. yours is large. 45.44. La birdoj flugis al sia arbo." or may modify some word or words not expressed. like English "mine". like the reflexive pronoun. Reflexive possessive adjectives. as "mine are large. For the first and second persons. sed ne la lian. la miaj estas belaj. mine are beautiful. refer to the subject of the verb in the sentence. its. formed by adding the ending "-a" to the reflexive pronoun "si": Mi havas miajn librojn sur mia tablo. they are the same as the personal possessive adjectives.

teni = to hold. sed li ne trovis iliajn cxevalojn. post. 2. lavi = to wash. kato = cat. nesto = nest. kaj volis mangxi gxin. La knabinoj sxajnas esti koleraj. Ne. behind. after. Gxi vidis paseron antaux si. Cxu la granda kampo apartenas al sxia patro? 5. 12. La lia estas bela. La kato ne tenis la paseron. down to. kaj kaptis la paseron." La interesa diro surprizis la katon. 7. 1. 11. kolera = angry. sed la junaj infanoj trovis la nian. LA KATO KAJ LA PASERO. juna = young. La viro kaptis kaj tenis siajn cxevalojn.VOCABULARY diro = saying. hieraux = yesterday. up to. 13. surprizi = to surprise. 6. 3. post sxia segxo. to keep. Sxia libro kusxas sur la planko. pasero = sparrow. gxis = as far as. remark. 10. La pasero diris "Bona kato lavas sin antaux sia mangxo. Hieraux mi perdis mian grizan katon. Via kolera diro surprizis mian patron. La kato staris post granda arbo. 9. sed mi preferas la mian. Sxi ne trovis ilian libron. Cxu vi sxatas vian libron aux la ilian? 8. Ili komencis legi siajn librojn. 4. Griza kato iris de la domo gxis la strato. Ilia kato kaptis nian birdon. to seize. mangxo = meal. Li havas nek siajn cxevalojn nek la iliajn. kapti = to catch. patro = father. sed vi ne lavis vian vizagxon. vizagxo = face. gxi ne estas la lia. READING LESSON. sed komencis lavi .

but they are in his. and they gave them to us. 10. Do you see his cat or hers? 15. 9. La junaj paseroj volas flugi al la nestoj en la arboj. The room has interesting pictures on its walls.sian vizagxon. 11. and it commenced to wash its face. as far as her room. The boys are not in their (own) house. cxar mi komencis lavi min antaux la mangxo!" Nun la katoj ne lavas sin antaux la mangxoj. La katoj estas felicxaj. kaj post la mangxoj ili lavas la vizagxojn. La paseroj ne surprizas ilin nun. 14. The sparrow said "A good cat washes its face. 1. 5. sed ili tenas la paserojn. 7. I see both his and hers. 6. 4. The gray cat was angry because it did not hold the bird. The sparrow was angry because the cat seized it and held it. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. Their books are in their (the books') box." 12. The sparrow wished to fly as far as the tall tree. but the cat held it. The sparrow surprised it. but ours . They are on their (the boys') table. 2 Is the large beautiful house yours? 3. sed la paseroj ne estas felicxaj. La pasero flugis de la kato gxis la arbo. 8. but you are not a good cat. but the angry cat lost its meal. La kolera kato diris "Mi perdis mian mangxon. The woman walked through the door of their house. Ili havas siajn mangxojn. 13. The bird did not lose its meal. We praised their flowers yesterday.

[Footnote: Cf. Consequently the accusative is not used after any of these three): Li iris gxardenon.] Li estis en la gxardeno. Ili falis sub la tablon gxis la planko. it fell upon the floor. they . My father is a tall strong man. "gxis"." "he went homeward. English "he went home. (The prepositions "al". 16. to. 18. through. it is not on the table. 46. When the verb in a sentence expresses motion. LESSON X. kaj kuris en la domon. he went to the garden ("gardenward"). express motion in the direction of their complements. I like to look at him. as far as. 17. the word indicating the place. Gxi ne estas sur la tablo." etc. La viro iros Bostonon. and could not well be used except in a sentence whose verb expresses motion. gxi falis sur la plankon.is not in our garden. he was in the garden and ran into the house. THE ACCUSATIVE OF DIRECTION. This is also true if the word is the complement of any preposition which does not itself sufficiently indicate motion in a certain direction. "tra". toward. The children saw the young birds in the nest. person or thing toward which the motion is directed is given the accusative ending. the man will go to Boston ("Bostonward").

" etc. I gave it to Father. Mi donis gxin al la patro." but on the other hand omits it entirely with certain words indicating relationship. Li skuas la kapon." "he shakes his head. he shakes his head. and are in the same grammatical construction. as in "I wash my face. unless the fact of possession is to be emphasized: Mi lavas la vizagxon. 47. as "the city of Boston. In many sentences where the possessor is already sufficiently indicated. APPOSITION. Esperanto does not use a preposition: La urbo Bostono estas granda.fell under the table as far as the floor (direction expressed by whole prepositional phrase). I went through the house into my room. La patro estas alta. 48. In both cases Esperanto uses the article instead of the possessive adjective. as in "Brother gave it to me. THE ARTICLE FOR THE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE. the city (of) . English often uses the preposition "of" between two words where no idea of possession really exists." Since nouns used in apposition refer to the same thing. Father is tall. Mi iris tra la domo en mian cxambron. I wash my face. English nevertheless uses a possessive adjective.

mi volas meti nur la nazon en vian varman domon. Apud domo trans la strato li vidis kamelon. tenis lin. kaj mi preferas sidi en gxi. to place. "via ." "Via diro estas bona. LA ARABO KAJ LA KAMELO.Boston is large. kolo = neck. sed la kamelo metis la nazon tra la pordo en la cxambron. Baldaux li havis la kapon gxis la kolo en la domo." diris la kamelo. nur = only. Mia amiko Johano estas alta. kaj diris al la arabo." La arabo skuis la kapon. kamelo = camel. tuta = whole. La cxambro ne estas granda sed gxi estas la mia. Li kuris al la kamelo. Arabo sidis en sia domo en la urbo. vian amikon? do you not know me. kapo = head. meti = to put. nazo = nose. entire. Post la kapo iris la kolo en gxin. mi ne estas varma. "Frato. kaj diris. La kamelo komencis pusxi sian tutan vizagxon en la domon. vi volis meti nur la nazon en mian domon. La arabo estis kolera. pusxi = to push. Cxu vi ne konas min. kaptis lin. La kamelo iris trans la straton gxis la pordo. Bostono = Boston. varma = warm. kaj baldaux la tuta korpo estis en la domo. korpo = body. merely. frato = brother. my friend John is tall. cxar li ne volis havi tutan kamelon en sia domo. your friend? VOCABULARY arabo = arab. "Frato. urbo = city. trans = across. baldaux = soon. all.

The cat ran across the street. sed la juna arabo staris trans la strato kaj ne estis varma. 11. 14. The arab was angry. We went to the city of Boston yesterday and into a beautiful house. kaj mi sxatas stari en gxi. because it pushed itself into his house. But soon after the remark. the whole camel was in the house. 6. and soon its whole body into the warm house. 12. 8. 4. and I do not wish to have you in it. kaj mi donos al vi mian arbon trans la strato. It wished to put merely its nose into it. Cxu vi ne volas iri sub la arbon?" Kaj la kamelo pusxis la arabon de lia domo en la straton de la urbo. My brother pushed the books into their box. It began to fall under the table. 2. the house is mine. 3. I went into the garden as far as the large tree. The camel pushed its head and neck. 1. La kamelo nun trovis sin en varma cxambro." 10." 16. He said. The arab shook his head and said. His remark did not seem to surprise the camel. 15. I did not hold my book. 5. and the sparrow flew to the nest. but began to wash its face. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. It caught the bird. 13. But the camel commenced to go through the door. Mi preferas stari kaj kusxi en gxi. and it fell upon the floor. 7. but I seized it. 9. and put it on the table. "No. . Across the street it found a sparrow.domo ne estas granda. sed gxi estas varma. "Brother.

50. Negxis hieraux. POSSESSIVE CASE OF NOUNS. He pushed the young arab into the street. such as "there. When the verb in a sentence precedes its subject. La koloroj de la floroj. the book of the boy (the boy's book). VERBS PRECEDING THEIR SUBJECTS. 18. ne Alfredo. 49. Verbs with an impersonal or indeterminate subject. No such particle is used with impersonal verbs in Esperanto: Pluvas. IMPERSONAL VERBS. LESSON XI." "it. it rains. La libro de la knabo. La gxardeno de la viroj. it is raining." In Esperanto no such particles are needed: Estas floroj sur la tablo. it snowed yesterday. the colors of the flowers. 51. a branch of the tree." "it is snowing. as "it rains. the walls of the house. the garden of the men (the men's garden). en la . He went across the street and stood upon the grass under a tree.17. there are flowers on the table. The preposition "de" is used to express possession or connection: La muroj de la domo. the word "it" serving merely as an introductory particle. Estis Johano. because there is no actual subject." are called impersonal. Brancxo de la arbo. English often uses an introductory particle.

("Sed" connects the phrases. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS.) [Footnote: A phrase is a word-group forming an expression. and the words. but not containing a verb. as "through the house. These are called coordinating conjunctions.) Aux li aux sxi perdis la libron. Words like "aux". phrases. in the garden. (The second "nek" connects the pronouns." etc. (The second "aux" connects the pronouns. Estis mi. kaj ni estis felicxaj.] . "nek".gxardeno. or sentences of similar rank or kind. ("Tamen" connects the sentences. or sentences connected by them are said to be coordinate: Cxu vi marsxas aux kuras? ("Aux" connects the verbs. "sed". which join words. it was I. ("Kaj" connects the sentences. the first being introductory and adverbial.) Li ne sxatis gxin. "kaj".) Nek vi nek mi vidis gxin. 52. the first being introductory and adverbial. it was John.) Sxi iris. not Alfred. there is a house in the field. All the conjunctions given so far connect words.) Gxi falis sur la segxon." "of the man. or sentences together are conjunctions." "before me. sed ne sur la plankon. word-groups. Estas domo en la kampo. Tamen li tenis gxin. phrases.

[Footnote: Coordinating conjunctions may be further classified according to their meaning: "Aux" is disjunctive. La viro trinkis akvon. cxar la arabo estis ricxa viro. amiko = friend. portis lin. connecting alternates. sed ankaux sakojn. bag." is argumentative. "Sed" is adversative. sako = sack.] VOCABULARY akvo = water. expressing separation and also negation. expressing a logical inference or result in a somewhat conversational manner. "Nek" is disjunctive. porti = to carry. "Tamen" is adversative." "so. contrast. "Kaj" is copulative. "Do. wealthy. cxar en la dezerto nek pluvas nek negxas. Arabo iris trans grandan sekan dezerton. kaj ankaux . affirming something in spite of a previous objection or concession. way. expressing union. ricxa = rich. vojo = road. mono = money. or modification of a previous statement. ankaux = also. seka = dry. fidela = faithful. La arabo havis ne nur tapisxojn. sablo = sand. tamen = nevertheless. trinki = to drink. La kamelo ankaux portis belajn tapisxojn. and expressing separation. LA ARABO EN LA DEZERTO. Kamelo. lia fidela amiko. expressing opposition. consequently. En la sakoj estis akvo. veni = to come. then. dezerto = desert. negxi = to snow. bezoni = to need. pluvi = to rain.

kaj volis trovi akvon. kaj baldaux la arabo vidis sakon antaux si. La kamelo marsxis kaj marsxis. kaj la sablo de la dezerto sxajnis varma. cxar estis nur mono en la sako. Today it is raining. La arabo ne trovis la vojon. sed ne venis al la domo de la arabo. Nek li nek lia fidela kamelo havis akvon. Li havis monon en sia domo en la urbo. li ne volis meti gxin sur sian kamelon. kaj komencis rigardi en gxin. kaj la mono estas en gxi. li bezonis akvon. I saw your good friends on the way to the city. Is the large . La sako nun kusxas sur la sablo de la granda dezerto. Li metis la nazon en gxin. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. cxar li estis varma. Li estis felicxa kaj diris al si "Cxu estas akvo en gxi? Mi volas trinki.donis akvon al sia kamelo. kaj baldaux li ne havis akvon. sed gxi falis sur la sablon. La suno brilis. cxar li estis kolera. Cxu li tamen metis la sakon trans la kolon de sia kamelo? Ne. 4. cxar ili perdis la vojon. La arabo estis kolera. 2. Tamen la kamelo marsxis kaj marsxis. 1. sed ne trovis akvon en la sako. cxar li ne volis monon. Did your friend John carry his chair into the house? 3. Li ne tenis la sakon. kaj kusxis apud li." Li ankaux volis lavi la tutan vizagxon en la akvo. sur la seka sablo. kaj volas doni akvon al mia fidela kamelo. Post sia diro li kaptis la sakon. but yesterday it was snowing.

" "believe.sack behind the door theirs? 5. 16. 18. and wished to drink water. as in "I know that he came." "think." "know. 53. but today he prefers water. and did not keep the sack. Neither she nor her brother saw the whole city. 21. 9." "I hear that he is good. he found only money in the sack. and came to theirs today." (The "direct" statement is "he . Nevertheless there is only sand in the desert. 10. LESSON XII. In the sack there is money. Nevertheless. They do not need money. 12. They went to the city of Boston and lost their way. He was angry." or a similar expression. 11. He also wished to give water to the faithful camel. The arab was warm. The camel pushed its head into the house of the arab. INDIRECT STATEMENTS. A statement made indirectly by means of a clause dependent upon a verb meaning "say. 17. 15. 7. 8. and its neck is long. The body of a camel is large. Yesterday he wished to find money. 14. There are interesting houses across the street. 13. and he was angry. On the sand in the desert there lies a sack. He wished to come from the dry desert to the house of a faithful friend. 19. They went to his house yesterday. 6. Both he and his friends are rich." is called an "indirect statement. 20.

" "--when he went. as in the expressions "one knows. Sxi opinias ke estas mono en la sako.] THE INDEFINITE PERSONAL PRONOUN "ONI"." "they say." "you can see." etc.: Oni diras ke li estas ricxa. as "-that he came. 54. Oni vidas ke ili estas amikoj. either "I think that he is good. which is dependent upon or subordinate to a main verb or sentence. John says that you came yesterday. and the conjunction "ke" is never omitted. When an indefinite personal pronoun is desired.] [Footnote: In English the subordinating conjunction may sometimes be omitted. she thinks that there is money in the bag. Mi opinias ke oni sxatas lin. the indefinite personal pronoun "oni" is used. This pronoun may also be used in translating such expressions as "it is said." etc. [Footnote: A clause is a group of words including a verb.. I think that people like him ." "people say." "he is good. one sees that they are friends." etc. Johano diras ke vi venis hieraux." being usually permissible. But in Esperanto there is no variation. they say (one says) that he is rich." "--that he is good." "I am told.came." or "I think he is good.") An indirect statement is joined to the main verb or sentence by the subordinating conjunction "ke." that.

kontraux = . orienta = east. blovi = to blow. ili estos = they will be. he (she." as "kuros. The ending of this tense is "-os. greno = grain (wheat. vi vidos = you (plural) will see. Oni diris al mi ke estas sablo en la dezerto." will run. to opine. it) will see. mi vidos = I shall see. "flugos. vi estos = you (plural) will be. THE FUTURE TENSE. The future tense of the verb expresses an act or state as about to take place. pluvo = rain. VOCABULARY auxdi = to hear. 55. gxi) estos = li (sxi. gxi) vidos : he (she. ke = that (conjunction). it) will be." will fly. I was told (people said to me) that there is sand in the desert. Oni opinias ke sxi estas felicxa. eastern. ni estos = we shall be. corn. or as one that will take place in future time." will shine.). The conjugation of "esti" and also of "vidi" in the future tense is as follows: mi estos = I shall be. it is thought (one thinks) that she is happy. li (sxi. Cxu oni vidis nin en la gxardeno? Were we seen (did people see us) in the garden? Oni sxatas agrablajn infanojn. oni = (see 54). ni vidos = we shall see. opinii = to think. people like agreeable children (agreeable children are liked). vi vidos = you will see.(that he is liked). "brilos. ili vidos = they will see. etc. vi estos = you will be.

northern. virinoj. Estis varma vetero. kaj ne portis pluvon. kaj suda vento blovis. Pluvis kaj pluvis. La viroj. sed la greno en la kampoj bezonos sekan veteron. suda = south. vento = wind. Tamen la nova ventoflago sur la domo diris al si. vetero = weather. kaj la virinoj kaj la junaj infanoj ne . Gxi ne estis forta. Oni estos kolera kontraux mi. southern. velki = to wilt." La vento orienta auxdis la diron kaj gxi venis kontraux la ventoflagon. Mi preferas orientan venton. norda = north. La nova ventoflago diris. La vetero ne estis agrabla. "La sudan venton mi ne sxatas. Gxi diris. Mi sxatas montri nek okcidentan nek orientan venton!" Norda vento auxdis kaj venis al la ventoflago. cxar gxi montras orientan venton. cxar mi montras orientan venton. La greno kaj la floroj velkis. kaj la frukto ankaux falis." La okcidenta vento auxdis la ventoflagon. western. kaj baldaux venis. cxar mi montras okcidentan venton. to point out. "Oni estos kolera kontraux mi. kaj la greno kaj floroj velkas. Oni opinios ke. "Pluvas nun. kaj junaj infanoj volis trinki. cxar ne pluvas.against. la frukto falas. sed ili ne havis akvon. sed gxi estis seka kaj agrabla vento. la suno brilis. LA VENTOFLAGO. kaj oni estis kolera kontraux la ventoflago. montri = to show. nova = new. ventoflago = weathercock. to wither. okcidenta = west.

Negxis. It is thought (people think) that the camel is a faithful friend. He is said to be (they say that he is) on the street. Ni preferas la sudan venton. Gxi falis. antaux la orienta. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. sed hodiaux negxas. 4. kaptis la novan ventoflagon. 12. and the young children were not warm. 14. 5. 3. kaj kusxis sur la vojo antaux la domo. la okcidenta. 7. People will like a south wind. Gxi ne montras bonajn ventojn.estis varmaj. They say that the west wind will be a dry wind. 13. It snowed. and the grain and fruit will need a warm wind. Do you think (that) he is in the house? 10. kaj la norda ventoj. because it points-out a north wind. I am told (people tell me) that the camel has a large body. 8. One can see that it is not beautiful. One can see that the weathercock pointsout the winds. Can one find money in the desert? 9. La ventoflago ne estas fidela amiko al ni. 6. 1. 2. but an east wind will carry rain. because the north wind blew. A north wind is not warm. People do not like . People will be angry with (against) the weathercock. The weathercock now shows that an agreeable south wind blows. Ni havis gxin. 11. Oni diris "La greno kaj la frukto bezonas varman veteron. kaj oni estis kolera. kaj ankaux rompis gxin. kaj ni volas rompi gxin!" Oni kuris al la domo. and a long neck.

TENSES IN INDIRECT QUOTATIONS. that wind will be warm. THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN "TIU". and I wish that one. It was beautiful weather yesterday. kaj mi volas tiun. that. 17. that is yours. in agreement with a noun: Tiu vento estos varma. but today we shall have good weather also. I think that a warm wind will blow soon. The verb in an indirect statement (53) or an indirect question remains in the same tense in which it would be if the statement or question were direct. I shall find those books. LESSON XIII. 16.to drink warm water. 58. I see that weathercock. 57. 15. The demonstrative pronoun "tiu". those children are young. Tiuj estos koleraj kontraux vi. (In English this is true . he heard those (persons. Mi vidas tiun ventoflagon. is used to indicate a person or a definitely specified thing. 18. My friend has a beautiful new house. Nevertheless we shall drink warm water in the city. those: Tiu estas la via. Li auxdis tiujn. or things). The demonstrative pronoun "tiu" is also used as a "pronominal adjective". 56. Tiuj infanoj estas junaj. those will be angry with you. The plural is "tiuj". Mi trovos tiujn librojn.

" diris " " " " . he wondered whether I heard. Li miras cxu mi auxdas. " diros " " " " . knabino = girl virino = woman (from knabo. I shall say that he is good. whether. Oni miris cxu li venos." etc. Feminine nouns corresponding to distinctly masculine nouns such as "frato"." "wonder. he will wonder whether I hear. I said that he was good. they wondered whether he would come (they wondered "will he come?").only if the introductory verb is present or future. after verbs meaning "ask. "viro". (from patro.) Mi diras ke li estas bona. "knabo". are. I thought that it was good (I thought "it is good"). would. were. is. since after an introductory past tense the tense of the indirect quotation is changed. 59. Mi opiniis ke gxi estas bona." "know. people ask whether he is rich. [Footnote: An indirect question is introduced by "cxu". . he wonders whether I hear." etc. may be formed from these by inserting the suffix "-in-" just before the nounending "-o": fratino = sister patrino = mother (from frato. " miris " " " .: "Mi miras cxu li venis". I say that he is good.] FORMATION OF FEMININE NOUNS. (from viro. brother). I wonder whether he came. have. will" become "was. had. and "am. boy). "Oni demandas cxu li estas ricxa". father). " miros " " " .

ombrelo = umbrella. La knabino parolis al sia frato pri la belaj floroj. tiu = that (56). konstrui = to build. La knabo diris hodiaux al mi ke hieraux li kaj lia fratino auxdis la birdojn en la arboj super siaj kapoj. La infanoj promenis.man). paroli = to talk. parko = park. lion. miri = to wonder. timi = to fear. king. as "Pauline. nubo = cloud. super = above. Li diris ke li miris pri tiuj birdoj." etc. [Footnote: Cf. Ernestine. tamen li opinias ke la birdoj baldaux konstruos siajn nestojn en tiuj arboj. Geraldine. preskaux = almost. to be afraid (of). kaj ke la herbo en preskaux la tuta parko bezonas pluvon. morgaux = tomorrow. from "Loewe". from "Koenig". zorga = careful. also German "Koenigin". cxapelo = hat. La infanoj diris al la patrino ke la parko estas agrabla. iris hieraux al la parko.] VOCABULARY almenaux = at least. lioness. English names similarly formed from masculine names. to speak. "Loewin". Miaj junaj amiko kaj amikino. etc.. promeni = to take a walk. kaj ankaux ilia patrino. heaven. queen. kaj ke ili volas promeni en gxi. kaj . Josephine. pri = concerning. cxielo = sky. EN LA PARKO. about. filo = son. Sxi diris al li ke la floroj velkas.

Tamen la patrino diris ke sxi ne timas ke sxi amuzos tiujn. cxar ili havis la ombrelojn. cxar li ankaux timis la pluvon. 1. 5. Baldaux pluvis. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. A west wind blew against the weathercock. kaj diris ke si volas iri al la domo. but the grain needed a south wind. sed ke sxi timas la pluvon. sed iros al la urbo. 6. La filo diris al sxi ke li ankaux estas zorga. but . Sxi kaj la filino volas esti zorgaj pri almenaux la novaj cxapeloj. Sxi parolis al la patrino pri la nuboj kaj la pluvo. Tra la fenestroj de la domoj oni rigardis ilin. It (51) will be beautiful weather tomorrow. Li miris cxu la infanoj kaj ilia patrino havas ombrelojn. The flowers will wither because those children gathered them. cxar ili ne havis ombrelon. kaj mia juna amikino timis ke pluvos. kaj portis ombrelojn. kaj preskaux kuris. Baldaux la patro venis al ili. montris al sxi la grizajn nubojn. 3 A north wind is blowing and I think that it will soon snow. kaj la knabo miris cxu li kaj liaj patrino kaj fratino amuzas tiujn virojn kaj virinojn. The east wind is dry and the south wind will be too warm. because a pleasant wind is now blowing. Ili komencis marsxi al la strato. They are talking about that park. 2. sed ili estis sekaj. 4. sed ke li opinias ke ne pluvos.baldaux ili vidis ke grizaj nuboj venas sur la cxielon. Morgaux ili ne promenos en la parko.

That park is pleasant and the grass is soft and green. (Consequently the literal meaning of "cxi tiu" is "that one nearby". I saw this one. I can see that weathercock. One sees that he is not a strong boy. 11. My sister said "Mother and I are-afraid that it will rain. "that one here". LESSON XIV.) The word "cxi" may either precede or follow the pronoun: Cxi tiu estas la mia. 60. She will be careful of (about) that hat. The birds are building their nests now. in those branches above our heads. 16. 17. At least we shall take an umbrella.I do not wish to take-a-walk. this is mine. 18. 8. which expresses the general idea of nearness or proximity. Mother says that my sister will have a new hat tomorrow. The sky above us is blue. The demonstrative pronoun (and pronominal adjective) meaning "this" is formed by using with "tiu" (56) the word "cxi". 12. Mi vidis cxi tiun. because there are clouds in (on) the sky. 13." 9. and a west wind is beginning to blow. 15. on that large house near the park. 10. 7. 14. I wonder whether she will take-a-walk tomorrow. Cxu vi volas tiujn cxi? Do . My young sister will be careful about that new umbrella. THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN "CXI TIU". and my brother will hold it over our heads. My father's friend is very careful of his son.

this person's (this one's) sons are young. 62. this girl is my sister.you wish these? Cxi tiu knabino estas mia fratino. Tiu rigardas la florojn. I went to that one's house. I like that one's color. but the latter's seems . these friends will take a walk. and "cxi ties". Cxi tiuj amikoj promenos. that one's. I saw these hats. Ties estas nova. sed preferas cxi tiun floron. La patro kaj lia amiko parolas pri siaj domoj. POSSESSIVE FORM OF THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN. the demonstrative pronouns "tiu" and "cxi tiu" have the special possessive or genitive forms "ties". The former's is new. The use of "ties" and "cxi ties" to mean "the former" and "the latter" is similar to the use of "tiu" and "cxi tiu" shown in 61: Mi iris al ties domo. Father and his friend are talking about their houses. cxi tiu kolektas ilin. the latter (this one) gathers them. Mi vidis cxi tiujn cxapelojn. Cxi ties filoj estas junaj. To express possession. Mi sxatas ties koloron. Gertrude and Mary are in the park. The former (that one) looks at the flowers. this one's. but prefer this flower. The words "tiu" and "cxi tiu" may be used to distinguish between persons or things "previously" mentioned and "just" mentioned: Gertrude kaj Mario estas en la parko. 61. sed cxi ties sxajnas bela.

"-as". to catch). and to which the verb endings "-i". are attached. 64. indicator. trap (from kapti. the adjective ending "a". La birdoj flugas per flugiloj. etc.beautiful. snare. "vir-" is the root of "viro" and of "virino". kaptilo. wing (from flugi. [Footnote: The root of a word is that part of it which contains the essential meaning. needle (from kudri. he amuses himself with (by) those pictures. "kur-" is the root of "kuri". to fly). (clock) hand (from montri. 63. THE SUFFIX "-IL-". tenilo. one sews by means of (with) a needle. "-is". to sew). when no suffix intervenes. tools or utensils may be formed by adding the suffix "-il-" (followed by the ending "-o") to roots whose meaning permits: flugilo. show). "-os". Mi trovis gxin per via helpo. handle (from teni. to point out.. montrilo. the birds fly by (with) wings.] THE EXPRESSION OF MEANS OR INSTRUMENTALITY. Thus. . Names of instruments. kudrilo. I found it by (through) your help. etc. to hold). the noun ending "-o". The means or instrumentality through which an act is accomplished is expressed by use of the preposition "per": Oni kudras per kudrilo. Li amuzas sin per tiuj bildoj.

sed mi metis ilin en la busxon per forko. kaj mi mangxis tiun per granda kulero. Mi tenis la forkon en la dekstra mano. LA MANGXO. Post la viando kaj la terpomoj. kaj havis belan koloron. Mi trancxis tiujn cxi per la trancxilo. supo = soup. forko = fork. cxar mia amiko sxatas doni bonajn mangxojn al siaj amikoj. Oni metis tre bonan supon antaux mi. viando = meat. Hieraux mi miris cxu mi havos bonan mangxon en la domo de mia amiko.VOCABULARY busxo = mouth. ties = that one's (62). oni donis al mi fresxajn maturajn cxerizojn. Sed mi opiniis ke mi havos tre bonan mangxon. Ili kusxis sur granda telero. telero = plate. kaj metis la trancxilon trans mian teleron. kulero = spoon. kaj trancxis per akra trancxilo. sed ankaux novajn terpomojn. trancxilo kaj kulero estas mangxiloj. Oni bezonas akran trancxilon. terpomo = potato. trancxi = to cut. mano = hand. Cxi tiun mi tenis per forko. kafo = coffee. Post la supo mi havis viandon. dekstra = right (not left). Mi preskaux ne diris ke mi ankaux havis kafon. La forko. per = by means of (64). Ilia gusto estis ankaux bona. helpo = help. Mi havis ne nur viandon. exceedingly. cxi (see 60). tre = very. Mi parolos morgaux al mia amiko pri lia . sed oni ne bezonas tre akran forkon.

mia amiko konstruos grandan domon. 7. and sing about the young birds.kafo. and tomorrow the children will pick (gather) them. 2. sed li diris ke li ne volas trinki kafon. kaj mangxis tiun. and will put them upon a plate. 3. Lia najbaro volas konstrui belan sed ne tre grandan domon. Li tenis tiun en la mano. 9. Mia amiko volis doni almenaux kafon al sia najbaro. They will build their nests. kaj ili parolis al mi pri siaj novaj domoj. Per la helpo de sia patro. Ties nova domo estos bela. kaj lauxdos gxin. Post la mangxo. 10. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. They said that it likes to catch and eat sparrows. They seem almost ripe. They will shake the whole tree by means of a branch. 5. najbaro de mia amiko venis en cxi ties domon. The children will gather peaches in that-person's garden. Tamen li volis persikon. 1. The sweet fruit above them will fall upon the soft green grass. Tomorrow it will hide (itself) behind a tree. The birds have very strong wings on their bodies. It is said (54) that the grain in that- . sed mi opinias ke mi preferos cxi ties domon. 4. 11. The children wondered whether the cherries were ripe. but they do not have hands. and will catch a young sparrow. Those children were talking to me yesterday about their cat. 8. with the help of their father. 6.

such (that kind of) neighbors are pleasant. We shall have a very good meal. for (because) it did not rain yesterday or today. The weathercock is an indicator concerning the weather. Tiaj najbaroj estas agrablaj. 66. ADVERBS DEFINED AND CLASSIFIED. LESSON XV. that kind of. degree. time. or phrase. that kind of a flower is beautiful. One eats meat with a fork. that sort of. adjective. 12. 17. Mi volas auxdi tiajn birdojn. and soup with a spoon. An adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a verb. 19. and also very good coffee. I wish to hear such birds. 15. The demonstrative adjective related to the demonstrative pronoun "tiu" (56) is "tia". 20. One holds the spoon in the right hand. THE DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE. because he fears the rain. etc. People also think that the flowers will wither. Mi sxatas tian viandon. 13. 14. A knife is sharp. 16. negation. such: Tia floro estas bela. but one does not need a sharp fork. It may express manner. 18. He holds the umbrella by its handle. My careful young friend will carry an umbrella in his hand tomorrow.man's field very [much] needs rain. another adverb. Adverbs are either . 65. I like that sort of meat. He sees those gray clouds in (on) the sky.

(b) Adverbs of Degree. Such questions may be put in the form of a statement. affirmation: jes = yes. as "now. interrogation: cxu. tuj = immediately. negation: ne = not. morgaux = tomorrow. much." or more probably "I wished almost to have that. a. "mi preskaux volis havi tiun" clearly means "I almost wished to have that". (c) Adverbs Expressing Other Ideas. proximity: cxi. Thus. nun = now. emphasis: ecx = even." or derived. nur = merely. but may also follow. hieraux = yesterday. followed by "cxu ne" . (30). the word or words which it modifies." "sweet-ly. but "mi volis preskaux havi tiun" might mean either "I almost wished to have that. An adverb usually precedes. It must be so placed as to leave no doubt about which of two words or word-groups it is intended to modify." An example of permissible variation in the position of adverbs is shown in questions to which an affirmative answer is expected." "almost. as "glad-ly.primary. tre = very. no. addition: ankaux = also. preskaux = almost. (27). hodiaux = today." The Esperanto primary adverbs given in this and in preceding lessons may be classified as follows: (a) Temporal Adverbs (expressing time). (60). baldaux = soon. almenaux = at least.

67. is it not? Vi auxdis tiun diron. Ruza juna viro kaj bona maljuna viro iris trans . malamiko = enemy (from "amiko". tuj = immediately. nokto = night. such opposite may be formed from it by use of the prefix "mal-": malalta = low. friend). young). old (from "juna". If the meaning of a word is such that it can have a direct opposite. kara = dear. maljuna = aged. English "malcontent". gardi = to guard. high. preni = to take. will he not? La vetero estas bela. tall). did you not? FORMATION OF OPPOSITES. right). to aid. ecx = even. ruza = sly.(instead of having "cxu" introduce the sentence. respondi = to answer. povi = to be able. "discontented. kuragxa = courageous. not new (from "nova". honti = to be ashamed. sxteli = to steal. cunning. tia = that kind of (65). kontenta = satisfied. with "ne" in its normal position): Li venos. new). LA RUZA JUNA VIRO. cxu ne? You heard that remark. propono = proposal. malhelpi = to hinder (from "helpi". cxu ne? He will come. short (from "alta". to help). maldekstra = left (from "dekstra". [Footnote: Cf. helpi = to help. vocxo = voice."] VOCABULARY dum = during. "clumsy. malnova = old. cxu ne? The weather is beautiful." "maladroit".

"Cxar dum la nokto oni ne povos vidi mian nigran cxevalon. sed malamikoj povos tuj vidi vian blankan cxevalon. cxar vi estas maljuna kaj malforta." Tia propono ne sxajnis agrabla al la maljuna viro. Li respondis "Mia kara amiko. cxu ne?" "Jes. cxu ne? Vi povos malhelpi malamikojn per tiu granda akra trancxilo. kaj malhelpi malamikojn." La ruza juna viro ne hontis. cxar oni ne sxtelos blankan cxevalon. vi donos gxin al mi. kaj vi gardos la cxevalojn. cxi tiu havis blankan cxevalon. Mi povos vidi tian cxevalon dum la nokto. kaj prenos ties nigran cxevalon." diris la maljuna viro. "Nun. cxar li estis malricxa. "Vi estas kuragxa kaj forta. sed gxi estas almenaux nigra. cxu ne?" diris la juna viro per dolcxa vocxo al sia amiko. kaj prenis la blankan cxevalon. Tuj li diris al cxi tiu "Sed per via helpo mi ne perdos mian cxevalon: mi donos la mian al vi. Li diris al si ke li donos sian blankan cxevalon al la juna viro. La via estas malbela. kaj li donis sian nigran cxevalon al tiu. kaj oni ne povos sxteli vian blankan cxevalon. kaj prenos vian cxevalon. kaj ne povos malhelpi malamikojn. "Vi gardos niajn cxevalojn dum la nokto. tamen li ne volis perdi sian cxevalon. Oni povos sxteli tian cxevalon. Tiu havis nigran cxevalon. mi nun dormos. Sed tiu cxevalo via ("that horse . Li ne estis kontenta.dezerton." respondis la ruza juna viro.

6. One cuts fruit with a knife. 5. kaj ecx nun oni povas sxteli gxin. kaj la maljuna viro gardis la cxevalojn dum la tuta nokto. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 12. The young man was very sly. They wished to be careful about their horses. 9.of yours") havas la koloron de la nokto. Does one eat potatoes and meat with a fork or a spoon? 2. I was ashamed. 13. nevertheless I almost immediately cut my (the) "left" hand. 7. but I think that the handle of that knife was very "short". 10. The "old" man answered that .) 1. 8. He said that either (aux) he or the "old" man would guard the horses. I "dislike" to go-walking upon the "hard" streets. 3. and I fear that we shall not be able to take a walk. The grass is "wet" today. One puts soup into the mouth by means of a spoon. He said that one can steal a black horse during the "dark" night. and wished to sleep during the night. 14. (Words to be formed with the prefix "mal-" are quoted. 11. even in that "small" park. and I was much "dissatisfied". The courageous young man and his "aged" friend talked about their "enemies". My knife was "dull". 4. The coffee was "cold". and puts the fruit upon a plate." La malkontenta maljuna viro diris per kolera vocxo "Cxu vi ne hontas pri tia propono?" Tamen la ruza juna viro tuj komencis dormi.

But he "stayed-awake". in (at) that place. kaj venis cxi tien. I came here (hither). and guarded the horses.he would give to him his [own] white horse. with. Mi trovis vin tie kaj lin tie cxi. 69. the ending "-n" is added to the adverb (46). He took that one's black horse. here. 15. The demonstrative adverbs of place related to the pronouns "tiu" and "cxi tiu" are "tie". LESSON XVI. and was very angry at his "faithless" friend. forming "tien". 17. thither. there the weather seems very pleasant. Accompaniment or association is expressed by the preposition "kun". hither. the books lie here (in this place). and "cxi tie". he will go there (thither). I found you there and him here. in (at) this place: La telero estas tie. La libroj kusxas cxi tie. 68. ACCOMPANIMENT. here: Li iros tien. Tie la vetero sxajnas tre agrabla. . He was ashamed. If the verb in the sentence expresses motion toward the place indicated by "tie" or "cxi tie". THE DEMONSTRATIVE ADVERB OF PLACE. we were there and came here (hither). Ni estis tie. and "cxi tien". Mi venis cxi tien. the plate is there (in that place). there. there. 70. 16.

along with: La viro venis kun sia amiko." still shown in "fight with. La knabo kun tiu viro estas lia frato.) Gradually this word "with" usurped the meaning of the original preposition "mid." The English preposition "with" may be said to have three rather clearly defined different meanings. or instrumentality. withstand". strive with. Thus. the man came with his friend. German "mit". English "with" indicates opposition. which it crowded out of the language except in one unimportant compound). the boy with that man is his brother. which expresses instrumentality. I shall go walking with you. Mi promenos kun vi. for which three senses Esperanto has the three prepositions "kontraux". with." expressing association or accompaniment (cf. and "per". (Cf. etc. accompaniment. to strive with. contend with. [Footnote: "Kun" must not be confused with "per" (64). The word "by" was also encroaching upon "mid" from another direction. the original meaning was "against. "kun". respectively. although per may often be translated by English "with. In the linguistic history of this word. etc. to resist.] . and so "mid's" successor "with" came to be interchangeable with "by" in expressing instrumentality. German "widerstreiten". "widerhalten".

does not occur in all of the forms a verb may have: Mi povas paroli. to abandon. to drink up. Mi povis paroli. 71. to eat up. to command against. may be used independently. to escape. to avert. roundabout. resti . to be able. VOCABULARY el = out of. he went away from me. The adverb "for". "forbear. the prefix "for-" in English "forfend. cxirkaux = around. 72. but it is more frequently used as a prefix to give a sense of departure. peli = to drive." to keep away. out.] THE MEANING OF "POVI". as "Li iris for de mi". Mi volas povi paroli. frua = early. [Footnote: Cf. to depart. The verb "povi". forlasi = to leave alone. loss or somewhat forcible removal: foriri = to go away. glavo = sword. rapidi = to hasten. ------. I am able to talk. which is defective. to chase. forpreni = to take away. Mi povos paroli. to remove. posxo = pocket.THE ADVERB "FOR". ------. that is." to refrain from. I shall be able to talk. away. to desert. I could talk." to exclude from. etc. is used to translate English "can". formangxi = to eat away. I was able to talk. forkuri = to run away. for = away (71). "forbid. I wish to be able to talk. rajdi = to ride. fortrinki = to drink away. I can talk.

La maljuna viro estis kontenta cxar li estis kun sia filo. horo = hour. La patro kaj la filo opiniis ke la amikoj kun ili povos helpi per siaj akraj glavoj. La amikoj estis fortaj. kaj preskaux tuj li vidis la malamikojn. nek helpis forpeli la malamikojn. kaj vokis la maljunan viron. Baldaux la nokto venis. Juna viro kaj lia sagxa patro volis iri trans la dezerton. voki = to call. Ecx en la dezerto oni trovas malamikojn. Ili restis en malgranda urbo dum la nokto. tie = there (68). kaj forpusxis lin de lia cxevalo. MALAMIKOJ EN LA DEZERTO. La filo volis malhelpi ilin. cxar li estis kun la amikoj. La malamikoj staris cxirkaux la patro. Li povis nur resti kun la patro. La malkuragxaj amikoj de la patro kaj filo nek restis tie. La juna viro estis kontenta. sagxa = wise.= to remain. kaj ili preskaux ne povis vidi. Estis tre malluma tie en la dezerto. La ruzaj malbonaj viroj rapidis tien. sed li ne povis. Ili tuj forkuris. Tiaj malamikoj forprenas la monon de bonaj viroj. kun = with (70). lasi = to leave. kaj forrajdis kun tiuj amikoj. Baldaux la malamikoj komencis forpreni la monon el la posxoj de la . Ili opiniis ke ili povos forpeli la malamikojn. kaj la juna viro estis tre kuragxa. Dum la fruaj horoj de la nokto la patro auxdis vocxojn. kun siaj amikoj. to stay. kaj gardi lin tie kontraux la glavoj de la malamikoj.

4." 12. The old man heard disagreeable voices behind him. 3. The foolish friends of the young man and his aged father did not stay with them. They did not help them with their swords. during the late hours of the night. but ran away at once ("tuj"). 10. and hastened there (69). 6. Those sly bad men took the money out of the pockets of the courageous young man." 13. 9. and also around his father. The father and son were angry and dissatisfied. but took both the horses and the money. The enemy did not leave (to) these their horses. 7. 5. out of the desert. "Dear Father. They said "We fear and dislike such men. The father said "By the help of our neighbors we can ("povos") find those bad men. The enemy called them. kaj prenis kun si la cxevalojn. ni lasos al vi nek la cxevalojn nek la monon. and were not ashamed. They stood around him. such a proposal seems . The father and son could not even guard their horses. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 1. La kolera filo diris per maldolcxa ("bitter") vocxo "Cxu vi ne hontas? Cxu vi lasos al ni nek la cxevalojn nek nian monon?" Sed la malamikoj respondis "Ne. Ni ne estas malsagxaj. Soon the enemy rode away.sagxa maljuna viro. 2. 8." Post tiu diro ili tuj forrapidis. 11. The son replied. and soon he saw the enemy. and drive them away.

"comparative" and "superlative. --------------. 16. then he will ride to the city. 15. using the adverbs "pli". most. beautiful pli bela. most: POSITIVE. The demonstrative temporal adverb related to the demonstrative pronoun "tiu" is "tiam"." the adverbs "more." etc. more. -est. THE DEMONSTRATIVE TEMPORAL ADVERB. 74. with ("per") my help?" 17. and "plej". now they are wise. my son. We cannot ride thither. Can you not hasten. 14. 73.bela. sed tiam ili estis malsagxaj." English has various ways of forming the comparative and superlative degrees (as by the suffixes "-er. Esperanto has only one method. . Nun ili estas sagxaj. better.). The wise old man answered.------------------------------------------------. "positive". best. with such help I can walk thither. and the road to the city is long. "Yes." LESSON XVII. COMPARATIVE.good. An adjective may have three degrees. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES." and irregular methods as in "good. then. and I will help with my long sharp sword. but we can walk thither. but at that time they were foolish. But we are now in the desert. at that time: Tiam li rajdos al la urbo. SUPERLATIVE.

MANNER AND CHARACTERISTIC. Tiu estis la plej ruza el la viroj. Vi estas la plej felicxa el ni. Mi auxdis lin kun intereso kaj plezuro. Mi havas cxevalon kun forta korpo. better plej bona. The preposition "el" is used with words expressing the group or class out of which a superlative is selected and mentioned: Li estas la plej juna el tiuj. good pli bona. he took it with the greatest care. worst sagxa. most beautiful bona. wiser plej sagxa. worse plej malbona. wise pli sagxa. [Footnote: Sometimes the manner of an action may be expressed by the instrument of it. that one was the craftiest of the men. The actions or feelings which accompany an act or state. I have a horse with a strong body. 76. she is a woman with (of) good taste. you are the happiest of us. bad pli malbona. Sxi estas virino kun bona gusto. he is the youngest of (out of) those. expressed by the preposition "per" with a substantive modified by an adjective: "Li kantis per dolcxa vocxo". or the characteristic which permanently accompanies a person or thing.more beautiful plej bela. best malbona. may be expressed by a substantive with the preposition "kun": Li prenis gxin kun la plej granda zorgo. wisest 75. I heard him with interest and pleasure. he sang with (by .

VOCABULARY ami = to love. Hieraux mi legis interesan libron pri Frederiko Granda ("the Great"). dum malfruaj horoj de la nokto. tiam = then (73). Mi rakontis gxin al vi. "paroli". to relate. Li vokis sian malgrandan . and "rakonti". plumo = pen. to talk. Cxar la regxo legis plej interesan novan libron. plezuro = pleasure.] "DIRI". I talked (spoke) to you about it. rakonti = to relate (77). regxo = king. pli = more (74). you pushed me with a strong hand. li ne opiniis ke la horo estas malfrua. 77. FREDERIKO GRANDA KAJ LA JUNA SERVISTO. Agrabla juna knabo. to speak. Mi diris gxin al vi. "Vi pusxis min per forta mano". letero = letter. plej = most (74). The verbs "diri". gratuli = to congratulate. I said it to you (I told you).means of) a sweet voice. ekster = outside (of). to say. zorgo = care. En gxi oni rakontas ke la regxo kun plezuro legis aux skribis per sia plumo. Mi parolis al vi pri gxi. must not be confused in use: Mi diris al vi ke pluvas. skribi = to write. tiam restis ekster la pordo. la plej juna el la servistoj. intereso = interest. having in common the general idea of speech or expression. I related (told) it to you. Frederiko = Frederick. servisto = servant. "PAROLI" AND "RAKONTI". I said to (told) you that it was raining.

kaj trovis la monon. Tiam Frederiko Granda ne estis kolera. sed hontis cxar li vokis la infanon. kaj trovis la knabon ekster la pordo. En cxi tiu letero la patrino diris per la plumo ke sxi amas la filon. Gxi estis letero al la servisto." respondis la knabo. cxar mi . "Cxu vi dormis?" diris Frederiko Granda. kaj vokis la malgrandan serviston.serviston. La regxo iris tien. mi timas ke mi preskaux dormis. La knabo tuj auxdis. Tiam li formarsxis al sia cxambro. Kun la plej granda zorgo li metis monon el sia posxo kun la letero kaj tiam lasis la leteron en ties posxo. Tuj li prenis la leteron el lia posxo. Li kuris trans la cxambron. kaj forpelos min!" Frederiko respondis. "Jes. La regxo Frederiko vidis leteron en la posxo de la knabo. sxi sxajnis esti tre malricxa. de lia patrino. Li sxajnis pli malfelicxa kaj diris kun granda timo "Malamiko metis cxi tiun monon en mian posxon! Oni opinios ke mi sxtelis gxin! Oni malamos min. nek venis nek respondis. kaj staris antaux la regxo. "Ne. Li vidis ke la knabo dormas sur malalta segxo. "kaj mi tre hontas. sed la knabo. La regxo volis esti tre bona al tia filo. mi donis gxin al vi. Sxi dankis lin cxar li skribis al sxi longan leteron. kaj rigardis gxin. Sxi ankaux dankis lin cxar li donis al sxi monon. Sxi ne estis ricxa virino." Tiam li metis la manon en la posxon. kaj rapidis tra la pordo.

12. and wished to help him. and he hastened thither and stood before him. He wrote longer letters with pleasure. and the younger servant did not hear them. Then he saw that the little boy was sleeping there. and went to the door. He had written a letter to her. The king thought that the boy had gone away with the older servants. 7." SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 3. Then the older servants came.amas bonajn knabojn. The king called him. The king congratulated the mother of the boy. and saw a letter in his pocket. 8. 1. Yesterday he did not hear the king. 15. 18. cxar sxi havas tian filon. because he was a most faithful son. 11. 6. 10. The letter was from the boy's mother. His youngest servant stayed outside of the door. 14. 5. They walked with great care. but he did not answer. An interesting story is related (54) about Frederick the Great. He looked at him with greater interest. Mi gratulas vian patrinon. concerning such a son. He placed his book upon the table. (The) king Frederick wished to be kinder ("pli bona") to the boy. He left his book on the table. 16. 13. and he was angry. and talked to the little servant. 9. 17. because she was poor. The king called him. They loved the little boy. 4. with his pen. . near his sword. and had given (to) her money. and stood around the king. 2.

----------------------sagxe. slyly pli ruze. by addition of the adverbending "-e". so they drove him away. so: Tial la servisto foriris. less. ------------. . as "felicxe". is "tial". therefore. Adverbs may be derived from roots whose meaning permits. he is less courageous. for that reason I congratulated him. worse plej malbone. related to the demonstrative pronoun "tiu". COMPARATIVE. DERIVATION OF ADVERBS. THE DEMONSTRATIVE ADVERB OF MOTIVE OR REASON. badly pli malbone. better plej bone. 79. wisely pli sagxe. SUPERLATIVE. (These adverbs may also modify verbs): Li estas malpli kuragxa.LESSON XVIII. "kolere".---------------------. worst ruze. The opposites (67) of "pli" and "plej" are "malpli". Tial mi gratulis lin. least. most wisely bone. angrily. more wisely plej sagxe. therefore the servant went away. 78. The demonstrative adverb of motive or reason. happily. best malbone. well pli bone. Their use is similar to that of "pli" and "plej". The comparison of adverbs is similar to that of adjectives: POSITIVE. most slyly "MALPLI" AND "MALPLEJ". more slyly plej ruze. 80. and "malplej". Tial oni forpelis lin. for that reason.

Tiuj estis malplej akraj, those were least sharp. La vento blovis malpli forte, the wind blew less strongly. Li skribis malplej zorge, he wrote least carefully. Mi malpli timas ilin, I fear them less. Vi malplej bezonos helpon, you will need help least. COMPARISON OF WORDS EXPRESSING QUANTITY. 81. Since in their precise sense the words "pli", "malpli", "plej", "malplej", express degree, a quantitative meaning is given by "multe", "much", in the desired degree of comparison: multe, much pli multe, more (in amount) plej multe, most malpli multe, less " malplej multe, least malmulte, little pli malmulte, less " plej malmulte, least COMPARISONS CONTAINING "OL". 82. In a comparison made by the use of "pli" or "malpli", the case used after "ol", than, must indicate clearly the sense intended: Mi amas ilin pli multe ol sxin, I love them more than (I love) her. Mi amas ilin pli multe ol sxi, I love them more than she (loves them). Vi helpis la viron malpli multe ol la knabo, you helped the man less than the boy (helped him). Vi helpis la viron malpli multe ol la knabon, you helped the man less than (you helped) the boy.

CAUSAL CLAUSES. 83. A clause giving a cause or reason is introduced by "cxar", because, for, or by the combination "tial ke", for this reason that, because, for: Mi venis frue, cxar mi volis vidi vin, I came early, for I wished to see you. La floroj velkis tial, ke ne pluvis, the flowers wilted for this reason, that it did not rain. VOCABULARY anstataux = instead of. multa = much (multaj, many). aprilo = April. ofta = frequent (ofte, often). auxgusto = August. ol = than (82). jaro = year. printempo = spring (season). junio = June. tago = day. julio = July. sezono = season. majo = May. somero = summer. marto = March. tial = therefore (78). monato = month. vintro = winter. PRI LA SEZONOJ. La vintro estas la malplej agrabla sezono el la tuta jaro. Negxas tre multe, kaj tial oni nur malofte promenas, cxar la stratoj estas tro malsekaj. Oni marsxas kun granda zorgo, kaj malrapide ("slowly"), tial ke oni ne volas fali kaj preskaux rompi la kolon. Oni zorge gardas sin tiam kontraux la malvarmaj nordaj ventoj. La manojn oni metas en la posxojn, sed la vizagxon oni ne povas bone gardi. Mi ne sxatas resti ekster la domo dum tia vetero. Mi multe preferas sidi en varma luma cxambro,

kaj skribi leterojn per bona plumo. La monatoj de la printempo estas marto, aprilo kaj majo. La bela printempo sxajnas pli agrabla ol la vintro. Gxiaj tagoj estas pli longaj kaj pli varmaj, gxiaj ventoj blovas malpli forte. En cxi tiu sezono la kampoj kaj arboj frue komencas montri plej belajn kolorojn. La birdoj konstruas siajn nestojn, kaj dolcxe kantas. Oni povas promeni sur la mola herbo, anstataux sur malsekaj malagrablaj stratoj. Pluvas pli multe en aprilo, tamen post la pluvo la herbo sxajnas pli verda, kaj la nuboj baldaux forflugas de la blua cxielo. Dum majo oni trovas violojn, kaj en junio oni vidas tre multajn rozojn. Sed la plej agrabla el la sezonoj estas la somero. Anstataux malvarmaj ventoj la somero havas la plej belan veteron, kun suda aux okcidenta ventoj. La longaj tagoj estas varmaj, sed la noktoj estas tute agrablaj. Tiam oni havas pli bonajn fruktojn ol dum la printempo. La monatoj de la somero estas junio, julio kaj auxgusto. Mi plej sxatas junion. Cxu vi sxatas gxin pli multe ol mi? Cxu vi sxatas auxguston pli multe ol julion? SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 1. I read a most interesting book about Frederick the Great. 2. It relates that he often stayed-awake and read with great interest during the later hours of the night. 3. His

youngest servant was a small boy. 4. The king loved this boy more than [he loved] the older servants. 5. The winter is a less pleasant season than the spring, but the summer is more pleasant than that [season]. 6. During March the east winds blow most strongly, and shake the trees very much. 7. In April one needs his umbrella, for (the reason that) there are often clouds in the sky and it rains a great deal (very much). 8. The streets are very wet, but the water does not seem to wash them. 9. In May one begins to find sweet violets, and the birds in the trees above our heads sing very sweetly. 10. In June the most beautiful roses are seen (54). 11. July and August are the warmest months of the whole year. 12. The days are longer than the nights, and the weathercock shows west and south winds, instead of those disagreeable north and east winds. 13. One stays outside [of] the house then with greater pleasure, and goes walking in the parks. 14. I think that I like the summer better than you [do]. 15. Therefore I praise the summer more than you [do]. 16. However, I praise you more than [I praise] your younger brother. 17. He is less wise than you. LESSON XIX. "JU" AND "DES" IN COMPARISONS.

84. In clauses expressing a comparison between two objects, acts or states, the adverbial use of English "the ... the ..." (meaning "by how much ... by that much ...") is rendered by the adverbs "ju" and "des", respectively: Ju pli bona li estas, des pli felicxa li estos, the better he is, the happier he will be. Ju pli ofte mi rigardas, des pli mi volas rigardi, the oftener I look, the more I wish to look. Ju pli bele la luno brilas, des pli oni sxatas la nokton, the more beautifully the moon shines, the more one likes the night. Ju malpli pluvas, des pli la floroj velkas, the less it rains, the more the flowers wither. Ju malpli multe vi helpas, des malpli multe mi lauxdos vin, the less you help, the less I shall praise you. Cxar vi helpis, mi des pli multe lauxdos vin, because you helped, I shall praise you the (that much) more. [Footnote: Cf. Shakespeare, As You Like It, V, II, 49, "By so much the more shall I tomorrow be at the height of heart-heaviness, by how much I shall think my brother happy in having what he wishes for."] THE PREPOSITION "INTER". 85. In English, the preposition "between" is used in reference to two persons or things, and "among" in reference to three or more. As the difference in meaning is not essential,

Esperanto has but the one preposition inter to express both "between" and "among": Li sidas inter vi kaj mi, he is sitting between you and me. Li sidas inter siaj amikoj, he is sitting among his friends. La monato majo estas inter aprilo kaj junio, the month of May is between April and June. Inter tiuj libroj estas tre interesa libro, among those books there is a very interesting book. THE PREPOSITION "PRO". 86. Cause or reason may be expressed not only by an adverb (78) or a clause (83), but also by use of the preposition "pro", because of, on account of, for the sake of, for. It directs the thought away from the complement toward the action, feeling or state caused by it, or done in its interest or behalf: La floroj velkas pro la seka vetero, the flowers wilt because of the dry weather. Mi skribis la leteron pro vi, I wrote the letter for you (for your sake). Pro tiuj nuboj mi timas ke pluvos, on account of those clouds I fear that it will rain. Oni sxatas cxerizojn pro la dolcxa gusto, people like cherries because of the sweet taste. PREPOSITIONS WITH ADVERBS AND OTHER PREPOSITIONS. 87. Prepositions may be used with adverbs or with prepositional phrases when the meaning permits:

La kato kuris el sub la tablo, the cat ran outfrom under the table. Li venos el tie, he will come out of there. De nun li estos zorga, from now he will be careful. Li staris dekstre de la vojo, he stood on the right of the road. Mi iros for de cxi tie, I shall go away from here. VOCABULARY auxtuno = autumn, fall. negxo = snow. decembro = December. novembro = November. des = (see 84). nuda = bare, naked. februaro = February. oktobro = October. glacio = ice. pro = because of (86). inter = between, among (85). rikolti = to harvest. januaro = January. rivero = river. ju = (see 84). septembro = September. kovri = to cover. tero = ground, earth. LA AUXTUNO KAJ LA VINTRO. La sezonoj de la jaro estas la vintro, la printempo, la somero, kaj la auxtuno. La auxtuno estas inter la somero kaj la vintro. Gxiaj monatoj estas septembro, oktobro kaj novembro. En septembro oni povas kolekti maturajn fruktojn. Tiam ankaux oni rikoltas la flavan grenon de la kampoj. Dum cxi tiu monato kaj dum oktobro la folioj sur la brancxoj komencas esti rugxaj kaj flavaj, anstataux verdaj. La herbo velkas, kaj bruna tapisxo sxajnas kovri la teron. Baldaux la folioj falas al la tero, kaj en novembro la arboj estas tute nudaj. Pli aux malpli frue negxas. La

glacio ofte kovras la akvon en la riveroj, kaj restas sur la stratoj kaj la vojoj. La mola blanka negxo kovras la teron, kaj kusxas sur la brancxoj de la arboj. Tiam, pro la fortaj ventoj, gxi falas de la brancxoj al la tero. La birdoj frue lasas tian veteron, kaj flugas de cxi tie al pli sudaj kampoj kaj arboj. Ili ne povas resti, pro la malvarmaj tagoj kaj noktoj. Ili malsxatas la negxon kaj la glacion pli multe ol ni. Ju pli multe negxas; des pli malofte ni volas promeni. Ni preferas resti en la domo, anstataux ekster gxi. Ju pli ni rigardas la nudajn brancxojn de la arboj, des pli malagrabla sxajnas la vintro. Tamen la junaj infanoj tre sxatas tian veteron, kaj ju pli negxas, kaj ju pli forte la norda vento blovas, des malpli ili estas kontentaj en la domo. Ili volas kuri sur la negxo, cxirkaux la arboj kaj inter ili, kun siaj junaj amikoj. Ili povas bone amuzi sin per la negxo. La monatoj de la vintro estas decembro, januaro kaj februaro. Gxi estas la plej malvarma sezono. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 1. September, October and November are the months of autumn. 2. In these months, people harvest the yellow grain and gather various fruits. 3. The leaves on the trees around us begin to have red and yellow colors. 4. They begin to fall from the branches and lie upon the ground. 5. The more strongly the cold

north wind blows through the branches, the sooner the leaves fall from there. 6. They lie under the bare trees, with the brown grass. 7. The sooner it snows, the sooner the ground will seem to have a white carpet. 8. The snow will completely ("tute") cover the grass during the months of the winter. 9. These months are December, January and February. 10. From that time ("de tiam") the ice and snow will cover the roads, and altogether ("tute") hide them. 11. There will often be ice on the water of the river. 12. We like this season of the year more than March, April and May. 13. We like it even more than the summer. 14. The months of the latter (62) are June, July and August. 15. The summer is the warmest season of the entire year. 16. Therefore we often say that the summer is the pleasantest season. 17. Because of its many pleasures, the summer is dear to me. 18. It is between the spring and the autumn. LESSON XX. THE DEMONSTRATIVE ADVERB OF MANNER AND DEGREE. 88. The demonstrative adverb of manner and degree, related to the demonstrative pronoun "tiu", is "tiel", in that (this) manner, in such a way, thus, so. Like English "thus," "so," "tiel" may modify adjectives and other adverbs, by

indicating degree: Cxu oni tiel helpas amikon? Does one help a friend in that (this) way? Mi gxin skribis tiel, I wrote it thus (in such a way). La vetero estas tiel bela, the weather is so beautiful. Tiel mallonge li parolis, thus briefly he spoke. Mi trovis tiel belan floron, I found such a beautiful flower. Li prenis tiel multe, he took that much (so much). PREPOSITIONS EXPRESSING TIME-RELATIONS. 89. The relations which prepositions express may be of various kinds. As in English, a certain number of prepositions primarily expressing place may also express timerelations. Such prepositions are "antaux", "cxirkaux", "de", "en", "gxis", "inter", "post", and "je" (whose use in other than timerelations will be explained later): Mi foriros cxirkaux junio, I shall depart about June. De tiu horo mi estis via amiko, from that hour I was your friend. Li ne parolis al mi de tiu semajno, he did not speak to me since from) that week. En la tuta monato ne negxis, it did not snow in (at any time within) the entire month. Mi dormis gxis malfrua horo, I slept until (up to) a late hour. Gxis nun li ne vidis vin, until now he did not see you. Inter marto kaj junio mi iros tien, between March and June I shall go there. Je malfrua horo li foriris, at a late hour he went away. Mi iros

tien je dimancxo, I shall go there on Sunday. Je tiu horo li vokis min, at that hour he called me. Sxi ne restis tie post julio, she did not stay there after July. Post ne longe mi vokos vin, soon (after not long) I shall call you. 90. When a definite date or point in time is expressed, "antaux" means "before." When used with an expression of an "amount" of time, it is to be translated by "ago" following the expression (not by "before" preceding it): Antaux dimancxo mi foriros, before Sunday I shall go away. Mi vidis lin antaux tiu horo, I saw him before that hour. Li skribos gxin antaux la nova jaro, he will write it before New Year. Antaux multaj jaroj mi trovis gxin, many years ago I found it. Mi rompis gxin antaux longa tempo, I broke it a long time ago. Antaux tre longe vi legis tiun libron, you read that book very long ago. Li venis antaux ne longe, he came recently (not long ago). Antaux malmultaj jaroj li forkuris, a few years ago he escaped. [Footnote: As already shown, "kun" expresses accompaniment, "per" expresses instrumentality, "pro" expresses cause, "kontraux" expresses opposition, "anstataux" expresses substitution, "sur", "apud", "sub", etc., express place, "dum" expresses time, etc.] VOCABULARY

dimancxo = Sunday. mateno = morning. energia = energetic. promeno = walk, promenade. frosto = frost. rakonto = story, narrative. je = at, on (89). ripozi = to rest, to repose. kota = muddy. semajno = week. labori = to work, to labor. tempo = time. laca = tired, weary. tiel = thus, so (88) lundo = Monday. tro = too, too much. mardo = Tuesday. vespero = evening. EN SEPTEMBRO. Antaux multaj jaroj ni preferis resti en nia malgranda domo trans la rivero, dum la tuta auxtuno. Sed nun ni restas tie nur gxis oktobro. De auxgusto gxis oktobro la vetero estas tre agrabla tie, sed baldaux post tiu monato la fortaj ventoj blovas, kaj la folioj komencas fali. La frosto kovras la teron, kaj baldaux negxas tre ofte. Ju pli nudaj estas la arboj, des pli malbelaj ili sxajnas. La vetero antaux novembro ne estas tro malvarma, sed post tiu monato ni opinias ke la urbo estas pli agrabla ol domo inter kampoj kaj arboj, trans largxa rivero. La frosto, negxo kaj glacio kovras la teron en decembro, januaro kaj februaro. Sed la monato septembro sxajnas tre agrabla, pro siaj multaj plezuroj. La viroj laboras energie en la kampoj, de la mateno gxis la vespero. Ili rikoltas la flavan grenon, kaj kolektas la fruktojn. Sed je dimancxo oni ne laboras tiel energie, sed dormas gxis

malfrua horo, tial ke je tiu tago oni ripozas. Je lundo oni komencas labori tre frue, kaj je mardo oni ankaux laboras energie. En septembro la vojoj ne estas tro kotaj, kaj longaj promenoj estas ofte agrablaj. Ju pli ofte mi promenas kun miaj amikoj, des pli multe mi sxatas tiajn promenojn. Sed hieraux mi estis tre laca post la promeno, tial mi ripozis sur granda mola segxo. Antaux ne longe la patro promenis kun mi, sed ni ne estis tiel lacaj je tiu tago. Sxajnas ke ju pli ofte ni promenas, des malpli lacaj ni estas post la promenoj. Post ne longe mi estos pli forta. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 1. Many years ago we had a small house across the river. 2. We did not remain there during the entire year, but only in the warmer months of the summer. 3. Often we stayed until September or even until October. 4. My younger brothers and sisters amused themselves very well there from (the) morning until (the) evening. 5. They amused themselves among the flowers and trees, or went from there into the large fields. 6. Here the men work energetically, and harvest the ripe yellow grain. 7. Only on Sunday do they rest, because on that day one does not work. 8. Between August and November the men work more than in the winter. 9. In December and after that month they rest, for (83) from

that time the frost, ice and snow cover the ground. 10. Because of the snow on the ground, long walks are not pleasant in the winter. 11. Recently (90) we went walking in the park across the river, but we were so tired after that walk! 12. The longer the walk is, the sooner one wishes to rest. 13. On Monday it rained, so (78) we read stories and wrote letters, in a pleasant light room in our house. 14. Before evening, however, the sun shone, and the streets were not so muddy. 15. On Tuesday these streets were almost dry, and soon the roads near the river and between the fields will also be dry. 16. A few years ago those roads were very good. LESSON XXI. THE ACCUSATIVE OF TIME. 91. Duration of time and a date or point in time may be expressed not only by use of the prepositions "dum", during, and "je", at, on, but also (as in English) without the use of any preposition. When no preposition is used, the word or words indicating time are put in the accusative case: Li restis tie la tutan semajnon (dum la tuta semajno), he stayed there the whole week (during the whole week). Sxi estis felicxa longan tempon (dum longa tempo), she was happy a long time (during a long time; for a

long time). Ni rajdos tagon kaj nokton (dum tago kaj nokto), we shall ride a day and a night (during a day and a night; for a day and a night). Mi venis dimancxon (je dimancxo), I came Sunday (on Sunday). Tiun horon (je tiu horo), li forkuris, that hour (at that hour) he escaped. 92. Although generally preferable, an accusative construction must be carefully placed, or avoided altogether, if confusion with other accusatives (expressing direction of motion, direct object, etc.) might result: Mi volas iri Bostonon je lundo, I wish to go to Boston on Monday. Mi volas iri al Bostono lundon, I wish to go to Boston Monday. Lundon mi volas iri Bostonon, Monday I wish to go to Boston. ADVERBS AND THE ACCUSATIVE OF TIME. 93. An accusative of time, as well as a temporal adverb, may further define or be defined by another expression of time: Li venis longan tempon antaux tiu horo, he came a long time before that hour. Jaron post jaro ili restis tie, year after year they stayed there. hodiaux matene, this morning. hodiaux vespere, this evening. hodiaux nokte, tonight. hieraux vespere, last evening. hieraux nokte, last night. dimancxon matene, Sunday morning. lundon vespere, Monday evening. mardon nokte, Tuesday night.

94. An accusative of time does not necessarily imply that the act or state mentioned occurs oftener than the instance cited. An adverb from the same root usually gives an idea of frequency or repetition: Li iros al ilia domo dimancxon, he will go to their house Sunday. Li iras al ilia domo dimancxe, he goes to their house Sundays. Li laboris tagon kaj nokton, he worked a day and a night. Li laboras tage kaj nokte, he works day and night (by day and by night). THE PREPOSITION "POR". 95. The object or purpose with reference to which an act is performed or a condition exists is expressed by the preposition "por", for. It directs the thought toward its complement, contrasting thus with "pro" (86): Mi havas libron por vi, I have a book for you. Mi ne havas la tempon por tiel longa promeno, I have not the time for so long a (such a long) walk. Ili faris gxin por via plezuro, they did it for your pleasure. VOCABULARY brila = brilliant. merkredo = Wednesday. Dio = God. mezo = middle. dividi = to divide. mondo = world. fari = to make. paci = to be at peace. forgesi = to forget. por = for (95). gxojo = joy. plori = to weep. konstanta = constant. preta = ready. kvieta = quiet, calm. ridi = to laugh. lando = land, country. riprocxi

Mallongan tempon ili sxajnis esti tre felicxaj inter la arboj kaj floroj de la nova mondo. Tiam li vokis la sezonojn kaj diris "Belan mondon mi faris por vi. La laca auxtuno volis ripozi. de la mateno gxis la vespero. Antaux tre longa tempo Dio faris la mondon. kaj estos tre zorgaj pri gxi?" La sezonoj respondis "Jes. Niaj gustoj estas tro diversaj. des malpli zorge ili gardis la mondon. La malkonstanta printempo ne sxatis la kvietan vintron. kaj post ne longe ili tute ne restis amikoj. kaj ploris pri la malvarma negxo. LA SEZONOJ KAJ LA MONDO. Ju pli ili malpacis. Cxu vi gardos gxin tage kaj nokte. Tial hodiaux matene ni dividos la mondon inter ni. Tiam la auxtuno diris "Mi ne povas pli longan tempon labori kun vi pro la mondo. kaj riprocxis la malkonstantan printempon pri cxi ties kota vetero." La vintro respondis "Bone! Mi estas preta. La varma brila somero diris ke la auxtuno estas tro malbrila. La vintro konstruis sian . Tiun tagon ili dividis la mondon inter si.= to reproach. Ili komencis malpaci ("quarrel") inter si. kaj ofte forgesis la arbojn kaj florojn. Sed ne multajn semajnojn ili tiel zorge gardis la mondon." kaj ridis pro gxojo. Pli kaj pli multe ili malpacis. Li vidis ke la floroj havas belajn kolorojn." kaj la somero kaj la printempo ridis pro gxojo. ke la arboj estas altaj kaj verdaj.

and said that they would guard it well. 1. 4. and Wednesday evening after a pleasant walk he related it to me. 3. Tial la vetero tie estas plej varma kaj brila. 9. the . and wished to sleep. La auxtuno kaj la printempo prenis por si la landojn inter la vintro kaj la somero. They were ready for pleasure. 2. The quiet winter concealed itself beneath the frost and soft white snow. 5. that many years ago God made the beautiful new world.domon en la plej nordaj kaj sudaj landoj. and could not long remain friends. and disliked the muddy weather of the inconstant spring. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. Tuesday my brother heard an interesting story. negxo kaj glacio kovras la tutan landon. 7. and gave it to the seasons. 8. dum la tuta jaro. and also were willing ("volis") to work energetically for-the-sake-of the new young world. Tiam la sezonoj rakontis al Dio ke ili tiel dividis la mondon inter si. They laughed for joy. The story is. Almost a year they were happy. The longer they kept the world among them. but these seasons were too diverse. 6. La brila energia somero prenis por si la mezon de la mondo. Tial la vetero estas nek tro varma nek tro malvarma en cxi tiuj landoj. The autumn preferred to rest. Tie la frosto. The brilliant summer wept and reproached the tired autumn.

The northern and southern lands now belong to the winter. Immediately that morning the seasons divided the world among themselves. Ni ridas pro gxojo dum negxas. Soon the autumn made the proposition. or by use of the preposition "dum". CLAUSES EXPRESSING DURATION OF TIME. 10. The spring and autumn took for themselves those lands between the winter and summer. LESSON XXII. we laugh for joy while it is snowing. they forgot about the world. The time during which an act takes place or a condition exists may be expressed not only by an adverb or accusative of time (91). ili forgesis pri la mondo." 11. CLAUSES EXPRESSING ANTICIPATION. 96. he came while (during-the-time-that) you were away. Antaux ol vi riprocxis lin. 12. 97. while the seasons quarreled. li ne ploris. but also by a clause introduced by "dum": Li venis dum vi forestis. "We will divide the world. I shall depart before you (will) come. he . A clause expressing an action or condition as preceding or anticipating that of the main verb is introduced by "antaux ol": Mi foriros antaux ol vi venos. 13. Dum la sezonoj malpacis. before you reproached him.more they quarreled. and the middle of the world belongs to the summer.

we came to help (in order to help) you. he thanked me. Vi ploris antaux ol vi ridis. Li havos tro multe por fari. Vi malhelpas anstataux helpi min. Ni venis por helpi vin. It is usually translated by the English infinitive in "-ing": Anstataux resti li foriris. "ANTAUX OL". I am ready to go (for going) Wednesday. 8). Mi estas preta por iri merkredon. An infinitive may be substantively used with "anstataux" to express substitution. that is. and with "antaux ol" to express anticipation." Matt. before going away. Mi laboros antaux ol ripozi. Antaux ol foriri. etc.did not weep. Old English "But what went ye out for to see. [Footnote: "Substantive" is the general name for nouns and pronouns. for words which indicate persons. with "por" to express purpose (Cf. li dankis min. "POR". instead of staying he went away. complement of a preposition.. etc. you wept before (sooner than) you laughed. and may be used as subject or object of a verb. you hinder instead of helping me.] [Footnote: The infinitive may be used with . Dio faris la mondon antaux ol doni gxin al la sezonoj. 98. God made the world before giving it to the seasons. xi. I shall work before resting. he will have too much to do. things. THE INFINITIVE WITH "ANSTATAUX".

VOCABULARY Aleksandro = Alexander. pura = clean. greka = . Diogeno = Diogenes. there is a box of cherries there. the substantive expressing that indefinite whole is preceded by the preposition "da". da = of (99). it is thereby made definite: Telero de la maturaj pomoj. I found a large bag of money. after hours of joy there often come hours of sorrow. of: Estas skatolo da cxerizoj tie. barelo = barrel."antaux ol" if its subject is the same as the subject of the main verb. The preposition "da" must not be used if a quantity or portion of a "definite" or "limited" whole is expressed. If the word indicating the whole is limited by "la". nombro = number (quantity). Li havas teleron da viando. demandi = to inquire.] THE EXPRESSION OF A PART OF THE WHOLE. Otherwise the construction explained in (97) must be used. lauxta = loud. he has a plate of meat. 99. to reside. After nouns indicating a quantity or portion of some indefinite whole. koni = to be acquainted with. Sako de la bona kafo. to ask. logxi = to dwell. Mi trovis grandan sakon da mono. a plate of the ripe apples. Post horoj da gxojo ofte venas horoj da malgxojo. a sack of the good coffee. 100. lito = bed. bruo = noise.

Por montri al la mondo ke li ne bezonas multe. Post kelke da tempo ("some time") la regxo Aleksandro Granda venis tien por viziti la urbon. veki = to wake." Antaux ol li foriris de la . suficxa = sufficient. viziti = to visit. des pli felicxa oni estas. clothes. vesto = garment. Diogeno.Greek. "Cxu li logxas en la urbo?" Aleksandro diris. sed anstataux logxi en domo. li ecx dormis en tiu barelo. li portas nur malpurajn cxifonojn. Li opiniis ke ju pli malmulte oni bezonas. enough. Dum li estis tie li auxdis pri Diogeno. anstataux havi domon. kvankam = although." Oni respondis "Diogeno estas sagxa viro." Aleksandro diris "Antaux ol foriri de via lando mi vizitos tiun viron. sed ankaux pro liaj sagxaj diroj. Anstataux porti ("wearing") purajn vestojn. li preferas sidi la tutan tempon en malnova barelo. li logxis en granda malnova barelo. des pli felicxa li estos. cxifono = rag. Antaux multaj jaroj sagxa greka viro. cxar li opinias ke ju pli malmulte li bezonas. some. "Kvankam vi ne konas lin. DIOGENO KAJ ALEKSANDRO GRANDA. mi opinias ke mi volas vidi tian viron. kelkaj = several. kaj ke tial li havas suficxe por esti felicxa. Oni multe parolis pri Diogeno en la urbo. logxis en granda urbo. Anstataux kusxi nokte sur lito aux almenaux sur mola tapisxo. kaj demandis pri li. ne nur cxar li tiel logxis.

In order to show to the inconstant world that one does not need much in order to be happy. He said "The less one needs. many years ago. 9. He stayed day and night in a big barrel. He preferred to wear old rags. They asked "Are you acquaintedwith that wise man?" 8. Aleksandro iris kun nombro da amikoj por viziti Diogenon. Cxu vi venis por fari bruon kaj por veki min?" Aleksandro ridis kaj diris "Mi vidas ke vi havas suficxe por esti felicxa. cxi tiu tre varme brilis sur min. the happier he will be. Diogenes ." SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. people talked to him about Diogenes. Mi vidas ke kvankam vi estas sagxa vi estas tre malricxa. "Cxu tiu viro volas paroli al mi?" demandis Diogeno per lauxta vocxo. Aleksandro Granda respondis "Mi estas la regxo Aleksandro. he did not have even a house or a bed. Tial mi estas preta por foriri. kaj mi volas koni vin. 1. 2. Diogenes was a wise man who dwelt in a Greek city. Cxu vi ne volas kelkajn novajn vestojn anstataux tiuj malpuraj cxifonoj?" Diogeno tuj diris "Antaux ol vi venis kaj staris inter mi kaj la suno. kaj trovis lin en lia barelo. While Alexander the Great was visiting that city. instead of good clean clothes. 5. 4. 7. instead of residing in a house." 6. 3. Soon the king went with a number of his friends to that-man's big barrel. in the middle of the city.urbo.

Verbs may be modified by an adverb and prepositional phrase containing "da": Li trinkis malmulte da akvo." 12. Although several of the men laughed. ADVERBS EXPRESSING A PART OF THE WHOLE. some (an indefinite number of) apples. he drank little (not much) water. Alexander had quietly walked away. and he said angrily "You are standing between me and the sun! Will you not go away at once?" 10. I see that you have enough to be happy. 102. there is much sand in the desert. Tiel malmulte da tempo. After adverbs used to indicate a quantity or portion of some indefinite whole. much (a quantity of) noise. as well as after nouns of such meaning (99). so instead of talking and making a noise we shall leave (go away from) you at once. LESSON XXIII. Estas multe da sablo en la dezerto. Kelke da pomoj. des pli multe da negxo kusxas sur .was asleep. but the noise of the loud voices waked him. 11. Before Diogenes could answer. 101. Ju pli negxas. so little (such a small quantity of) time. Alexander said "We did not come to quarrel with you. the substantive expressing the indefinite whole is preceded by the preposition "da": Multe da bruo.

that quantity. in a city one has much noise. whether following a noun or an adverb. An "adjective" of quantitative meaning. or portion of the whole. 104. It is evident from the above examples that an adverb followed by "da" has a somewhat collective sense. people have many (different) pleasures there. on the other hand.:-Mi donis tiom da mono al vi. Ni auxdis multajn bruojn. [Footnote: A prepositional phrase containing "da". we heard many (different) noises. is sometimes called a "partitive" construction. Tiom de la libroj mi legis. so much. THE DEMONSTRATIVE ADVERB OF QUANTITY. indicating a general sum. without distinction of particulars. I gave that much (that amount of) money to you. that (this) much. mass.la vojoj. etc. usually indicates consideration of the individuals composing the sum or mass named: En urbo oni havas multe da bruo. Oni havas multajn plezurojn tie. the more it snows. there one has much pleasure. the more snow lies on the roads. The demonstrative adverb of quantity related to the demonstrative pronoun "tiu" is "tiom". I bought that much meat. Mi acxetis tiom da viando. that many of the . that many.] 103. Tie oni havas multe da plezuro.

Diogenes was such a wise Greek man that Alexander praised him. asparago = asparagus. frago = strawberry. vilagxo = village. brasiko = cabbage. preceded (directly or in the main sentence) by an adverb or adjective of manner. RESULT CLAUSES. A clause of result (also called a consecutive clause) expresses an action or condition as due to." "I had so much pleasure that I laughed heartily. or quantity: Diogeno estis tiel sagxa greka viro ke Aleksandro lauxdis lin. kremo = cream. pizo = pea. 105. Mi havis tiom da plezuro ke mi tre ridis. or resulting from.books I read. glaso = glass. it is such (that sort of) a village that I like to live there." In Esperanto a result clause is introduced by "ke". . degree. butiko = store. lakto = milk. jxauxdo = Thursday. sabato = Saturday. tiom = that much (104). shop. EN LA BUTIKO. legomo = vegetable. funto = pound. I had so much pleasure that I laughed very much. vendredo = Friday. as "he is so strong that he can do it. kontuzo = bruise. something indicated in the main sentence. VOCABULARY acxeti = to buy. ovo = egg. Gxi estas tia vilagxo ke mi sxatas logxi tie. tumbler.

ke la tablo restis preskaux nuda. La patrino ne acxetis tiel multe je vendredo. Li diris al mi ke li havas . Sur la vojo ni auxdis tiel grandan bruon ke mi lasis la patrinon kaj kuris trans la straton. kvankam oni diras ke gxi estas tre bona legomo. sed tiun legomon mi malsxatas. Mi trovis tie infanon. sed hodiaux estas sabato. Tial juna knabo venis kun ni. Li faris la bruon. mi acxetis kelkajn funtojn da sukero. cxar li falis de la arbo antaux sia domo.Hodiaux matene mi iris kun la patrino al la plej granda butiko en nia vilagxo. Tial sabate oni kutime acxetas suficxe por la mangxoj de sabato kaj dimancxo. kaj tiel grandan sakon da terpomoj. Ili sxajnis tiel bonaj ke sxi acxetis kelkajn maturajn pomojn kaj skatolon da fragoj. cxar dimancxe oni ne povas iri en la butikojn.la filon de nia najbaro. kaj rigardis la fruktojn en bareloj apud la pordo. kaj tre lauxte ploris. Dum oni donis al sxi la fruktojn. Mi vidis brasikon tie. En cxi tiuj oni trovas grandan nombron da fresxaj puraj legomoj. Antaux ol foriri de la butiko la patrino acxetis kelke da ovoj. kaj portis kelke da ili por ni. La patrino acxetis tiel multe da asparago kaj novaj pizoj. Tie sxi acxetis tiom da legomoj kaj fruktoj ke ni tute ne povis porti ilin. kaj sxi volis acxeti legomojn por dimancxo. Meze de la butiko staras multe da bareloj. Tiam ni estis pretaj por foriri el la butiko.

1. 7." Li tuj kaptis la pomon. Father and Mother are very fond of ("multe sxatas") both cabbage and asparagus. but today it is not raining very much. 8. . and we shall carry umbrellas with us. It rained on Thursday and Friday. 5. ready to go toward the village (46).multajn kontuzojn sur la kapo. Although I do not often eat such vegetables. Thus we shall have enough for the meals of Saturday and Sunday. 3. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. Cxar mi bone konas la infanon. The air is warm and pleasant. we heard a loud voice. 11. 13. 4. 12. mi demandis "Cxu vi volas grandan rugxan pomon? Mi havas tian pomon por vi. Mother prefers to remain in the house. because it is raining. I shall go to the village today with my younger sister. While we were standing near the door. Tiam la patrino kaj mi iris al la domo. 10. and we shall need much cream for the strawberries. 2. a box of strawberries and several pounds of sugar. We wish to buy some eggs. 6. I wonder whether we shall see such asparagus and such cabbage on the tables or in the barrels. kaj mi foriris. It seems that we shall buy such a number of vegetables that we cannot carry them. We shall buy some new peas. 9. A child was standing in the street. We shall also buy enough milk for several glasses of milk. vegetables and fruit for Mother.

108. LESSON XXIV. A participle is a "verbal adjective". and he did not wish to remain in his bed. 15. 106. 24). which. who. I suppose that a noise on the street waked him. The interrogative pronoun "kiu" has a possessive or genitive form "kies". the sentence containing it does not need the interrogative adverb "cxu" (30): Kiu vokas vin? Who calls you? Kiun vi vokas? Whom do you call? Kiuj el vi vokis nin? Which (ones) of you called us? Kiujn li helpis? Whom (which ones) did he help? Kiun tagon vi venos? What day will you come? Kiujn legomojn vi preferas? What vegetables do you prefer? Mi miras kiun libron vi acxetis? I wonder which book you bought? 107. THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN. The participle from a transitive verb (22) may . Since the use of this pronoun indicates a question." It agrees like other adjectives with the word modified (19. He wished to go with his mother to visit some friends.and crying. The interrogative pronoun (and pronominal adjective) is "kiu". whose: En kies domo vi logxas? In whose house do you reside? Kies amikojn vi vizitis? Whose friends did you visit? THE PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE. 14. as in "a "crying" child.

" as "vidanta". I talked to the men (who were) going toward the village. Kiu estas la virino acxetanta ovojn? Who is the woman buying eggs? Mi parolis al la viroj irantaj vilagxon. as "La birdoj flugas". and an aoristic Esperanto tense may often be translated by an English compound tense. Mi vidas la falantajn foliojn. I see the falling leaves. still in progress. or yet begun. expressing what the word modified "is doing". "iranta".take a direct object. and a participle expressing motion may be followed by an accusative indicating direction of motion (46). I am asking. 109. The crying child wishes to sleep. the birds are flying. "La viro estas acxetanta". etc. in contrast to the "simple" or "aoristic" tenses.] Compound tenses occur less often in Esperanto than in English. going: La ploranta infano volas dormi. the man is buying. When used to . without specifying whether it is finished. [Footnote: An aoristic tense consists of but one word (ending in "-as". COMPOUND TENSES. as "Mi estas demandanta". seeing.) and expresses an act or state as a whole. The present active participle. "-os". A participle may be used predicatively with a form of "esti". ends in "-anta. Such combinations are called "compound tenses".

"have". dormejo. "shall". gxi) estas vidanta. to sleep). li (sxi. dormitory (from "dormi". The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as follows: mi estas vidanta.). are formed by inserting the suffix "-ej-" before the noun-ending: cxevalejo. . herbejo. vi estas vidantaj. lodging-place. 111. vi estas vidanta. THE SUFFIX "-EJ-". it) is seeing. It differs from the aoristic present by expressing an action as definitely in progress. we are seeing. you (plural) are seeing. dwelling (from "logxi". meadow (from "herbo". stable (from "cxevalo". logxejo. ili estas vidantaj. THE PROGRESSIVE PRESENT TENSE. they are seeing. "do". the verb "esti" is called the "auxiliary verb". "will". or where the object indicated by the root may be found. at the moment of speaking. ni estas vidantaj. or a condition as continuously existing. The compound tense formed by using the present active participle with the present tense of "esti" is called the "progressive present tense". "would". grass). No other verb is ever used as an auxiliary (a simpler method than in English. he (she. 110. etc.form a compound tense. Words expressing the place where the action indicated by the root occurs. horse). I am seeing. you are seeing. which uses "be".

printing-shop. lerni = to learn. This suffix is equivalent to the "-ei" in German "Baeckerei". salono = parlor. printing-office. persono = person.. Personoj vizitantaj nin kutime sidas en cxi tiu cxambro. malgranda tablo. [Footnote: Similar formations are made in English with the suffix "-y". kaj kiu domo estas la plej agrabla logxejo. sed malpli granda. Alia cxambro en la domo estas tre luma kaj agrabla. "Druckerei". Gxia salono estas granda. kutimo = custom. bakery. kies = whose (107). kun belaj puraj kurtenoj kovrantaj la fenestrojn. kanapo = sofa. kaj dum ni estas sidantaj tie ni nur parolas. Oni ofte miras kies domo en nia vilagxo estas plej bela. "bindery". sed gxi estas nova kaj ni multe sxatas gxin. kurteno = curtain. leciono = lesson. baki = to bake. as "bakery". Cxi tie estas kelkaj segxoj. kaj longa kanapo. familio = family. pastry-shop. etc. dika = thick. "imprimerie". "grocery". kaj mola dika tapisxo kovranta la plankon. kiu = who (106). and to the "-ie" in French "patisserie". Nia domo ne estas tre granda. to lodge). pano = bread. kuiri = to cook. EN NIA DOMO. another.to dwell. facila = easy. anstataux skribi aux legi. Cxi tie staras . etc. etc.] VOCABULARY alia = other.

I wonder whose voice that is. I can not easily see her. kaj ni multe ridas. I think that it is the voice of a friend . Ofte sxi iras ankaux al aliaj butikoj. kaj en tiu cxambro oni mangxas. kaj ili tute ne estas facilaj. kun miaj fratoj kaj fratinoj. cxar la patro rakontas interesajn rakontojn al ni. kaj suficxe da kremo kaj lakto. Dum la infanoj estas lernantaj siajn lecionojn tie. cxar sxi ne havas servistinon. kaj demandas pri tiuj rakontoj. 3. Sxi volas kuiri tre bonan mangxon. However. Jxauxdon sxi acxetis kelke da novaj pizoj. 1.tablo suficxe granda por nia tuta familio. La lernejo estas malnova kaj malgranda. sed oni estas nun konstruanta novan pli grandan lernejon apud nia domo. but I hear her voice. Hodiaux sxi estas acxetanta brasikon kaj sakon da terpomoj. por la mangxoj de la tago. Je tre frua horo matene mi iras al la lernejo. Ofte ni restas tie longan tempon post la mangxo. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 4. kaj da asparago. Tamen mi havas multe da lecionoj por lerni. Who is the woman sitting on the sofa in the parlor? 2. la patrino kutime iras al la bakejon. kaj tiel bone amuzas nin ke mi preskaux forgesas pri miaj lecionoj. Nur sabate kaj dimancxe ni ne iras tien. por acxeti suficxe da pano. Vendredon sxi acxetis kelkajn funtojn da sukero. skatolon da fragoj. tamen sxi havas tro multe por fari en la kuirejo.

Soon they will be able to bake bread. 12. The girls walking toward the school are friends of my sister's. My sister is sitting on the sofa in another room. and learning her lessons. THE INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVE. 13. 10. and is visiting a neighbor of ours ("najbaron nian") in this city. 112. In that school they learn to cook. 19. On account of the cold weather. I think such a custom is very good. 17. and so (78) that room is very light and pleasant. Many persons can not cook well enough ("suficxe bone"). 14. The interrogative adjective related to the . although she does not see me. but the other books on the table near her are hers. The men and boys are keeping their hands in their pockets while they walk. 7. 9. She is a friend of our whole family. people are wearing thick clothes. and the men and women walking on the muddy streets. I am well acquainted with her. because the curtains in front of the windows are not too thick. 8. 18. 15. 16. Whose book is she reading? 11. Soon she will go to school. That thick book is mine. 6. She also likes to look at the falling snow. LESSON XXV. 5. and even to cook a whole meal. She prefers to sit in the sewing-room (111) to read or write (98).of Mother's. Now I can see her.

vi estis vidanta. ili estis vidantaj. gxi) estis vidanta. li (sxi. The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as follows: mi estos vidanta. I was seeing. The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as follows: mi estis vidanta. 114. we were seeing. and is called the "progressive future" tense. you will be seeing. vi estos vidanta. I shall be seeing. gxi) estos . and is called the "imperfect tense". THE PROGRESSIVE FUTURE TENSE. what sort of: Kiajn vestojn li portis? What sort of clothes did he wear? Kian panon vi preferas? What kind of bread do you prefer? Mi miras kia persono li estas. it) was seeing. The compound tense formed by using the present active participle with the future tense of "esti" represents an act or condition as in progress--or a condition as existing continuously--at a future time. they were seeing. what kind of. you were seeing. you were seeing.interrogative pronoun "kiu". ni estis vidantaj. I wonder what sort of a person he is. but not perfected. is "kia". vi estis vidantaj. Kia vetero estas? What sort of weather is it? Kia plezuro! What a pleasure! THE IMPERFECT TENSE. 113. he (she. li (sxi. The compound tense formed by using the present active participle with the past tense of "esti" represents an act or condition as in progress in past time.

") Bonan nokton! Good night! (I wish you a "good night. ADJECTIVE.vidanta. nouns.") WORD FORMATION. he (she. you will be seeing. brili brilo brila brile to shine shine.") Multajn salutojn al via patro! (I send) many greetings to your father! Dankon! Thanks! (I give to you "thanks. (Each root will hereafter be quoted but once in the vocabularies. may be formed from them by use of the general endings for verbs. exclamation may be regarded as the direct object of a verb which is not expressed. these words are put in the accusative Bonan matenon! Good morning! (I wish you "good morning. SALUTATIONS AND EXCLAMATIONS. ni estos vidantaj. and often three or four. brilliance shining. with a hyphen separating it from the ending with which it appears first in the reading lesson. we shall be seeing. vi estos vidantaj. it) will be seeing.) Following are examples of word formation from roots already familiar: VERB. they will be seeing. ADVERB. 116. ili estos vidantaj. NOUN. or with which it is most frequently used. brilliant brilliantly . The majority of roots have such a meaning that at least two kinds of words.") Cxielon! Heavens! (I invoke the "heavens. adjectives and adverbs.

all entirely "KONI" AND "SCII". "cxu". glad gladly kontuzi kontuzo to bruise bruise. Spanish "conocer". . Mi ne scias cxu li konas ilin. "kiu". "Koni" always has a direct object. French "connaitre". blossom floral florally gxoji gxojo gxoja gxoje to rejoice joy. whole. etc. lingv-o = language. "Scii" means "to know" in the sense of "to be aware. French "savoir". which means "to know" in the sense of "to be acquainted with" is used in speaking of persons. kia = what kind of (112). 117." "to have knowledge. The verb "koni". [Footnote: "Koni" is equivalent to German "koennen". Spanish "saber". gladness joyful. Mi bone konas Bostonon. It is never followed by "ke". I am well acquainted with Boston. contusion tuto tuta tute whole entire. places. buked-o = bouquet. languages. VOCABULARY av-o = grandfather. or any other interrogative word." It is not used in speaking of persons.flori floro flora flore to bloom flower.] Cxu vi konas tiun personon? Do you know that person? Mi scias ke li estas nia najbaro. I know that he is our neighbor. while "scii" is equivalent to German "wissen". I do not know whether he knows them.

german-a = German. kara avino!" Tuj sxi demandis "Kiu estas tie? Kies vocxon mi auxdas?" Mi respondis "Estas via nepo. Mi iris en la salonon kaj donis al la avino bukedon da floroj. Sxi estis sidanta sur la kanapo. "Ni estas lernantaj la germanan lingvon. LA NEPO VIZITAS LA AVINON. "kaj ju pli longe . kia plezuro! Multan dankon al sxi pro la bela bukedo. kaj ankaux al vi. Antaux ol frapi sur la pordo mi vokis sxin kaj diris "Bonan matenon. cxar mi zorge studis ilin. to knock. geometri-o = geometry. kun siaj plej bonaj salutoj. hejm-o = home. nep-o = grandson. "La patrino donas cxi tiujn al vi. paper-o = paper. nu! Well! frap-i = to strike. kaj skribanta per plumo sur granda papero. Sxia hejmo estas apud la granda nova bakejo." mi diris. ferm-i = to close. Mi vidis sxin tra la fenestro. kiajn lecionojn vi havis hodiaux en la lernejo?" Mi respondis ke mi bone konis la lecionojn. La avino respondis "Nu. Hieraux matene mi vizitis la avinon. stud-i = to study. cxar vi portis gxin cxi tien por mi!" Dum sxi estis metanta la florojn en glason da akvo la avino diris "Nu. cxar la kurtenoj kovrantaj gxin estas tre maldikaj.ekzamen-o = examination. sci-i = to know (117). Cxu vi ne konas mian vocxon?" Antaux ol sxi povis veni al la pordo mi estis malfermanta gxin. salut-i = to greet." mi diris.

ni studas gxin. mi opiniis ke estas la horo por foriri. 5. and in which will the examination be the longer? 7. or the German language? 6. We shall go into the . des pli multe mi gxin sxatas." Mi rakontis ankaux pri la lecionoj de geometrio. kaj aliaj lecionoj." mi diris. kvankam gxi estas tre malfacila. Which of these is usually more difficult. sed diris ke la ekzamenoj estos baldaux komencantaj. 8. We were talking yesterday about the examinations in our school. We wish to know this language thoroughly. and these boys came home to study with me. 9. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. What sort of noise do I hear outside the door? 2. we brought our German books. 4. diris "Bonan tagon!" kaj tiam foriris. Good morning! Did you come to study geometry. preskaux la tutan semajnon. Well. Dum mi estis foriranta. la avino diris "Multajn salutojn al la tuta familio!" Mi dankis sxin. "Je tiu tempo." La avino demandis kun intereso "Cxu la demandoj de la ekzamenoj estos malfacilaj?" Mi respondis "Mi ne scias. I shall go to the door to open it and to greet my friends. because we prefer to study these. 1. sed mi timas ke ni estos tre lacaj post tiom da laboro. "mi estos skribanta la respondojn al la ekzamenoj. Are some of my friends knocking? 3." Post kelke da aliaj demandoj kaj respondoj.

THE INTERROGATIVE ADVERB OF PLACE. The interrogative adverb of place. He will wonder where his grandson is. I shall close this other door. They were carrying many flowers. and cooking meat. in (at) what place. 11. . If the verb in the sentence expresses motion toward the place indicated by "kie". shall we begin to study? Have you enough paper. 16. and gave a beautiful bouquet to my grandmother. related to the interrogative pronoun "kiu" is "kie". 12. 118. We shall be hearing the voices of so many persons that I know that we can not study. Well. I do not know where (whither) he ran. for (83) some friends of my grandmother are in the parlor. and we can not study very well while they are talking. whither (where): Kie li estis kaj kien oni forpelis lin? Where was he and whither did they drive him (away)? Li miros kie lia nepo estas. Her friend's granddaughter is a friend of my youngest sister. the ending "-n" is added. forming "kien". She said "Many thanks for (86) the sweet violets! In whose garden did they bloom?" 13. LESSON XXVI. 10. where. 14. because they are baking bread in the kitchen. We can hear their voices here. Mi ne scias kien li kuris. and have you a good pen? 15.writing-room (111).

One forgets the departed persons (the persons who have gone away). not behind. etc. ends in "-inta". 121. An adverb expressing place or direction is given the ending "-n" when used with a verb expressing motion toward that place or direction (69. 118. The past active participle. ne malantauxe. Li marsxis antauxe. gone. previously he studied geometry. Kiu estas la viro salutinta nin? Who is the man having greeted (who greeted) us? Oni forgesas la foririntajn personojn. ADVERBS EXPRESSING DIRECTION OF MOTION. "irinta". Adverbs may be derived from prepositions whose sense permits. Dume la viroj staris cxirkauxe. 120. he walked in front. they came together and sat near by.THE PAST ACTIVE PARTICIPLE. ADVERB DERIVATION FROM PREPOSITIONS. The fallen leaves are brown. (for the characteristics of a participle see 108) expressing what the word modified "did" or "has done". having gone: La falintaj folioj estas brunaj.): . Ili venis kune kaj sidis apude. as "vidinta". afterwards he studied German. 119. by use of the adverb ending "-e": Antauxe li studis la geometrion. Poste li studis la germanan. having seen. meanwhile the men stood roundabout.

domego.). to sob. good). the bouquet fell underneath. sekv-i = to follow. sercx-i = to hunt for. The suffix "-eg-" may be added to a root to augment or intensify its meaning. to . polv-o = dust. hogshead (from "barelo". barrel). gut-o = drop (of water. we shall advance (go forward). the bouquet fell out and underneath. "La bukedo subenfalis". [Footnote: The adverb may precede the verb and be united with it by simple juxtaposition. La bukedo falis eksteren kaj suben. not back. to search. "Ni antauxeniros". treege. exceedingly (from "tre".Cxu li rajdis norden aux suden? Did he ride north or south(ward)? Ni kuris antauxen. we ran forward. he was walking home (homeward). badly. VOCABULARY aer-o = air. very). 122. wickedly. mansion (from "domo". silent-a = still. to wail (from "plori". excellent (from "bona". malbonege. kie = where (118). if the resulting word is not too long: "Li hejmeniris". house). etc. danc-i = to dance. pez-a = heavy. thus forming an "augmentative" of the root: barelego. ploregi. ne malantauxen. bonega. wretchedly (from "malbone". silent. okaz-i = to happen.] THE SUFFIX "-EG-". he went home (he "home-went"). Li estis marsxanta hejmen. poorly). to weep). fulm-o = lightning.

kaj ni sciis ke la pluvego estas venanta. kaj treege gxin timis. Nu. La aero sxajnis peza. tondr-o = thunder. Tiam forte blovanta vento frapegis la arbojn. LA PLUVEGO. kaj kuris antauxen. kaj ju pli forte gxi blovis. subit-a = sudden. sed je tiu tempo ni estis preskaux sub la tegmento de nia domo. okul-o = eye. Tondris tiom kaj tiel lauxtege ke la bruo sxajnis frapi kontraux niajn kapojn. tegment-o = roof. Apude mi vidis . Tiam komencis subite pluvegi. Falis tiam kelkaj grandaj gutoj da pluvo. Preskaux tuj la tondro sekvis gxin. por iri hejmen antaux ol falos multe da pluvo. kaj komencis fortege skui la brancxojn. Ni malfermis niajn ombrelojn. Dume la vento pli kaj pli blovegis. kun multege da bruo. Multege da polvo kaj malgrandaj pecoj da papero dancis kaj flugis cxirkauxen en la aero. La sekvintan tagon mi promenis tre frue. kaj estis tute silenta kelkan tempon. La fulmo tiel ofte brilis ke ni fermis la okulojn pro gxi.occur. des pli peze la gutoj da pluvo falis teren. subite multaj nuboj kovris la cxielon. pec-o = piece. kaj ankaux cxielen. kaj vidis ke la pordego al la gxardeno de mia avo estas kusxanta sur la tero. Mi opinias ke mi malofte antauxe vidis tian pluvegon. kia pluvego okazis hieraux vespere! Post kvieta varmega mateno.

ventoflagon falintan de la tegmento de tiu granda cxevalejo. 6. sed mi opinias ke ili flugis suden al la arboj en tiu granda kampo trans la rivero. and the wind caught them. tial mi opinias ke ili forflugis antaux ol la ventoj forrompis de la arbo ilian malgrandan hejmon. We did not know whether we had enough time to run even to Grandfather's house before it would rain. So we did not see the clouds in (on) the sky. However. we forgot about examinations and began to wonder where to go. Mi ne scias kien ili flugis. Velkintaj floroj kusxis sur la tero cxirkaux mi. While we were walking home (121) from school yesterday. 10. and we saw the brilliant lightning in . it rained very suddenly. Well. 8. What a storm it was! 3. 4. and they seemed to dance around in the air. Many papers fell out of our books. 2. cxar la grandega forto de la vento forrompis ecx cxi tiujn. 9. The wind chased them away from us. 1. kaj inter ili estis brancxoj falintaj de la arboj. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. We were talking about the lessons in geometry. sed kie estis la birdoj! Mi sercxis la junajn birdojn sed tute ne povis trovi ilin. Sur malgranda brancxo restis nesto. and were looking at these books about the German language. and then we ran forward. we easily caught and gathered them. 7. 5. Suddenly it thundered very loudly.

16. 15. We hastened across the street. The interrogative temporal adverb. at what time? Kiam li sercxos min? When will he look for me? Oni miras kiam li venos. when. It differs from the aoristic past tense (35) and from the imperfect (113) by expressing an act or condition as definitely completed or . 17.the sky. We rested some time here. We almost closed our eyes for the lightning. 14. before going home. The air was heavy and still then. they wonder when he is coming (will come). Big drops of rain fell heavily and struck the dust violently. 11. LESSON XXVII. The compound tense formed by using the past active participle with the present tense of "esti" is called the "perfect tense". The rain was dropping from the roof. 124. is "kiam". 13. and ran faster and faster. related to the interrogative pronoun "kiu". THE INTERROGATIVE TEMPORAL ADVERB 123. and knocked on the door. but we ran through it. Kiam falis tiuj gutoj da pluvo? When did those drops of rain fall? THE PERFECT TENSE. We were exhausted (122) and our clothes were exceedingly wet before we were in the house. 12. and the storm immediately followed the few drops of rain.

. he stood silently at the gate. may be formed by the use of the suffix "-ar-". he lives (dwells) at my grandfather's. "are". they are at the school. you have seen (you are having-seen). they have seen (they are having-seen). Ili estas cxe la lernejo. with. Li vizitos cxe ni morgaux. object or action is expressed by the use of the preposition "cxe". in a group. flock". ili estas vidintaj. at the house of. he (she. Words expressing a collection. ni estas vidintaj. THE SUFFIX "-AR-". This suffix may itself be used as a root to form "aro". as "forest" (collection of trees). at. THE PREPOSITION "CXE". he will stay with (at the house of) friends..perfected. group or assemblage of similar persons or things. "group. vi estas vidintaj. 126. The conjugation of "vidi" in the perfect tense is as follows: mi estas vidinta.: Li staris silente cxe la pordego. we have seen (we are having-seen). "army" (assemblage of soldiers). I have seen (I am havingseen). in the region or land of. vi estas vidinta. among. gxi) estas vidinta. you have seen (you are having-seen). etc. by throngs. 125. he will visit at-our-house tomorrow. etc.. etc. The general situation of a person. etc. Li logxas cxe mia avo. Li restos cxe amikoj. it) has seen (is having-seen). li (sxi.

Proper nouns. "TEMPO" AND "FOJO". herd of horses (from cxevalo. collection of books. The word "fojo". or if they are first (Christian) names of persons.. time. "Bostono". kaj la lastan fojon li restis longan tempon. cities. book).Words formed with the suffix "-ar-" are called collectives: arbaro. that is. I have not much time. several times it thundered loudly. forest (from arbo. Multe da fojoj ni fermis la okulojn pro la fulmo. 128. countries. is "tempo". Li venis multajn fojojn. countries. etc. many times we closed our eyes on account of the lightning. kamparo. . are given Esperanto spelling if they are names of continents. in repetition or series: Mi ne havas multe da tempo. country (from kampo. Boston. Asia. refers to the performance or occurrence of an act or event. THE ORTHOGRAPHY OF PROPER NOUNS. nouns which are names of persons. 127. field). cxevalaro. horse). friend). Kelkajn fojojn lauxte tondris. library (from libro. or suitability (as "the proper time"). Scotland. occasion. he came many times. circle of friends (from amiko. tree). libraro. "Skotlando". large or very wellknown cities. The general word for "time" in the sense of duration. as "Azio". and the last time he remained a long time. amikaro.

pacienc-o = patience. send-i = to send. fin-o = end. supr-e = above. rekt-a = direct."Johano". Oni rakontas la sekvantan interesan rakonton pri Roberto Bruce. kiam = when (123). plafon-o = ceiling. Por povi rigardi plej facile. rimark-i = to notice. sed . straight. venk-i = to conquer. kaj ankaux por sin kasxi. ROBERTO BRUCE KAJ LA ARANEO. "Mario". instance (127). Skotland-o = Scotland. etc. "Roberto Bruce" ("Brus"). Kvankam la cxevalejo estis granda gxi estis malnova. Vernon" ("Mauxnt Vernon"). Okazis ke li estis rigardanta la soldataron de siaj malamikoj. The pronunciation may be indicated in parentheses. as "Mt. de la fenestro de granda cxevalejo. sukces-i = to succeed. John. cxe = at (125). soldat-o = soldier. Mary. Surnames and names of places which are small or not well known are more often quoted in the national spelling. li forsendis siajn soldatojn kaj restis la tutan tagon sub tiu tegmento. ending. ramp-i = to crawl. regxo antaux multaj jaroj en Skotlando. Azi-o = Asia. foj-o = time. Je la fino de la tago li subite rimarkis araneon sur la muro apud si. "Martinique" ("Martinik'"). pied-o = foot. VOCABULARY arane-o = spider. La araneo estis rampanta supren. kaj li opiniis ke la malamikoj ne sercxos lin tie.

sed post ne longe gxi komencis rampi alian fojon. Post mallonga tempo li bone sukcesis. Multajn fojojn gxi supren rampis. Alian fojon gxi falis teren. Mi estas perdinta multe da soldatoj. mi estos pacienca.baldaux gxi falis en la polvon cxe liaj piedoj. Kun granda surprizo li rimarkis ke gxi estas komencanta supren rampi. cxar oni ne scias kiam li fine sukcesos. Mi estas ofte malsukcesinta. kaj la malamikoj estas venkintaj multajn fojojn. cxar ili havas multe pli grandan nombron da soldatoj. kaj tute venkis la malamikoj en granda venko cxe Bannockburn (Banokb'rn). "Kia pacienco!" diris la regxo al si. tamen." La sekvintan tagon. kaj tiom da fojoj gxi falis malsupren. La regxo malfermis la busxon pro surprizo. kaj diris al si "Kiam antauxe mi vidis tiom da pacienco! Mi opinias ke la fina sukceso de tiu malgranda araneo donas al mi bonegan lecionon. Tamen. Tuj la falinta araneo komencis alian fojon supren rampi. gxi sukcese rampis gxis la plafono. Fine. sed malpli ofte ol tiu araneo sur la muro. la regxo Roberto Bruce komencis treege labori kontraux siaj malamikoj. "Mi ne sciis ke la araneo havas tiel multe da pacienco! Sed kien gxi nun estas falinta?" Li rigardis cxirkauxen kaj fine ("finally") li vidis la falintan araneon. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. .

and rode away. 5. I shall finally succeed against them. "Where does it wish to go?" said the king to himself. 6." 7. 13. He was sitting in a large stable. LESSON XXVIII. to hide (himself). and crawled up to the ceiling. 2. 8. and broke away many small branches. . 12. 11. 3. and Robert Bruce was much afraid that they would find him. The king said that he had learned a lesson from the patient spider. He said "Although the enemy have conquered many times. Although the enemies of Robert Bruce conquered him many times. he finally conquered them in Scotland. "What patience it shows! It has crawled up and fallen down a great many times. 9. and a rainstorm occurred. Soon it happened that the wind blew violently. A group of soldiers ran right ("rekte") toward the stable. Finally however the spider succeeded. But they merely stole the horses there. because they have a larger number of soldiers. The spider fell suddenly into the dust and lay at the king's feet. and also in order to (98) look directly from its roof (at) the soldiery (126) of the enemy. The blast shook the foliage (126) on the trees. because he was patient and very courageous." 10.1. but soon began to crawl up. 4. At the end of the day he noticed a spider crawling up (ward) on the wall.

THE INFINITIVE AS SUBJECT. Promeni estas agrable. 129.THE INTERROGATIVE ADVERB OF MOTIVE OR REASON. to go walking is pleasant. to talk to oneself is silly. I will ask why he noticed it. [Footnote: Cf. and the use of the infinitive after the prepositions "por". why. 130. Cxu estas facile rigardi la plafonon? Is it easy to look at the ceiling? Estas bone sin helpi. for what reason: Kial la araneo supren rampis? why did the spider crawl up? Mi demandos kial li rimarkis gxin. it is well to help oneself. equivalent to the object of a verb. 131. The infinitive may be used as the subject of a verb.] Any modifier of the infinitive is necessarily adverbial. the complementary infinitive (28). PRESENT ACTION WITH PAST INCEPTION. The interrogative adverb of motive or reason related to the interrogative pronoun "kiu" is "kial". to go walking is a great pleasure. "anstataux". wherefore. Paroli al si estas malsagxe. A present act or state which began in the . An indefinite personal object (or pronominal complement of a preposition) after an infinitive used as subject is expressed by the reflexive pronoun "si": Promeni estas granda plezuro. "antaux ol" (98).

sagxulo. an old man (from "maljuna". Ili estas amikoj de tiu tago. French "je suis ici depuis deux ans". malricxulino. "cred-ul-ous". etc. a youth. German "er ist schon lange hier". young). De Marto mi studas tiun lingvon. "fig-ul-us". wise). old). we have been living (we are living) here since some months ago. a wise man (from "saga". a gatherer. etc. Ni logxas tie de antaux kelkaj monatoj. 132. a beauty. character or quality in the root: junulo. . a sage. maljunulo.] "LOGXI" AND "VIVI".past is expressed by the present tense (instead of by the past as in English): Mi estas cxi tie de lundo.] THE SUFFIX "-UL-". a poor woman (from "malricxa". poor). a belle (from "bela". since March I have been (I am) studying that language. they have been (they are) friends from that day. [Footnote: Cf. and "leg-ul-us". beautiful). [Footnote: Cf. and the Latin nouns "fam-ul-us". I have been (I am) here since Monday. he has already been here a long time. a potter. the English adjectives "quer-ulous". a servant.. The suffix "-ul-" is used to form nouns indicating a person characterized by or possessing the distinguishing trait. I have been here two years. "garr-ul-ous". belulino. a young man (from "juna".

okulhar-o = eyelash. har-o = hair. Li vivis longan tempon. VOCABULARY afabl-a = amiable. which means "to live" in the sense of "to be alive": Li logxas apude. he lives near by. okulvitr-oj = spectacles. brov-o = eyebrow. balanc-i = to balance. afer-o = thing. vang-o = cheek. viv-i = to live (133). must not be confused with "vivi". The verb "logxi". matter. kaj li ofte parolas al mi pri la bataloj kaj venkoj de tiu tempo. he lived a long time. Sidi kviete sur la verando kaj rakonti tiajn rakontojn al la nepo sxajne donas al li multe da plezuro. li antauxe logxis en Skotlando. affable. Li estas maljunulo kun blankaj haroj kaj blanka barbo. kaj parolas pri tiaj aferoj gxis malfrua horo de . batal-o = battle. Vivi felicxe estas pli bone ol logxi ricxe. mejl-o = mile. to lodge". "to reside. Mia avo estas tre afabla persono. affair. kaj la brovoj super ili estas ecx pli blankaj ol liaj haroj. Antaux multaj jaroj li estis soldato. veranda. Kvankam li logxas en nia vilagxo de antaux kelkaj jaroj. PRI LA AVO KAJ LA AVINO. barb-o = beard. to dwell. pens-i = to think. to live happily is better than to live (lodge) richly. verand-o = porch. to ponder.133. to nod. Multajn fojojn je la fino de la tago li sidas tie. Li havas bluajn okulojn. kial = why (129). bukl-o = curl (of hair).

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. cxar tiaj demandoj montras ke mi ankaux pensas pri ili. Li gxojas tial ke mi demandas pri aferoj okazintaj ("things that have happened"). kaj sxi bezonas ripozon post malmulte da laboro. kun belaj bukloj da tute blankaj haroj. Mia avino estas malgranda.la vespero. kaj vidi sxiajn rugxajn vangojn. sed mi ne bone scias pri la tuta afero. Sxi havas belajn brunajn okulojn. kaj mi miras cxu aliaj personoj scias pli bone." al miaj demandoj "Kiam. Li malofte respondas "Mi ne scias. kaj tia penso donas malgxojon al ni." Kelkajn fojojn li diras "Mi havas tiun opinion. liaj opinioj estas treege interesaj. cxar ni treege amas la afablan paciencan avinon. mi kutime demandas "Cxu oni sukcesis en tiu batalo?" Tuj li balancas la kapon kaj komencas pacience rakonti pri la venkoj kaj malvenkoj ("defeats"). De antaux kelkaj jaroj sxi portas okulvitrojn por legi aux skribi aux kudri." Cxar li estas multe studinta kaj pensinta. Komence. Sidi cxe liaj piedoj kaj auxdi liajn rakontojn estas tre interese al mi." kaj "Kial. dum mi estas cxe li. Promeno de ecx mejlo estas tro longa nun por la avino. Oni diras ke antaux multaj jaroj sxi estis belulino. . Oni diras ke sxi ne vivos tre longan tempon. Ecx nun estas plezure rigardi sxin. kun longaj nigraj okulharoj.

He prefers to sit quietly in the house or on the veranda. and they say that he will not live much longer. and also to look directly at him while he is telling them. 9. he does not know (117) a great many of the neighbors. He is very amiable. 13.1. Will you look-for them for me?" I nodded (the head) and soon found the spectacles. 3. I have lost my spectacles. my dear (132). LESSON XXIX. He is not very strong. Today she said to me "Good morning. or of the other persons living (133) near. Our grandfather is an old man. and is very patient. and soft white curls. 12. and I am very glad that (83) such battles do not happen now. 5. 4. red cheeks. Such things are wicked I think. 2. nearly all day long (the whole day). 11. . and can tell exceedingly interesting stories. and think. 8. Grandfather has a long white beard and much white hair. She speaks slowly. 6. about the victories and defeats which happened (119) many years ago. 10. Although he has lived with (125) us since February (131). with a sweet voice. Grandmother has blue eyes. The mile between his house and ours now seems long to him. 7. It is very interesting to hear his stories. He tells such stories with great pleasure. and can not take ("fari") long walks.

you had seen (you were having-seen). ili estis vidintaj. 134. it) had seen (was having-seen). ni estis vidintaj. is "kiel". 136. they had seen (they were having-seen). he (she. vi estis vidintaj. you had seen (you were having-seen). CARDINAL NUMERALS. The interrogative adverb of manner or degree.THE INTERROGATIVE ADVERB OF MANNER AND DEGREE. to what degree: Kiel oni vivas en tia aero? How do people live in such air? Kiel afabla sxi estas! How amiable she is! Mi miras kiel la batalo okazis. and is called the "pluperfect tense". Kiel longe li pensis pri gxi? How long did he think about it? THE PLUPERFECT TENSE. in what way. how. I wonder how the battle happened. Cardinals are numeral adjectives which answer the question "How many?" The . li (sxi. The compound tense formed by combining the past active participle with the past tense of "esti" represents an act or condition as having been completed at some time in the past. we had seen (we were having-seen). gxi) estis vidinta. The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as follows: mi estis vidinta. 135. related to the interrogative pronoun "kiu". I had seen (I was havingseen). vi estis vidinta.

cardinals from one to twelve are as follows: unu = one. I took some and left the others. ses = six. Ok el tiuj libroj estas la miaj. A substantive in the accusative case may be used. naux = nine. tri = three. ok = eight. dek unu = eleven. That is. of those hats I like only one. With the exception of "unu". others: Unuj marsxis. 138. du = two. six of the boys came. not only to express measure . kvin = five."] THE ACCUSATIVE OF MEASURE. but not the one on the table". dek du = twelve. kvar = four. which should be translated "Mi sercxas libron. "Unuj" may be used to mean "some" in contrast to "aliaj". [Footnote: The cardinal "unu" must not be used in the sense of the English pronominal "one. sep = seven. The preposition "el" is used after numeral adjectives expressing a number "out of" some larger number or quantity: Ses el la knaboj venis. instead of a prepositional phrase or an adverb. none of the cardinals may receive the plural ending "-j" or the accusative ending "-n". 139. 137." as in "I am searching for a book. some walked. aliaj kuris. eight of those books are mine. dek = ten. Mi prenis unujn kaj lasis la aliajn. they are invariable in form. others ran. El tiuj cxapeloj mi sxatas nur unu. sed ne tiun sur la tablo.

he walked eleven miles. Li sxatas marsxi. kaj kiel bluajn okulojn sxi havas.: Li marsxis dek unu mejlojn. La tablo pezas dek du funtojn. Mia patro estas alta. kaj tiam mi estis tre multe marsxanta. but also to express measure of weight. Sxi havas dolcxan vocxon. price. the park is three miles wide and four miles long. li tamen havas suficxe da mono por vivi kontente kaj felicxe. Ni estas ses personoj kaj ni logxas en cxi tiu domo de antaux preskaux kvar jaroj. sub nigraj okulharoj kaj nigraj brovoj! Sxiaj haroj estas nigraj kaj buklaj. etc. kun grizaj haroj kaj griza barbo. length. Unu fojon mi demandis "Kiel vi povas marsxi tiel multe?" Li respondis "Dum mi estis junulo mi estis soldato. Kvankam li ne estas ricxulo. kaj estas plezuro auxdi sxiajn kantojn. La parko estas largxa tri mejlojn. ni estis logxintaj tri jarojn en kvieta vilagxo en la kamparo. kaj longa kvar mejlojn." La patrino estas malpli alta ol mi. kaj ofte li estas marsxinta kvin aux ses mejlojn por unu promeno. kaj sxiaj vangoj estas rugxaj.(duration) of time (91). Mi rakontos al vi kian familion ni havas. NIA FAMILIO. Antaux ol veni cxi tien al la urbo. Por legi aux skribi sxi kutime portas . Tial mi ne forgesas la plezurojn de longaj promenoj. the table weighs (is heavy) twelve pounds.

] Unu el la fratoj havas ok jarojn. Mi havis dek jarojn tiam. Ili lernis siajn lecionojn en la lernejo tiel bone ke ses fojojn en unu monato oni lauxdis ilin. Mi ofte miras kial sxi preferas sidi sur la verando. kaj mi demandas al sxi "Cxu vi estas tro laca por marsxi?" Sxi kutime balancas la kapon kaj diras "Jes. he is seven years old (he has seven years). in expressing age: Li havas sep jarojn. Esperanto commonly uses the verb "to have" rather than the verb "to be". mi estas tro laca. rajdi. la alia havas dek du jarojn. dum la aliaj promenas. Three and four make seven. Two and six make eight. Mi havas du fratojn kaj unu fratinon. cxar sxi ne estas suficxe forta por marsxi ecx unu mejlon." SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. Five and six make eleven. mia nepo. 1. Unu el ni kutime restas cxe la hejmo kun sxi. I was ten years old (I had ten years) then. Ni multe gxojis pri tiom da lauxdo por la fratoj. Seven and five make twelve. 3. 2. Ili povas bonege kuri. [Footnote: Like French and some other languages. and . La fratino estas malpli forta. La avino ankaux logxas cxe ni de antaux sep aux ok jaroj. La fratino havas dek unu jarojn. 4. tamen sxi ofte promenas kun ni ecx du aux tri mejlojn. I have been studying geometry since five months ago.okulvitrojn. kaj fari aliajn interesajn aferojn.

LESSON XXX. how much. others do not like it. 9. 7. 13. Some learn it easily. with blue eyes. To learn how to speak such a language is a difficult matter. red cheeks. 12. I have read three German books. They can not talk with us very well. and often ride eight or ten miles in one day. but I shall not be able to talk in this language until after August. Three of the boys and two of the girls in that school are German. They are amiable children. 15. 8. where there is but little ("nur malmulte da") dust. but I think (that) they live more contentedly in our quiet village. I had not seen them before they came to school. 6. although they are neighbors of ours. They had resided four years in a large city. The interrogative adverb of quantity related to the interrogative pronoun "kiu" is "kiom". 11. how many: Kiom da tempo vi ripozis? How much time did you rest? Kiom da sukero kaj kiom da fragoj vi acxetis? How much sugar and how many . They can ride very well. THE INTERROGATIVE ADVERB OF QUANTITY. 140. but merely nod their heads when we talk to them. They usually ride in a park three miles wide and four miles long. and yellow hair. 14.German since January. 5. 10. Nine of the children in our school are now studying German with me.

Kiom de la leciono vi lernis? How much of the lesson did you learn? MODIFIERS OF IMPERSONALLY USED VERBS. Estos malvarme morgaux. it is amusing that we forgot him. ---------------------------- . it will be cold tomorrow. to "dek". Estos pli agrable en la salono. Thousands. sesdek. ten. thirty. it is well that he came. kvardek. FORMATION OF CARDINAL NUMERALS.dudek. 141.strawberries did you buy? Ni miras kiom da mono li havos. "cent". we wonder how much money he will have. Ke vi venis estis tre sagxe." "it seems too early"). thousand. seventy. The cardinal numerals for the tens. twenty. tridek. kvindek. hundred. Estas bone ke li venis. Hundreds. that is. "tri". okdek. with an infinitive or clause for its subject. hundreds and thousands are formed by prefixing "du". sixty. sepdek. Tens. or without any definitely expressed or personal subject (as in "it is cold. Any modifier of an impersonal verb (50) or of a verb used impersonally. Estas amuze ke ni forgesis lin. nauxdek. 142. fifty. it is warm in the house. and "mil".. that you came was very wise. must necessarily be adverbial: Estas varme en la domo. etc. respectively. it will be pleasanter in the parlor. forty. --------------------------------------------. eighty. ninety. "kvar".

four hundred and ninety-seven. five hundred. twelve. one hundred and thirty-five. kvarmil. THE SUFFIX "-AN-". Cardinals containing more than two figures begin with the largest number and descend regularly. one thousand and eighty. tridek kvin = thirty-five. The suffix "-an-" may itself be used as a root. two hundred. denoted by the root. six thousand. kvarcent nauxdek sep.. sesmil. after "dek. nauxdek ses = ninety-six. 145. three thousand. etc. The cardinals between ten and twenty. dek naux = nineteen.ducent. etc. "dek unu". one thousand nine hundred and twelve (nineteen hundred and twelve). (Cf. trimil. sepdek ok = seventyeight. kvincent. etc. dudek. are formed by placing "unu. mil okdek. du. six hundred and two. organization. tri". eleven. forming "ano".------------------------. "dek du". etc. member. . twenty and thirty. tridek". 143. four thousand. etc.. dudek tri = twenty-three.. mil naucent dek du. etc. or a member or adherent of the party. sescent du. 144. sepcent. The suffix "-an-" is used to form words indicating an inhabitant or resident of the place denoted by the root. as in English: cent tridek kvin. etc. etc. seven hundred. 136): dek kvar = fourteen.

kalkul-i = to calculate.] VOCABULARY aritmetik-o = arithmetic. grad-o = grade. superjar-o = leap-year. kaj parolis al mia juna frato. to reckon. tial ke li baldaux havos ekzamenojn. cent = hundred (142). kiom = how much (140). kaj diris "Ili faras kvindek kvin. Mi demandis al li "Kiom faras dek tri kaj dek kvar?" Li respondis ke tiuj faras dudek sep. Li kalkulis kvin aux ses sekundojn. kaj tute ne agrable ekster la domo. memor-i = to remember." Mi demandis kiom faras ducent tri kaj sepcent ok. Mi helpis lin pri la leciono en aritmetiko. per mallauxta vocxo. LECIONO PRI ARITMETIKO. cxar ili preferas resti en la domoj. kamparano = countryman. English "urb-an". minut-o = minute. kaj li volas esti preta por skribi tre bonajn respondojn. vilagxano = villager. [Footnote: Cf. ricev-i = to receive. degree. "suburb-an". sekund-o = second. etc. La urbanoj ne estas promenantaj en la parko. erar-o = error. mistake. "republic-an". "Mohammed-an".bostonano = Bostonian. Tiam mi demandis kiom faras dudek unu kaj tridek kvar. domano = inmate of a house. Estas malvarme hodiaux. mil = thousand (142). peasant. "Rom-an". Mi ankaux restis en la domo. kaj li respondis ke ili faras nauxcent dek .

novembro. There are only thirty days in the months April. 9872. 3. . 42. 1885. June. kaj fine mi diris al li ke li povas bonege kalkuli. sed en la sekvanta jaro gxi havas dudek naux tagojn. 1912." Estas interese lerni pri cxi tiu monato februaro. Post kelkaj minutoj ni komencis paroli pri aliaj aferoj. 79. There are twelve months in a year. Li diris ke li ankaux memoros pri la nombro da tagoj en la superjaro. aprilo kaj junio havas tridek tagojn. 431. 4500. 236. La jaro havanta tian februaron estas la "superjaro. 1240. Dum tri jaroj gxi havas dudek ok tagojn. Li tute ne faris erarojn al mi. Mi demandis "Kiom da tagoj en la monato septembro?" La frato respondis "Septembro. Kvankam tiuj monatoj havas tiom da tagoj. Mi opinias ke li ricevos bonan gradon en la ekzamenoj. 2. kaj ke li rakontos la aferon al la aliaj knaboj." Mi rakontis tiun interesan aferon al la frato. la aliaj monatoj havas tridek unu tagojn. 18. 687. kaj li diris ke li bone memoros gxin. 788. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. and in most of the months of the year there are thirty-one days. Li ne sciis ke la superjaro havas tricent sesdek ses tagojn. kvankam la aliaj jaroj havas nur tricent sesdek kvin tagojn. 86. Li diris ke li ne antauxe sciis pri la superjaro.unu. 1. (To be written out in full): 14. Sed la monato februaro havas nur dudek ok tagojn.

11. 12. and sixty seconds in one minute. instead of three hundred and sixty-five. identical in form with the interrogative pronoun (106).September and November. and the others make the night. There are seven days in a week. 8. which. 4. It is well for us that they liked to study arithmetic. and twenty-four hours in a day. 146. 7. LESSON XXXI. 6. [Footnote: Sometimes English uses "that" for a relative pronoun. At least one year in ten years is a leap-year. In a leapyear there are three hundred and sixty-six days. 15. Wise men calculated about this matter. I remember it easily. 16. I have often received good grades in this study. There are sixty minutes in one hour. In the year there are fifty-two weeks. Twelve of these hours make the day. is "kiu". How many weeks are there in ten years? 10. The person or thing to which it refers is called its "antecedent. 9. as "I saw the book that . 5. and seldom make mistakes. who." The relative pronoun. 13. A connecting pronoun referring to something which precedes (or follows) is called a "relative pronoun". as in English. many years ago. There are four weeks and also two or three days in one month. THE RELATIVE PRONOUN.

you have. pri kiu vi parolas. the youths who came are amiable. the persons (whom) he will see are friends of mine. I remember that matter about which you speak. I calculated the grade (which) he will receive. he is the man whose book you found. I know the children whose father is a friend of yours. Whether it is in the accusative case or not depends upon its relation to its own verb or to other words in its own clause (called the relative clause): La junuloj. La personoj. referring to a substantive (singular or plural) for its antecedent: Li estas la viro. 147. estas afablaj. English sometimes omits the relative pronoun. kies patro estas amiko via." The relative pronoun is never thus omitted in Esperanto. The compound tense formed by combining the past participle with the future . kiun li ricevos. as "I saw the book you have. Mi konas la infanojn. THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE. estas amikoj miaj. kies libron vi trovis. kiujn li vidos. Mi memoras tiun aferon. Mi kalkulis la gradon. Like English "whose" the genitive form "kies" of the interrogative pronoun (107) is also used as a relative. Likewise.] The relative pronoun agrees in number with its antecedent. kiuj venis. 148." This must always be translated by "kiu".

149. ili estos vidintaj. one thousand eight hundred and dek-nauxa = nineteenth. hundred and eighty-fifth. gxi) estos vidinta. vi estos vidintaj. we shall have seen (shall be having-seen). it) will have seen (will be having-seen). sesmil-sepa : six thousand and . li (sxi. "third". etc. vi estos vidinta. he (she. they will have seen (will be having-seen). kvardek-sesa = forty-sixth. Ordinal numerals are adjectives which answer the question "Which in order?" as "first". fourth. ORDINAL NUMERALS. cent-okdek-kvina : tria = third. and not any part of it. you will have seen (you will be having-seen).tense of the auxiliary verb "esti" represents an act or condition as having been already completed or perfected at a future time. milokcent-kvara : dek-unua = eleventh. that the adjective ending "-a" is attached: unua = first. dua = second. oka = eighth. I shall have seen (I shall be having-seen). since it is to the entire cardinal. They are formed by adding the adjectival suffix "-a" to the cardinals. and is called the "future perfect tense." The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as follows: mi estos vidinta. ni estos vidintaj. The various parts of an ordinal must be connected by hyphens. dudek-sepa = twentyseventh. you will have seen (will be havingseen).

seventh. "5th". montris al li kaj al liaj fratoj belegan libron. Si diris "Miaj filoj. pen-i = to strive. "3an". to gain. neces-a = necessary. Sxi diris ke la libro kostis multe da mono en lando trans la maro. "1912a". "1912th". etc. "233rd". "5a". "3a". kost-i = to cost. mi donos cxi tiun libron al tiu el vi. If the ordinal number is used in an accusative construction. traduk-i = to translate. mar-o = sea. dolar-o = dollar. gajn-i = to win. sam-a = same. ALFREDO GRANDA KAJ LA LIBRO. kiu povis legi ilin. gxis post multaj jaroj. dezir-i = to desire. "2a". etc. pafark-o = bow (for shooting). "2an". to try. "3rd". Li estis la unua angla regxo. the abbreviation is given the accusative ending. dum li estis malgranda knabo kun flavaj buklaj haroj. "233a". "1912an". Antaux pli multe ol mil jaroj vivis Alfredo Granda. "1st". sag-o = arrow. "2nd". Kiu el vi estos la unua. kaj ke gxi nun apartenas al sxi. unu el la plej interesaj personoj pri kiuj ni estas auxdintaj. as "lan". latin-a = Latin. Li estis ankaux la lasta. [Footnote: Ordinal numerals may be abbreviated thus: "la". lia patrino. paf-i = to shoot. kiu povos legi? . Unu tagon. kiu lernos legi gxin. kiu deziris legi librojn. part-o = part.] VOCABULARY angl-a = English. share. last-a = last. tre sagxa regxino.

kiujn la angla lando estas havinta. Sed oni opiniis ke tute ne estis necese scii pri la aferoj.Tiu ricevos la libron. 2. kaj ankaux tradukis latinajn librojn en la anglan lingvon. 1. Fine oni trovis personon por helpi Alfredon. kaj treege malofte povis skribi. kaj iris multajn mejlojn. Oni lauxdis nur personojn. Alfredo komencis studi. Alfredo skribis librojn en la latina lingvo. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. (To be written out in full): 37th. 73rd. kiuj estis plej bonaj. 92nd. Before coming to visit . 3." Nu. La regxoj kaj iliaj filoj nur malofte povis legi. 14235th. kaj estis unu el la plej bonaj regxoj. 119th. Before my friend will have finished that mansion (122). Oni sercxis gxis la finoj de la lando. 1274th. kaj post ne longe li gajnis la belegan libron. Tial Alfredo ne ricevis lauxdon pro sia deziro por legi. Tiu sama Alfredo estis regxo multajn jarojn. 846th. La sesan aux sepan jaron post sia ricevo de la libro. 59th. cxar tiam oni skribis latine ("in Latin") la librojn. it will have cost twenty thousand dollars. Alfredo volis lerni la latinan lingvon. Liaj fratoj ecx ne penis gajni gxin. kiu ecx estis auxdinta pri tia lingvo. 1910th. kiuj bone rajdis kaj batalis per sagoj kaj pafarkoj. Tiam oni tre malmulte pensis pri libroj. kiu tiam lernis la latinan lingvon. sed preskaux ne povis trovi personon. kiujn la libroj rakontas.

People say so ("diras tiel") because he translated Latin books into the language of his land. 17. The grade which you will have received in arithmetic soon after the first of March will be excellent. 6. 4. and because he also wrote books in that language. It is necessary to study Latin. The one thousand nine hundred and fourth year was a leap-year. He was the first king in that land who even wished to be able to read books. We often talk about this same King Alfred. Such a book now costs four or five hundred dollars. The 1912th year will be a leap-year. 9. 15. The fourth year after that year was also a leap-year. Alfred the Great was the last king until many years afterward (until after many years) who could read or write. 13. Alfred won the book which his mother had bought. for ("cxar") it seems interesting. "KIA" AS A RELATIVE ADJECTIVE. I shall try after a few minutes to translate that Latin book. You do not make mistakes very often in the lessons. for I desire to read the stories which are in my Latin book. 8. 10. I shall have ridden twelve miles on my horse. 12. 5. LESSON XXXII. 14. 16. There are three hundred and sixty-six days in such a year. and say that he was the father of the English language.you. . 7.

Similarly. [Footnote: Any interrogative adverb may also be used to introduce an indirect question. Tiaj amikoj. I shall go there where . or "which": Mi havas tian libron. referring back to "tia." or to some equivalent phrase or word indicating quality. kie vi estas. thus serving as a subordinating conjunction (cf. "cxu"). such as "sama". "KIE" AS A RELATIVE ADVERB. whether or not its antecedent has this ending. In this use it may often be translated "as". The interrogative adverb "kie". etc. estas afablaj. kian vi. kia kostas ses dolarojn. kian mi volas.150. I have such a (that kind of) book as (which kind) I wish. Li deziras tian cxapelon. 151. he desires that kind of hat which (kind) costs six dollars.] "Kien" is used when the verb in the relative clause expresses motion toward the place indicated. "tien". Mi havas la saman deziron. such friends as (of which kind) you have are amiable. "kie" may refer to "tie" or to "tien": Mi iros tien. "kien" (118) is also used as a relative adverb of place with "tie". kiajn vi havas. or some other expression of place for its antecedent. The interrogative adjective "kia" (112) is also used as a relative adjective. I have the same desire as you (same kind which you have).

you are. the coming (next) week I shall depart. "ironta". these tenses are not often used. Mi iros tien. the woman about to greet you is very affable. about to see. past." Except when great accuracy is desired. expressing what the word modified will do or is about to do. I was there (at that place) where you will go. ends in "-onta. about to go: La forironta viro vokis sian serviston. La virino salutonta vin estas tre afabla. I found him in the city where he lives. La venonta monato estas marto. Cxu vi venos cxi tien. La venontan semajnon mi foriros. The compound tenses formed by combining the future active participle with each of the three aoristic tenses of "esti" represent an act or state as about to occur in the present. and are called "periphrastic future tenses. kie li logxas. the coming month is March. THE PERIPHRASTIC FUTURE TENSES. the man going to depart (the about-to-depart man) called his servant. kien vi iros. kien vi iris. A synopsis of "vidi" in the ." as "vidonta". or future. respectively. I shall go to that place to which you went (I shall go where you went). Mi estis tie. Mi trovis lin en la urbo. The future active participle. kie ni estas? Are you coming here where we are? THE FUTURE ACTIVE PARTICIPLE. 152. 153.

kri-i = to . THE SUFFIX "-IND-". Future Periphrastic Future. "indo". worth. mallauxdinda = blameworthy. gast-o = guest. lauxdinda = praiseworthy." that which is indicated in the root. 154. mi estis vidonta. mi estas vidonta. bat-i = to beat. ni estas vidontaj. merit.first person singular and plural of these tenses is as follows: Present Periphrastic Future. worthy. deserving of. atak-i = to attack. remarkable. I shall be about to (going we shall be about to (going to) see. to form "inda". It may also be used as a root. ho! = Oh! cert-a = sure. to) see. Past Periphrastic Future. ni estis vidontaj. ni estos vidontaj. flar-i = to smell. I was about to (going we were about to (going to) see. "malinda". VOCABULARY ankoraux = still. The suffix "-ind-" is used to form words expressing "worthy of. ridinde = ridiculously. to) see. certain. yet. laughably. etc.: dezirinda = desirable. to) see. mi estos vidonta. tradukinda = worth translating. I am about to (going we are about to (going to) see. rimarkinda = noteworthy. unworthy.

"] ALFREDO GRANDA KAJ LA KUKOJ. sed ili sciis ke li estas persono kies landon ili deziras gajni. kuk-o = cake. Anstataux porti regxajn vestojn li acxetis tiajn cxifonojn kiajn kamparanoj kaj malricxuloj portas. soldatoj venis de trans la maro por ataki la anglan regxon Alfredon Grandan. Li logxis . fajr-o = fire.exclaim. kaj sin kasxis en granda arbaro malantaux vilagxo. "in constant or uniform succession"." Li ankoraux restos tie. "still they come. "I am still sitting here. Tial li forkuris kelkajn mejlojn de la urbo. given sometimes by English "yet"." Li ankoraux ne venis. to cry." Ankoraux ili venas. suspekt-i = to suspect." Li estos ankoraux pli ruza. "still he has not come (he has not come yet). "he will still stay there. sometimes by "still": Mi estas ankoraux sidanta cxi tie. "in an increasing or additional degree". Cxi tiuj malamikoj estis venintaj tiel subite ke Alfredo ne estis preta por defendi sian landon kontraux ili. Ili nek konis nek malamis lin. kruel-a = cruel. lign-o = wood. Unu fojon antaux pli multe ol mil jaroj. [Footnote: The adverb "ankoraux" expresses the ideas "until and during the present time". "he will be still (yet) more crafty. edzo = husband. defend-i = to defend. difekt-i = to spoil. "in the future as now and before".

1. dum mi kolektos pli multe da ligno?" Alfredo respondis "Certe mi gardos ilin kontraux la fajro. kaj la fajro estas difektinta ilin!" Sxi estis kruele batonta la regxon. Cxu vi gardos tiujn kukojn kiuj nun estas super la fajro. vi ne pensas pri la kukoj." La virino sercxonta lignon foriris en alian parton de la arbaro. Kiam la virino venis kaj flaris la kukojn sxi kriis "ho. kie estis multe da ligno. kaj kial li forgesis la kukojn. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. kiam li diris al sxi kiu li estas. Sed baldaux li forgesis ilin." respondis la regxo.cxe malricxa sed lauxdinda kamparano. kaj anstataux mallauxdi lin sxi volis esti ankoraux pli bona al li. Alfred the Great was a praiseworthy king who lived more than a thousand years ago. kaj tute ne suspektis kia persono lia gasto estas. People still talk about him because he not . vi riprocxinda viro! Kvankam vi ankoraux sidas tie. estos necese fari pli varmegan fajron por tiaj kukoj kiajn mi nun estas bakonta. kaj estis rigardanta siajn sagojn kaj pafarkon dum li pensis malgxoje pri sia lando. La edzino de la arbarano demandis "Cxu vi ankoraux sidos tie dekkvin aux dudek minutojn?" "Jes. Sxi diris "Nu. 2. kaj la fajro ilin difektis. Unu memorindan tagon Alfredo estis sidanta apud la fajro. kiu ne konis la regxon. Tiam sxi tre hontis. kaj la regxo penis zorgi pri la kukoj.

They were about to attack him. LESSON XXXIII. Then they hastened to where (151) Alfred was. But enemies often attacked him." 11. he told her who he was. 8. But when after a few minutes the woman smelled the cakes. 6. "Will the enemy have conquered my soldiers next week?" 10. He wished to help the peasants still more. what a blameworthy man!" 14. 155. "Certainly. The interrogative temporal adverb "kiam" (123) is also used as a relative temporal adverb. she knew that the fire had spoiled them. He wore such rags as a peasant usually wears.only translated many Latin books into the English language. but he did not defend himself. "Will you sit there yet a while and take-care of those cakes? I am about to gather more wood. She commenced to beat the king cruelly. He replied. and did not tell the forester who he was. when he rode away secretly ("kasxe") into a large forest. Instead (120). I will try to help you. with "tiam" or an equivalent . 5. "KIAM" AS A RELATIVE ADVERB. There he dwelt some time in the house of a poor forester." 12. She exclaimed "Oh. 13. 4. One day he was sitting near the fire and wondering. 15. 9. but also wrote in English. 3. The forester's wife said. and finally they conquered his soldiers. 7.

or an equivalent adverb or phrase for its antecedent. after he shouted so loudly. Kiel mi diris al li.word or phrase for its antecedent. I suspected him at the time when he came (the time that he came). . Ili batis lin same kiel vin. he defended himself then. I am happy (antecedent not expressed). they beat him the same as (they did) you. they beat him in the same way as you (did). The interrogative adverb "kiel" (134) is also used as a relative adverb of manner and degree. when he was attacked. 156. kiel li defendis sin. Post kiam li tiel lauxte kriis. or "same". with "tiel". (It may not be omitted as in English "at the time he came"): Mi suspektis lin je la tempo kiam li venis. li komencis plori. I shall still sit there until when you come (until you come). Vi ne estas tiel kruela kiel li. kiam oni atakis lin. It may often be translated "as": Mi defendis min tiel. Mi ankoraux sidos tie gxis kiam vi venos. he began to cry. "KIEL" AS A RELATIVE ADVERB. as I told him. Sxi estas tiel bona kiel sxi estas bela. he spoke as softly as before. Li parolis tiel mallauxte kiel antauxe. I defended myself in that way in which (way) he defended himself. Li defendis sin tiam. mi estas felicxa. you are not so cruel as he (is). Ili batis lin same kiel vi. she is as good as she is fair.

dudeko = a score. 100) or adverbs (101). Adjectives. in the fifth place. while "el" follows adjectives in the superlative degree (75). cardinal numerals (138). sesdeke = sixtiethly. 157.NUMERAL NOUNS AND ADVERBS. "dek du el tiuj ovoj". milo = a thousand. half a score. cento = a hundred. a dozen of the eggs. at first. due = secondly. kvine = fifthly. twelve of those eggs. "la plej fresxa el la ovoj". may be derived from prepositions by addition of the formative endings (116). Nouns may be formed from the cardinals by addition of the ending "-o. "kiu el la ovoj?" which one of the eggs? "tiu el la ovoj". a quartette. kiu (106). in the second place. etc. 159. and the pronouns tiu.] 158. trio = a three. a trio. kvaro = a four. Adverbs may be formed from the cardinals by addition of the ending "-e": unue = firstly. unuo = a unit. as well as adverbs (120). a dozen (of) eggs. deko = a ten. WORD DERIVATION FROM PREPOSITIONS. verbs and nouns. [Footnote: The prepositions "da" and "de" follow nouns (99. deke = tenthly. the freshest of the eggs. okdek-kvare = eighty-fourthly.: "dekduo da ovoj"." After such nouns the preposition "da" or "de" is used: dekduo = a dozen. that one of the eggs. "dekduo de la ovoj". with sometimes a special suffix .

to select. opposite. invit-i = to invite.also: anstatauxi = to replace. contrary. malgraux = notwithstanding. companion. pend-i = to hang. kontrauxulo = adversary. I have the same opinion as you just gave (said). kontrauxa = adverse. to encircle. elekt-i = to choose. "Mi vidis lin jxus kiam li estis forironta". goodbye. cxirkauxi = to surround. uz-i = to use. kunulo = comrade. a circumference. gxentil-a = courteous. preceding. adjacent. antauxa = previous. opponent. to entertain. apuda = near. "Ni jxus venis". fest-i = to celebrate. jxus = just. to receive. VOCABULARY adiaux = farewell. at the moment. prez-o = price. to take the place of. par-o = pair. kuz-o = cousin. renkont-i = to meet. to be above. we just came (we came but a moment ago). contiguous. gant-o = glove. superi = to surpass. cxirkauxo = a circuit. to exceed. anstatauxulo = a substitute. sxu-o = shoe. or between the two acts or conditions indicated. akcept-i = to accept. . superege = surpassingly. exceedingly. "Mi havas la saman opinion kian vi jxus diris". [Footnote: The adverb "jxus" indicates the elapsing of the least possible time since the act or condition indicated. I saw him just when he was about to depart.

por anstatauxi la malnovajn gantojn kiujn mi ankoraux estis portanta. kvankam mi acxetis ilin antaux tri monatoj. La kuzo diris "adiaux. Unue. ni estas bonaj kunuloj. Due. Ni parolis pri multaj interesaj aferoj. Tiam li festos la lastan tagon de la jaro. Jxus kiam li estis elironta el la pordo hieraux. Lia hejmo estas preskaux du mejlojn de la nia.] LA INVITO. kie la stratoj estis malplej kotaj."Jxus kiam vi venis li foriris". Tial ni formarsxis tien. sed mi iris al granda butiko. Mi akceptis lian gxentilan inviton. Mi estas certa ke mi estas ankaux tiel forta kiel li. Li respondis ke li gxoje promenos kun mi. sed en alia parto. gxis kiam estis necese hejmen iri. La kuzo havas dek ok jarojn. Tamen. kaj ofte promenas kune. mi volis acxeti paron da novaj gantoj. Li diris ke la gastoj sidos cxirkaux la fajrejo kaj rakontos rakontojn gxis malfrua horo. mi uzis la okazon ("opportunity") por proponi mallongan promenon. malgraux la negxa vetero. kaj diris ke mi certe venos. mi bezonis paron da novaj . kaj bonege nin amuzis. just as you came he went away." kaj iris rekte hejmen. sed mi estas preskaux tiel alta kiel li. Hieraux matene mia kuzo vizitis cxe ni. kaj invitis min al malgranda festo kiu okazos morgaux vespere. Mia kuzo logxas en la sama urbo kie nia familio logxas.

In the second place. hats and shoes there. kiam mi vidis alian pli belan paron. There are often hundreds of persons in a village. and the price is often less. Tial mi acxetis cxi tiun. kaj estis jxus acxetonta ilin. 2. cxar estas centoj da sxuoj en tiu butiko. 5. they are still . one can also find better gloves. and can take ("fari") long walks in the adjacent fields and forest. Therefore I make use of the opportunity when I go to the city. 3. and usually buy a pair of new gloves. malgraux la tro granda prezo. kaj poste mi rigardis la sxuojn. 1.sxuoj. kiajn mi sxatas. My friend likes to live in the city. I am still wearing a pair of gloves which the rain spoiled. the larger and better its stores are. 8. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. Notwithstanding their ugly color. vegetables and cake in the city. kaj demandis "Kiajn vestojn vi volas acxeti?" Oni montris al mi preskaux dudekon da paroj da gantoj. 4. kaj oni tuj venis por renkonti min. kaj tiam hejmen iris. 6. Mi tuj acxetis tiun paron. Mi elektis tre bonan paron. 9. but there are thousands of persons in a city. There she can see and smell the flowers. one can buy better bread. Mi trovis rimarkinde bonan paron. The larger a city is. but his wife prefers to live in their little wooden house in the country. Thirdly. Mi iris en la butikon kie pendis tiaj gantoj. 7.

and said that I would meet him in the park tomorrow. 10. 11. 15. adjectives and adverbs may be formed from these (116): alveni = to arrive.thick and good. is older than he is. But soon I shall buy such a pair as (150) is hanging in the window of that store. but he is as tall as she. 12. The price is low. 16. PREPOSITIONS AS PREFIXES. I was just about to send a letter to him at the minute that (155) he knocked on our door. We are good comrades. although nouns. and I need a new pair now. only verbs being shown. interparoli = to converse. 160. I said goodbye to him. . provided the resulting compound is intelligible. kontrauxdiri = to contradict. his sister. I think that we shall have a pleasant walk. the same as (156) it was two or three months ago. and said that I would gladly be his guest. My (girl) cousin. 14. for my cousin has invited me to a small party ("festo") at his house. His visit will take the place of (159) my letter. aldoni = to add. LESSON XXXIV. I accepted his invitation courteously. Just as (just when) he was going away. although he is younger than I am. 13. Any preposition may be used as a prefix to a verb. A few prepositional compounds are given below. 18. 17. although the weather is still remarkably cold.

antauxdiri = to predict. to invent. cxeesti = to be present. "elpensi". "ellabori". traguti = to percolate. to learn thoroughly. to wear out (transitive). etc. [Footnote: The suffix "-ebl-" is often equivalent to the English suffixes "-able". to find out. [Footnote: Like English "out" the preposition "el" often develops in composition a secondary sense of "thoroughly" or "completely" (cf. expressing the likelihood or possibility of that which is indicated by the root. adverbs. to work out. to depend. etc. legebla = legible. eltrovebla = discoverable. surmeti = to put on. to elaborate. transiri = to cross. 161. to form "ebla". dependi = to hang from. The suffix "-ebl-" is used to form adjectives.] THE SUFFIX "-EBL-". possible. depreni = to subtract. "I am tired out"): "eltrovi". priskribi = to describe.. videbla = visible. rompebla = breakable. subteni = to support. travidebla = transparent. to discover. to think out. to master. It may be used as a root. "- . "ellerni". travidi = to see through eliri = to go out. kunlabori = to collaborate. mangxebla = edible. kunveni = to assemble. cxirkauxpreni = to embrace. demeti = to lay aside. to use completely. enhavi = to contain. "eluzi".

The adverb "plej". 163." gentleman." before proper names. without being followed by the name: "Adiaux." lady. The words "sinjoro. we shall be as wise as possible. is used to express the highest degree possible: Gxi estas kiel eble plej bona. Miss. Mr. Goodbye.is very amiable. I do not know that young lady. and are also used as terms of address. Sinjorino. Li uzis kiel eble plej malmulte. 162. modified by "kiel eble" (as possible)." "worth reading" (leginda)." "deserving of love" (aminda). it is the best possible. "sinjorino. Mrs. "frauxlino. "lovable. Frauxlino? Where do you wish to go (Miss)? Sinjoro A---.. I wrote as legibly as possible. Sinjoro. .ible".] EXPRESSION OF THE HIGHEST DEGREE POSSIBLE. do you know that gentleman with Mrs. Mi skribis kiel eble plej legeble.estas tre afabla. are used like English "Mr. C----? Mi ne konas tiun frauxlinon. etc. Kien vi volas iri. Madam. Frauxlino B----. as in "readable. Adiaux. but these suffixes have other meanings also. Ni estos kiel eble plej sagxaj.. "most" (74)." Goodbye (Sir). he used the least possible. cxu vi konas tiun sinjoron kun Sinjorino C----? Miss B----." miss. A---. TITLES AND TERMS OF ADDRESS.

journey. Mi ankaux havis mian ombrelon. frauxl-o = bachelor. gnaediges Fraeulein." Spanish. grup-o = group. Mi estis surmetinta paron da dikaj gantoj. Senora. Madam. English "Doctor. gay.] VOCABULARY atent-a = attentive. Ni supren iris per granda sxtuparo al cxambro kie mi lasis la . Mi respondis "Mi sanas bonege. Hieraux vespere mi iris al la hejmo de mia kuzo. tas-o = cup. CXE LA FESTO. malgraux la negxa vetero. onkl-o = uncle." etc. sinjor-o = gentleman. auxskult-i = to listen." Italian "Signore. and also German "Mein Herr. Professor. sxtup-o = step (of stairs). dankon." French "Monsieur. "Bonan vesperon." as terms of address. sent-i = to feel. doktor-o = doctor. Cxar mi deziris alveni kiel eble plej frue. kia estas via sano?" li diris. kvankam pro la vento mi ne povis uzi tiun. babil-i = to chatter. gaj-a = merry. gnaedige Frau. kiu estis invitinta min al malgranda festo cxe li. vojagx-o = voyage. mi foriris de mia logxejo kiel eble plej baldaux. kaj venis por malfermi la pordon kaj akcepti min.[Footnote: Cf. Mademoiselle." kaj eniris la domon kun li. Tuj kiam mi supreniris la sxtuparon cxe la hejmo de la kuzo. li auxdis min. kaj mi portis dikajn sxuojn. san-a = in good health. "Senor.

I predict that you will break them as soon as you seize them. kiam la aliaj gastoj komencis alveni. kiun sxi antaux ne longe tralegis. Post unu aux du horoj. 5. Unu kuzino estis jxus priskribonta interesan libron. kaj multe da aliaj sinjoroj kaj sinjorinoj. kaj ankaux la du kuzinojn. But it is difficult to read it. Mi atente auxskultis kelkajn minutojn. Tiam ni foriris hejmen. kie oni gaje babilis pri estontaj ("future") promenoj kaj festoj. Fine. kun sentoj da granda plezuro pro la agrabla festo. 2. kune kun tasoj da bonega kafo. Sinjoro B---. That letter is worth reading. kun sia filino Frauxlino Mario. kaj diris adiaux. je malfrua horo ni gxentile dankis la familion de mia kuzo. There are dozens of edible fruits. kaj tiam foriris al alia grupo. kaj interparolis kun videbla plezuro. kaj Doktoro C----. 1. The transparent cup and plate upon the table are very breakable.cxapelon.cxeestis. kiu afable parolis al mi. tiam ni malsupren venis kaj eniris la salonon. 4. kaj tiam oni komencis priparoli la prezojn de aferoj en aliaj landoj. for it is . SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. La gastoj sidis aux staris en malgrandaj grupoj. la servistinoj alportis al ni bonan malgrandan mangxon. 3. Mi salutis la onklinon. Unu rakontis pri vojagxo. but the fruits of hundreds of trees are not at all ("tute ne estas") edible. gantojn kaj ombrelon.

6. because I am not very well ("sana") today. 12. I prefer to listen to the group of ladies in the adjacent room. His opinions. Now. "KIOM" AS A RELATIVE ADVERB. In this use it is commonly translated "as": La taso enhavis tiom da kafo. the cup contained as much coffee as I . He is still in the city. 8. with "tiom" or some equivalent word or phrase for its antecedent. Is that gentleman across the room a bachelor? 15. LESSON XXXV. who wishes to arrive at-our-house as early as possible. kiom mi povis trinki. Madam. 11. 13. There are very few persons who contradict his opinions. It is from my uncle.not very legible. and listening to the young lady who is about to sing. He is describing a voyage and the people whom he met. They are chattering gaily. do you feel the wind? I notice that it is blowing the curtains which hang before that window. are worthy of attention (154) and usually I listen courteously while he is talking. 7. 9. 164. I will close the window. and will go up the steps ("sxtuparon") of our porch and knock on the door. 14. 10. Yes. The interrogative adverb "kiom" (140) is used as a relative adverb of quantity. however. but soon he will be here. however.

the half of six is three. to go. Dek unu . cannot be used to illustrate a passive participle. kiom vi volis. the third part of six is two. Li sendis tiom. 119. Mi havos tiom da tempo. La triona parto de ses estas du.] La lauxdata knabo estas felicxa. I shall have as much time as I shall need. being seen: [Footnote: The verb "iri". 165. the boy being praised is happy. he was only half attentive. La vestoj farataj por vi estas belaj. as "vidata".could drink. the clothes being made for you are beautiful. Fractions are formed from the cardinals by the use of the suffix "-on-" followed by the ending "-o". I shall look for the desired book. Adjectives and adverbs may be derived from these by use of the endings "-a" or "-e": La duono de ses estas tri. Li estis nur duone atenta. used to illustrate the active participles (108. since passive participles can be made from transitive verbs (22) only. THE PRESENT PASSIVE PARTICIPLE. 152). he sent as much as you wished. 166. expressing that which is "undergone by" the person or thing indicated by the word modified. kiom mi bezonos. ends in "-ata". The present passive participle (for the present active participle see 108). FRACTIONS. Mi sercxos la deziratan libron.

When the first element is adverbial (an adverb or preposition).dekduonoj. postmorgaux. but also unity of meaning with a slightly different sense from that expressed . if the resulting word has not merely unity of form. Mi dudekone finis la laboron. of one day. at an early time. day before yesterday. contemporaneous. a. half angrily. the first day's. once. thrice. en route. three times. unuataga. one time. eleven twelfths. I one-twentieth finished the work. duonkolere. invisible. DESCRIPTIVE COMPOUNDS. 167. rugxflava (rugxeflava). involuntarily. expensive. the second element may be either an adverb or adjective: multekosta. An adjective may be used for the first element. unufoje. The final "-a" or "-e" of the first element may be omitted. antauxhieraux. unutaga. one day's. A compound word whose first element modifies the second in an adjectival or adverbial relation is called a "descriptive compound". c. reddish yellow. nevole. unless the resulting combination would be ambiguous or harshsounding. nevidebla. on the way. survoje. b. frutempe. day after tomorrow. A noun may be used for the second element. if the second is an adverb or adjective "derived from a noun-root": samtempa. trifoje.

etc. a welcome (not "bona veno". a majority (adverb and noun combined). superjaro. naci-o = nation. It may often be translated "yet. a vacation. "Cxu vi jam trovis gxin? Ne. as "BLACKberry" (not "black BERry"). libertempo. leapyear (not "super jaro". way. free time). mi . pagx-o = page. good wishes. I already saw (have already seen) him. "Mi jam vidis lin". learned. pres-i = to print. "BLUEbird" (not "blue BIRD").by the noun and adjective uncombined: [Footnote: In national languages a change of accent often accompanies such change in meaning. leisure (not "libera tempo".] bonveno. jam = already. commerce. good desires). bondeziroj. young woman). a good coming). "SWEETheart" (not "sweet HEART"). kler-a = enlightened. pulv-o = gunpowder. sxangx-i = to change. above a year). metod-o = method. komerc-o = trade. tedious. liber-a = free. VOCABULARY hxin-o = Chinaman. lanc-o = spear. plimulto. German "JUNGfrau"." "now. te-o = tea. clause or phrase containing "jam"." etc. teda = tiresome. felicitations (not "bonaj deziroj". lance. "virgin" (not "jung FRAU". [Footnote: The adverb "jam" indicates a change from some preceding action or state to the different one expressed in the sentence.

"Jam ne negxas". Ili malofte sxangxas siajn kutimojn. Have you yet (have you already) found it? No. "Li jam ne vivas". kiuj antauxe ne estis tiel kleraj. cxar pulvo estis tute nekonata al ili.] LA HXINOJ. kiajn ili havis antaux mil jaroj. La lando de la hxinoj enhavas tiom da personoj. I have not yet (still not) found it. la samtempaj hxinoj jam estis forlasintaj tiun multekostan kaj tedan metodon. por uzi je festaj tagoj. it is not snowing now (already not snowing). per sago kaj pafarko. Sed ili ankoraux ne havis pafilojn. Sed la hxinoj ne multe sxatis la komercon. Dum aliaj nacioj ankoraux ne konis metodojn por presi librojn. Ili ankoraux nun havas la samajn metodojn por presi librojn kaj por fari pulvon.ankoraux ne trovis gxin". antauxeniras pli rapide ol la hxinoj. kaj ankoraux faris ilin skribe. Tial la aliaj nacioj. kaj ne deziris acxeti aux lerni de aliaj nacioj. kiom tri aux kvar . kiajn ni ankoraux hodiaux acxetas de ili. Aliaj nacioj tiam estis batalantaj kiel eble plej kruele. kaj per lanco. Ili jam estis presantaj la pagxojn de miloj da libroj. Tamen la hxinoj jam bone konis metodojn por fari kaj por uzi pulvon. he no longer lives (he already is-not-alive). kaj faris tiajn amuzajn flavrugxajn fajrojn. Antaux miloj da jaroj la hxinoj estis la plej klera nacio en la mondo.

La lingvo estas almenaux treege malfacila. 5. The gentleman being talked about (160. Mi gxojas tial ke la lingvoj studataj en la lernejoj de nia lando ne estas tiel malfacilaj kiel la hxina lingvo. Granda parto de tiu lando estas ankoraux nekonata al okcidentaj nacioj. oni tamen estas nur duone lerninta gxin. although it is already setting. B----? 2. Why are the persons in that merry group laughing and chattering instead of listening to Mr. That young lady who . My aunt and cousin will come down stairs and converse with him. 6. I think that the doctor is telling stories about a bachelor who was once a good friend of his. 7. We shall sit on the veranda. kvankam ili estas tre interesaj kaj ankaux konataj de la kleruloj en multaj landoj. Oni diras ke la parolata lingvo kaj la skribata lingvo de la hxinoj estas du tre malsamaj aferoj. 165) will visit us this evening. 3. La latina kaj germana lingvoj estas suficxe malfacilaj. He will say "How is your health. possibly. We shall drink as many cups of tea or of coffee as we wish.aliaj nacioj. 1. kvankam plej multe da nia teo elvenas el la hxina lando. Madam?" My aunt will reply half-angrily that she is seldom ill. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. kaj post kiam oni estas longe studinta gxin. 4. for the sun is still shining. La latina lingvo jam ne estas parolata lingvo. 8.

She says that the Chinese were already an enlightened nation hundreds of years ago. But the Chinese have not changed these methods. even though its life is very long. and is called the "present passive tense". 13. vi estas vidata.came with Mrs.relates the best possible stories. work and pleasure are the same as they were long ago. They also were-acquaintedwith gunpowder. Such a nation does not progress rapidly. Their ways of commerce. you are (being) seen. 12. THE PRESENT PASSIVE TENSE. 15. 168. gxi) estas . was a discovery of the Chinese. They printed books in their printing-shops. a thousand years ago. 9. A method for printing the pages of books. 14. I am (being) seen. The compound tense formed by combining the present passive participle with the present tense of the auxiliary verb "esti" expresses an act or condition as "being undergone" by the subject of the verb. The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as follows: mi estas vidata. when we have leisure and wish to enjoy (to amuse) ourselves. LESSON XXXVI. while other nations were still cruelly fighting. which they made and used for such fires as we use on national days ofcelebration. li (sxi. C---. 10. instead of writing them.

La libroj estas jam presataj de li. Sxi estas lauxdata de la sinjoro. or in time (89. she is being praised by the gentleman. THE USE OF "DE" TO EXPRESS AGENCY. the books are already being printed by him. is performed is called the "agent" of the passive voice. vi estas vidataj. the . 170.vidata. indicated by a passive verb or participle. THE GENERAL MEANING OF "DE". This meaning develops into that of the source from which connection or ownership arises (49). The preposition "de" conveys the general idea of separation from a source or starting point. and is expressed by a substantive preceded by "de": La lanco estas portata de mi. it) is (being) seen. they are (being) seen. The prepositional phrase containing "de" must be so placed as to avoid ambiguity in its meaning. 131). ni estas vidataj. in space (literal or figurative). 169. he (she. you are (being) seen. and also into that of the agency from which an act is done or a condition caused (169). the spear is carried by me. ili estas vidataj. we are (being) seen. or must be reinforced by an adverb or other word: La arbo estas malproksima de la domo. The person by whom (or the thing by which) an act. the roads are being covered by snow. La vojoj estas kovrataj de negxo.

La afero dependas de vi. La morgauxa festo estos pli agrabla ol la hierauxa. Mi prenas la libron de la knabo. li respondis jese. Mi prenas la libron for de la knabo. tomorrow's (the morrow's) celebration will be more pleasant than that of yesterday. The suffix "-ist-" is added to roots to express the profession. trade or occupation connected with the idea in the root: . Adjectives. I bade farewell to him by a farewell salute (see also 273). THE SUFFIX "-IST-". the matter depends upon (from) you. I take the book of the boy. and nouns may be derived from primary adverbs (66). WORD DERIVATION FROM PRIMARY ADVERBS. we made an immediate exchange. Ni faris tujan intersxangxon. 172. Gxi estas proksima de la gxardeno. Cxu li skribis jesan aux nean respondon? Did he write an affirmative or a negative answer? Anstataux nei. I take the book away from the boy. as well as from prepositions (120. it is near to (from) the garden. the present methods (methods of-now). 171. La tiamaj personoj estis liaj samtempuloj. the persons of-thattime were his contemporaries. he answered affirmatively. 159): La nunaj metodoj.tree is far from the house. Mi adiauxis lin per adiauxa saluto. verbs. instead of denying.

inter la maro kaj la rivero. La plej antikva respubliko en Euxropo kusxas en la norda parto de la bela itala lando.floristo = florist. kvadrat-a = square. Euxrop-o = Europe. . "the Chinese were learned even in the olden time (in ancient time)". grav-a = important. [Footnote: The words "antikva". proksime de la montoj.] ANTIKVA RESPUBLIKO. "I have an old hat (a hat which is not new)". La maljuna sinjoro en la malnovaj vestoj estas antikvisto. antikv-a = ancient nom-o = name. reprezent-i = to represent. proksim-a = near. mont-o = mountain. La hxinoj estis kleraj ecx en la antikva tempo. presisto = printer. "he is an old (aged) gentleman". "malnova". tiran-o = tyrant. serious. respublik-o = republic. "the ancient learned (enlightened) men already knew a great deal". servisto = servant. komercisto = trader. ital-a = Italian. all of which may at times be translated "old." must not be confused in use: Mi havas malnovan cxapelon. VOCABULARY administr-i = to manage. La antikvaj kleruloj jam sciis tre multe. sxtelisto = thief. merchant. "maljuna". Li estas maljuna sinjoro. okulisto = oculist. "the old gentleman with the old clothes is an antiquary". Li estas malnova amiko mia. "he is an old friend of mine (a friend of long standing)".

La grekaj respublikoj estis bonekonataj. Dufoje en la jaro la anoj elektas personojn. kaj la aferoj estas administrataj kiel eble plej sagxe. Oni ne trovas tre klerajn personojn en San Marino. La tuta respubliko enhavas nur dudek du kvadratajn mejlojn da tero. Tamen cxi tiu respubliko estas pli granda ol multaj antikvaj grekaj respublikoj. kaj gxi estas respubliko de antaux mil kvarcent jaroj. kiel la anoj (145) volas. kaj unu alia estas regxo tiun duonon da jaro.Gxia nomo estas San Marino. . La rikoltistoj plej ofte havas bonajn rikoltojn. En la respubliko kaj la tiea (171) urbo kiu havas la saman nomon. San Marino jam estis libera. kaj laboras kiel eble plej multe. tamen la laboristoj estas energiaj. Kvardek ses el tiuj personoj reprezentas la anojn. ne kiel unu aux alia regxo aux tirano deziras. Kvankam la cxirkauxaj landoj kaj nacioj apartenis en antikva tempo al la tiamaj regxoj. Per tia metodo. kaj la plimulto da personoj estas treege kontenta kaj felicxa. Oni ne pensas pri komerco aux eksterlandaj (167. la anoj estas bone reprezentataj. Sed en la nuna tempo la grekoj havas regxon. Gxiaj aferoj estas ankoraux administrataj tiel. ne estas tiom da personoj kiom en multaj italaj urboj. kaj enhavis multe da kleruloj inter siaj anoj. kiuj administros la gravajn aferojn de la respubliko dum la sekvontaj ses monatoj.

kaj la vivo tute ne sxajnas malfacila aux teda. Persons who have a good king are very happy. 12. 2. Oni preferas gaje amuzi sin cxehejme (167. That nation which was most enlightened a thousand years ago was the Chinese nation. It is said (54) that the Chinese drink as much tea as two or three contemporary nations. but those who have a bad king are as unhappy as possible. The inhabitants are well represented. It is near the mountains. a). in the northern part of the much praised Italian land. 10. 4. 14. and is therefore one of the smallest republics in the world. 13. and it is still that same republic. The inhabitants are . 3. The oldest republic in Europe is named San Marino. Fourteen hundred years ago it was already a republic. The majority of the kings of Europe are praiseworthy. 11. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 8. 1. and as free as possible. en la libertempo inter la rikoltoj. 6. The serious affairs of a republic are managed by persons representing the persons who live there. 7. 5. The Chinese of-that-time already had good printers among them. Enlightened persons often prefer to live in a republic. 9. It contains only twenty-two square miles.a) aferoj kaj ne volas vojagxi malproksimen de la bone amata hejmo. Nowadays ("nuntempe") there are very few tyrants.

16.] Cxiu." etc. The plural is "cxiuj". each (one). 17. They seldom take ("faras") tiresome journeys. I saw each of them. Sometimes it is equivalent to English "any". and .energetic and patient. every. as in "Any one who studies can learn. or greatly ("multe") change their customs. and is used only if "cxiuj" is pronominal and followed by "el": [Footnote: The use of "cxiu" and "cxiuj" must be distinguished from that of the adjective "tuta". The distributive pronoun (and pronominal adjective) is "cxiu". LESSON XXXVII. all men work all (the whole) day. There are bakers and shopkeepers (172) and many laborers among them. sed mi ne vidis la tutan vizagxon de cxiu viro". lernos. but I did not see all the face of each man. 15. The article is never interposed between "cxiuj" and the noun modified (as in English "all the men"). kaj parolis al cxiu knabo. Mi vidis cxiun el ili. but remain peacefully ("pace") at home. "Mi vidis cxiun vizagxon. every one who studies will learn. and have as much to eat as they need. kiu studos. 173. I saw every face. which means "all" in the sense of "entire": "Cxiuj viroj laboras la tutan tagon". They do not think about commerce. THE DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUN. every (one). all.

The distributive pronoun has a possessive or genitive form "cxies". 175.talked to every boy. La cxapelisto acxetas cxapelojn pogrande. every-body's opinion was different. (If the two . the hatter buys hats wholesale. Kies vocxojn mi auxdas? Cxies. he walks at the rate of four miles daily (every-day). every-body's: Li konas cxies nomon. I thank you all (I thank all of you). Cxies opinio estis diversa. Ni cxiuj estas reprezentataj. Mi acxetis viandon po kvarono da dolaro por funto. 174. 176. I bought meat at a quarter of a dollar for (per) pound. A compound word whose first element is a substantive. I bought coffee at a low price. everyone's. all (every one) of the sailors arrived. he knows every-one's name. at. dependent upon the second element in some prepositional relation. THE PREPOSITION "PO". Cxiuj el la maristoj alvenis. DEPENDENT COMPOUNDS. is called a "dependent compound". The preposition "po". is used chiefly before cardinals and has a distributive sense: Li marsxas po kvar mejloj cxiutage. at the rate of. we are all (all of us are) represented. Mi acxetis kafon po malalta prezo. Mi dankas vin cxiujn. whose voices do I hear? Everybody's.

midnight (mezo de la nokto). VOCABULARY cxies = every body's (174). fleks-i = to bend. "sindefendo". mangxocxambro. vend-i = to sell. tagmezo. weathercock (flago por la vento). supper (mangxo je la vespero). intenc-i = to intend. sunshine (brilo de la suno). lag-o = lake. dining-room (cxambro por mangxoj). cxiu = every-body (173). jugxi = to judge. self-praise.words were not united into one. ventoflago. . or would be in the accusative case. papermaker (faristo de papero). self-examination. self-contradictory. sever-a = severe. stang-o = pole. noktomezo. vespermangxo. dev-o = duty.] jarcento. po = at the rate of (175). "sinkontrauxdira". LA CXAPELO SUR LA STANGO. decid-i = to decide. Vilhelm-o = William. "sinekzameno". century (cento da jaroj). svis-o = Swiss. self-defence. to indicate its construction: "sinlauxdo". paperfaristo. the first element would be preceded by a preposition. vort-o = word.) The ending "-o" may be omitted from the first element of a dependent compound: [Footnote: A personal pronoun serving as the first element of a dependent compound may keep the accusative ending. sunbrilo. noon (mezo de la tago). genu-o = knee.

Li decidis meti sian cxapelon sur altan stangon en la vendejo ("market-place"). en malgranda vilagxo apud bela lago inter la altaj montoj. la kampojn kaj tiom da mono." li diris. por rimarki cxu la necesaj salutoj estos farataj de cxiuj. . Cxiu. por vendi legomojn po kiel eble altaj prezoj. kaj por esti malagrabla al la svisoj. Saluti la cxapelon estos la grava devo de cxiu persono en la vilagxo. Ofte tiuj personoj estis kiel eble plej severaj jugxistoj al la svisoj.Antaux ol Svislando estis tiel libera kiel la nuna svisa respubliko. kiom li povos. kaj por acxeti vestojn kaj aliajn aferojn po treege plej malaltaj prezoj. La tirano diris ke li forprenos la domon. de cxiu vilagxano aux kamparano kiu forgesos genufleksi." Je tagmezo alvenis gardistoj. "kiuj rimarkos cxu vi cxiuj genufleksos kiam vi estas proksimaj de la stango. sed ankaux genufleksi ("kneel") antaux la stango. Li elpensis rimarkindan metodon por montri sian povon ("power"). Estos cxies devo ne nur saluti la cxapelon. kaj por kapti cxiujn svisojn kiuj ne genufleksis. gxiaj aferoj estis administrataj de personoj kiuj reprezentis aliajn naciojn. Baldaux la kamparanoj komencis eniri la vendejon. kaj portos lian nomon. Li diris ke de nun tiu cxapelo reprezentas lin. Unufoje plej kruela tirano estis administranta aferojn svisajn. "Mi intencas sendi gardistojn.

During a visit at a friend's. I read an interesting book about ancient Europe. 1. Sed anstataux fari tujan saluton. A new school is being built. 9. pro timo pri la hejmoj kaj la familioj. dum li diris kelkajn vortojn al amiko. 10. not far from the home of the judge. Fine. 8. Once he put his hat on a pole in the market-place. I think that all clothes are being sold at a low price at-thepresent-time. kaj staris du aux tri minutojn proksime de la stango. li tute ne rigardis la stangon. We intend to go to the hatter's early tomorrow morning. eniris la vendejon. zorge genufleksis antaux la cxapelo de la malamata tirano. My cousin and I decided last night (93) to buy new hats for ourselves. 6. The day before yesterday my youngest cousin was sitting on my knee. and said that it was the duty of-every-one to kneel before it. kies nomo estis Vilhelmo Tell. kamparano. 2. 3. after he has breakfast in the dining-room. 4.kiu iris proksimen de la stango. aux genufleksi. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 5. It relates that several centuries ago a severe and cruel tyrant was managing affairs in Switzerland. My cousin goes to school every day. 7. and I told him that a rainbow ("cxielarko") is made by the sunshine and the rain. . It is my cousin's duty to study those books at the rate of ten pages a day.

THE DISTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVE. he (she. It is called the "imperfect passive tense". every sort of: Oni vendas cxiajn fruktojn tie. THE IMPERFECT PASSIVE TENSE. it) was (being) seen. a) to the Italian land. you were (being) seen. li (sxi. they sell every sort of fruit there. there are all sorts of persons in the world. ni . vi estis vidata. giving a comprehensive idea of the quality of some person or thing. I was (being) seen. The compound tense formed by combining the present passive participle with the past tense of the auxiliary verb "esti" expresses an act or condition as being undergone by the subject of the verb "at some time in the past". on ("cxe") the lake not far from the mountains through which one goes on the way (167. The distributive adjective related to the distributive pronoun "cxiu". 178. is "cxia". Estas cxiaj personoj en la mondo. This serious affair happened in a village one or two miles square. 12. LESSON XXXVIII. gxi) estis vidata. every kind of. 177. The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as follows: mi estis vidata. William Tell did not kneel or even look at the hat representing the tyrant.11.

COMPOUND TENSES OF IMPERSONAL VERBS. La viroj reciproke uzis siajn pafilojn. or the adverb "reciproke". "unu al la alia". the men used each other's guns. they fell upon each other. vi estis vidataj. RECIPROCAL EXPRESSIONS. 179. it is our duty to help one another. it had snowed a great deal. like other modifiers of impersonally used verbs (141): Estis pluvante antaux unu minuto. is used: Estas nia devo helpi unu la alian. are in compound tenses. the phrases "unu la alian". they were (being) seen.. ili estis vidataj. The suffix "-uj-" may be used to form words indicating "that which contains." "one another. To give a reciprocal sense. we were (being) seen. or other verbs used impersonally.estis vidataj. 181. Estis multe negxinte. etc. Ili parolas unu al la alia. you were (being) seen." "reciprocally"). When impersonal verbs. it was raining a minute ago. it was seen that every one wept. they are talking to each other. the participial element is given the ending "e". bears. Ili falis unu sur la alian. THE SUFFIX "-UJ-"." "mutually. when there are two or more subjects and the action goes from one to the other (expressed in English by "each other. 180. . Estis vidate ke cxiu ploras.

reciprok-a = reciprocal. mutual. tial li decidis puni lin . sukerujo = sugarbowl. It may be used instead of "-lando" to form the name of a region containing any one race or tribe. to request. monujo = purse. prepar-i = to prepare. imag-i = to imagine. some number or quantity of that which is expressed by the root. tusx-i = to touch. konduk-i = to lead. Li diris ke li tute ne intencis agi kontraux la deziroj de la jugxistoj. and instead of "-arbo" to form the names of fruit trees: ujo = a receptacle. koro = heart. Tell respondis fiere ke li ne sciis pri la cxiutagaj genufleksoj de la aliaj personoj. pun-i = to punish. mort-i = to die. VILHELMO TELL KAJ LA POMO. patrujo (patrolando) = fatherland. simile al la aliaj vilagxanoj. supujo = soup-tureen. Sed la tirano malamis la altan fortan svison. kaj kondukis lin al la tirano. leterujo = lettercase. pomujo (pomarbo) = apple-tree. sagujo = quiver. simil-a = like. ili kaptis lin. VOCABULARY ag-i = to act. fiera = proud. pet-i = to plead. cxia = of every kind (177). La tirano demandis de Tell kial li ne genufleksis antaux la cxapelo. ceter-a = remaining. por esti jugxata. similar.or is a receptacle for". Tuj kiam la gardistoj rimarkis ke la cxapelo sur la stango ne estis salutata de Vilhelmo Tell.

Ni vidos cxu vi povos forpafi pomon de sur la kapo de via plej juna filo." Tell lauxte respondis "Por mortpafi vin. estos via devo forpafi la pomon per la unua sago. Tell kaj la filo reciproke rigardis sin. Aldone ("in addition"). William Tell had a strong flexible (161) bow. la tirano demandis "Kial vi havas tiun ceteran sagon en la mano. faris la necesajn preparojn." SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. kaj cxiu havis felicxan koron. tuj post la infano. kaj metis la pomon sur lian kapon. Ni eltrovos kia arkpafisto vi estas. sed malgraux cxies petoj la tirano estis jam elektanta pomon de apuda pomarbo. dum la patro diris ke li ne tusxos haron de lia kapo. estas rakontate inter la vilagxanoj ke vi estas rimarkinda arkpafisto ("archer"). alie ("otherwise") mi punos vin kaj vian filon per tuja morto. Li kondukis la knabon malproksimen de la ceteraj personoj. anstataux tia puno. Tiam li elprenis sagon el la sagujo. . sinjoro. kaj demandis "Kiun el viaj infanoj vi plej amas?" Vilhelmo Tell ne povis imagi kial la demando estas farata al li. Tuj la pomo forfalis de la kapo de la infano. Dum Tell cxirkauxprenis la filon. cxar mi treege timis pro la vivo de mia kara filo. 1." Tell diris ke li estas preta por ricevi cxian alian punon.per severa puno. kaj respondis "Mi amas cxiujn el ili." La tirano diris "Nu. kaj rapide pafis.

and the Swiss congratulated each other heartily ("kore"). and went with his sons to the village. Amid the pleadings of all. 15. 12. 5. at the rate of six miles an hour. A similar second arrow was ready in his hand. After some time they followed him. He put six or eight arrows into his quiver. But he escaped. 14. Tell successfully shot off the apple. He could shoot-with-a-bow ("arkpafi") excellently. . and prepared to punish Tell by death. 3. 6.2. for he hated the proud Swiss whom every one else loved. LESSON XXXIX. or whether you will touch the child's head. who was also the judge. Therefore I was wondering whether you could shoot an apple from your son's head. Tell said "I did not know about this new duty. but he did not kneel before it. 8. 10." 7. When the guards seized him for that act." 11. and led him before the tyrant. 13. It was being noticed already in the village that Tell hated the tyrant very much. The tyrant replied with ("per") angry words. and could not imagine why the hat was on the pole there. The tyrant saw the remaining arrow. Now we shall see whether you can shoot off the apple. 4. therefore he was a well-known archer. Possibly he saw the hat upon the pole. He said severely "It is said that you are a praiseworthy archer. 9.

it) will be seen. they will be seen. POSSESSIVE COMPOUNDS. THE FUTURE PASSIVE TENSE. The distributive adverb of place. such men are found everywhere. ili estos vidataj.THE DISTRIBUTIVE ADVERB OF PLACE. kie mi estis estinta. I see him everywhere I go. 182. related to the distributive pronoun "cxiu". The compound tense formed by combining the present passive participle with the future tense of "esti" indicates that an act or condition "will be undergone" by the subject of the verb. The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as follows: mi estos vidata. . The ending "-n" may be added to "cxie" to show direction of motion (121): Oni trovas tiajn virojn cxie. kien mi iras. vi estos vidata. vi estos vidataj. It is called the "future passive tense". you will be seen. and a noun-root for the second element. Compound adjectives may be formed with an adjectival root for the first element. gxi) estos vidata. li (sxi. we shall be seen. Mi vidas lin cxie. you will be seen. everywhere. 184. 183. I shall be seen. he went everywhere where I had been. Such adjectives have the meaning "possessed of" that which is indicated in the compound. Li iris cxien. ni estos vidataj. he (she. is "cxie".

we went at half past six. Ni iris je la sesa kaj duono." "triple. how much) is used: Kioma horo estas? What hour (what o'clock. THE SUFFIX "-OBL-". rugxhara = red-haired. The ordinals are used in expressing the hour of the day. bonintenca = good-intentioned. double. with "-ed" as the final syllable): belbrova = beautiful-browed. multobla. In questions the adjective "kioma" (from "kiom". THE TIME OF DAY. dumana = twohanded. manifold. quadruple. a double. duoble.: duoblo." etc. kvarpieda = four-footed. Trioble du estas ses. The minutes are expressed by the cardinals. what time) is it? Je kioma horo vi venos? At what time (what o'clock) will you come? Estas la dua horo. doubly. it is five minutes past three. 186. with "horo" expressed or understood. The suffix "-obl-" is used to form multiples indicating how many fold. . fifty-fold. Estas la tria kaj kvin minutoj. it is eight forty-five (a quarter of nine). three times two is six. Estas la oka kaj kvardek kvin (or: estas unu kvarono antaux la nauxa). kvarobla. kvindekobla. duobla." "double. as "two fold. it is two o'clock (it is the second hour). 185.(Similar adjectives are formed in English. longnaza = long-nosed.

Kiam mi eniris la stacidomon. staci-o = station. gicxet-o = wicket. vagon-o = car. it cannot be followed by the accusative. cend-o = cent. mi kuris preter la aliaj personoj al la gicxeto kie biletoj estas . preter = beyond. esprim-o = expression. ticket-window. horlogx-o = clock. [Footnote: The preposition "preter" indicates the movement of something alongside of and passing beyond something else. Je la dua horo. Tuj poste mi enmetis kelkajn vestojn en mian jam preskaux eluzitan valizon. Mi estis duoble gxoja hieraux kiam mi ricevis leteron de ili.VOCABULARY bilet-o = ticket. valiz-o = valise. por demandi je kioma horo foriros la vagonaro ("train") al B----. Oni respondis per la telefono ke la vagonaro foriros je la tria kaj tridek kvin. Tial mi telefonis hieraux posttagmeze al la stacidomo. Since it does not express motion "toward" its complement. pag-i = to pay. Survoje mi eniris butikon kaj acxetis paron da novaj gantoj. past. mi marsxis stacidomon. cxie = everywhere (182). cxar en tiu ili petis de mi baldauxan viziton.] EN LA STACIDOMO. Du bonkoraj (184) amikoj miaj logxas en la urbo B----. Ni reciproke konas nin de antaux ses jaroj. tuj post la tagmangxo ("midday meal"). telefon-i = to telephone. kaj faris cxiujn preparojn por la mallonga vojagxo.

I telephoned to find out at what time . Fine oni malfermis la pordegon. Because of the request of my friend whose brother died recently. Li lauxtvocxe respondis "Nur sep minutojn. 2. [Footnote: "Posttagmezo". The remaining persons of his family were not at home. Mi diris al la sinjoro cxe la gicxeto "Mi deziras bileton al B----. Tiam mi iris proksimen de la pordego tra kiu oni estos enlasata al la vagonaro. I went last ("la antauxan") week to visit him. 1. Mi kaj la ceteraj personoj rapidis al la vagonaro kaj kiel eble plej baldaux eniris gxin." Mi pusxis tiom da mono tra la gicxeto. "Kiom da tempo antaux la foriro de la vagonaro al B----?" mi demandis al la gardisto. Cxu vi ne vidas tiun horlogxon?" Mi ne estis rimarkinta la horlogxon. 3. afternoon. is a descriptive compound (167. Mi estis multe tusxata de cxiaj bonintencaj personoj kurantaj cxien preter mi.vendataj. kaj pusxantaj unu la alian. tial mi almetis la montrilojn de mia posxhorlogxo ("watch") por montri la saman horon. Kiom estos necese pagi?" La brunokula sinjoro respondis "Tia bileto kostos dolaron dudek cendojn. kiun la sinjoro jam havis en la mano. a) whose second element "tagmezo" is a dependent compound (176). kaj tuj ricevis la bileton.] SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

I hurried past the other people to the wicket. but the yellowhaired guard who conducts persons to the trains said "Persons who go through that gate before the train arrives will be severely punished. 11. I was told (54) that it would leave at four twenty-seven. When I entered the station. Then I looked at my watch and went near the gate. 7. related to the distributive pronoun "cxiu". . THE DISTRIBUTIVE TEMPORAL ADVERB. 6. you always pay too much. always. I am always ready to help you. LESSON XL. 5. I put enough money into my purse. THE DISTRIBUTIVE ADVERB "CXIAL". and asked for ("petis") a ticket to B----. 4. and not express impatience. and carried along ("kunportis") a valise into which I had put some clothes." 10. but I at once pushed that much money through the window. The distributive adverb of time. 187. and it is better to act as the guards request. I could not imagine why it was necessary to pay so much. The trains are much like each other. Mi estas cxiam preta por helpi vin.the train would depart. The ticket seller said "Two dollars and forty cents. So all of us stood near the double gate. 9." 8. is "cxiam". and received the ticket. at all times: Vi cxiam pagas tro multe.

as "vidita". he (she. related to the pronoun "cxiu". THE PERFECT PASSIVE TENSE. for every reason he is happy today. I have been seen (I am having-been-seen).188. for every reason. for all reasons: Cxial li estas felicxa hodiaux. 189. La mia cxial estas la plej bona. The conjugation of the verb "vidi" in this tense is as follows: mi estas vidita. The past passive participle expresses an act or condition as "having been undergone" by the person or thing indicated by the word modified. you have been seen. the (having-been) punished child is crying. La punita infano ploras. is "cxial". it) . gxi) estas vidita. The distributive adverb of motive or reason. It is called the "perfect passive tense". having been seen: La prezo pagita de vi estis tro granda. The compound tense formed by combining the past passive participle with the present tense of the verb "esti" expresses an act or condition which "has been undergone" by the subject of the verb. he looked for the forgotten ticket. li (sxi. mine is for all reasons the best. This participle ends in "-ita". the price paid by you was too great. I shall buy well-made gloves. Mi acxetos bonefaritajn gantojn. Li sercxis la forgesitan bileton. vi estas vidita. 190. THE PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLE.

moves. ili estas viditaj. you have been seen. Gxi kusxas lauxlonge de la domo.has been seen. the preposition "laux" is used: Li agis laux sia opinio. The suffix "-em-" indicates a "tendency" or "inclination" toward that which is expressed in the root: agema = active. 191. ni estas viditaj. THE PREPOSITION "LAUX". mov-i = to move (transitive) . pensema = pensive. takes place. I walked down (or up) the street. In expressing that "in accordance with which" something is done. THE SUFFIX "-EM-". pacema = peaceful. way. etc.. cxial = for every reason (188). he went along the river by that road. Nuboj nigraj kuris laux la cxielo. it lies lengthwise of the house. Laux kia maniero li agis? In what manner did he act? Mi marsxis laux la strato. Li iris laux la rivero per tiu vojo. mallaborema = lazy. 192. we have been seen. VOCABULARY atend-i = to wait (for). laux = according to (191). they have been seen. to expect. pacific. he acted in accordance with his own opinion. thoughtful. black clouds raced along the sky. cxiam = always (187). I shall do it according to a good method. Mi faros gxin laux bona metodo. vi estas viditaj. manier-o = manner.

Mi tre kompatis la ploreman sinjorinon. paper. kaj li donis al mi la sekvantan priskribon de la infano. Dum mi estis atendanta hieraux posttagmeze en la stacidomo. la filo sxajnas ankoraux netrovebla. kompat-i = to pity. mi demandis cxu mi ne povas helpi. kaj li estas rugxe vestita ("dressed in red"). kaj fine sxi vidis bluevestitan policanon. kun bluaj okuloj. kaj kiam la policano preteriris. Li respondis ke la filo de tiu virino estas perdita. pal-a = pale. gazette. laux la vortoj de la patrino: la knabo estas agema brunhara sesjarulo. Sxi sercxis du aux tri minutojn inter la personoj cxirkaux si. tranquil.gazet-o = magazine. Kvankam sxi jam sercxis cxie. kaj estis videble maltrankvila. kaj post kiam sxi pagis la nauxdek cendojn por gxi. kaj tuj li ankaux komencis sercxi cie. trankvil-a = calm. Sxi rapide diris kelkajn vortojn al li. Mi diris ke mi ne estos okupata ("busy") gxis la alveno de la vagonaro. Lia patrino estis jxus acxetinta sian bileton cxe la gicxeto. Sxi rigardis cxien kun esprimo de nekasxebla timo. okup-i = to occupy. jxurnal-o = journal. . kiu estis parolanta al unu el la gardistoj. subite sxi rimarkis ke la infano ne estis kun sxi. polic-o = police. larm-o = tear. LA PERDITA INFANO. Sxi multe timas pro li. mi subite rimarkis palan sinjorinon kun larmoj en sxiaj okuloj.

so I have time to help. Mi diris al li "Mia studema juna amiko. kaj proksime de la pordo kie mi estis lasinta mian valizon staris la sinjorino. I said to the bluegarbed policeman "During the next ("sekvontajn") twenty minutes I shall not be . kie estas vendataj tagjxurnaloj ("newspapers"). Via patrino jam de longe atendas vin. Tie antaux nemovebla tablo kovrita de brile koloritaj jxurnaloj staris malgranda rugxevestita knabo. kaj fine eniris malgrandan cxambron apud la horlogxo cxe la fino de la stacidomo. 3. and at once said to myself "It is now only ten minutes past two. She was pale and tearful ("plorema") when I saw her. Mi montros al vi kie sxi estas." Li venis kun mi. There was an expression of fear upon her face and she went as quickly as possible to a nearby policeman. Sxi estis cxial gxoja kiam sxi vidis nin. and said a few ("kelkajn") words to him. 4. 2. 5. Mi tuj komencis marsxi cxien inter la personoj cxirkaux mi." 6. I heard the last words. gazetoj kaj libroj. lost in the station yesterday afternoon was very uneasy about him for every reason. and looked in every direction in a most impatient manner. My train will leave ("foriros") at half-past two. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. kaj dankeme cxirkauxprenis la infanon.kvankam li cxiam estas bona knabo. oni ne vojagxas laux tiu metodo.

he took a great deal of sugar." 11. I shall find him as soon as possible. is "cxiom". and apparently ("sxajne") too restless ("movema"). As ("cxar") I am not at all lazy ("mallaborema"). 10. is "cxiel". THE DISTRIBUTIVE ADVERB "CXIOM". looking at the magazines and newspapers. I led him to the lady. all: Li prenis multe da sukero. According to her description. sed ne cxiom da gxi. The distributive adverb of quantity. 8. 9. The son of that lady has been lost. Do you desire my help?" 7. who with tears in LESSON XLI. THE DISTRIBUTIVE ADVERB "CXIEL". he can prepare it in every manner. nevertheless I shall gladly accept your help. The child is dressed in white and wears a red hat.busy. but not all . in every way. I went along the stationary ("nemoveblaj") tables asfar-as the end of the station. The distributive adverb of manner. 12. he is a yellow-haired blue-eyed five-year-old. the whole. 194. he will be helped in every way. you are very kind ("gxentila"). related to the distributive pronoun "cxiu". Li estos cxiel helpata. 193. in every manner: Li povas cxiel prepari gxin. every quantity. He answered "Yes. and there I saw that-sort-of child. related to the distributive pronoun "cxiu".

he (she. gxi) estos vidita. ili estis viditaj. THE FUTURE PERFECT PASSIVE TENSE. Li elprenis cxiom de la teo el la teujo. it) had been seen. I had been seen (I was havingbeen-seen). you . you had been seen. It is called the "future perfect passive tense". vi estos viditaj. It is called the "pluperfect passive tense".of it. ni estis viditaj. we had been seen. vi estis viditaj. li (sxi. we shall have been seen. The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as follows: mi estos vidita. 196. it) will have been seen. ni estos viditaj. THE PLUPERFECT PASSIVE TENSE. The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as follows: mi estis vidita. you will have been seen. you had been seen. 195. li (sxi. he (she. he took all of the tea out of the tea caddy. vi estos vidita. gxi) estis vidita. they had been seen. vi estis vidita. The compound tense made by combining the past passive participle with the past tense of the verb "esti" expresses an act or condition which "had been undergone" by the subject of the verb at some point in past time. The compound tense made by combining the past passive participle with the future tense of the verb "esti" expresses an act or condition which "will have been undergone" by the subject of the verb at some point in future time. I shall have been seen (shall be having-been-seen).

an adjective may be used instead of the prepositional phrase unless a verb or participle lays stress upon the fact of construction: La tablo estas farita el ligno. lud-i = to play. the table is wooden (of wood). ili estos viditaj. THE EXPRESSION OF MATERIAL. libreto = booklet. the table is made out of wood. floret. Oni faras supon el asparago. VOCABULARY best-o = animal. leon-o = lion. 197. THE SUFFIX "-ET-". lageto = pond. the children built a house of (out of) snow. rideti = to smile. vojeto = path. they will have been seen. Sometimes an affectionate significance is given: beleta = pretty. donac- . La infanoj konstruis domon el negxo. monteto = hill. It is thus in contrast to the augmentative suffix "-eg-" (122). The suffix "-et-" indicates diminution of degree in that which is expressed by the root. all (194). La tablo estas ligna (el ligno). they make soup out of asparagus. 198. floreto = floweret. small lake. cxiom = the whole. As in English. material-o = material. cxiel = in every way (193). dormeti = to doze. The material "out of which" something is made or constructed is expressed by use of the preposition "el".will have been seen.

kia estos elektita plej frue de la . katetoj. grandaj kaj malgrandaj. kvankam ili estas cxiam interesaj al knabinetoj. drapo. kaj rigardis la ludilojn tie. Estas duoble malfacile. posed-i = to own. faritaj el ligno. kaj tial mi decidis elekti tian ludilon. des pli malfacile estas decidi pri la afero. drap-o = cloth. pup-o = doll. kaj flavaj leonetoj. Estis cxevaletoj. konsist-i = to consist. Sed mi estas certa ke la fratineto jam posedas suficxe da pupoj--tial mi ne acxetis tian ludilon. to possess. Baldaux mi rimarkis knabineton apud mi. Proksime de tiuj staris malgrandaj brile koloritaj vagonaroj. Cxiel sxi tre similis al mia fratino. sed ju pli mi pensas pri gxi. Tamen mi iris hieraux matene al ludilobutiko. present.o = gift. kaj estis cxial malfacile elekti la plej interesan el tiom da interesaj ludiloj. Cxiu el sxiaj amikoj gxoje donacas ("make presents") al tiel afabla knabino. versx-i = to pour. Mi volas doni beletan donacon al mia plej juna fratino morgaux. kiujn oni povis rapide movi. cxar sxi jam posedas cxiun ludilon ("toy") kiun oni povas imagi. hund-o = dog. Multaj konsistis el diversaj pupoj. laux la maniero de grandaj vagonaroj. kaj diversaj materialoj. LA DONACO. hundetoj. rost-i = to roast. kaj belege vestitaj. Etaj policanoj staris apude. Sur unu tablo kusxis cxiaj malgrandaj bestoj.

I have not seen tears in her eyes. Fine la beleta infano estis rigardinta preskaux cxiom de la ludiloj kiuj okupis la tablojn. This new doll is made out of cloth. kaj mi vidas tie pupon. legomoj kaj rostita viando. 3. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. and its dress consists of very pretty material. My sister decided that she likes it better than her other playthings. kaj estas elversxonta gxin en tiujn tasetojn!" Tuj mi faris decidon laux la plezuro de la knabineto. kiu certe jxus faris la teon. But yesterday my grandmother made a present of a doll (presented a doll) to her. or heard a cross ("koleretan") word. 1. kiel beleta pupodomo! Estas litoj en la dormocxambroj. 4.nekonata knabineto. Her dolls were made out of cloth when she was a very little girl. and since that moment she has been as happy as possible. kaj ecx legis unu aux du pagxojn de miaj jxus acxetitaj gazetoj kaj tagjxurnaloj. kusxas sur la tablo en la mangxo-cxambro. Mi atendis trankvile. My pale delicate ("malsanema") little sister is always happy when she has a new toy. because otherwise she could too easily break them. 2. 6. faritaj el papero. and I think that those poor ("kompatindaj") . Tiam la knabineto kriis "Ho. dum la kompatinda servistino lace sxin sekvis. 5. kaj baldaux la pupodomo estis acxetita por mia fratineto.

ends in "-ota". and until yesterday she had a wooden pony. which are on the table with her dolls. before I come home from my walk. 14. the daughter of our laundress ("lavistino"). I wish to take a walk along that pleasant path toward the hill. She possesses a little dog and a little cat. My sister possesses a small train of cars which she can move everywhere. and a little lion. or putting all of the sand into a box. The future passive participle. by means of a small spoon. 9. THE FUTURE PASSIVE PARTICIPLE. as . and has been given away to a poor ("malricxa") child. The doll seems in every way more interesting than the little animals made out of cloth or wood. and usually she is happy when she is pouring the sand out of one of these into another. 12.other dolls will soon have been forgotten. 7. I must buy the meat to roast for supper. 199. and she is very fond of ("ametas") this toy. There are small sacks of sand in the cars. The pony is already broken. 10. 8. 13. For every reason I am doubly glad today that she is busied in this manner ("tiamaniere"). instead of waiting for my little sister. LESSON XLII. 11. expressing that which "will be or is about to be undergone" by the person or thing indicated by the word modified.

The article is placed before nouns used in a comprehensive or universal sense. indicating a whole class. I was about to be (going to be) seen. mi estis vidota. the table about to be moved away is heavy. the house going to be built by him will be beautiful. mi estos vidota. the child about to be punished whimpers softly. La domo konstruota de li estos bela. about to be seen: La punota infano mallauxte ploretas. respectively. substance. mi estas vidota. like those of the active voice (153) are not often used. These are called "passive periphrastic future tenses". The compound tenses formed by combining the future passive participle with each of the three aoristic tenses of "esti" represent an act or condition as "about to be undergone" in the present. 201. I shall be about to be (going to be) seen. A synopsis of "vidi" in the first person singular of these tenses is as follows: Present Periphrastic Future. La formovota tablo estas peza. In such use it is called the . I am about to be (going to be) seen."vidota". or future. THE PASSIVE PERIPHRASTIC FUTURE TENSES. Past Periphrastic Future. Except when great accuracy is desired. kind. past. 200. Future Periphrastic Future. or abstract quality. THE GENERIC ARTICLE. these tenses.

[Footnote: Cf. etc. 202. patrineco = motherhood. but its fruit is sweet". pont-o = bridge. patience is bitter. man is stronger than woman. shore."generic article": La pacienco estas lauxdinda. riches are the baggage of fortune". mais son fruit est doux. fleksebleco = flexibility. French "La patience est amere. life is short". In English the generic article (as in "the life eternal" above) may often be replaced by omission of both "a" and "the. fabrik-i = to manufacture. La viro estas pli forta ol la virino. ofteco = frequency. Spanish "Las riquezas son bagajes de la fortuna. indeco = worthiness. dankemeco = thankfulness. brak-o = arm. to which it is attached: amikeco = friendship. maltrankvileco = uneasiness."] THE SUFFIX "-EC-". patreco = fatherhood. sonor-i = to ring (intrans. The suffix "-ec-" is used to form words indicating the "abstract quality" of that which is expressed in the root. or formation. surtut-o = overcoat. VOCABULARY bord-o = bank. life on earth is merely a part of the life eternal. hope is the poor man's bread". Italian "La speranza e il pan de miseri. La vivo surtera estas nur parto de la vivo cxiama. krut-a = . German "Das Leben ist kurtz. patience is praiseworthy.).

Hieraux du kuzinoj venis por viziti cxe ni. mebl-o = piece of furniture. sving-i = to swing. Cxiu sur la sxipeto ridetis. to brandish. kien oni volas iri. de la tero al la planko de la sxipeto. Tial mi acxetis tri biletojn. pitoresk-a = picturesque. SUR LA VAPORSXIPO. ni rimarkis ke beleta vaporsxipeto estis jxus forironta. Unu el la plezuroj de la kampara vivo konsistas el la multenombraj ("numerous") okazoj por veturi cxien. per kvietaj pitoreskaj vojoj. cxar . La sonoriloj ("bells") estis jam sonorintaj. La personoj sxajnis tre koleraj pro sia malfrueco. sed la sxipeto ne atendis ecx unu minuton. Kelkaj personoj kiuj estis ankoraux sur la tero kuris kun granda rapideco al la ponteto. Ili svingis la brakojn kaj la ombrelojn tre energie.steep. vapor-o = steam. kaj ankoraux pli koleraj pro la trankvila foriro de la sxipeto. lan-o = wool.). kaj kiel eble plej rapide ni suriris la sxipeton. oni forprenis la ponteton. kaj tuj post kiam ni transmarsxis la ponteton. yet another") okazon por plezuro en nia vilagxo. kaj tuj post la tagmangxo ni decidis promeni laux tiu pitoreska vojeto al la lago. sxip-o = ship. Kiam ni alvenis al la lago. cxar ni povas veturi per vaporsxipo sur la bela lago cxe kies bordo kusxas la vilagxo. Ni havas ankoraux unu ("still one. vetur-i = to travel (in a vehicle). pas-i = to pass (intrans. sxton-o = stone.

and also looked at the various little animals. In a toy-shop yesterday I examined the dolls made out of woolen cloth and other material. Tie oni fabrikos tablojn. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 6. kune kun grandaj stangoj kaj aliaj pecoj da ligno. There were also little cups and tumblers of thin glass. sed pro la varmeco de la vetero mi ne bezonis gxin. kaj aliajn meblojn el zorge elektita ligno. fruits and roast (189) meat. La sxtonoj por la muroj jam kusxas pretaj apude. Mi estis kunportinta dikan lanan surtuton. 3. 2. which consisted of tables. Ni atendis kun plezuro por vidi la krutajn montetojn kiuj estos videblaj tuj kiam la sxipeto estos pasinta preter malgranda arbaro. 4. little dogs and little lions and camels. La pitoreskeco de la belaj montetoj estas difektota. kaj lasis gxin sur apuda segxo. On the tables were small plates containing vegetables. entirely made out of colored paper.la koleremo ("irascibility") estas cxiam amuza. into which one could pour water or . segxojn. It is difficult in every way to select a present for a child who already possesses enough toys. kiel li deziris. 5. Tiam cxiu komencis sin amuzi tiel. There were ponies. cxar grandaj fabrikejoj estas jam konstruataj cxe la montpiedoj. There were also little sets of furniture (126). 1. sofas and chairs.

I left the shop. but certain ones are not good. I visited some of your friends. while its bells were ringing.milk. The indefinite pronoun (and pronominal adjective) "iu". I have several apples. I am talking about a certain one whom you know. The steamboat to B---was just leaving. and tried to decide what sort of present to choose. kiun vi konas. and rode an hour in the open ("libera") air. for a large furniture factory is going to be built between that steep hill and the lake. I walked along a stony picturesque path toward the lake. 203. swinging my overcoat on my arm. but its beauty is about to be spoiled. LESSON XLIII. while I thought over ("pripensis") the difficulty. a certain one. 11. 10. so I went across the footbridge ("ponteto") on to the pretty little ship. sed iuj ne estas bonaj. presents the idea of some person or thing. Mi havas kelkajn pomojn. As (cxar) one dollar was all (194) of the money which I had in my purse. any one. for water-power ("akvoforto") will be used. THE INDEFINITE PRONOUN. Its proximity to the water is necessary. Iuj pontoj estas bone . Mi vizitis iujn el viaj amikoj. 8. The shore which we passed is very picturesque. 9. without definitely characterizing it: Mi parolas pri iu. 7.

legonto. somebody's. Cxu ies surtuto kusxas sur la tablo? Is anybody's overcoat lying on the table? Ies ludiloj estas rompitaj. one (having been) sent. an assistant. one who is helping. one who is about to read.faritaj. a person working. la jugxoto. an envoy. "laboranto". 205. horseman. Nouns may be formed from participles. someone's playthings are broken. a certain one's: Mi tusxis ies brakon. vidato. elpensinto. a rider. [Footnote: Participial nouns must not be confused with nouns formed by the suffix "ist-" (172) expressing professional or permanent occupation: "rajdanto". "jugxanto". "jugxisto". PARTICIPIAL NOUNS. the one about to be judged. Such participial nouns indicate persons temporarily or nonprofessionally performing or undergoing that which is expressed by the root: helpanto. a judge (of something). some bridges are well made. someone's. "rajdisto". 204. judge (professional). an inventor. The indefinite pronoun "iu" has a possessive or genitive form "ies". the accused. one who has thought out something. one (being) seen. I touched someone's arm. jockey. . sendito. by substituting the noun ending "-o" for the adjectival ending "-a".

to overturn. king). iu = some one (203). milit-i = to fight. throng. regxidino. lion). the child of. to glance at. mark. ekkanti. to burst into song. laborer. ekiri. katido. colt (from "cxevalo". THE SUFFIX "-ID-". sign-o = sign. [Footnote: Cf. tru-o = hole. to set out. humor-o = temper. horse). kugl-o = bullet. is indicated by the prefix "ek-": ekdormi. including both men and women. 207. man in the generic sense. to start. the difference between "viro". a lion's whelp (from "leono".] THE PREFIX "EK-". tend-o = tent. or the beginning of an action or state. Sudden or momentary action. (bird). leonido. renvers-i = to upset. the descendant of. hom-o = human being. cat). puppy (from "hundo". woman). hirund-o = swallow. 206. Words indicating the "young of. to burst into a laugh ekrigardi. a king's daughter. dauxr-i = to continue. humor. ost-o = bone. VOCABULARY amas-o = heap. to fall asleep. to make war." are formed by use of the suffix "-id-": cxevalido. and "homo". hundido.] . ies = some one's (204). a princess (from "regxo". ekridi. dog)."laboristo". kitten (from "kato". man (in contrast to "virino".

"Tiu hirundo estos mia gasto. Unu tagon en la dauxro ("course") de la milito. Dum la soldatoj svingis la brakojn kaj ekridis unu post la alia. Tuj la venkintoj . kaj li havis grandan tendaron ("encampment") antaux tiu urbo. Fine la regxo venkis. sidis trankvile la hirundo. sed la trankvileco de la birdo dauxris same kiel antauxe.LA NESTO SUR LA TENDO. per kruelega batalo. Kelkaj kugloj pasis preter gxi. Cxiuj el la militistoj certe zorgos de nun pri la hirundo kaj la hirundidoj. Kiam la viroj montris al li la birdon. la regxo auxdis ies vocxon. laux la sxtona vojeto laux kiu ili cxiutage marsxis por gardi la tendaron. kaj kial ili tiel ekkriis kaj ekridis. Sur la nesto." Tial la nesto restis netusxata en la dauxro de cxiu batalo. Li elvenis el sia tendo por eltrovi kial la parolantoj faras tiom da bruo. iuj el la soldatoj pasis preter la tendo de la regxo. sed estis konstruintaj ponton trans la rivero. kiu estis bone konstruita el koto. Estis necese resti kelkan tempon apud urbo kiun la regxo volis ekataki. La soldatoj ne venis tien per vaporsxipoj. Unufoje iu regxo estis farinta militon kontraux la homoj de lando cxe la bordo de pitoreska rivero. por la veturiloj ("vehicles"). Unu el cxi tiuj ekrimarkis ke hirundo estas konstruinta sian neston sur la regxa tendo. li diris kun bonhumora rideto. pri la kuragxa birdo.

Some of them burst into a laugh. There is a pretty story about a swallow which built its nest for its young ("idoj") on the king's tent. 5. as well as ("kaj ankau") a bell which always rang as soon as ("tuj kiam") one touched it. gxis iu tago somera kiam la hirundidoj povis jam bone flugi. to point it out to their comrades. tra kiu la pluvo eniris per multe da truoj. Sed gxi ankoraux staris. The soldiers who were walking along the steep path past the tent glanced at it. kaj gxi ekfalis. The tent was an expensive one. kaj la ceteraj malgajaj postsignoj ("traces") de ies venko sur la batalejo. The goodhumored king put on a thick woolen overcoat. amaso da cxifonoj. Nur la tendon de la regxo oni lasis tie.forportis la tendojn. Gxi jam estis malnova kaj eluzita. 4. kune kun multaj militkaptitoj ("prisoners of war"). kaj kusxis. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 3. homaj ostoj. and came out of his tent. 2. cxar la regxo diris ke gxi nun apartenas al la hirundo. and said with an amiable smile "Surely such a . and gestured ("svingis la brakon") toward the bird. to inquire why his soldiers were conversing so noisily there. Tiam la vento subite renversis gxin. 6. 1. and contained handsome furniture. inter multe da kugloj. and caught sight of (206) the bird. The king immediately noticed the swallow's nest.

there is some sort of human being in that tent. The young swallows already could fly. Finally the wind upset it. War (201) is wicked and shameful (154). is "ia". Perhaps those sons will be prisoners of war. Estas ia homo en tiu tendo. 209. The indefinite adverb of place. The indefinite adjective. a certain kind of. 10. Why do kings and princes wish to make war upon each other (180)? 14. the mothers of the soldiers are very uneasy. there is a bird of some sort on that tree. related to the indefinite pronoun "iu". related to . The warriors (172) cared for the swallow as much as possible during the course of the war. piles of human bones. and similar melancholy signs of war. 12. 8. The battleground is covered with bullets. by ("je") that time. LESSON XLIV. 13.courageous bird is a worthy (154) guest for a king. 208. some kind of. Mi vidis iajn ostojn sur la tero. 9. expressing indefinitely the quality of a person or thing: Estas ia birdo sur tiu arbo. THE INDEFINITE ADVERB OF PLACE. and it fell to the ground. of any kind. When the victors departed. they left that tent there. 11. 15. When their sons have gone away to (make) war. I saw some kind of bones on the ground." 7. THE INDEFINITE ADJECTIVE.

is "ie". he made the world happy (made-happy the world). 210. or the condition. I am going somewhere. the ending "-n" is added (121): Ie en tiu arbaro estas leono. An adjective may stand in predicate relation to the direct object of a transitive verb. Mi trovis la truon jam farita. but remaining in the nominative case. Mi lasis la knabon trankvila. quality or temporary state in which this object is found: Li faris la mondon felicxa. La hirundo flugis ien. Mi iros ien. somewhere behind the soldiers you will find a heap of bullets. Mi lasis ilin bone punitaj. Such a predicate adjective. I left them well punished. sed mi ankoraux ne scias kien. somewhere in that forest is a lion. anywhere. somewhere. I found the hole already made. indicates the result produced by the verb upon the object. Ie malantaux la soldatoj vi trovos amason da kugloj. PREDICATE NOMINATIVES. but I do not yet know where. I left the boy calm (undisturbed). the swallow flew somewhere (in some direction). .the indefinite pronoun "iu". agreeing in number (21) with the object of the verb. If the verb in the sentence expresses motion toward the place indicated by "ie". as well as to the subject of an intransitive verb (19). in (at) a certain place.

Oni elektis tiun reprezentanto. sufer- .] 211. I found him a thief. God made the happy world. Mi vidos lin venkinto. they elected that representative.[Footnote: Cf. Mi trovis lin sxtelisto. pasxt-i = to feed (flocks. clear. the difference between the examples given and sentences with the same words in an attributive (13) use: Dio faris la mondon felicxan. kresk-i = to grow. ripari = to mend. she named her daughter Mary. privilege. proceso = legal process. Oni elektis tiun reprezentanton. [Footnote: Cf. they elected that one representative.). I left those who had been well punished. I found the already made hole. I left the calm boy. just. she named (mentioned) her daughter Mary. the examples given and the following sentences using the same words in apposition (48) or attributive relation (13): Sxi nomis sian filinon Marion.] VOCABULARY anonc-i = to announce. A noun may be used similarly in predicate relation after a transitive verb. Mi lasis ilin bone punitajn. klar-a = distinct. I shall see him a conqueror. Mi trovis la jam faritan truon. etc. to repair. just-a = upright. Mi lasis la knabon trankvilan. plend-i = to complain. ia = some kind of (208). as well as after an intransitive verb (20): Sxi nomis sian filinon Mario. rajt-o = right. ie = somewhere (209).

LA CXEVALO KAJ LA SONORILO. oni tiom uzis la sonorilon justecan. . la brancxetoj ne velkis. laux la anonco de la regxo. oportun-a = convenient. cxi tiu anoncis la aferon per la oportuna sonorilo. kaj kreskis kiel antauxe. Li anoncis ke cxiu plendanto pri maljusteco havos la rajton alvoki ("to summon") jugxiston per tiu sonorilo. Sammaniere. Unufoje en malgranda urbeto ("town") en Italujo. Tiam la jugxisto faros proceson en la jugxejo pro tiaj plendantoj. Kiam okazis ke iu homo montris sin maljusta al alia. kiun oni estis nominta Johano. Kiam iu faris la edzinon malfelicxa. kaj riparis gxin per kelkaj brancxetoj de apuda arbo. la regxo. sed restis verdaj." Rimarkinde. sxnur-o = string. En la sama urbo logxis ricxulo kiu estis forvendinta preskaux cxiom de siaj domoj. metis grandan sonorilon en la vendejon. la sonorilo tuj sonoris por anonci sxiajn suferojn. Fine.i = to suffer. Sed iu preterpasinto vidis la duonon de la sxnurego kusxanta sur la tero. kaj multe da plendantoj ricevis justecon. kaj por alvoki la jugxiston. ke la sxnurego ("rope") estis tute eluzita. granda nombro da maljustuloj estis punata per gxia helpo. Li pensis en si "Iu plendonto nun trovos gxin preta por esti uzata. Oni multe uzis la sonorilon. kaj gxia lasta uzinto okaze forrompis gxin.

instead of animals. 1. kaj fine li forsendis ecx tiun. Li decidis puni la ricxulon cxar tiu cxi ne donis suficxe por mangxi al la maljuna militcxevalo. to announce any kind of injustice. and the bell immediately rang loudly and clearly.cxevaloj. por mangxi ilin. it seized the rope. por sin pasxti laux la vojo. When a laborer showed himself unkind to his wife and children. The horse caught sight of the twigs with which a passer-by had mended the bellrope. 3. kaj tiun li amegis. la cxevalo ekrimarkis la brancxetojn kreskantajn sur la sxnurego de la sonorilo. 2. . 6. 5. Because it wished to eat the green leaves. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. The judge burst into a laugh as soon as he saw that sort of plaintiff standing there. 7. cxar en sia maljuneco li amis nur la monon. cxevaletoj. they could announce their sufferings by means of the convenient bell. More often he saw human beings as plaintiffs. Tuj gxi kaptis la brancxetojn. cxevalidoj. Any one (173) had the right to use this bell. The horse almost upset the poles which supported (160) the roof over the bell of-justice. 4. hundoj kaj multekostaj vestoj. 8. Li ankoraux posedis nur unu maljunan cxevalon. kaj lauxte ekridis kiam li vidis ies cxevalon tie. Li rapidis al la vendejo. En la dauxro de la tago. kaj tuj la jugxisto auxdis la sonorilon klare sonoranta.

sometime. The man had driven away the horse. The indefinite adverb of motive or reason. is "ial". 9. ever. for some reason. I will not leave him alone ("trankvila"). The judge said. a king once (upon a time) dwelt there. "I will find out whose horse that poor beast is. 11. THE INDEFINITE TEMPORAL ADVERB. 12. sometime I will tell you the affair." LESSON XLV. 10. related to the indefinite pronoun "iu". it is the duty of a just judge to punish evildoers and unjust persons. The indefinite temporal adverb. 13. any time. related to the indefinite pronoun "iu". 212.People called it the bell of justice. Regxo iam logxis tie. once upon a time: Iam mi rakontos la aferon al vi. is "iam". but will show myself very severe. and it was grazing ("sin pasxtanta") along the road. According to everyone's opinion. 213. It was some one's duty to give some sort of home to his horse. Cxu vi iam faris proceson kontraux li? Did you ever go to law against him? THE INDEFINITE ADVERB "IAL". He decided that he would institute proceedings ("faros proceson") against the owner (205) of the horse. for certain reasons: . for any reason. and will put a mark opposite the name of that man.

easy). faciligi. Cxu vi opinias ke ial li maljuste suferas? Do you think that for any reason he is suffering unjustly? CAUSATIVE VERBS. to assuage (from "dolcxa". longer). to facilitate (from "facila".] b. to lengthen. soft). Causative verbs from adjectival roots indicate that the quality or condition expressed in the root is produced in the object of the verb: dolcxigi. to put to sleep (from dormi. he made the world glad. for some reason he did not repair the tent. to sweeten. to make longer (from "pli longa". Li gxojigis la mondon. he gladdened the world.Ial li ne riparis la tendon. 214. beautiful). moligi. a. The suffix "-ig-" is used to form verbs indicating the "causing. to soften (from "mola". rendering or bringing about" of that which is expressed in the root or formation to which it is attached. [Footnote: The meaning often resembles that of the predicate nominative (210). . sweet). Causative verbs from verbal roots indicate that the action expressed in the root is made to take place: dormigi. beligi. to sleep). as: Li faris la mondon gxoja. plilongigi. to beautify (from "bela". Verbs containing the suffix "-ig-" are called "causative verbs" and are always transitive (22).

ebligi. "Do tell me". adverbs. to be indifferent. kunigi. with). prefixes and suffixes whose meaning permits: amasigi. mortigi. ja = indeed (215). expressed in English by "do". to die). "indeed". before the verb: Vi ja mirigas min! You do astonish me! Li ja estas justa jugxisto. salt-i = to leap. Causative verbs may be formed from nounroots. to unite. iam = sometimes (212). dangxer-o = danger. "I did find it". . 161). he did have that right. The emphatic form of the verb. away). 215. he is indeed an upright judge. ial = for some reason (213). to amass. forigi. tir-i = to draw. to wonder). the difference in meaning and use between "esti indiferenta". pile). VOCABULARY akompan-i = to accompany. gvid-i = to guide. to do away with (from for. indeed. to kill (from morti. and by adverbs such as "certainly". to make acquainted with (from koni. prepositions. to render possible (-ebl-. is expressed in Esperanto by placing the adverb "ja". to pull. mirigi. [Cf. Li ja havis tiun rajton. c. to bring together (from kun. to jump.. "did". to astonish (from miri. indiferent-a = indifferent. to heap up (from amaso. etc. as in "I do study". EMPHASIS BY MEANS OF "JA". kred-i = to believe. to know).konigi.

Unu tagon en la dauxro de la bela printempa vetero la junulo invitis la fratinon veturi ien en veturilo tirata de du cxevaloj. Iam logxis en nia urbeto junulo kiu havis afablan pli junan fratinon. "tiu ponto ja estas dangxera! Mi deziras marsxi trans gxin. he does not care about (is indifferent to) the book. vi ja mirigas min! Vi montras vin tre malsagxa. kaj li respondis malafable. Ili pasis preter pitoreskaj kampoj kaj arbaretoj. Li ne zorgas pri la libro. Tuj sxi pretigis sin por iri. "Ho. "Nu.and "ne esti zorga". kaj ial la junulino estis treege timigita ("frightened").] CXE LA MALNOVA PONTO. cxar iam la pezeco de unu persono estos tiom tro multe por veturilo sur malforta ponto!" Sed la timemaj petoj de lia fratino sxajne kolerigis la junulon. kaj fine alvenis al ponto trans la rivero. aux ne. La invito gxojigis la knabinon. both of which may be translated "not to care for": Li estas indiferenta al la libro. Estas indiferente al mi cxu li venos. not to be careful. kaj ili ekveturis. he does not care for (take care of) the book. Ili kredis gxin malnova kaj ne tre forta." sxi ekkriis. cxar la konstruintoj de tiu ponto certe faris gxin suficxe forta por tia veturilo . kun eksalteto pro timo. kaj sxi respondis ke sxi kun plezuro akompanos la fraton. I do not care whether he is coming or not. kara frato.

malgraux la beleco de la vetero kaj de la kamparo. kaj tute ne estis dangxera. 4. kaj tute malatentis sxiajn larmojn. I will also pick ("kolektos") some sort of flowers. One convenient day. Sed pro la malafableco de la frato al la fratino. ili tute ne agrable pasigis la ceterajn horojn de la posttagmezo. Somewhere in that same town. I am afraid that that bridge is dangerous. 1. so I will jump out and walk. Tamen la frato montris sin indiferenta al sxiaj timemaj sentoj. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. Tamen. kaj imagis ke sxi estas tuj mortigota. dum la fratino atendis la bruegon de rompigita ligno. among the flowers . this girl also was frightened for some reason. 3. She said "I do not intend to complain. who also had an amiable sister. the same as the girl in the other story. When they reached ("alvenis al") the bridge. kaj piede transiri la ponton. 2. but the carriage will certainly be too heavy while we are in it. Li gvidis la cxevalojn rekte trans la ponton.kia la nia. Ne estos necese eksalti de gxi. la ponto estis tiel forta kiel la junulo estis klariginta. there lived another youth. kaj sxi komencis mallauxte ploreti. she accompanied him for a ride in a vehicle drawn by a fast horse." Tiamaniere li penis trankviligi la kompatindan knabinon. sed tiaj vortoj nur silentigis sxin.

for I am not indifferent to your fear. Iel ni anoncos la decidon. "That bridge is entirely safe ("nedangxera") but instead of explaining ("making-clear") to you about it.growing there. I tried somehow to guide you thither. we shall announce the decision in some way. related to the indefinite pronoun "iu". is "iom"." She replied." He replied. 217. a certain amount: Cxu vi havas iom da tempo? Have you some time? Sxi varmigos iom da akvo. is "iel". "No. 216. The indefinite adverb of manner. Then he said with a pleasant smile. in some (any) manner: Mi penis vin iel gvidi tien. and talked to each other very amiably. in any way. she will heat . "It was not necessary to cross on foot. related to the indefinite pronoun "iu"." Then they rode on ("antauxen"). THE INDEFINITE ADVERB "IEL"." Then he helped his sister get out ("eliri") of the carriage. LESSON XLVI. any quantity. The indefinite adverb of quantity. and guided the horse across. but you showed yourself a courteous brother. somehow. and were very patient. THE INDEFINITE ADVERB "IOM". while you walk across. I will lead the horse across the bridge. near where someone's horses are grazing. some. I will not delay ("atendigi") you long.

fusillade (from pafo. thought.some water. haunt. parolado. to keep knocking. Verbs formed with the suffix "-ad-" are called "frequentative verbs". that way is a little dangerous (198). 218. pensado. habitual or repeated. b. pafado. 201) may replace the infinitive as subject (130) and sometimes as object (29): kriado. The suffix "-ad-" is used to form words indicating that the action expressed in the root is continuous. etc. shout). "used to". a movement). to gaze. Nouns formed with the suffix "-ad-" are often equivalent to English verbal nouns ending in "-ing". movado. THE SUFFIX "-AD-". the string is somewhat too long. La . visit repeatedly. Tiu metodo estas iomete dangxera. crying. address (from parolo. a speech. rigardadi. a shot). shouting (from krio. cry. frequent. and may often be translated by the root meaning. two years ago she used to sing very sweetly. shooting. preceded by "keep (on)". movement in general (from movo. to keep on looking. contemplation (from penso. motion. Antaux du jaroj sxi tre dolcxe kantadis. a word spoken).: frapadi. to keep visiting. a thought). vizitadi. La sxnuro estas iom tro longa. a. and (with the generic article. to knock repeatedly.

Mi ekvidis la sxteliston mem. and lays stress upon the substantive which immediately precedes it.promenado donas plezuron. I myself shall accompany you. kron-o = crown. I prefer the reading of (to read) such books. mem = self. to raise. the guide himself lost the way. The invariable pronoun "mem". the men themselves defended themselves. to cast. lev-i = to lift. La viroj mem defendis sin. 39. or which it obviously modifies. THE USE OF "MEM". kompren-i = to understand. VOCABULARY Arhximed-o = Archimedes. self. Sxi venis mem por vidi vin. it hangs on the very wall (the wall itself). Hieron-o = Hiero. I caught a glimpse of the thief himself. iom = some . Mi preferas la legadon de tiaj libroj. honest-a = honest. to forge. selves. Gxi pendas sur la muro mem.). selves (219). lok-o = place. 219. I shall give credence to the man himself. is intensive. La gvidisto mem perdis la vojon. (The combination of "mem" with personal pronouns must not be confused with reflexive pronouns. 40): Mi mem akompanos vin. she came herself to see you. or-o = gold. iel = somehow (216). ide-o = idea. jxet-i = to throw. Mi kredos al la viro mem. the taking of walks gives pleasure. ban-i = to bathe (trans. fals-i = to debase.

kiu estas sudokcidenta de Italujo. Li estis jxus baninta sin. kaj zorge rimarkis . ARHXIMEDO KAJ LA KRONOJ. gxis iu tago. kiom antauxe estis en tiu loko kie li mem estas. Sikeli-o = Sicily. kaj subite ekrimarkis ke dum li mem restis en la akvo. Li komprenis ke tiom da akvo estas elpusxita. Hierono ne povis per si mem eltrovi cxu oni falsadas la oron. Tuj li komprenis ke lia korpo estas forpusxinta iom de la akvo el gxia loko. Li jxetis ilin unu post la alia en la banujon. Li suspektis ke iam la kronfaristoj. des malpli sukcesaj estis liaj penoj. sed ju pli longe li pensadis. ne uzis cxiom de la oro donita al ili de la regxo. sed falsadis gxin per la uzado de iu alia materialo. kiam li okaze faris interesan eltrovon. Arhximedo certigis lin ke iel li ja eltrovos pri la falsado. Tamen.(217). kies nomo estis Arhximedo. nomita Hierono. Tia levado de la akvo per lia korpo donis al li sagxan ideon. Tial li venigis grekan klerulon. ial sxajnis esti iomete pli multe da akvo en la banujo ol antauxe. Cxiutage li multe pensadis pri la afero. kiuj estis tiel indiferentaj al la honesteco. kaj rakontis al li sian timon pri la falsita oro. Iam bonekonata regxo. kaj helpos la regxon kontraux la falsintoj. vivadis en granda urbo en Sikelio. kiuj fabrikadis kronojn por li. kaj li prenis en la mano du aux tri orajn kronojn.

Tiam li eltiris ilin. 5. Oni diras ke kiam li eltrovis cxi tiun metodon por montri la falsadon de la malhonestaj kronfaristoj. out of the gold which he himself gave them. 2. Li rimarkis ke cxi tiu ne tiel alten levis la akvon." kiu estas la greka vorto por "mi estas trovinta. Sometimes he was suspicious about the crown-makers who wrought ("faris") crowns for him. a rich and powerful ("multepova") king.al kiu alteco cxiu el ili levis la akvon." Tiun saman vorton oni ankoraux nun uzadas en la angla lingvo. and tried . tial li estis certa ke la oro en gxi estas multe falsita. 7. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 1. but kept some of it for themselves. he made clear his fears. Archimedes assured the king that he would find out somehow about the matter. lived in Sicily. li eksaltetis pro gxojo kaj ekkriis "euxreka. named Hiero. He could not of himself ("per si mem") discover whether they were debasing the gold in his crowns. He meditated several hours every day. 8. To this well-informed man. He wondered whether these men were honest. He suspected that perhaps ("eble") they did not use all of the gold which was given them. 4. so he summoned a wise man from ("el") Greece. 3. kaj enmetis la kronon pri kiu Hierono estis plej suspektema. whose name was Archimedes. Several centuries ago. 6.

He threw the crowns one after another into the water. everybody's affair is nobody's affair. when he was bathing (himself). no (formed of "ne" and "iu". nobody's. Mi trovis neniun preta por iri. THE NEGATIVE PRONOUN. 9. no one of you understands me. with a medial "n" inserted for the sake of euphony): Neniu el vi komprenas min. LESSON XLVII. he had no honest servant.to discover a satisfactory ("kontentiga") method. 221. The rising of the water gave him an idea. however. he noticed that there seemed to be a little more water in the bathtub when he himself was in it. no one. Li lauxdos nenies . In this manner ("tiamaniere") he understood how much each had been alloyed by the local ("lokaj") crownmakers. 10. than before. but for some reason he did not succeed. no one's: Cxies afero estas nenies afero. nobody. whom Hiero soon threw into prison ("la malliberejon"). 12. 220. 11. One day. "nenies". The negative pronoun (and pronominal adjective) is "neniu". Li havis neniun honestan serviston. and noticed how much water each displaced. I found nobody ready to go. The negative pronoun "neniu" has a possessive or genitive form.

A participle may be equivalent not only to a clause describing or determining the substantive modified. after bathing (having bathed) the baby. as in "dum vi atendis. 222. thus helped by you.. "cxar mi gxojis. An adverbial participle is given the ending "-e": Gxojante. manner. because I was happy. THE ADVERBIAL PARTICIPLE. while you waited. li foriris". sxi dormigis gxin. we bade him farewell. . Tiel helpate de vi. and indicates some relation of time. he will praise no one's ideas. they did not complain. (having been) silenced by him. mi ridis". but also to an "adverbial" clause. rejoicing. the boy who-will-be-sent. "la sendota knabo". mi sukcesos. the man who-is-talking. cause. Forironte. between the action of the participle and that of the main verb in the sentence. ili ne plendis. as in "la parolanta viro". situation.ideojn. she put it to sleep.] Such a participle has for its subject the subject of the verb in the sentence (though not in attributive or predicate relation with it). Silentigite de li. mi ridis. ili falsis la oron. ni adiauxis lin. Estante ruzaj. I laughed. Baninte la infaneton. I shall succeed. I laughed. being sly. being about to depart. they debased the gold. etc. he went away. [Footnote: An adverbial clause modifies a verb.

nenies = . [Footnote: The adverbial participle must not be used in rendering the English "nominative absolute" construction of a participial clause referring to something else than the subject. English prefix "re-". ree = again. masxin-o = machine. rekoni = to recognize. everyone watched him". gxis la revido = au revoir. meaning either "again" or "back. "the work being finished. The prefix "re-" indicates the repetition of an action or state. li foriris. being about to be punished.") rekapti = to recapture. 223. or the "return" of a person or thing to its original place or state.] THE PREFIX "RE-". cxiu rigardadis lin. reiri = to go back. he left. Li venis. rebrili = to shine back. reveni = to come back. to burn. to reflect. ne vokite. cxar la junulo estis juna. cilindr-o = cylinder. li foriris. rejxeti = to throw back. to return. kiam la lahoro estis finita. Ne parolinte. renovigi = to renew. to return. without speaking (not having spoken). (Cf. to retain. reteni = to hold back. to reject. he went away". li ekkriis. VOCABULARY brul-i = to be in flames. he came without being (came not-having-been) called.Punote. anew. In such a sentence a clause must be used: "The youth being young. he gave a cry.

kiujn antauxe la viroj mem enpusxis en la akvon. Ankoraux nun oni nomas tian masxinon la "sxrauxbo de Arhximedo. aux tiris tien per cxevaloj. Eble neniu greka klerulo estis pli fama ol la filozofo Arhximedo. insul-o = island. li elpensis diversajn masxinojn en kiuj sxrauxboj kaj cilindroj estas iamaniere kunigitaj. neniu = no one (220). oni povis facile pusxi al la akvo la sxipojn (necese konstruitajn sur la tero). Uzante unu el tiuj masxinoj. Uzante alian masxinon elpensitan de tiu greko.nobody's (221). sur la insulo Sikelio. Longe studadinte la problemojn de la geometrio kaj de la fiziko. problem-o = problem. Arhximedo elpensis diversajn masxinojn por helpi la Sirakuzanojn. mi mem ekmovos la mondon per mia levilo!" Zorge ekzameninte la ecojn (202) de la sxrauxbo kaj de la cilindro. filozof-o = philosopher. kun multe da laboro. sxrauxb-o = screw. Li tiel multe komprenis pri la uzado de la levilo ("lever") ke oni rakontas la sekvantan rakonteton pri li: Li diris al la regxo Hierono "Kiam oni donos al mi lokon sur kiu mi povos stari. oni povis levi akvon de unu loko al alia. Sirakuz-o = Syracuse. detru-i = to destroy. fizik-o = physics. li faris multe da eltrovoj. LA FILOZOFO ARHXIMEDO. fam-a = famous. spegul-o = mirror. Vidinte ." En la dauxro de granda militado kontraux la urbo Sirakuzo.

4. iel rekoninte la elpensinton de la spegulmasxino. ne komprenante kiamaniere* la sxipoj ekbrulis. b. The Greek philosopher Archimedes was not only famous long ago. Nenies domo restis netusxita. among his contemporaries (167.] SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 3.ke la sunlumo rebrilas de spegulo. estis multe timigitaj. Cxi tiuj. he . 1. meaning "as" (156). and having meditated a great deal about them. Post iom da tempo. No one understood better the properties of the cylinder and the screw. how) is preferable to that of "kiel" in indirect questions. Sed ecx helpite de Arhximedo la Sirakuzanoj ne venkis. sed eble la malamikoj. as the latter might be confused with the use of "kiel". la malamikoj kaptis kaj tute detruis la urbon Sirakuzon. No one's knowledge about the problems of geometry and physics was greater. kaj centoj da personoj estis mortigataj. [Footnote: The use of "kiamaniere" (in what manner. 132). li faris el speguloj masxinon per kiu li ekbruligis ("set on fire") la sxipojn de la malamikoj. but even today his name is well known everywhere. Having studied these properties a long time. Oni ne scias per kia morto Arhximedo mortis. 2. jxetis lin en la maron aux alimaniere lin mortigis.

having captured the city. that he remarked to Hiero. as soon as he had a place on which he himself could stand. There is another anecdote.understood them a little (217) better than any one else ("iu alia"). The enemy. LESSON XLVIII. 5. king of Syracuse. 6. and heats the wood upon which it shines. The negative adjective. 9. that with a lever he would move the world. the Syracusans were able to set on fire the wooden ships of the enemy. related to the negative pronoun "neniu. were not repulsed from the island. no kind of. I have no sort of mirror. but at once rebuilt and repaired their ships. Nenia problemo estas tro malfacila por . expressing a negative idea concerning the quality of a person or thing: Mi havas nenian spegulon. he invented a machine made out of mirrors. however. Aided by this machine. no sort of. 7. 10. 8." is "nenia". 224. also Archimedes himself. Having discovered how ("kiamaniere") the sunlight is reflected by a mirror. THE NEGATIVE ADJECTIVE. The story about the debasing of the gold crowns has already been told. Finally. and killed a large number of the inhabitants ("logxantoj"). namely ("nome"). and sent them back to attack the city again. they destroyed it.

you will never find that kind of screws or cylinders. I shall go nowhere tomorrow. A word formed from an adjectival root or formation by means of the suffix "-ajx-" . The ending "-n" may be added. at no time: Neniam vivis pli fama filozofo. The negative adverb of place is "nenie". in the case of intransitives. It is thus in contrast to the abstract-forming suffix "-ec-" (202). to indicate direction: Nenie estas pli bona masxino. mangxajxo = food. The suffix "-ajx-" is used to form "concrete" words. Mi iros nenien morgaux. A word formed from a verbal root by means of the suffix "-ajx-" expresses a concrete example of "a thing which undergoes" (or. THE SUFFIX "-AJX-". 227. 225. nowhere is there a better machine. thing sent. Vi neniam trovos tiajn sxrauxbojn aux cilindrojn. restajxo = remainder. b. no sort of problem is too difficult for him. there never lived a more famous philosopher. "results from") the action indicated in the root: konstruajxo = a building. a. nowhere.li. as to other adverbs (121). 226. THE NEGATIVE TEMPORAL ADVERB. sendajxo = consignment. rebrilajxo = a reflection. The negative adverb of time is "neniam". never. THE NEGATIVE ADVERB OF PLACE. a growth. kreskajxo = a plant.

VOCABULARY arangx-i = to arrange. here. araneajxo = a spider-web. nenie = nowhere (225). now she studies. there. now she plays. chief. okazintajxo = an occurrence. ber-o = berry. c. postul-i = to demand. I acted in the following way. 228. jen sxi studas. Li diris la jenajn vortojn. is used to point out or call attention to something: Jen estas la problemo! There is the problem! Jen la filozofo! Behold the philosopher! Jen sxi ludas. he spoke the following words. Mi faris gxin jene. A word formed from a noun-root by means of the suffix "-ajx-" indicates "a thing made" or "derived from" that which is expressed in the root: sukerajxo = a sweet. orajxo = a gold object. pentr-i = to paint. ovajxo = an omelet. mirindajxo = a marvel. art-o = art. I did it as follows. behold (228).indicates "a thing characterized by" or "possessing the quality" expressed in the root or formation to which it is attached: belajxo = a thing of beauty. Mi agis laux la jena metodo. maljustajxo = an injustice. precip-a = principal. confection. behold. jen = there. The adverb "jen". konkurs-o . neniam = never (226). jxaluz-a = jealous. THE ADVERB "JEN".

cxiu el ili pentris pentrajxon. Nenie apud vi estas kurteno. sed la vinberoj mem." La dua pentristo respondis kun rideto. Gxi estis tiel mirinde kolorigita ke ecx la birdoj venis kaj penis gxin mangxi. Ne povinte decidi la problemon. kaj eltrovi kiu el ili estas la plej lerta. pensinte gxin ne nur pentrajxo. Ili estis reciproke jxaluzaj. Laux gxiaj reguloj. kial vi ne fortiras tiun kurtenon? Mi volas rigardi vian pentrajxon. clever. ili fine arangxis konkurson pri la pentrado. la birdoj mem rekonas mian lertecon!" Tiam li diris al la alia artisto.= competition. Vivadis en Grekujo antaux multaj jarcentoj du lertaj famaj pentristoj. sed vi vidas nur pentrajxon de kurteno antaux tiu konstruajxo. "Nu. nenia = no kind of (224). Unu pentris teleron da vinberoj ("grapes"). "Jen estas mia pentrajxo. kaj neniam povis interparoli paceme." Tre mirigite. "jen. tromp-i = to deceive. la pentrinto de la vinberoj diris "Vi ja superas min en la pentrado. "Nenia pentrajxo povos superi la mian. lert-a = skilled. Mi trompis la birdojn per mia pentrajxo." gxojege ekkriis la pentristo. por montri sian lertecon. sed vi trompas ecx aliajn artistojn! Tia lerteco estas ja mirindajxo!" Oni rakontas similan okazintajxon pri fama artisto kiu pentris multe da pentrajxoj por . DU ARTKONKURSOJ. regul-o = rule. vin-o = wine.

perhaps. Never. He exclaimed "Behold this iniquity (injustice)! Nowhere can I find a human being who is not jealous. The famous philosopher and physicist Archimedes lost his life when that city was destroyed and entirely burned. tute ne rigardinte la pentrajxojn de la aliaj artistoj. kuris rekte al tiu de la plendinta artisto. no sort of trace of him seems to have been found after that occurrence. 8. and there are many anecdotes about them. li opiniis ke la jugxintoj estas maljustaj al li. 2. ili certe postulas cxevalajn jugxantojn!" Tial oni enkondukis du aux tri cxevalojn. Surprizite. Malgajninte en konkurso kontraux iuj aliaj artistoj. Since the paintings are chiefly of . 4. Greece was also famous for its skilled painters. 6. Li ekkriis "Cxar niaj pentrajxoj estas bildoj de cxevaloj. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION 1. was there a more learned man in Syracuse. 5. At least. 3. Syracuse was the largest city on the island of Sicily.Aleksandro Granda. 7. kaj klare montris sian rekonadon de la tie pentritaj cxevaloj. oni diris "Jen estas justaj jugxantoj!" Tuj oni lauxdis la pentriston kaj severe punis la malhonestajn homajn jugxintojn. precipe pro la jxaluzeco. A painter who failed in a certain competition believed that none of the judges had been just to him. La cxevaloj.

Tiu ago estas neniel lauxregula. having deceived the horses. I can in no way arrange a competition. His proposal was accepted (54). "NENIOM". 12. he is jealous for no reason. Without noticing (222) the other paintings. for no reason: Li estas nenial jxaluza. in no way. 11. and some horses were led in. but by feelings. 230. The negative adverb of quantity is ." LESSON XLIX. related to the negative pronoun "neniu". Nenial li trompis vin. do they not require horses for judges?" 9. as another artist had once deceived birds by a picture of grapes. The negative adverb of motive or reason. Mi povos neniel arangxi konkurson. "NENIEL". The negative adverb of manner is "neniel". 229.horses. 10. The painter. This act showed which competitor ("konkursinto") was the most skilful. 231. said "Animals decide not by rules. is "nenial". the horses walked at once to the picture of the unsuccessful artist. That act is in no way regular. and showed immediate recognition of the horses painted there. for no reason he deceived you. THE NEGATIVE ADVERBS "NENIAL".

not any. and indicate an action of the verb not immediately due to the subject's acting upon itself (as in the case of reflexive verbs. Estas neniom da vino en lia glaso. THE SUFFIX "-IGX-". the branch breaks. The suffix "-igx-" is used to form intransitive verbs of an "inchoative" nature. the vehicle moves. 232. the examples given and the following sentences in which the same verbal roots are used in the simple form and in the . 41) and not caused by any direct agency (as in the case of the passive voice. no: Tiu pentrajxo postulas neniom da lerteco. 169): La pordo fermigxas. starigxi. Grupo da personoj kolektigxis. to become standing. to sit down. La brancxo rompigxas. no amount of. there is no wine in his glass. none."neniom". Inchoative verbs from the roots of "intransitive verbs" indicate the "beginning" or "coming into existence" of the act or condition expressed in the root: sidigxi. La veturilo movigxas. Intransitive verbs may be similarly formed from the roots of "transitive" verbs. to take a seat. to stand up. the door closes (goes shut). to become sitting. such a painting requires no skill. [Footnote: Cf. a. b. a group of persons gathered.

maljunigxi. to get warm. . Floroj estas kolektitaj. Oni movas la veturilon. Verbs may similarly be formed from nounroots. to become old.passive voice: Ni fermas la pordon. VOCABULARY apenaux = hardly. prefixes and suffixes whose meaning permits: amikigxi.] c. the door is (has been) closed. to become tired. I break the branch. to disappear. atmosfer-o = atmosphere. forigxi. they move the vehicle. to become possible. nenial = for no reason (229). Intransitive verbs may similarly be formed from "adjectival" roots. to age. the vehicle is being moved. Li kolektis florojn. La pordo estas fermita. flowers have been gathered. La veturilo estas movata. prepositions. ebligxi. Mi rompas la brancxon. to become warm. we close the door. kunigxi. he gathered flowers. dub-i = to doubt. to become joined. La brancxo estas rompita. scarcely. to become a friend. d. to get tired. and indicate the acquiring of the characteristic or quality expressed in the root: lacigxi. to go away. neniel = in no way (230). the branch is (has been) broken. adverbs. varmigxi.

kaj la tuta pejzagxo pli kaj pli beligxas. kiam la subiranta suno sxajnas fali preter la horizonto. la nuboj farigxas ("become") bele kolorigitaj. kun rimarkinda subiteco. en la dauxro de bela somera vespero. kaj fine cxie noktigxas. Malrapide la krepusko anstatauxas la helan sunlumon. laux la jena maniero: la radioj suprenbriladas. En tropikaj landoj la krepuskigxo okazas tre rapide. Gxi ne nur komencigxas subite. radi-o = ray. La suno grade mallevigxas post la montetoj. tropik-a = tropical. . hel-a = clear. krepusk-o = twilight. bright. Apenaux komencigxas la krepusko. en la okcidenta parto de la cxielo.neniom = none. La noktigxo preskaux tuj sekvas la taglumon. en landoj treege nordaj. la sunradioj briladas rekte kontraux ilin. ombr-o = shadow. Kiam estas iom da nuboj sur la cxielo okcidenta. horizonto = horizon. no (231). real. efektiv-a = effective. post la mallevigxo de la suno mem. La krepusko estas la rebrilado de la sunlumo tra la atmosfero. De tie ili rebriladas tiamaniere ke la cxielo lumigxas. kaj rigardi la plilongigxantajn ombrojn. belege kolorigante tiujn nubojn. Estas tre agrable sidigxi sur la herbon. Tute male ("quite on the contrary"). LA KREPUSKO. en la aeron super niaj kapoj. sed ankaux dauxras tre mallongan tempon. pejzagx-o = landscape.

of ("pri") the two painters who. 2. 3. Pri cxiu plendanto oni nur diras "Li estas nenial malkontenta. kaj la krepusko dauxras longan tempon antaux ol la nokto venas. cxiujare. often show their skill by painting (222) pictures of the sunset.krepuskigxas tre frue en la tago. Efektive ("really")." SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. One painted a cluster (126) of grapes. Tie oni havas krepuskon dum la unua duonjaro. I doubt whether there is a more beautiful sight (227. 6. 5. In fact ("efektive"). It is made by the bright rays of the sun. The most famous artists. so excellently that the birds flew to it. b) than the sunset. chiefly. by a painting of a curtain. en tiuj landoj la krepusko tute anstatauxas la nokton. however. long . sed oni povas neniel malhelpi gxin. kaj la taglumon dum la sekvinta duonjaro. Krepusko dauxranta tiom da tempo estas tiel rimarkinda kiel tago de tia sama longeco. dum ses monatoj de la jaro. 4. Mi dubas cxu tia dividado de la tempo inter tago kaj malhela nokto estas agrabla. kaj efektive oni apenaux rimarkas gxin. Cxiu tre norda lando havas la saman travivajxon ("experience"). I think. because of the brilliant colors. arranged a competition. The other deceived his rival (competitor) himself. being mutually (180) jealous. which shine back through the atmosphere.

It can in no way be understood by persons who have never lived there. anything. Because of their somewhat vague meaning. fact or action). 13. Such things increase (make greater) my desire to visit those northern lands. To dwell in such a land is surely a remarkable experience. and the remainder of the year is the day. and the more beautiful the entire landscape becomes. 11. 14. "kiu". something. "cxiu". "neniu"). on the contrary. In tropical lands. the more brilliant the colors are. the twilight lasts six months. In the lands far north. a twilight scarcely occurs there.after the sun itself has passed below the horizon. however. 12. The more moisture ("malsekajxo") there is in the air. 8. cxi tio = this (thing. 9. night falls very suddenly. like English "what. nor are they ever used as pronominal adjectives: Demonstrative: tio = that (thing. . In fact. 7. 233. these pronouns do not occur in the plural." etc. and there is almost no sort of twilight. do I LESSON L. fact or action). fact or action not definitely specified (but never to a person). "iu". nothing. In contrast to the pronouns ending in "u" ("tiu". 10. a similar series ending in "-o" refers to an object. THE PRONOUNS ENDING IN "-O". For no reason.

he has something for you. which you see.Interrogative and Relative: kio = what. In Esperanto the correlative system is more complete than in any other language. she saw that which just occurred. etc. which everything anything nothing tiu (56) kiu (146) cxiu (173) iu (203) neniu (220) that (one) who. Li havas ion por vi. 235. adjectives and adverbs. each any . estas farita de ili. relatives.. but nothing for me. sed nenion por mi. kion vi diras? What is this. kio jxus okazis. Cxio cxi. everything here (all this). which are related to each other as corresponding demonstratives. which every. was done by them. kion vi vidas. which you say? Sxi vidis tion. Pronouns. cxio cxi = all this. Indefinite: io = anything. Negative: nenio = nothing. and may be summarized as follows: Demonstrative Interrogative Distributive Indefinite Negative and Relative tio (233) kio (233) cxio (233) io (233) nenio (233) that (thing) what. are called "correlatives". interrogatives. Distributive: cxio = everything. CORRELATIVE WORDS. something. 234. A pronoun (not personal) in predicate or relative relation to a pronoun ending in "-o" must itself be of the same series: Kio estas cxi tio.

for every for any for no so why reason reason reason tiel (88). In order to avoid confusion with the accusative plural ending. wherefore. 236.(one) no (one) ties (62) kies (147) cxies (174) ies (204) nenies(221) that one's whose every one's any one's no one's tia (65) kia (150) cxia (177) ia (208) nenia (224) that kind of what kind of every kind any kind no kind of tie (68) kie (151) cxie (182) ie (209) nenie (225) there where everywhere anywhere nowhere tiam (73) kiam (155) cxiam (187) iam (212) neniam (226) then when always any time never tial (78) kial (129) cxial (188) ial (213) nenial (229) therefore. any none. the some. how much. so how. no so much as whole of amount quantity THE USE OF "AJN". to give a generalizing sense. all. as every way any way in no way tiom (104) kiom (164) cxiom (194) iom (217) neniom (231) that much. kiel (156) cxiel (193) iel (216) neniel (230) (156) thus. "ajn" is "never attached" to the correlative which it follows: . The word "ajn" may be placed after any interrogative-relative or indefinite correlative word.

jug-o = yoke. lig-i = to tie. kiom ajn = however much. lumingo = torch-holder. to govern. reg-i = to rule. estos via regxo. nenio = nothing (233). The suffix "-ing-" is used to form words indicating that which holds "one" specimen of what is expressed in the root: glavingo = scabbard. plumingo = pen-holder. io = anything (233)." Okaze kamparano nomita Gordio venis al la templo. kio = what (233). LA GORDIA LIGAJXO. kiam ajn = whenever. kie ajn = wherever. "Kiu ajn venos unue en nian sanktan templon hodiaux. util-a = useful.kio ajn = whatever. Ne sciante kion fari. case. ili demandis de la dioj. incline (trans). por fari oferojn. klin-i = to bend. La dioj respondis. La regatoj tuj rekonis la estontan regxon. Unufoje en antikva tempo la regatoj de iu regxolando en Azio ne havis regxon. Gordio = Gordius. kvankam li veturis sur peza malbela veturilo. ofer-o = offering. templ-o = temple. ia ajn = any kind whatever. 237. kies ajn = whosesoever. jxus post la tagigxo. THE SUFFIX "-ING-". oni . holy. VOCABULARY cxio = everything (233). tio = that (thing) (233). to bind. ingo = sheath. socket. Salutinte la surprizitan kamparanon. sankt-a = sacred.

Kiam li demandis. kion faris Aleksandro Granda. elpreninte sian glavon el la glavingo." Pro tio. tial li tuj venigis gvidiston por konduki lin al la templo. kaj ekzamenis la sxnuregon el kiu gxi estis farita. Decidinte fari dankoferon al la dioj. "kaj nun mi ne dubas cxu mi certe regos super cxiuj regxoj de Azio. subite klinigxante li rekte tratrancxis la tutan ligajxon. "Kio estas cxi tie la plej interesa vidindajxo?" oni rakontis al li tion. kaj alproksimigxis al la lando kie estis reginta Gordio. kion oni diras pri la sxnurega ligajxo sur la veturilo de Gordio. Gordio metis en la templon la veturilon mem sur kiu li tien veturis. Post kelkaj jaroj Aleksandro Granda decidis fari grandan militadon kontraux Azio. Oni diris ke tiu. La jugo estis alligita ("tied fast") per granda ligajxo el sxnurego. kiu povos iel ajn malligi tiun ligajxon. Alveninte tien. li zorge rigardadis la ligajxon. oni ankoraux nuntempe diras. "Nenio estas pli facila ol tio. Kompreneble ("of course") Aleksandro deziris fari ion ajn utilan por venki Azion." li diris. farigxos reganto super cxiuj regxoj de Azio. kiam iu ajn superas malfacilajxon per kia ajn subita metodo. Tiam. antaux ol li komencis regi kiel la nova regxo. Post la morto de Gordio oni grade komencis kredi ion tre interesan pri tio. "Li trancxis la gordian .nomis lin regxo.

One often hears the remark "I will cut the Gordian knot. he put the sword back into the scabbard. 5. 4. 10. 11. approached the city where this temple was. 3. he bent over and tried for a few minutes to untie it. instead of continuing ("dauxrigi") his efforts to untie the knot. 9. It was a thankoffering to the sacred gods. In fact. having no patience. There is an interesting story about this. 6. 8. 12. 13. Having examined the knot carefully. having begun a campaign against Asia." SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. Having heard the story. by whose help Gordius had in olden time become king. Alexander the Great. and suddenly cut through the whole knot." 2. whatever actually . Having done this. This he did. Then he chose another method. but at least the story is interesting. He seized his sword. Perhaps the conquering of Asia did not in any way become possible on account of this. He desired to do everything which was useful to the conquering of Asia.ligajxon. guided by him. 1. A wagon whose yoke was tied to the pole by a large knot had been put in the middle of the temple. It was said that whoever would be able to untie that rope would no doubt become ruler over the whole of Asia. he at once had a guide come. he had become tired. 15. and went thither. 14. 7.

. both made offerings to the gods.. however.. kaj . [Footnote: This pronoun must not be confused with the use of "kaj". such as part of Asia is.("efektive") happened. In a tropical country. 17. It is invariable in form: Ili ambaux venis al la templo. 238. they both came to the temple. 18.. seeing both the pen and the penholder. and the shadows have scarcely become long when the sun seems to sink suddenly below the horizon. 16. whenever one tries enough. Ambaux faris oferojn al la dioj. and also with both the suffix "-ig-" and . A tropical twilight is very short." (26). mi prenis la ambaux.. Nothing is impossible.. 239. and . Some verbs may be used in the simple form. "both . translated "both" in the combination "kaj . The pronoun (and pronominal adjective) "ambaux". Vidante kaj la plumon kaj la plumingon.. both. the landscapes are beautiful. I took both.. THE PRONOUN "AMBAUX".] FORMATIONS WITH "-IG-" AND "-IGX-". LESSON LI. indicates two persons or things considered together.". although the last bright rays continue to shine back through the atmosphere for a few minutes.

to cause to stand up. esti kusxigita = to be laid. to silence. starigxi = to rise. sidigxi = to become sitting. to be standing. to seat. kusxigxi = to lie down. 240. an "assumption" and a "conclusion". if he sees that. to erect. and the formation with "-ig-". silentigi = to cause to be silent. "Factual conditions" (conditions of fact) may deal with the present.the suffix "-igx-". to be lying. Thus from one verb-root three verbs of distinct meaning may be made. starigi = to raise. being transitive. FACTUAL CONDITIONS. if . li ploris. esti sidigata = to be caused to sit. kusxi = to lie. to be erected. "if") which assumes something as true or realized. to take a seat. esti silentigita = to be silenced. may also be used in the passive: sidi = to sit. stari = to stand. esti starigita = to be raised. to stand up. to go to bed. The assumption is a clause (introduced usually by the conjunction "se". he weeps (is weeping). sidigi = to cause to sit. li ploras. to lay. to become erect. silentigxi = to become silent. silenti = to be silent. past or future time: Se li vidas tion. to be sitting. A conditional sentence consists of two parts. The conclusion is a statement whose truth or realization depends upon the truth or realization of the assumption. kusxigi = to cause to lie. Se li vidis tion.

mut-a = dumb. dors-o = back. if he has been captured. diris petole al la alia "Se vi anstatauxos la beston. one's own. he will weep. dum grade krepuskigxis. LA MONAHXOJ KAJ LA AZENO. se = if. he wept. Se li venis hieraux. form-o = form. Okaze ili ekvidis azenon ligitan al arbo.he saw that. mi mem gxoje restos en gxia loko. propr-a = own. VOCABULARY ambaux = both (238). Se li estas vidinta tion. mi havos portanton por miaj propraj sakoj. if that is going to be seen. monahx-o = monk. turment-i = to torment. he now is weeping. spir-i = to breathe.). orel-o = ear. if he came yesterday. Ambaux portis pezajn sakojn da terpomoj. li nun ploras. Se li estas kaptita. sed ne sciis kion fari. halt-i = to stop (intrans. haltinte." Lia kunulo respondis "Nu. he will go away tomorrow. if he sees that. kaj baldaux lacigxis. kaj unu monahxo. Li ploros." Jxus dirite. kaj ankaux por la viaj. petol-a = mischievous. Se tio estas vidota. li estos jam punita. he will already have been punished. Iam du monahxoj reiris tra la arbaro al la monahxejo. donkey. ben-i = to bless. if he has seen that. li foriros morgaux. mute. tuj farite ("no sooner said . he is going to be punished. azen-o = ass. li estas punota. se li vidos tion. se la azeno portos miajn sakojn.

than done"). . por acxeti alian azenon. pro la varma elspirajxo apud sia orelo. mi vidas ke duan fojon vi jam estis tro mangxema!" La muta besto forte svingis la orelojn kaj skuis la kapon. La monahxo restis tiun nokton cxe la kamparano. li ekhaltis. bona monahxo. Cxiam poste li nek turmentis nek ecx laborigis gxin. dum ambaux viroj lauxte ridis. beninte la kamparanon. multe mirigite. la dua monahxo sin ligis per la sama sxnurego kiu antauxe tenis la azenon. kredante la azenon la sankta monahxo mem. kiun la unua monahxo estis sendinta tien. kies azeno estis jxus sxtelita. Kiam revenis la kamparano. klinigxinte al la besto. La monahxo anoncis al li. sed kasxe ridante pri la afero. tial la malsagxa kamparano ree acxetis sian propran azenon. La malsagxa kamparano. Unu monahxo tuj forkondukis la azenon. Li ekvidis sian propran azenon. ili jxetis la sakojn trans la dorson de la utila besto." Tuj la kredema kamparano invitis la petolan monahxon al sia hejmo. post sia reveno al la monahxejo. kaj la sekvintan tagon li foriris. Malliginte la ligajxojn kiuj tenis la azenon. Post tio. Tio sxajne estis respondo al la jxus diritaj vortoj. Dio faris azenon el mi. diris "Ho. antaux du jaroj. "Cxar mi estis tro mangxema. Mi jxus rericevis mian propran formon. vidante homon tie ligita. Tiam la kamparano iris vendejon.

If the gods informed ("sciigis") them that whatever man would come to the temple first would become their king. 9. The credulous (192) peasant believed everything which was told (54) him. 3. 6. 13. and stopped to rest. they untied it. which consisted of something out of his own possessions (227. ancient times. had scarcely arrived when he drew (out) his sword from the scabbard. though ("tamen"). and cut the knot. they usually asked the sacred gods about it.SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 8. Whoever was chosen king made the blessed gods a thankoffering. while the other tied himself in its own place. A knot of rope was tied between the yoke and the pole. 10. but the whole wagon. 4. returning to the monastery. Alexander. 2. I will tell you about the two mischievous monks. they failed. they immediately chose the first comer ("la unuan veninton") king. Having noticed a donkey near by. a). 5. Both were breathing with difficulty. 11. 12. One led the long-eared dumb animal away." 7. If any other men tried to untie that rope. People soon began to say. Gordius did not offer to the gods merely the yoke of his wagon. . he will become ruler of Asia. "If any one soever can untie that knot. If you will take-a-seat.

not with actual facts. ili vidus. you would see.LESSON LII. or is used in an assumption or conclusion dealing with suppositions. li (sxi. the conditional mood has three active and three passive compound tenses. but merely expresses the speaker's idea of its likelihood or certainty. The conjugation of "vidi" in the aoristic tense of the conditional mood is as follows: mi vidus. The ending of the conditional mood is "-us". which expresses the verbal idea in a general way. All verbs given so far have been in the "indicative mood". The "conditional mood" does not indicate whether or not the act or state mentioned is a fact. resembling that of a substantive. it) would see. COMPOUND TENSES OF THE CONDITIONAL MOOD. which represents an act or state as a reality or fact. ni vidus. THE CONDITIONAL MOOD. In addition to the aoristic tense. That indication of the speaker's frame of mind which is given by the form of the verb is called the "mood" of the verb. I should see. 242. we should see. they would see. or in the "infinitive mood". you would see. A . formed by combining the participles with the aoristic tense of "esti" in the conditional mood. he (she. vi vidus. gxi) vidus. 241. vi vidus.

synopsis of "vidi" in these compound tenses is as follows: Active Voice. Present: mi estus vidanta, I should be seeing. Past: mi estus vidinta, I should have seen. Future: mi estus vidonta, I should be about to see. Passive Voice. Present: mi estus vidata, I should be seen. Past: mi estus vidita, I should have been seen. Future: mi estus vidota, I should be about to be seen. LESS VIVID CONDITIONS. 243. A conditional sentence dealing with "suppositions" concerning events in present or future time is called a "less vivid condition" ("Less vivid", in contrast to factual conditions (240), which are "vivid", because they deal with facts.), and the conditional mood is used in both the assumption and the conclusion: Se li vidus tion, li plorus, if he should see that, he would weep. Mi gxoje helpus vin, se mi povus, I would gladly help you, if I could. Se vi metus ilin sur la dorson de la azeno, gxi portus ilin, if you should put them on the donkey's back, it would carry them. La petola junulo turmentus la monahxon, se li revenus, the mischievous youth would torment the monk, if he should return. Se li estus kaptata, li estus punata, if he should be caught, he

would be punished. INDEPENDENT USE OF THE CONDITIONAL MOOD. 244. The conditional mood may be used in a conclusion whose assumption is merely implied, serving thus to soften or make vague the statement or question in which it is used: Mi gxoje helpus vin, I would gladly help you. Cxu vi bonvole dirus al mi? Would you kindly tell me? Kiu volus enspiri tian aeron? Who would wish to inhale such air? Estus bone reteni vian propran, it would be well to keep your own. La cxielo vin benus pro tio, Heaven would bless you for that. THE PREFIX "DIS-". 245. The prefix "dis-" indicates separation or movement in several different directions at once: disdoni = to distribute. disigxi = to separate (intrans.). dispeli = to dispel. disigxo = separation, schism. disigi = to separate (trans.). dissendi = to send around. [Footnote: Cf. the English prefix "dis-" in "disperse", "disseminate", "distribute," etc.] VOCABULARY cxes-i = to cease, to leave off. kauxz-i = to cause. dens-a = dense. legx-o = law. difin-i = to define. natur-o = nature. ekzist-i = to exist. objekt-o = object. flu-i = to flow. plu = further, more. gravit-i = to gravitate. turn-i =

to turn (trans.). [Footnote: The adverb "plu" gives an idea of continuance to the word which it modifies. When used with "ne", the two together give an idea of cessation concerning a previous continuous act or state: "Ambaux parolos plu morgaux", both will talk further tomorrow. "Mi ne plu haltos", I shall not stop (any) more. "Li ne plu sxajnis muta", he no longer seemed mute.] PRI LA GRAVITADO. 1. Ofte oni parolas pri la pezeco de diversaj objektoj. Tia pezeco estas kauxzata de la forto kiun oni nomas la gravitado. Pro tiu forto ne nur objektoj sur la tero, sed ankaux la tero mem, havas konatan pezecon, kiun la kleruloj jam antaux longe kalkulis. La suno kaj la luno simile havas pezecon, cxar ili ambaux, same kiel la tero, movigxas laux tiu sama gravitado kiu efektive regas cxiujn el la cxielaj korpoj. Se la gravitado cxesus ekzisti, la riveroj ne plu fluus antauxen en siaj fluejoj ("beds"). Ne fluante de altaj gxis malaltaj lokoj, la akvo disfluus, aux restus tie, kie ajn gxi okaze estus. Neniom da pluvo falus; kontrauxe, la malsekajxo en la aero ankoraux restus tie, en la formo de densaj mallumaj cxiamaj nuboj. Cxiuj vivaj estajxoj ("beings"), cxiuj konstruajxoj, efektive cxio, baldaux disflugus de la rapide turnigxanta mondo. Cxiuj cxi ("all

these") nun devas resti sur la tero, tial ke la gravitado restigas ilin cxi tie. Se la gravitado ne plu ekzistus, nenio restus plu sur la tero. La aero mem ne plu cxirkauxus nin, sed gxi ankaux forlasus la mondon, tuj maldensigxinte ("having become rarefied"). La fama angla filozofo Newton estis la unua, kiu studadis la kialon ("reason") de la falado de objektoj. Li komencis, laux la rakonto, per okaza ekrigardo al falantaj pomoj en sia propra pomarbejo. Antaux tri jarcentoj, li eltrovis ke estas tia forto kia la gravitado, kaj difinis la naturajn legxojn laux kiuj la gravitado sin montras. Cxi tiu forto, kiu restigas cxion sur la tero, estas tamen la kauxzo de nia lacigxado, kiam ni marsxas aux kuras, cxar gxi faras nin pezaj, kaj tial ni ofte deziras halti kaj ripozi. Estas ankaux la malfacileco en la superado de tiu sama forto, kiu faras tiel malfacila la konstruadon de utilaj aersxipoj. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 1. Newton was an Englishman who lived three centuries ago. 2. One day he was walking in his orchard, and, noticing the falling apples, he stood still ("ekhaltis") and began to wonder why they fall. 3. He studied the cause of their falling, wishing to discover whatever laws of nature he could. 4. He watched various falling objects, and tried to calculate their velocity

("rapideco"). 5. Finally he recognized that force which is called gravitation. 6. Of course ("kompreneble") gravitation had always existed, but its laws were not noticed or clearly defined until Newton studied the matter. 7. If gravitation should not exist any more, no rain would fall, but instead of condensing, the moisture would remain above our heads in eternal clouds. 8. But gradually the moisture and the air itself, becoming rarefied, would fly away from the earth, being held no longer by the force of gravitation. 9. The water in the rivers would leave off flowing (cease to flow) on toward the sea, because now the water flows from high to low places only on account of gravitation. 10. Instead of gravitating toward the sea, in fact, the water would flow in every direction (245) out of the riverbeds, or would remain there, without moving at all ("tute ne movante"). 11. Nothing on earth would remain here very long, but everything would fly off the quickly moving world, and leave it entirely bare. Soon, also, the earth itself would break-intopieces (245). LESSON LIII. CONDITIONS CONTRARY TO FACT. 246. A "condition contrary to fact" indicates that the opposite of what is mentioned has

really taken place or is taking place. It expresses the speaker's certainty that an act or state would have been realized, if some other act or state were also realized. Such conditions cannot refer to the future, but only to present or past time. The conditional mood is used: Se vi estus turninta vin, vi estus vidinta tion, if you had turned, you would have seen that. Se la malsekajxo ne estus densigxinta, ne estus pluvinte, if the moisture had not condensed, it would not have rained. Se li estus kaptita, li estus punita, if he had been caught, he would have been punished. Se li estus sidanta tie, mi vidus lin, if he were (if he should be) sitting there, I should see him. Se la gravitado ne ekzistus, tiu pluvo ne estus falanta, if gravitation did not (should not) exist, that rain would not be falling. THE VERB "DEVI". 247. The verb "devi" (cf. "devo", duty) is equivalent to the verb "must" (which in English has no future, past, infinitive, etc.), and to "to have to", "to be obliged to", etc., carrying the idea of "must" into all tenses and moods. In the conditional mood its meaning is softened into a vaguer sense (of "moral" obligation), and carries the idea of "ought": Objektoj en la aero devas fali, objects in the air have to fall. Ni devis agi laux la legxoj, we

had to act according to the laws. Vi devos iri, you must (will have to) go. Sxi ne volas devi fari tion, she does not wish to have to do that. Ili devigis min iri, they compelled me to go. Vi devus iri, you should go (you ought to go). Oni devus pensi antaux ol paroli, one ought to think before speaking. Li estus devinta veni, he ought to have come. Tio devus esti farita, that ought to have been done. THE PREPOSITION "SEN". 248. The preposition "sen", without, indicates the omission, absence or exclusion of that which is expressed by its complement. It may be used as a prefix (160), giving a sense of deprivation or exclusion (like that given by the English suffix "-less"): Li difinis la vorton sen eraro, he defined the word without an error. La rivero sencxese fluas, the river flows without ceasing. Tio estas ne nur senutila sed ecx malutila, that is not only useless but even harmful. Li ne plu estas senmona, he is no longer penniless. Li sentime alproksimigxis al gxi, he fearlessly approached it. [Footnote: English phrases containing "without" as in "without reading," must be changed to phrases clearly containing verbal nouns, as "without the reading of," before translating into an Esperanto phrase with "sen". Otherwise a participle with "ne" should

replace the phrase ("222"): "Sen la legado de tio, mi ne komprenus", without (the) reading (of) that, I should not understand. "Ne leginte tion, mi ne komprenus", without reading (not having read) that, I should not understand.] VOCABULARY akuz-i = to accuse. nobl-a = noble. instru-i = to teach. pardon-i = to pardon. kondamn-i = to condemn. pek-i = to sin. konfes-i = to confess, to admit. prav-a = right, correct. konscienc-o = conscience. sen = without (248). kulp-o = guilt. So-krato = Socrates. merit-i = to deserve. venen-o = poison. LA FILOZOFO SOKRATO. Unu el la plej famaj grekaj filozofoj estis nomita Sokrato. Li estis malbela malalta persono, kun senhara kapo kaj dika korpo, sed malgraux tio li estis treege bona, nobla kaj sagxa. Li instruadis per interparolado kun la lernantoj. Kutime li komencis per demando pri io ajn, pri kio la auxskultanto respondos. Fine, la lernanto grade komprenis cxu liaj propraj opinioj pri la afero estas pravaj. Ankoraux nun oni nomas tiun metodon de instruado per la interparolado "la Sokrata metodo." Sokrato diradis tute sen timo cxion, kion li pensis, ecx pri la dioj kaj pri la nekredeblaj rakontoj pri la dioj. Se li ne estus tiel multe klariginta, eble li estus vivinta pli longan tempon. Sed multaj personoj malamis lin, precipe cxar li donis

novajn ideojn al la junuloj, kiuj sekve komencis pensi por si mem, anstataux fari tion kion faras cxiu alia. Tial oni akuzis Sokraton en la jugxejo, nomante lin pekanto kaj malbonfaranto, unue, cxar li ne disdonas oferojn al la dioj, due, cxar li enkondukas novajn diojn (cxar li diris ke supernatura vocxo, kiu sendube estis lia nomo por la konscienco, parolis mallauxte cxe lia orelo), trie, cxar li malbonigas la junularon de la urbo. Se li estus konfesinte la kulpon kaj petinte pardonon, tiam la jugxistoj eble estus punintaj lin per nura ("mere") monpago ("fine"). Sed li fiere respondis ke efektive li multe plibonigas la junularon, kaj anstataux esti malutila, aux ecx neutila, li treege utilas al la urbo. Li diris ke oni havas nenian rajton puni lin, sed ke, kauxze de sia bonfarado al la urbo, li efektive meritas cxiutagan mangxon senpagan. Tamen, tute ne kompreninte kiel prava Sokrato estas, la jugxistoj mortkondamnis lin. Oni devigis lin trinki la venenon. Iom poste, en la malliberejo, li trankvile adiauxis siajn plorantajn amikojn, kaj akceptinte la venenan trinkajxon, sentime gxin trinkis. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. 1. Socrates believed that if one knows about good and evil (201) he will do good, but will not do evil. 2. Therefore he wished to help

mankind ("la homaron"), teaching them what the good is. 3. He also wished to discover for himself what is right and what is wrong. 4. So he asked every one whom he met (about) his opinions, and the one-talking-with [him] would also notice whether his own ideas were right or not. 5. But the fellow-citizens of Socrates were jealous, and hated him, because they did not understand him. 6. Therefore they accused him, called him a sinner, and sent around (245) false reports ("falsajn sciigojn") about him. 7. Because he said that conscience guided him (in the form of a soft voice at his ear), they accused him of ("pri") introducing (218, b) new gods. 8. They also said that he was corrupting the youth of the city. 9. If Socrates had pleaded guilty, and begged for a fine instead of the deathpunishment, without doubt he would have been pardoned and fined ("monpunita"). 10. But he said "I have never in my life sinned in any way, and I do not deserve any sort of punishment." So the judges condemned him to death by the drinking of poison. LESSON LIV. SUMMARY OF CONDITIONS 249. The three kinds of conditional sentences, together with the moods and tenses used in them, may be tabulated as follows:

Name: Factual Less Vivid Contrary to Fact Subject Matter: facts suppositions opposite of facts Time: any (usually) future present or past Mood: indicative conditional conditional Tense: any (usually) aoristic (usually) compound CLAUSES OF IMAGINATIVE COMPARISON. 250. Clauses of imaginative comparison are introduced by the conjunction "kvazaux", as though, as if. Sometimes the verb in the comparison may be left unexpressed or merely implied: Li trinkas la venenon kvazaux gxi estus vino, he drinks the poison as though it were wine. La kondamnito marsxis kvazaux kun malfacileco, the condemned man walked as if with difficulty. Li konfesis kvazaux kulpulo, he confessed like a culprit. THE USE OF "AL" TO EXPRESS REFERENCE. 251. Personal pronouns, and less frequently nouns, may be used with the preposition "al" to express "concern" or "interest" on the part of the person indicated by the complement of this preposition: Li bruligis al si la manon, he burned his hand. Hi trancxis al li la barbon, they cut his beard (the beard for him). Sxi preparas al ni bonan mangxon, she is preparing us a good meal. Cxu vi faros servon al mi? Will you do me a

service? [Footnote: The use of "al" in this sense, approaching that of "por" but less purposeful and definite, resembles the "dative of reference" and "ethical dative" of other languages, as in French "je me suis brule la langue", I have burned my tongue, German "ich wasche mir die Haende", I wash my hands, Latin "sese Caesari ad pedes proicerunt", they threw themselves at the feet of Caesar, Greek "ti soi mathesomai", what am I to learn for you? etc.] 252. By an extension of its use in expressing reference, "al" may often be used in the place of "de" expressing separation (170), when the use of "de" might seem to indicate agency (169) or possession (49): La luno estas kasxata al ni de la nuboj, the moon is hidden from us (to us) by the clouds. Gxi estas stelita al mi de li, it has been stolen from me by him. [Footnote: This use resembles the "dative of separation" of other languages, as in German "es stahl mir das Leben", it stole the life from me, French "il me prend la vie", it takes my life, Latin "hunc mihi timorem eripe", remove this fear from me, Greek "dexato oi skaeptron", he took his sceptre from him, etc.] THE SUFFIX "-ESTR-".

253. The suffix "-estr-" is used to indicate the "chief", "head", or "one in control" of that which is expressed in the root: lernejestro = (school) principal. urbestro = mayor. monahxestro = abbot. estraro = governing body. policestro = chief of police. sxipestro = ship-captain. VOCABULARY Aristejd-o = Aristeides. popol-o = a people. ekzil-i = to exile. pot-o = pot. enu-i = to be wearied, bored. senc-o = meaning, sense. gxust-a = exact. signif-i = to signify. kvazaux = as though, as if (250). son-i = to sound. ostr-o = oyster. strang-a = strange. ostracism-o = ostracism. sxel-o = shell, bark, peel. [Footnote: Care must be taken to distinguish "gxusta", exact, "gxuste", exactly, just, from "justa", upright, just, "juste", justly, and also from the adverb "jxus" just.] LA OSTRACISMO DE ARISTEJDO. La vorto ostracismo havas interesan devenon ("origin"). En gxia komenco oni rekonas la grekan vorton kiu signifas "sxelon de la ostro." En gxia fino oni vidas la saman "-ismon " kiu, deveninte de la greka, ankoraux estas uzata kiel vortfino en multaj diversaj lingvoj. La nuna senco de la vorto, facile trovebla en anglaj vortaroj ("dictionaries"), devenas de la jena greka kutimo:

oni povis ekzili iun ajn estron kies ideoj pri la administrado de la urbo ne sxajnis pravaj. La sagxulo diris "Kion vi volas skribi sur la sxelo?" La kamparano. Unufoje. tiu estis devigata foriri de la urbo. cxar la neinstruita kamparano ne povis skribi.Sepdek jarojn antaux ol vivadis Sokrato. cxar oni havis la jenan metodon: se cxe popola kunveno ses mil urbanoj vocxdonis ("vote") kontraux iun ajn. Cxi tion oni povis fari. sed devis tuj foriri kvazaux konfesinta kulpulo. "Ho. oni faris strangan legxon en lia urbo. Laux tiu. kaj forresti dek jarojn. Por vocxdonoj. oni skribis la nomon de la kondamnoto sur peco da potajxo ("pottery"). kiu tute ne meritis tian punadon. nomita Aristejdo. petante lian helpon. Gxuste tial oni nomas la kutimon ostracismo. tute sen jugxado aux ecx akuzado. kelkaj malamikoj proponis vocxdonadon pri la ostracismo de tre bona kaj nobla viro. Aristejdo demandis kun trankvila konscienco "Pro gxuste kiaj pekoj vi malamas Aristejdon?" La kamparano respondis. Li povis neniel havigi ("get") al si pardonon. aux pli ofte sur ostrosxelo. kamparano alproksimigxis al Aristejdo (kiu mem cxeestis). Antaux ol la kunveno disigxis. mi ne kasxos al vi ke mi ecx ne konas lin! Sed mi deziras ekzili lin nur cxar min enuigas la sono de lia nomo." Skribinte gxin. respondis "Aristejdon. . ne sciante ke li parolas al la viro mem.

doubtless the peasant would not have asked his help. 10. 11. The ancient law about ostracism was a strange [one]. I know nothing about him. The name of the person to-be-exiled ("199") was usually written upon an oyster-shell. Without just (exactly) this help. Aristeides said." 8. "Oh. 1. but I am weary [of] always hearing him called the just. 3. "Why do you hate Aristeides? 6. any leader could be banished. justly or unjustly. and the meaning of the word signifying the custom comes from that. 5. Aristeides had just arrived at the popular assembly when a peasant approached him. or . Doing him the service requested. Ought such persons as that ignorant peasant have-the-right to vote about important affairs? 9. The sillycreature ("132") replied. the peasant could not have voted. 2.Mi tre enuas cxiam auxdante lin nomata Aristejdo la justa!" SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. without trial of any kind. If Aristeides had not had a pleasant countenance and musical ("belsonan") voice. as if ("250") he himself were not the man under-discussion ("205"). Ought Aristeides to have written his own name on the oyster-shell or piece of pottery which was going to be used as a vote against him? 4. Through ("per") ostracism. Could you tell me how he has sinned against the city?" 7.

Passive. gxi) vidu! = ili vidu! = let them see! let him (her..explanation of the reasons. it) see! Compound Tenses. 255. six compound tenses are formed by combining the participles with the imperative mood "estu" of the auxiliary verb. etc. but these tenses are seldom used. Present: mi estu vidanta Present: mi estu vidata Past: mi estu vidinta Past: mi estu vidita Future: mi estu vidonta Future: mi estu vidota RESOLVE AND EXHORTATION. entreaty. THE IMPERATIVE MOOD. . together with a synopsis in the compound tenses. Beside the aoristic tense. as in English. LESSON LV. there is an "imperative mood". is as follows: Aoristic Tense. For expressions of command. mi vidu! = let me see! ni vidu! = let us see! (vi) vidu! = (you) see! (vi) vidu! = (you) see! li (sxi. The ending of the imperative mood is "-u". The conjugation of "vidi" in the aoristic tense of this mood. 254. exhortation. The "first person singular" of the imperative mood is used to express the speaker's resolve concerning his own action. Active.

256. etc. In the second person the pronoun is usually omitted. a. as in English.or an exhortation to himself concerning such action. "are to".): . "is to". "must".) Parolu kvazaux vi komprenus! Talk as though you understood! Ne fermu tiun pordon! Do not shut that door! Ne estu vidata tie! Do not be seen there! b. unless special emphasis is placed upon it: Estu trankvila! Be calm! (One person is addressed.) Estu pretaj por akompani min! Be ready to accompany me! (Two or more persons are addressed.] COMMANDS AND PROHIBITIONS. The "second" and "third" persons of the imperative are used to express peremptory commands and prohibitions. The "first person plural" is used to express resolve or exhortation concerning the joint action of the speaker and the person or persons addressed: Mi pensu pri tio! Let me think about that! Mi ne forgesu tion! I must not (do not let me) forget that! Ni ekzilu lin! Let us exile him! Ni ne sidigxu tie! Let us not sit down there! Ni estu grize vestitaj! Let us be dressed in gray! [Footnote: This force is usually expressed in English by "let" with an accusative and infinitive construction. In the third person a circumlocution in English is necessary in translation (as "let".

parolu. but I shall not listen! Iru tuj. if you are not satisfied! Consent: Nu. etc. Go at once. mi petas! Stop that noise. such as "request". se vi volas. the imperative mood may be employed for less peremptory expressions. 257. By an extension of its use in resolve. se vi ne estas kontenta! Go away. command and prohibition. "advice". talk. sed mi ne auxskultos! Well. Question: Cxu mi faru tion aux ne? Am I to do that or not? Cxu ni disdonu la librojn? Shall we distribute the books? Cxu li estu kondamnita? ..Li estu zorga! Let him be careful (he must be careful)! Sxi ne faru tion! Do not let her do that (she is not to do that)! Cxio estu pardonata! Let everything be forgiven! Oni lasu min trankvila! People are to let me alone! Ili neniam revenu! Let them never (do not let them ever) return! La kulpuloj estu punataj! Let the culprits be punished! LESS PEREMPTORY USES OF THE IMPERATIVE. and in "questions of deliberation or perplexity". exhortation. "wish". if you like. I beg! Bonvolu fari tion! Please do that! Pardonu al ni niajn pekojn! Forgive us our sins! Wish: Ili estu felicxaj! May they be happy! Dio vin benu! God bless you! Vivu la regxo! (Long) live the king! Advice: Pensu antaux ol agi! Think before acting! Foriru. or "requests for instruction": Request: Cxesu tiun bruon.

her majesty.) hear him? VOCABULARY Afrik-o = Africa. to bid. li ordonis "La logxantoj estu vendataj por sklavoj!" Li deziris fari por si. el la venkitaj kaj sklavigitaj popoloj. his majesty. ecx . barbar-o = barbarian. Damokl-o = Damocles. sed ankaux multajn urbojn en Italujo kaj norda Afriko. LA GLAVO DE DAMOKLO. konsil-i = to advise. mosxt-o = a title (see 258). The word "mosxto" may be used alone. or after a title. volont-e = willingly. Cxu via mosxto lin auxdis? Did your honor (excellency. permes-i = to permit.Shall he be condemned? Cxu ili venu cxi tien? Are they to (shall they) come here? THE USE OF "MOSXTO". tre kruela tirano. Lia jugxista mosxto. etc. sol-a = sole. kaj venkis ne nur barbarajn popolojn. When used after a title. sur la insulo Sikelio. sklav-o = slave. konsent-i = to consent. Sed la urboj cxie. ordon-i = to order. Detruinte cxion sen kompato. Antaux pli multe ol dumil jaroj vivis en Sirakuzo. Sxia regxina mosxto. his honor the judge. Lia urbestra mosxto. to denote respect. Li diris al si "Mi estu cxiopova ("allpowerful")!" Tial li faris multe da militadoj. the title becomes an adjective: Lia regxa mosxto. imperi-o = empire. flank-o = side. unu grandan imperion. 258. placx-i = to please. only. his honor the mayor.

timante ke iu subite mortigos lin.en Grekujo. kaj agis laux la permeso tiel afable donita al li. Subtenate de unu sola haro. Baldaux la tirano diris "Rigardu supren. oni ankoraux nun nomas la atendadon por io timeginda." ekkriis Damoklo. Pro la jxus dirita stranga rakonto. kaj trinkante dolcxan vinon. "Se mi estus tiel ricxa kaj pova kiel via regxa mosxto. kaj vidu gxuste kian felicxecon mi havas!" Supren rigardinte. ne kasxis al li sian grandan malamon al tia tirano. Damoklo ekvidis akran glavon. se tio placxas al vi. kaj eltrovu cxu mi devus esti felicxa aux ne. amiko de la tirano. antauxe kasxitan al li de kurteno." Damoklo tuj konsentis al tia propono." konsilis la tirano. "kaj poste ni parolos pri la felicxeco. Mangxante bonegan mangxajxon. Unufoje Damoklo." "Mi venos tre volonte. forsaltinte de la tablo. mi estus treege felicxa!" La tirano respondis. "Venu al festo cxe mi. Tial li cxiam timis pri sia vivo. li tute ne enuis cxe la festo. kio . "Mangxu kaj trinku kiom ajn vi volas. diris al li. estas nenio (="you are welcome")! Nur ne forgesu la deciditan horon!" Je la gxusta horo Damoklo iris al la festo. "kaj mi dankas vian mosxton pro tia afableco!" La tirano gxentile respondis "Ho. la glavo sxajnis kvazaux tuj falonta sur la kapon de Damoklo. kie oni donis al li segxon flanke de la tirano mem. "La dioj min helpu!" li ekkriis.

His only bidding usually was "Let every inhabitant be sold as a slave!" 6. and the tyrant said to him. The tyrant answered. "Heaven defend me!" exclaimed Damocles. I will give you a seat (214. 5." 9. "Look up and you will see what kind of happiness mine is. Damocles said to him "Your royal highness ought to be very happy!" 8. He thought "Let me make one sole empire out of Africa. if that would be-pleasing to you. had permitted all sorts of injustices." SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.sxajnas cxiam okazonta sed efektive ne okazas. 10. and went thither. 4." 2. "la glavo de Damoklo. After a few hours Damocles heard a slight sound over his head." 12. against not only barbarians but even Greeks. The tyrant advised "Let us eat and drink until midnight. the Syracusan tyrant. but that about the sword of Damocles is also interesting. catching sight of a sharp sword hanging by a single (sole) hair. "Come to a feast tomorrow." 11. . His friend. b) beside me. 3. Damocles willingly consented. Italy and Sicily!" 7. 1. It has its present meaning because oyster-shells or pieces of pottery were used for the voting. and find out. The story about Aristeides is interesting. Then let us discuss the problem about happiness. The word ostracism comes from the Greek word signifying "oyster-shell.

"exhortation". Consent. 259. Li diras ke vi iru. THE IMPERATIVE IN SUBORDINATE CLAUSES. etc. I forbid you to remain. I advised him to go. Advice. he desires that they be enslaved. Mi petas ke vi ne lasu min. "resolve". "intention". Such clauses are introduced by the conjunction ke: Command and Prohibition. we wished him not to forget that. etc. Li deziras ke ili estu sklavigitaj. I consented that he remain.LESSON LVI. Sxi skribis al li ke li venu.. The imperative mood is used in a subordinate clause. I beg that you do not leave me. he says that you are to go. "consent". "necessity". Ili permesos ke la barbaroj forkuru. or after any word or general expression of "command". Ni ordonos ke li estu punata. Mi petegas ke vi estu trankvilaj. we shall order that he be punished. with a meaning similar to that in its independent use. Request and Wish. Mi malpermesas ke vi restu. after a main verb expressing "command". she wrote him to come. Ni volis ke li ne forgesu tion. they will permit the barbarians to escape . Mi konsilis al li ke li iru. "wish". Permission. Mi konsentis ke li restu. I implore you to be calm. "expedience".

I wonder whether I am to do that. . Ni intencas ke vi estu helpata. we intend that you shall be helped.(that the barbarians escape). that we receive the half. Expedience." but in Esperanto this must be expressed by the equivalent of "I wish that you go." The infinitive may not be used except when it can itself be the subject of the verb in such general statements as "it is necessary to go. Oni demandis cxu lia mosxto eniru. Estas dezirinde ke ni havu bonan imperiestron. it is desirable that we have a good emperor. he will be pleased to have you go. Lia propono estas ke ni ricevu la duonon. Necessity. as "I wish you to go. Questions."] THE PREPOSITION "JE". they asked whether his honor was to enter. ke vi venu. his last order was that you come. it will be well for you not to (that you do not) mention him any more. Mi miras cxu mi faru tion. Intention. etc. Estos bone ke vi ne plu nomu lin. Placxos al li ke vi iru. Lia lasta ordono estis. [Footnote: In English and some other languages an imperative idea may often be expressed by the infinitive. it was necessary for everyone to rise. Estis necese ke cxiu starigxu. his proposal is. he inquires whether they are to go away. Li demandas cxu ili foriru.

260. The preposition "je" is used to express indefinite connection after the following words (other prepositions sometimes used are given in parentheses): ekkrii je (pro). busy (oneself) at. with (by) a strong rope. they came in great numbers. (sin) okupi je. . In order to insure some means of translating correctly into Esperanto any prepositional phrase of the national languages. Li estas tenata de la policano. enui je. and of indefinite connection: Je la nomo de cxielo! In the name of Heaven! Je mia honoro mi ja elfaros tion! On my honor I will accomplish that! Gxi estas longa je du mejloj. 185). per forta sxnurego. the preposition "je" is regarded as of rather indefinite meaning. to cry out at. it may be employed when no other preposition gives the exact sense required. by the arm. je la brako. to be bored with. expressions of measure (see also 139). Since prepositional uses are not exactly alike in any two languages. Ili venis je grandaj nombroj. he is held by the policemen. it is not always possible to translate a preposition of one language by what is its equivalent in some senses in another. In addition to its use in dates and allusions to time (89. especially in protestations and exclamations. it is two miles long (long by two miles).

The finer shades of meaning and real or apparent exceptions can merely be touched upon if mentioned at all. worthy of. but. sxargxi je.). teni je. take interest in. spac-o = space. Cirus-o = Cyrus. content with. to be sated with.plena je (de). proud of. to hold by. ridi je. senigi je. sopir-i = to yearn. sesopigi = to form into groups of six. to rejoice at. fidi = to rely. inda je. gratuli je (pri). VOCABULARY cel-i = to aim. interesigxi je. to provide with. full of.] THE SUFFIX "-OP-". kvarope = by fours. to rely upon. rezult-i = to result. to load with. satigxi je. sopiri je (al). fidi je (al). preni je. milope = by thousands. honti je (pri). to seize by. kredi je. to yearn for. krom = beside. . to laugh at. to sigh. to believe in. ricxigi je (per). congratulate on. honor-o = honor. gxoji je (pri). fiera je (pri). 261. similar to. proviz-i = to provide. simila je (al). to take by. [Footnote: The translation given for a preposition in any dictionary is the general one which serves in the majority of cases. to be ashamed of. kontenta je (kun). save. to enrich with. prokrast-i = to delay (trans. gxu-i = to enjoy. in pairs. kapti je. provizi je (per). to deprive of. The suffix "-op-" is used to form "collective" numerals: duope = by twos.

pro la granda pago ricevata. Ciruso petis la grekojn ke ili partoprenu ("take part") en kelkaj negravaj militadoj. Decidinte forigi de la regxeco ("to dethrone") sian fraton. plen-a = full. ili neniam estus akompanintaj lin tiel malproksimen de sia patrolando. kaj treege kolerigxis. mi certigas vin je mia honoro ke cxiu el vi revenos havante sakojn . Grade li kondukis ilin trans tutan Azion. Estis tute indiferente al ili cxu la kauxzo de la militado estas prava kaj justa aux ne. aux pli gxuste imperiestro. Ciruso tuj diris "Mi ne permesas ke vi reiru. Li kasxis al ili sian veran celon. La venditaj sklavoj kaj la detruitaj konstruajxoj cxiam provizis ilin je multe da ricxajxo. ver-o = truth. Multaj tiamaj grekoj tre volonte sin okupis je la batalado. kaj krom tio la militistoj sxajnis gxui ecx la militadon mem. Unue Ciruso nur petis ke ili helpu liajn proprajn soldatojn kontraux iuj najbaroj. sopiris je la imperio de sia pli maljunafrato. kiu sekvis la patron de ambaux fratoj kiel regxo. kaj fine la dekmil grekoj komprenis cxion. kaj mi petegas ke vi antauxen marsxadu kun mi. kion li intencis fari. nepo de Ciruso Granda. Iam Ciruso. Paroladante al ili. sen plua ("further") prokrasto! Se mi sukcesos kontraux mia frato. cxar se la grekoj estus suspektintaj tion.terur-a = terrible. LA MARSXADO DE LA DEKMIL GREKOJ.

por batali kontraux la centmil de Ciruso. Ciruso estis preskaux venkinta en terura batalo. They said to each other in terror. Cyrus addressed (218) . cxar la amikoj de la regxo. je malgranda interspaco. b) around him. Let us return home without delay!" 7. Per la helpo de siaj grekoj. He led them farther and farther. So he asked the Greeks to help him in some battles against nearby enemies. Gradually an army (126) of a hundred thousand men. 5. gathered (232. Ekkriante "Mi vidas la viron!" li rajdis rekte al la regxo. into the middle of Asia. until finally the Greeks suspected his true aim. 4. He decided. "He did not at first propose that we fight against the Great King. 6. lin tuj mortigis. ten thousand of whom were Greeks. Fine. kaj cxio estos bona!" Tiam la soldatoj hontis je sia antauxa timo. SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. Cyrus did not desire that his brother should remain king. apud granda urbo. kaj kuragxe antauxen marsxadis. "Let me myself become ("farigxi") king! I should much enjoy that!" 3.plenajn je ricxajxo! Estas nur necese ke vi fidu je mi. kvinope kaj sesope atakinte Ciruson. la frato de Ciruso elvenis havante okcentmil soldatojn. La sola rezulto estis la morto de Ciruso mem. kiam subite li ekvidis sian fraton. 2. 1. jxetante sian pezan lancon al li.

and rely upon me! Do you not wish to return home provided with wealth. Cyrus won the battle. beside the money which I shall pay to you?" 9. with ("havante") eight hundred thousand men. introduced by "por ke": Mi faras gxin por ke li helpu vin. So neither he nor the Greeks could enjoy the result of their efforts. 10. and advanced by hundreds. 262. he will come that we may be happy. Ili restu por ke ni punu ilin. Mi ekkriis por ke vi auxdu. 12. and I do advise you not to forget your longing for (260) honor! 8. but he himself lost his life. full of courage. 11. I cried out in order that you should hear. Li venos por ke ni estu felicxaj. Immediately the soldiers were ashamed of their fear. Mi studas por ke mi lernu. CLAUSES EXPRESSING PURPOSE. LESSON LVII. I study that I may learn. By the aid of the Greeks. Only be worthy of your leader. the expression of purpose by . Purpose may be expressed by a subordinate imperative clause. Soon the brother of Cyrus approached. let them stay for us to punish them. [Footnote: Cf.them as follows: "Must I permit you to go back? I implore you to be courageous. I do it in order that he may help you.

121). [Footnote: Cf. (the) going thither will be a pleasure. its falling earthward terrified me. Sxi dancis belan dancon. etc. The accusative of direction of motion is used after nouns from roots expressing motion: Lia eniro en la urbon estis subita. also compounds of such verbs as . she danced a beautiful dance. and measure (139). the accusative of direct object (23). b. An intransitive verb may be followed by a noun in the accusative case. his entrance into the city was sudden. if the meaning of the noun is related to that of the verb: Li vivas agrablan vivon. "veni". La irado tien estos plezuro. he lives an agreeable life. which however cannot be used except when the subject of the main verb is the subject of the subordinate verb.the infinitive with "por" (98). "marsxi". direction of motion (46.] 263. time (91). Ili ploris maldolcxajn larmojn. "veturi". Gxia falado teren timigis min. 264. "pasi". they wept bitter tears.] FURTHER USES OF THE ACCUSATIVE.) compounded with prepositions or adverbs (121) indicating direction. a. or when the object of the main verb is the subject of the subordinate verb. Verbs of motion ("iri".

Ni gxin priparolos. "bethink". Lin antauxvenis du sklavoj. "besprechen". The accusative may be used after verbs of such meaning that either a prepositional phrase or an accusative would seem correct: . may be followed by the accusative. Mi kontrauxstaras vian opinion.] 265. the man passed (by) the house. Li klare elparolas la vortojn. German "beklagen". "bespeak". let us go up the stairs. The slight change in meaning given by "pri" used as a prefix may render intransitive verbs transitive. [Footnote: In this use "pri" resembles the English and German inseparable prefix "be-". c. "bewail". etc. Ni supreniru la sxtuparon. as in English "bemoan". I attended (was present at) the entertainment. she mourned the dead bird. I shall consider (think over) the matter. I oppose (withstand) your opinion. he pronounces the words clearly. Mi cxeestis la feston. instead of by a prepositional phrase in which the preposition is repeated: La viro preterpasis la domon."esti" and "stari" with prepositions expressing situation. The same is true of "el" prefixed to intransitive verbs not expressing motion: Sxi priploris la mortintan birdon. we shall talk it over. Mi pripensos la aferon. "sich" . there preceded (came before) him two slaves.

Li obeis nin (al ni). it pleases (is pleasing to) me. in conformity to the law. Escepte tion (escepte de tio). I pardon (grant pardon to) him. The accusative may be used after certain adverbs which are normally followed by a prepositional phrase: Rilate tion (rilate al tio). One may say "pardonu nin". in regard to that. 267. Mi helpis lin (al li). Sxi ridis mian timon (je mia timo). [Footnote: When ambiguity would be caused. Konforme la legxon (konforme al la legxo). but must say "pardonu al ni niajn pekojn". INDICATIVE. (Aoristic) mi vidas mi estas vidata (Progressive) mi estas vidanta Past.] 266. she ridiculed (laughed at) my fear. (Aoristic) mi vidis mi estis vidata . PASSIVE. SYNOPSIS OF THE CONJUGATION OF THE VERB.Mi pardonas lin (al li). as by the presence of another accusative. Koncerne la aferon (koncerne je la afero). this construction may not be employed. he obeyed (was obedient to) us. to see. with the exception of that. vidi. concerning the affair. in comparison with the other. I helped (gave aid to) him. Present. ACTIVE. Gxi placxas min (al mi). Kompare la alian (kompare kun la alia).

(Aoristic) vidi esti vidata (Progressive) esti vidanta Perfect. mi estus vidinta mi estus vidita Future. mi estis vidinta mi estis vidita Future Perfect. The indefinite suffix "-um-" serves the same general purpose in word formation which "je" serves as an indefinite preposition (260): . Present. mi estas vidonta mi estas vidota (Past). (Present).(Imperfect) mi estis vidanta Future. mi estus vidonta mi estus vidota IMPERATIVE. (Aoristic) mi vidus mi estus vidata (Progressive) mi estus vidanta Past. mi estu vidonta mi estu vidota INFINITIVE. mi estis vidonta mi estis vidota (Future). Present. (Aoristic) mi vidos mi estos vidata (Progressive) mi estos vidanta Perfect. (Aoristic) mi vidu mi estu vidata (Progressive) mi estu vidanta Past. esti vidinta esti vidita Future. esti vidonta esti vidota THE SUFFIX "-UM-". mi estos vidinta mi estos vidita Periphrastic Futures. Present. mi estu vidinta mi estu vidita Future. mi estas vidinta mi estas vidita Pluperfect. 268. mi estos vidonta mi estos vidota CONDITIONAL.

LA REIRADO DE LA DEKMILO. Senigite je siaj estroj. histori-o = history. diris. obe-i = to obey. proksimume = approximately. gustumi = to taste. Kvankam la grekoj estis venkintoj. verk-i = to compose (books or music). kolumo = collar. "Ni mem kondukos vin per kiel eble plej rekta vojo hejmen! Ni faros nian eblon ("utmost") por ke ni cxiuj estu savitaj!" Cxar restis nenio alia por fari. fremd-a = foreign.aerumi = to air. rilat-o = relation. obstin-a = obstinate. promes-i = to promise. VOCABULARY eben-a = level. sav-i = to save. nepr-e = inevitably. cxirkauxitaj de barbaroj kiuj. esper-i = to hope. escept-o = exception. rapide kunveniginte la soldatojn. ili estis tute solaj en fremda lando. Sed kelkaj subestroj. sat-a = satiated. even. certainly. konform-i = to conform. koncern-i = to concern. kompar-i = to compare. busxumo = muzzle. per trompemaj proponoj kaj falsaj promesoj pri amikaj interrilatoj. La celo de la longa marsxado ne povis esti plenumata. La grekaj militistoj sentis grandan teruron kiam Ciruso ne plu vivis. plenumi = to fulfil. pro la morto de la obstina trokuragxa militestro mem. tuj okazigis la morton de la grekaj estroj. la kompatindaj viroj tute malesperis. la malfacila malgaja reirado de la grekoj .

Cxie la malfidindaj barbaroj atakis ilin. one of the . SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. kvazaux por ke neniu greko restu viva. De infaneco ili alkutimis al la vojagxado per akvo. kaj sen pontoj transiris largxajn riverojn. la grekoj mortis dekope kaj dudekope cxiutage. Lauxta ekkriego "La maro! La maro!" eksonis inter la lacaj viroj. ecx sen escepto de la posta irado tien de Aleksandro Granda. Tiu azia militado de Ciruso nepre estas unu el la plej rimarkindaj okazintajxoj iam priskribitaj. 2. Krom tio. por transiri la maron al la patrujo je kiu ili estis tiel longe sopirintaj. Treege interesa historio koncerne la tutan aferon estas verkita de fama greka verkisto ("writer"). 1. In the course of the following day. meze de la vintro. el kiuj multaj ploris larmojn de gxojo. the leaders of the Greek warriors did not know what to do. pro varmegeco.komencigxis sen prokrasto. la restajxo de la dekmil soldatoj alvenis sur monton. Fine. malvarmegeco. supreniris kaj malsupreniris krutajn negxkovritajn montojn. kiu estis akompaninta Ciruson por ke li povu gxui kaj studi cxion interesan sur la vojo. post nekredeblaj suferoj. laceco kaj malsateco ("hunger"). kaj post iom da ripozo ili sin provizis je sxipoj. After the death of Cyrus. Ili transiris varmegajn ebenajxojn ("plains"). kaj ekvidis la maron.

5. 269. and the peoples are without exception hostile to us. The Greek leaders went. He said "Assemble in our leader's tent. for we are in a foreign land. is related in the history written by a famous Greek historian. But the leaders-oflesser-rank said "Obey us and follow us. Their return. in order that you may all discuss the matter. "lasi". and soon the Greeks understood that the barbarians had killed them. Permission is usually expressed by the use of "permesi". in Greek or in a translation. They wept tears of despair. and said "The barbarians will inevitably destroy us. because they did not know how else to save their men. PERMISSION AND POSSIBILITY. LESSON LVIII. although they suspected danger. made-more-difficult by hunger and by the unceasing attacks of the barbarians. or the imperative mood: Cxu vi permesas ke mi restu? May I (do you . 8. where we know neither the languages nor the roads.leaders of the enemy sent a messenger (205) with deceitful promises about help. One can still read this interesting narrative. and we shall do our best to save you!" 7." 3." 6. 4. across hot plains and snow-covered mountains. But they never returned. 2.

THE SUFFIX "-ACX-". Kredeble li sukcesos. "kredeble". stay). they might (possibly they would) save him. they could not have (surely did not) beat him. mi permesas (jes. hundacxo = a cur. and Mrs. "versxajne". gefratoj = brother(s) and sister(s).. popolacxo = rabble. The suffix "-acx-" has a disparaging significance: domacxo = a hovel. Ne estas permesate eniri tien. you may (yes. 270. Eble oni lin savus. geavoj = grandparents. gesinjoroj = Mr. . he may (perhaps he will) obey you. lady (ladies) and gentleman (gentlemen). yes.permit me to) stay? Jes. 272. gefiloj = son(s) and daughter(s). geedzoj = husband(s) and wife (wives). mob. probably he will succeed. 271. restu). Tio estas neebla! That can not be (that is impossible)! THE PREFIX "GE-". The idea of possibility or probability is given by the use of some such adverb as "eble". pentracxi = to daub. Versxajne vi estas prava. obstinacxa = obstinate. you are probably right. Ili nepre ne batis lin. Lasu lin veni. ridacxi = to guffaw. it is not allowed to enter there. let him come. etc. genepoj = grandchildren.: Eble li obeos al vi. Words formed with the prefix "ge-" indicate the two sexes together: gepatroj = parents.

Hark!. komun-a = common. Interjections are words used to express feeling or call attention. vast-a = vast.] VOCABULARY Aleksandri-o = Alexandria. like "-acx-" (272). "ficxevalo". Hura! Hurrah! Fi! Fie! Nu! Well! Ho! Oh! Ho! Ve! Woe! (Ho ve! Alas!). as "Atentu!". "For!". "Auxskultu!". There!. "Bone!". educate.INTERJECTIONS. Krist-o = Christ. "Jen!". Forward!. extensive. kontinent-o = continent. and adverbs. Look out!. a sorry nag. Good!. firm-a = firm. mutual. as "fibirdo". Away!. hispan-o = Spaniard. "Bonvenu!". Amerik-o = America. Aristotel-o = Aristotle. Permesu ke mi diru kelkajn vortojn pri la vivo de Aleksandro Granda. Behold!] [Footnote: The interjection "fi" is sometimes used as a disparaging prefix. ugly bird. "Ja!". kapabl-a = capable. establish. Indeed!. are frequently used as interjections. bibliotek-o = library. Auxstrali-o = Australia. Egipt-o = Egypt. 273. [Footnote: Verbs in the imperative. estim-i = to esteem. Among the more common interjections are: Adiaux! Farewell! (171). spite = in spite of. Welcome!. eduk-i = to bring up. "Antauxen!". fond-i = to found. milion-o = million. kiu ne estis matura . ALEKSANDRO GRANDA.

krom tio. Se li ne estus tiel frue mortinta. venkante cxiujn cxie. tiom de la okcidenta mondo kiom li jam posedis de la orienta. kiun lia patro estis venkinta. Italujon. kaj ankaux Grekujon. kaj gxin nomis Aleksandrio. unue en Azio. ni sendube konus multe pli bone la sciadon de la antikvaj grekoj. mallongavorte. li mortis pro febro. ho ve. kiun li tre alte estimis. gxis tre orienta kaj suda partoj. li faris militadojn kontraux diversaj fremdaj landoj. Sed spite cxies petoj li estis obstinacxe nezorgema pri sia sano. tricent dektri jarojn antaux Kristo. Venkinte Egipton.viro sed havis nur dudek jarojn kiam li farigxis regxo. Liaj gepatroj estis tre zorge edukintaj lin. en la dauxro de iuj militadoj. Li intencis ke la milionoj da enlogxantoj akceptu komunajn . kaj subite. kvazaux por fari el la mondo unu grandan familion. kaj la filozofo Aristotelo. Tie trovigxis* poste la fama Aleksandria biblioteko. Aleksandro reiris en Azion. kaj. Tiam li celis kunigi cxion en unu vastan imperion. kiuj versxajne estis la plej klera popolo iam vivinta en Euxropo. Aleksandrio nepre estis belega ricxa urbo. kvazaux ili estus la plej malkuragxaj popolacxoj en la mondo. kie li fondis urbon. estis unu el liaj instruistoj. kiel multe li estus eble elfarinta! Li esperis venki Hispanujon. Se gxi ne estus detruita de fajro. Aleksandro firme tenadis sian propran regxolandon. tiam en Afriko.

many villages are (situated) there. in a sense not greatly differing from that of "esti". Egipto trovigxas en la nordorienta parto de Afriko. the city lay between two lakes. etc. in narration for similar reasons: Multaj vilagxoj trovigxas tie. kiel malgranda estis tiu mondo kiun li konis! La tiamuloj konis nur malgrandan parton de Afriko. He intended that all the different peoples should conform to common laws and that their sons- . "kusxi". La urbo kusxis inter du lagoj. "sit". 1. [Footnote: The use of "trovigxi"." Tamen. Alexander the Great wished to unite the whole world into one vast empire. Li sin trovis sola en la dezerto.] SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. and also of "sin trovi". norda kaj suda Amerikoj. Ili sciis nenion pri Anglujo. just as English uses "lie". aux pri la vastaj kontinentoj Auxstralio. he found himself (he was) alone in the desert. Egypt is (found) in the northeastern part of Africa. Estas pro tio ke oni ofte auxdas la diron "Aleksandro sopiris je aliaj mondoj por venki. on the mountainside perched a tiny village. Sur la montflanko sidis vilagxeto. "perch". ecx de Euxropo. 2.. -kredeble la grekan.legxojn kaj kutimojn. de Azio. avoids the monotonous repetition of forms of "esti". "stari" and "sidi". ecx komunan lingvon. Eble li ja havis la kapablecon por fari cxion cxi.

" did not even know of the existence of North and South America. to bid farewell to their dying leader. if he had not died suddenly when he was only thirty-two years old. and in spite of their love for their national languages. Alexander. Australia. 4. 5. where approximately three hundred years before Christ the famous Alexandrian library was located. His soldiers marched weeping past his tent. should leave-off speaking them. 7. in Egypt. An unemphatic personal. Possibly he might have accomplished his object to some extent (217). with its millions of inhabitants. It contained an enormous collection-of-books -. THE POSITION OF UNEMPHATIC PRONOUNS. who "sighed for other worlds to conquer.and-daughters should speak one common language. he knew very little of Asia. Alas. It was Alexander who founded the city of Alexandria. 11. 8. or even of England and Northern Europe. indefinite or demonstrative pronoun very frequently precedes the verb of which it is the object. How small the world was in those days! LESSON LIX. Beside his Asiatic empire. even of China. 274. 10. 3. They must have esteemed him very highly! 6. this extensive library was destroyed by fire! 9.almost seven hundred thousand. .

and in the spellings "gimme" (= "give me"). in other languages. and the Avestan "i. the Sanskrit enclitic forms "ma. im"). me defendi". Li povos tion fari.This is especially true if the verb in question is an infinitive: Mi volas lin vidi. as in German "ich moechte ihn sehen". enam. he will be able to do that. te. The same phenomenon is indicated in "prithee" (= "pray thee"). in which the unemphatic forms "er. you ought to eat something. oi. "lemme" (= "let me").. etc. ou. Some intransitive verbs have English meanings which do not differ in form from the transitive English verbs to which they are related.] SOME INTRANSITIVE VERBS. me. me. I wish to see him. replace "him. son. e. in pronunciation (cf. That such pronouns "are" unemphatic can be seen from English "let her come" (= "let'er come"). Latin "se alunt. Vi devus ion mangxi. in dialect stories. 275." also "sim". li min savus.". her". In Esperanto the suffix "-ig-" (214) must be used when the transitive meaning is . enam. French "je veux le voir". tva. soi. moi. Cxu vi gxin kredis? Did you believe it? Se li min vidus. [Footnote: Cf. if he should see me. the Greek enclitic pronouns "mou. se. im". enat. vas. "make him stop" (= "make'im stop"). etc. he would save me. nas.

. . . . Intransitive Use. .desired. La tempo pasas Tiel li pasigis la tagon Time passes Thus he passed the day Pendi. . Transitive Use. . . Boli . . . La akvo bolas Li boligas la akvon The water boils He boils the water Bruli. La suno lumas Li lumigis la lampon The sun shines He lighted the lamp Pasi . . La bruo cxesas Li cxesigas la bruon The noise stops He stops the noise Dauxri . La knabino dronis La viro sxin dronigis The girl drowned The man drowned her Eksplodi . . . . Gxi pendas de brancxo Li gxin pendigis de brancxo It hangs on a branch He hung it on a branch . . . . . . Pulvo eksplodas Li gxin eksplodigos Gunpowder explodes He will explode it Halti. . La bruo dauxras Li dauxrigas la bruon The noise continues He continues the noise Degeli . . . . . . La glacio degelas Li gxin degeligas per fajro The ice thaws He thaws it with fire Droni. . . Li haltis timigite Li haltigis la soldatojn He halted in alarm He halted the soldiers Lumi . Some examples are given in the following table: Verb. La fajro brulas Li bruligis la paperon The fire burns He burned the paper Cxesi. . .

La sonorilo sonoris Oni sonorigis la sonorilon The bell rang They rang the bell [Footnote: A transitive use of such intransitive verbs would be like using the English intransitive verb "learn" for the transitive verb "teach. ." as in the "I'll learn you" (for "I'll teach you") of illiterate speech. duonfrato = half-brother. 1912a. 278. The prefix "bo-" indicates relationship by marriage. THE PREFIXES "BO-" AND "DUON-". Letters should be dated as indicated in the following: Bostono. "duon-" (166) is used: bopatro = father-in-law. . 276. . sablero = grain of sand. . 277. To indicate half-blood relationship. NovJorko.] THE SUFFIX "-ER-". bofratino = sister-in-law. 1912a. Sirakuzo. or step-relationship. a. La saluta pafo sonis Oni sonigis la salutan pafon The salute sounded They sounded the salute Sonori . monero = coin.Soni . duonpatro = stepfather. b. je la 24a de decembro. The usual methods of address are (to . negxero = snowflake. . 24/XII/1912. la 24an decembro. The suffix "-er-" is used to form words expressing units or component parts of that which is indicated in the root: fajrero = spark (of fire). CORRESPONDENCE.

Kara Amiko. b).strangers and in business letters): "Sinjoro." etc) etc. fontan-o = fountain. as in English "Mother mine. c. cxef-a = chief." etc. etc). chief . Tre vere. respekt-o = respect.. mend-i = to order (of stores. krajon-o = pencil. do = so. Kara Mario. Nov-Jorko = New York. Karaj Sinjoroj. employment. stat-o = state (political body) koverto = envelope (for letters) tram-o = tram." (placing the possessive adjective after the noun in this way gives an affectionate sense. Frate la via. ink-o = ink. special-a = special. ofic-o = office. Karaj Gefratoj. Patrino mia. apart-a = separate. Kun samideanaj salutoj. bedaur-i = to regret. konven-a = suitable. (to friends and relatives) "Kara Frauxlino. hotel-o = hotel. Kun cxiuj bondeziroj. numer-o = number (numeral)." etc.. posxt-o = post (letters. (to friends): "Kun amika saluto. Estimata Sinjoro. [Footnote: "Cxef-" is often used in descriptive compounds (167. etc. Tre estimata Frauxlino. (to persons whose opinions on some subject are known to agree with those of the writer) "Estimata (Kara) Samideano" ("follower of the same idea"). Among the more usual forms of conclusion are (to strangers and in business letters): "Tre fidele la via.). Kun plej alta estimo. Kun granda estimo. VOCABULARY adres-o = address. Sinjorino. then." etc. as "cxefkuiristo"..

Sed nun mi havas du aux tri minutojn da libera tempo. 1911. mi petas. petante ke vi vespermangxu kun mi hodiaux vespere. chef. mi estas tiel okupata ke mi ne havis la tempon ecx por telefoni al vi. Estos plej bone. kie haltas la tramveturiloj ("streetcars"). ke vi iru rekte al mia cxambro. Gxis nun.] ***** KELKAJ LETEROJ. mi logxas de antaux unu tago. kaj mi tuj ekkaptas la okazon por skribi letereton. kiel vi vidas. se mi ne estos efektive jam vin .) Venu je la sesa. cxe la hotelo kie. alie mi vin renkontus cxe la tramvojo.(head) cook. capital. sed mi jxus eltrovis ke restas neniom plu da inko en mia fontanplumo. chief city. donis al mi vian adreson. mi devos forresti de la hotelo la tutan posttagmezon. Sendube vin surprizos ricevi leteron skribitan de mi cxe hotelo en cxi tiu urbo. "cxefurbo". numero 26. pri komercaj aferoj. (Pardonu. ne tre malproksime de via propra oficejo! Via bofrato. Bedauxrinde ("unfortunately"). se tiu horo estas konvena. mi opinias. archangel. "cxefangxelo". ***** Sirakuzo. kiun mi okaze renkontis hieraux en la posxtoficejo. "ke" mi finas cxi tiun leteron per krajono. kie mi senprokraste vin renkontos. Kara Amiko. la 2an de marto.

[Footnote: The word "tial" may be omitted from the combination "tial ke" (83). al kiu ni petas ke vi donu vian . Kun respekto. Ni esperu ke la cxefkuiristo preparos al ni bonan mangxon! Mi esperas ke vi malatentos la falantajn negxerojn.] ***** Boston. Ni baldaux bezonos iujn novajn meblojn por niaj oficejoj. Estimataj Sinjoroj:-. Se viaj prezoj estas konvenaj. Roberto. if the meaning is obvious. cxar ni ja havos multe da komunaj travivajxoj por priparoli.atendanta. responde al mia iomete subita invito. NovJorko.Bonvolu sendi al mi per revenanta posxto vian plej novan prezaron ("price-list"). kaj specialajn librujojn. ***** Nov-Jorko. F. 13/VII/1911. Smith. Wilson kaj Jones. Nov-Jorko. Sinjoro J. Estimata Sinjoro:-. precipe skribtablojn. F. tablojn konvenajn por skribmasxinoj ("typewriters"). Do gxis la baldauxa revido je la vespermangxo! Kun plej amikaj salutoj. J.Ni havas la honoron sendi al vi en aparta koverto nian plej novan prezaron. ni sendube volos mendi de vi tian meblaron. Smith. 17/VII/1911. cxe Brown kaj Brown. cxe Brown kaj Brown. farotajn laux niaj bezonoj. kaj nepre venos.

sciigante al ni kiom da procento vi donos. F. Tre respekte la viaj. Ni senpage metos cxiujn acxetitajn meblojn sur la vagonaron. kiajn vi fabrikas. kaj volonte ricevos viajn ordonojn pri tio. kaj certigante al vi ke ni zorge plenumos cxiun mendon.Vian adreson ni dankas al niaj komunaj amikoj Sinjoroj Miller kaj White. Sinjoro B. sed kompreneble ni ne pagos la koston de la sendado. Brown. kune kun la tie-presitaj prezoj. Ni plezure fabrikos specialajn librujojn laux viaj bezonoj. preskaux meze de la cxefstrato en la urbo. estos plene kontentigaj. Kara Sinjoro:-.atenton. Ni havas bonegajn montrajn fenestrojn ("showwindows"). Ni certigas al vi ke en . en nia butiko. kaj en nia butiko trovigxas suficxe da grandaj vitramebloj ("show-cases"). ni restas. Tie vi trovos priskribitaj niajn plej bonajn oficejajn meblarojn. Esperante ke la meblaroj priskribitaj en nia prezaro. Ni multe gxojos se vi respondos kiel eble plej baldaux. Sirakuzo. kaj per cxi tio ni permesas al ni proponi al vi niajn servojn por la vendado de tiaj infanludiloj. ***** Bostono. Wilson kaj Jones. precipe al pagxoj 15-29. Nov-Jorka Sxtato. Niaj prezoj estos kiel eble plej malaltaj. Tial ni povus tre oportune administri tian aferon. kaj kiajn arangxojn vi volus fari. la 27an Majo.

volvi = to roll (around something). to finish. (wheel. to collect. fini = to end. fleksi = to bend. to feed. Rose. to flex.cxiu okazo ni penos fari nian eblon por via plej bona intereso. svingi = to swing. or a different root. La laboro nun finigxas.). rompi = to break. versxi = to pour. fermi = to close. turni = to turn. sxangxi = to change. together with examples of the intransitive use of several of them: balanci = to balance. montri = to show. mezuri = to measure. ruli = to roll. sxiri = to tear. to expand. to shut. Some transitive verbs have English meanings which do not differ in form from the "intransitive" English verbs to which they are related (conversely to the use explained in 275). etc. movi = to move. veki = to wake. Kun alta estimo. ball. In Esperanto the suffix "-igx-" (232). SOME TRANSITIVE VERBS. Following are the more common verbs of this character. pasxti = to pasture. komenci = to begin. renversi = to upset. kolekti = to gather. D. LESSON LX. skui = to shake. to overturn. 279. the work is now . sxanceli = to cause to vacillate. strecxi = to stretch. to commence. klini = to incline. etendi = to extend. must be used when an intransitive meaning is desired. to bend. hejti = to heat.

The "-a" of the article may be elided before a word beginning with avowel. mi sukcesis. Mi vekigxos je la sesa. I shall awake at six (o'clock). b. every custom will change.coming to an end. ne batu maltrankvile. Vasta ebenajxo etendigxis antaux li. The final "-o" of a noun may be elided in poetry. De l' montoj riveretoj fluas. The final "-e" of an adverb is very rarely elided (except in the expression "dank' al". c. I succeeded. It occurs most frequently in poetry. the indicator trembled (vacillated). La montrilo sxanceligxis. 280. Kaj kantas tra l' pura aero. The original accent of the noun remains unchanged: Ho. a vast plain extended before him. which occurs in prose as well as in poetry): Ke povu mi foj' je eterno ekdormi! Dank' al vi. La glavo fleksigxis. the winter is already beginning. a. and its use in writing as well as in speaking is best avoided. ELISION.) . the leaves unroll (develop). (Thanks to you. Cxiu kutimo sxangxigxos. the sword bent. Sur la kampo la rozet'. Elision is not common. La vintro jam komencigxas. La folioj disvolvigxas. mia kor'. l' obstino kaj la pacienco. or after a preposition ending in a vowel: L' espero.

ex-president. Joe. 284. pratempa = primeval. pranepo = great grandson. Consequently the metric system (already . or removal from such position: eksprezidanto. The prefix "eks-" is used to form words expressing a previous incumbent of a position. The suffix "-cxj-" is used to form affectionate diminutives. to resign. THE SUFFIXES "-CXJ-" AND "-NJ-". to discharge. eksigxi. National systems of weights and measures translated into international form (as "mejlo". 283. eksigi. ancestors. Panjo = Mamma. The prefix "pra-" is used to form words expressing precedence in the line of descent. THE PREFIX "PRA-". Pacxjo = Papa. to withdraw from one's office. or general remoteness in past time: praavo = great grandfather. The suffix "-nj-" forms similar feminine diminutives: Jocxjo = Johnnie. eksregxo. Mamie. 282. from the first syllable or syllables of masculine names or terms of address. pound) cannot convey a very definite meaning to one not familiar with the particular system used. mile. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 281. prapatroj = forefathers. to put out of office. exking. Manjo = May. "funto".THE PREFIX "EKS-".

metro = meter (39. kilogramo = kilogram (2. decilitro = deciliter (6. . 264. Weight.08 quart.5274 ounce avoirdupois). dry measure. Names of national coins translated into . THE INTERNATIONAL MONEY SYSTEM. kilolitro = kiloliter (1. kvadrata metro = square meter (1550 square inches). .937 inches). hektometro = hektometer (328 feet 1 inch). milimetro = millimeter (. hektaro = hektare (2. gramo = gram (15.used by scientists everywhere and by the general public in many countries) is adopted for the international system of weights and measures: Length and Surface. 1. kilometro = kilometer (3280 feet 10 inches.2046 pounds avoirdupois). 2. hektogramo = hektogram (3. dekalitro = dekaliter (9.1022 cubic inches. Capacity. dekagramo = dekagram (.471 acres).417 gallons). hektolitro = hektoliter (2 bushels 3.3527 ounce avoirdupois).308 cubic yards.37 inches). dekametro = dekameter (393. 26. 285. dry measure. litro = liter (.0394 inch).62137 mile).6417 gallons).0567 quart.432 grains avoirdupois).35 pecks.7 inches).3937 inch).845 gill).908 quart.17 gallons). centimetro = centimeter (. decimetro = decimeter (3. liquid).

s.S. [et. Fino. [Co.] k. = kaj ceteraj.] Sino. The multiples of this unit are the "spesdeko" (10 spesoj). [P. [Miss]. = kaj tiel plu.g.] k.t.] k. (To reduce dollars to spesmiloj. "spescento" (100 spesoj).. Numero. Consequently the system devised for international use (not for actual coins. [e. The following abbreviations are often used (for those of the metric system see any English dictionary): Dro. twenty-five francs. [etc. = kaj simila(j). Sd.4875 in the money of the United States and Canada. = Frauxlino.] & = kaj. but for calculation and price quotations) is based upon a unit called the "speso".sim. Pro. [No.] t. The spesmilo. = Profesoro. Ten spesmiloj have approximately the value of a five-dollar gold piece. etc. [Dr. = postskribajxo.] No.] Sm.c.e. is the unit commonly used. cent) cannot convey a very definite meaning to persons not familiar with these coins. [Mr. [and so forth]. equivalent to about $0. &. [Prof.) ABBREVIATIONS. = spesmilo(j). dollar. Kompanio. = Doktoro.051. = Sinjorino. [Mrs. and "spesmilo" (1000 spesoj). Sro..e. 286.] e. = spesdeko(j). = tio estas. twenty marks.p. [i. = ekzemple. multiply by 2.international form (as "dolaro". p. "cendo".] Ko. one pound sterling. sim. = K-io. = N-ro.] . = Sinjoro.

[Footnote: The particle "cxi" (used with "tiu. J. reklam-i = to advertise. to try. to try. the difference between "provi". moment-o = moment." kiun eble mi deziros provi. cxiu. Nov-Jorko. objektiv-o = lens. and "jugxi". Bonvolu ankaux sendi dekduonon da platoj. objective. abon-i = to subscribe to. ekzempl-o = example. funkci-i = to function. tio.VOCABULARY. to try. Bostono. Smith. aparat-o = apparatus. C. 6 x 9 centimetrojn. strecx-i = to stretch (trans. making an essay or endeavor. cxio") may also be used with . plat-o = plate (photographic. led-o = leather. Sinjoroj:-. negativ-o = negative. in a judicial sense. work.] ***** PRI LA KAMERO. [Footnote: Cf. prov-i = to try. kamer-o = camera. "peni". original-o = original. take. bov-o = ox. Kun respekto. in the sense of taking pains or making an effort. metal-o = metal.Vidinte vian reklamon en gazeto al kiu mi abonas. Brown kaj Ko.. ties. fokus-o = focus. por kiu mi cxi* kune sendas spesmilon kaj duonon.etc) fotograf-i = to photograph. auxtomat-a = automatic. mi skribas por peti ke vi sendu al mi priskribajxon de via kamero nomita "La Infaneto. 12/XI/1910.). in the sense of testing. dimensi-o = dimension.

estas 365 gramoj. Kara Sinjoro:-. "La Infaneto" estas konstruita tute el metalo. Cetere. La negativoj estas klaraj gxis la bordo. La pezo. kaj povas esti portata kaj uzata treege konvene. Sekve: neniaj preparadoj. "cxi kune". Gxi ne estas pli granda ol monujo." "La Infaneto" kamero havis neesperitan sukceson. "here above". "herewith". "cxi supre". as "cxi sube". kaj kovrita de bonega bovledo. 18an novembro. cxar la objektivfermilo ("shutter") estas cxiam strecxita. "here below". tiamaniere ke la kamero estas preta por uzado post unu sekundo. la objektivo samtempe enfokusigxas.5 centimetroj. tial gxi ne bezonas pli multe da spaco ol tiu. kaj tial konvenaj por pligrandigo. kaj estas vendita po miloj da ekzempleroj.Respondante al via estimata letero de la 12a. kun objektivo. nenia prokrasto je la ekfotografado. Cxie oni unuvocxe lauxdas gxian malgrandan kaj tamen bonegan konstruon. oni scias ke bona . kaj malbrila ("ground") vitro. Kiam oni malfermas la aparaton. ni donas cxi sube mallongan priskribajxon de nia bonega fotografilo nomita "La Infaneto. La dimensioj de la fermita kamero estas 8 x 5 x 6. kaj ankaux gxian firman samtempe facilan funkciadon. etc. 1910. tri platingoj.] ***** Nov-Jorko.certain adverbs.

and a large number of additional roots (to facilitate original composition). kiu estas arangxita por malfermoj dauxraj ("time exposures"). to include all of the roots in the . Per C. Sole la rapideca reguligo de la momenta ("instantaneous") fermilo estas plibonigita. cxar ni gxin fabrikas kun speciala auxtomata fermilo. Tre respekte la viaj. Ni ne sxangxis la konstruon de "La Infaneto" de post 1909. Precipe cxe promenoj kaj vojagxoj oni tial volonte preferas la malgrandan "Infaneton. all primary words of the language. Esperante ke ni baldaux ricevos mendon de vi. kaj certigante al vi ke ni tre zorge plenumos iun ajn mendon. The following vocabulary includes all roots used in the preceding Lessons.pligrandigo ofte pli kontentigas ol malgranda originalo. Brown & Ko. kaj momentaj. ni restas. ***** ESPERANTO-ENGLISH VOCABULARY ." por poste pligrandigi la negativojn. je unu sekundo gxis unu centono da sekundo. Por la pligrandigo ni fabrikas specialajn taglum-pligrandigajn aparatojn. No attempt has been made. kies prezoj estas malaltaj (vidu en nia prezaro). cxar gxis nun gxi estas cxiurilate kontentiga. however.

adverb-o = adverb. For formation of compound words. farewell. poster. see Word Formation. matter. 120. -ad= suffix indicating duration (218). unless the page (p. See also the references given under each prefix and suffix. abiturient-o = bachelor of arts (A. cause. to manage. afer-o = affair. barrister. acxet-i = to buy. see 160. References are to sections. A. abomen-a = abominable. take (magazine. admonish. = adjective.= repetition of the word.B.). -acx. afisx-o = handbill. etc.= derogatory suffix (272). intrans. 167.) is given. = transitive. = conjunction.). abel-o = bee. admon-i = to exhort. administr-i = to administer. advokat-o = lawyer. and interjection). for which an Esperanto-English Dictionary should be consulted. adiaux = (adv.). abrikot-o = apricot. For other parts of speech than those indicated under each root or primary word. admir-i = to admire. placard. adjektiv-o = adjective. 171. . thing. amiable. 273). adore. aer-o = air. 176. = preposition. good-bye (171. 116. The following abbreviations are used: adj. abi-o = fir. adv. prep. afabl-a = affable. trans. sour. conj. = adverb. ador-i = to worship. adres-o = address (on letters. etc. abon-i = to subscribe to.language. = intransitive. acer-o = maple (tree). 159. -. 184. acid-a = acid.

walk. akurat-a = accurate. shrill. toward (46. almenaux = (adv. alkohol-o = alcohol. agl-o = eagle. beggar. tall. aks-o = axis. almanak-o = almanac. Aleksandri-o = Alexandria. ever (236). akcel-i = (trans. agent-o = agent.). ali-a = other. Afrik-o = Africa.). --ulo. ajn = (adv. agac-i = to set on edge (of teeth). stress. akv-o = water. am-i = to love.= (suffix forming concrete words) (227). akcent-o = accent. akcept-i = to accept. recess. algebr-o = algebra. akrido = grasshopper. pleasant. 160. ale-o = avenue. . agrabl-a = agreeable. alumet-o = match (for fire). akvari-o = aquarium. perform action. alk-o = elk. akcident-o = accident. welcome. prepay. hasten. agit-i = to agitate. 251. Alfred-o = Alfred. etc. --ite. alauxd-o = lark (bird). to accelerate. receive. alkov-o = alcove. acute. akademi-o = academy. post-paid. park. akuz-i = to accuse. agoni-o = agony. agx-o = age. alud-i = to allude to. aktiv-a = active (grammatical).). at least (66). akir-i = to acquire.). altar-o = altar. exact. akr-a = sharp. aktor-o = actor (player). almoz-o = alms. akuzativ-o = accusative. al = (prep. to. Aleksandr-o = Alexander. alfabeto = alphabet. akompan-i = to accompany.afrank-i = to frank (letters).). akvarel-o = watercolor painting. 252). path (of garden. -ajx. ag-i = to act. axle. akt-o = act (of a play). alt-a = high.

= suffix denoting membership. (145). amik-o = friend.or of persons or things assumed or already known to be thus grouped) (238). amel-o = starch. apog-i = to lean. april-o = April. yet. ans-o = latch. ampleks-o = extent. aparat-o = apparatus. aper-i = to appear. apenaux = (adv.). ankr-o = anchor. antilop-o = antelope. amuz-i = to amuse. still. amfiteatr-o = amphitheatre. anser-o = goose. aplauxd-i = to applaud. ananas-o = pineapple. amfibi-a = amphibious. before (89. aplomb-o = assurance. dimension. apartament-o = apartment. to rest (upon). anstataux = (prep. self-command. antaux = (prep. anim-o = soul. aparten-i = to belong. ambaux = (pronoun). anekdot-o = anecdote. ankoraux = (adv).). anas-o = duck. angxel-o = angel. suite (of rooms). apati-o = apathy. mass. apart-a = separate. "antaux ol" (conj. 120. apotek-o = pharmacy. anonc-i = to announce. scarcely. ambos-o = anvil. Angl-o = Englishman. 97. angul-o = angle. drugstore. throng. vindication. hardly. 160). ankaux = (adv. -an. both (of two objects naturally in pairs. aprob-i = to approve. 90. corner. make love. chemist's shop. .). antique.amas-o = crowd. 159). Amerik-o = America.). apologi-o = apology. doorhandle. also.). instead of (98. 98. analiz-i = to analyse. 159. amindum-i = to woo. apetit-o = appetite. antipati-o = antipathy. antikv-a = ancient. etc.

atlet-o = athlete. atent-a = attentive. arhxitektur-o = architecture. ari-o = tune. aritmetik-o = arithmetic. atribut-o = attribute. arkad-o = arcade. artikol-o = article (grammatical or literary). artik-o = joint. auxtun-o = autumn. atlas-o = satin. -ar. astr-o = heavenly body. ating-i = to attain. asekur-i = to insure (with a company). atmosfer-o = atmosphere. atak-i = to attack. arm-i = to arm.). atest-i = to attest. auxd-i = to hear. arest-i = to arrest. argxent-o = silver (metal). av-o = . Arab-o = Arab. arogant-a = arrogant.). Artur-o = Arthur. argument-i = to argue. arbitraci-i = to arbitrate. or. ardez-o = slate (stone). arb-o = tree. air (music). Arhximed-o = Archimedes. aren-o = arena.apud = (prep. auxskult-i = to listen. either. auxtor-o = author. armoraci-o = horse-radish. wait for.= suffix forming collectives (126). ark-o = arc. arangx-i = to arrange. arom-o = aroma. appearance. fragrance. arme-o = army. give witness. Auxstrali-o = Australia. close by (120. near to. certify. aux = (conj. expect. atendi = to wait. auxgust-o = August. star. aspekt-o = aspect. Aristejd-o = Aristeides. arane-o = spider. argil-o = clay. art-o = art. 159). Aristotel-o = Aristotle. reach. auxtomat-a = automatic. aristokrat-o = aristocrat. asparag-o = asparagus. asoci-o = association (organization).

). ben-i = to bless. best-o = animal. fail. bas-o = bass (voice). to bar. aven-o = oats. ban-i = (trans. avel-o = hazel-nut. barel-o = barrel. miserly. struggle. bariton-o = barytone. bar-i = (trans. bagatelle. bel-a = beautiful. estate. caution. banan-o = banana. bezon-i = to need.). to balance. B. batal-i = to fight. bala-i = to sweep (a floor. bien-o = land. bet-o = beet. bibliotek-o = library. bill. babble. barb-o = beard. soon. bier-o = beer. image. bird-o = bird. bis = (adv.grandfather. bek-o = beak. to bathe. barakt-i = to wrestle. bild-o = picture. battle. bank--. want. avert-i = to warn. bedauxr-i = to regret.). property. to nod the head. baston-o = stick. azot-o = nitrogen. bilet-o = ticket. bant-o = bow (of ribbon). bank-o = bank (financial). bandagx-i = to bandage. baldaux = (adv. beast. barbar-o = barbarian. etc. --i la kapon. Azi-o = Asia. avar-a = avaricious. bal-o = ball (dance). handsome. benk-o = bench. bill. bak-i = to bake. bagatel-o = trifle. aviz-i = to give notice.). bankrot-i = to become bankrupt.).). bicikl-o = bicycle. bat-i = to beat. bank-note. babil-i = to chatter. poise. balen-o = whale. belg-o = Belgian. azen-o = ass. bifstek-o = beefsteak. balanc-i = (trans. batat-o = sweet potato. to obstruct. . ber-o = berry. avid-a = eager. note. donkey.

bol-i = (intrans. to burn (275). --viro. brovo = eyebrow. buton-o = . boj-i = to bark (of dogs). ringlet (of hair). store. bucx-i = to slaughter. (florbrasiko).). bleat. butcher. bros-i = to brush. burgxon-o = bud. cauliflower. brand-o = brandy. bret-o = shelf. brik-o = brick. bulb-o = onion. bukl-o = curl. boat-o = boat. bor-i = to bore (holes). buk-o = buckle (metal). bru-o = noise. bluz-o = blouse. blu-a = blue (color). bough. gamin. --ajxo. biskvit-o = biscuit. buf-o = toad. butik-o = shop. to welcome. --idajxo. bub-o = street arab. blank-a = white. brul-i = (intrans. bot-o = boot. bon-a = good. bo. bulgar-o = Bulgarian. bril-i = to shine (116).). dumb animal. blind-a = blind. brasik-o = cabbage. blov-i = to blow. bank. tile. bov-o = ox. --veni. buked-o = bouquet. brun-a = brown. Boston-o = Boston.once more. veal. buter-o = butter. brut-o = cattle. brochure. a second time. beef. Brit-o = Briton. blek-i = to neigh. give its cry (of any animal). sweet. brav-a = brave. bord-o = shore. brid-o = bridle (of harness). etc. encore. bronz-o = bronze. edge (of rivers.). botelo = bottle.= prefix expressing relationship by marriage (277). brosxur-o = pamphlet. bulvard-o = boulevard. brod-i = to embroider. brancx-o = branch. busx-o = mouth. to boil. bracket. bombon-o = bonbon. brak-o = arm (of the body). bulb. young shoot. bulk-o = roll (bread). bull.

ci = (pronoun). col-o = inch (measure). cidoni-o = quince. centilitr-o = centiliter (284). cilindr-o = cylinder. centr-o = center. chemise. cirkonstanc-o = circumstance. cent = hundred (142).). head. cxe = (prep. sure. cel-i = to aim. celerio = celery. stallion. --viro. principal. centimetro = centimeter (284). in the house or presence of (125.). since (83). cxeval-o = horse. cxagren-i = (trans. citron-o = lemon. cxapitr-o = chapter (of book). delightful. annoy. cign-o = swan. cinam-o = cinnamon. cert-a = certain. thou (40). cigared-o = cigarette. Cirus-o = Cyrus. cxes-i = (intrans. cxarnir-o = hinge. cit-i = to quote. cxar = (conj. have as purpose or goal. vex. cxi = (adv. deer. 160). C. civiliz-i = to civilize. to grieve. cxapel-o = hat. cxemiz-o = shirt.). cir-o = blacking (for shoes).). cxas-i = to hunt (game or wild animals). cxeriz-o = cherry. cxarm-a = charming. at. CX. cerv-o = stag. cend-o = cent (coin). cxen-o = chain (for watch. cxek-o = cheque.). cirkuler-o = circular (letter). because.button. to cease. cxap-o = cap.). cifer-o = cipher. cerb-o = brain. centigram-o = centigram (284). etc. . leave off (275). cindr-o = ashes. cxef-a = chief. cxambr-o = room. ceter-a = remaining. cigar-o = cigar.

expresses proximity (60.). 101. decid-i = to decide. whether (when translated) (30.).). to continue. decigram-o = decigram (284). dangxer-o = danger.) (99. daktil-o = date (fruit). cxiom = (adv. dat-o = date (chronological). everywhere (182). cxifon-o = rag. Damokl-o = Damocles.). decent.). 89. cxie = (adv. cxiel-o = heaven. degel-i = (intrans. for every reason (188). all (194). decilitr-o = deciliter (284). decimetr-o = decimeter (284). l00. "ne decas ke vi iru".).). -cxj. cxial = (adv. everybody's (174). all (233). from. dank-i = to thank. 160. cxiel = (adv. to thaw (275). defend-i = to defend.). 103). of.). 159.). 170). cxies = (pronoun. dejxor-i = to be on duty (of officer. cxokolad-o = chocolate. every one. 66). last. dek = (adj. roundabout (89. dec-i = to be proper. around. 120. dekagram-o = . of (after quantitative noun or adv. D. attendant. by (49.). cxirkaux = (prep. 160). da = (prep. it is not proper for you to go.= suffix forming affectionate diminutives (283). possessive). decembr-o = December. cxia = of every kind (177). cxiam = (adv. cxiu = (pronoun and adj.). cxu = (adv.). everything. de = (prep. sky. danc-i = to dance. in every way (193). dauxr-i = (intrans. dan-o = Dane. 169. cxio = (pronoun). always (187).). each (173). ten (136). 66). etc.

dikt-i = to dictate (letters. dorlot-i = to caress. diplom-o = diploma. then. fondle. divid-i = (trans. dimensi-o = dimension. . inquire. dekalitr-o = dekaliter (284). Di-o = God. present. divers-a = varied. deleg-i = to delegate. etc. dainty. must (247). diamant-o = diamond. 84). dezert-o = desert. detru-i = to destroy. to destine. the more (used with "pli". depesx-o = a dispatch.) diligent-a = diligent. different. des = (adv. dik-a = thick. do = consequently. diferenc-a = different. dolar-o = dollar. pleasant. nice. ache. difekt-i = to damage. dis= prefix expressing separation (245). don-i = to give. waste. diverse. dev-i = to have to. densa = dense. desert-o = dessert. delikat-a = delicate. direkt-i = to direct. regrettable affair. dimancx-o = Sunday. dolcx-a = sweet. Diogen-o = Diogenes. dezir-i = to desire.). diplomat-o = diplomat. take away the attention. spoil. close. distanc-o = distance. difin-i = to define. guide. deklam-i = to declaim. corpulent.). doktor-o = doctor. dekametr-o = dekameter (284). domagx-o = pity. detal-o = detail. so. diskut-i = to discuss. diven-i = to guess. distr-i = to distract. demand-i = to ask. dom-o = house. dent-o = tooth. dolor-o = pain.dekagram (284). donac-i = to make a gift. recite. dir-i = to say (77). disting-i = to distinguish. pet. manage. to divide. thick. dekstr-a = right (not left).

ekster = (prep. el = (prep. ekzil-i = to exile. elektr-a = . out of. out (75. -ej. efekt-o = effect. ebri-a = inebriate. dors-o = back (of the body). while (96.). ekzamen-i = to examine. eksperiment-i = to experiment. ekscit-i = to excite. educate. eduk-i = to bring up.). eben-a = even. 121). -ebl. efektiv-a = real. 159).). efik-i = to be efficacious. level.= suffix forming words indicating place (III). dorn-o = thorn. ek.). -eg.dorm-i = to sleep. actual. to drown (275). ecx = (adv. dot-i = to endow. during. act (on). 264. 197.= suffix forming augmentatives (122). ekzempl-o = example. -ec. edz-o = husband. du = (adj. drog-o = drug. ekzempler-o = copy (of book or magazine).= suffix expressing possibility (161.). elekt-i = to choose. ehx-o = echo. produce a result. c). dung-i = (trans. dum = (prep and conj. test. to explode.= prefix expressing former incumbency (281). to hire (persons). 138. E. dron-i = (intrans.).= suffix forming abstracts (202). eks. intoxicated.).= prefix expressing suddenness or beginning (206). married man. Egipt-o = Egypt. two (136) dub-i = to doubt. of.). egal-a = equal. eksplod-i = (intrans. 162). drap-o = cloth. 120. banish ekzist-i = to exist. outside of (120. 106. flat.). even. ekzerc-i = (trans. to exercise.

rumor. specialty. famili- . fam-o = fame. entuziasm-o = enthusiasm. erar-i = to err. energi-o = energy. Euxrop-o = Europe. make a mistake. debase. time. est-i = to be (109).160). eminent-a = eminent.electric. etern-a = eternal.= suffix expressing a component part (276). -em.= suffix expressing propensity or inclination (192). evoluci-o = evolution. en = (prep. unua etagxo. esplor-i = to investigate. escept-i = to except (266). fabel-o = story. fak-o = department. be bored. widen. fald-i = to fold.= suffix expressing leadership or authority (253). fajf-i = to whistle. into (46). fals-i = to falsify.). explore. fabrik-i = to manufacture. envi-i = to envy. esprim-i = to express. enu-i = to be wearied. shun. fakt-o = fact. lengthen. -er. fal-i = to fall. to extend.= suffix forming diminutives (198).). epok-o = epoch. ground floor. forge. -estr. etend-i = (trans. faden-o = thread. fab-o = bean (leguminous fruit). evit-i = to avoid. entrepren-i = to undertake. evangeli-o = gospel. esting-i = to extinguish. F. esper-i = to hope. establ-i = to establish. fajr-o = fire. teretagxo. -et. evangel. estim-i = to esteem. etagx-o = story (of a house). in (89. renown. second story. period. tale. fabl-o = fable. elokvent-a = eloquent. facil-a = easy.

to close. fashion. fason-o = cut. fin-i = (trans. far-i = to make. fauxk-o = jaw (literal and figurative). fiance. mode. loyal. "longa fingro". index finger. thumb. steady. . ring-finger. fidel-a = faithful. fand-i = (trans. farm-i = to farm (as a tenant). fairy.). end. fer-o = iron. festen-o = banquet. to finish. fizik-o = physics. middle finger. fe-o = fairy. do. fingr-o = finger. ghost. fask-o = bundle. fend-i = (trans. to split. firm-a = firm. railway. hide (of animals). farmacio = pharmacy (knowledge of the use of drugs).). predestined.). febr-o = fever. fisxo = fish. "malgranda fingro". fest-i = to celebrate. trust. femur-o = thigh. felo = skin. fid-i = to rely upon. "ringa fingro". haughty. ferdek-o = deck (of ship). fier-a = proud. accustomed. faraon-o = pharaoh (Egyptian ruler). etc. felicx-a = happy. --ino. fay. --vojo. shut. to smelt. favor-a = favorable. familiar-a = familiar. fervor. "dika fingro".). fenestr-o = window. ferm-i = (trans. physical science. fart-i = to be in (good or bad) health. fazeol-o = bean (garden bean). brag. fiakr-o = cab. fervor-o = zeal. fil-o = son. "montra fingro". farun-o = flour.o = family.). fatal-a = fatal. vaunt oneself. fantom-o = phantom. little finger. fi = (interjection). fiancxo = betrothed man. fanfaron-i = to boast. bunch. render. fie! (273). fuse (metals. februar-o = February. filozof-o = philosopher.

occasion (127). foj-o = time.). establish. flex. frukt-o = fruit. foli-o = leaf. knave. fulm-o = lightning. new. liquid. formik-o = ant. fokus-o = focus. mad. funt-o = pound. fount. base. frost-o = frost. funebr-o = mourning. Frederik-o = Frederick. frit-i = (trans. furioz-a = furious. break to pieces. fotograf-i = to photograph frag-o = strawberry. form-o = shape. strike. be an epicure.flag-o = flag. fork-o = fork. form. frakas-i = to shatter. fluid-a = fluid. flor-o = flower (116). fru-a = early. frat-o = brother. frangx-o = fringe. fungo = mushroom.). font-o = spring (of water). work. fraz-o = sentence. away (71). fundament-o = foundation. flank-o = side. flug-i = to fly.).). phrase. raging. fort-a = strong. fojn-o = hay. funkci-i = to function. flar-i = (trans. forn-o = stove. fripon-o = rogue. scent. fontan-o = fountain (artificial). flav-a = yellow. fresx-a = fresh. for = (adv. fremd-a = foreign. frenez-a = crazy. framb-o = raspberry. fum-i = to smoke. unmarried man. fund-o = bottom. flik-i = to patch. to bend. flu-i = to flow. banner. fos-i = to dig. frot-i = to rub. frunt-o = forehead. forges-i = to forget. . to smell. to fry. frak-o = evening dress (for men). small standard. frauxl-o = bachelor. rascal. fleks-i = (trans. frand-i = to be fond of sweets. fond-i = to found. franc-o = Frenchman. frap-i = to knock. fromagx-o = cheese.

grand-a = great. big. --fleksi. grimp-i = to climb up. gnash. GX. gxem-i = to groan. gras-o = fat. general-o = general (military). gravit-i = to gravitate. gurd-o = hurdy-gurdy. to kneel. fut-o = foot (measure). creep up. glass. gratul-i = to congratulate. merry. grav-a = important. glat-a = smooth. gast-o = guest. ticket-window. glit-i = to glide. barrel organ. glu-o = glue. graf-o = count. turnstile. corn. gant-o = glove. wreath.). etc. graci-a = graceful. gas-o = gas. grek-o = Greek. large. polished. gard-i = to guard. gajn-i = to gain. gxarden-o = garden. etc.). geometri-o = geometry. G. ge. gramatik-o = grammar. grave. slide. griz-a = gray.fusx-i = to bungle. gren-o = grain (wheat. girland-o = garland. glaci-o = ice. gorgx-o = throat. an ice (food). grup-o = group. galop-i = to gallop. gicxet-o = wicket. --lando. gut-i = to drip. glut-i = to swallow. galeri-o = gallery. german-o = German. county. glad-i = to iron (linen. watch over. --ajxo. grinc-i = to grind. gvid-i = to guide. grad-o = grade. genu-o = knee. serious. glas-o = tumbler. glav-o = sword. gust-o = taste. gxen- .= prefix indicating both sexes together (271). gaj-a = gay. gazet-o = gazette. gramo = gram (284). flat. magazine. glor-o = glory. glob-o = globe. Gertrud-o = Gertrude. degree.

hont-i = to be ashamed. hejm-o = home. H.). hero-o = hero. hav-i = to have. Holand-o = Holland. hom-o = human being. honest-a = honest. hodiaux = (adv. port. 274). hektolitr-o = hektoliter (284). hebre-o = Hebrew. gxust-a = exact. honor-i = to honor. 171). posxhorlogxo. hauxt-o = skin (human). hispan-o = Spaniard. gxoj-i = to rejoice. as far as. watch. incommode. temper. aid. gxi = (pronoun). axe. Hieron-o = Hiero. herb. stop. hack. help-i = to help. clear.). hazard. ho. polite. find pleasure in. histori-o = history. be glad (116).).i = to disturb. horizontal-a = horizontal. 37. gxu-i = to enjoy. gxeneral-a = general. herb-o = grass. hazard-o = chance. har-o = a hair. hak-i = to chop. ho = (interjection). common. hejt-i = (trans. oh (273). hajl-o = hail (frozen rain). gxentil-a = courteous. humor-o = humor. . hor-o = hour (185). hieraux = (adv. hektar-o = hektare (284). hirund-o = swallow (bird). it (32. horlogx-o = clock. --ilo. haven-o = harbor. just. 89). humil-a = humble. today (93. hezit-i = to hesitate. halt-i = (intrans. 42. until (46.). hektometr-o = hektometer (284). hipokrit-i = to play the hypocrite. gxis = (prep. hel-a = bright. hotel-o = hotel. to halt. to heat (a place).). horizont-o = horizon. assist. hektogram-o = hektogram (284). 171). yesterday (93.

). imag-i = to imagine. hura! = (interjection). ili = (pronoun) they (32. provoke.). arouse. hxor-o = choir. ident-a = identical. impuls-o = impulse. ilustr-i = to illustrate.= suffix forming names of instruments (63). business). industri-o = industry (trade. 42). 239. influ-i = to . hxin-o = Chinaman. hxemi-o = chemistry. impost-o = tax. fancy. somehow (216). imit-i = to imitate. infekt-i = to infect.). unimportant. somebody's (204). ie = (adv.= suffix indicating descendant or young of (207). hurrah! HX. ide-o = idea. implik-i = to implicate.= suffix forming feminines (59). -ind. delusion. -il. once (212).hund-o = dog. possessive). 37. indian-o = Indian (American). 239. unconcerned. -igx. at any time.). impost. iam = (adv. idiot-o = idiot. iel = (adv. incit-i = to incite. for any reason (213). 279). ies = (pronoun. idiom-o = idiom.= suffix expressing worth or merit (154).= suffix forming inchoative and intransitive verbs (232. iluzi-o = illusion. infan-o = child. I. ia = any kind of (208). somewhere (209). indiferent-a = indifferent. contaminate. imperi-o = empire. impres-i = to impress. ial = (adv. ignor-i = to ignore. ideal-o = ideal. -in. 275). -id.= suffix forming causative verbs (214. -ig. ever.

160). juli-o = July. io = (pronoun). inter = (prep. insul-o = island. -ing= suffix expressing a holder or container (237). a certain amount. invit-i = to invite. yes (171). upright. jar-o = year. etc. among (85. ju = (adv. intern-a = internal. iu = (pronoun). interpret-i = to interpret. (172). ingxenier-o = engineer. insult-i = to insult.). jen = (adv. iom = (adv. ja = (adv. je = prep. of indefinite meaning (89. jug-o = yoke. jun-a = young. to interest. jes = (adv. between. behold (228). ir-i = to go. 84). the more (used with "pli". J. indeed. jak-o = jacket. 89.). some one. intend-i = to intend.). a certain (one) (203). instru-i = to instruct. Jesu-o = Jesus.). juni-o = June. in fact (215). ital-o = Italian. interes-i = (trans.). jam = (adv. juvel-o = jewel. little by little (217). --e. iom post iom. januar-o = January. Johano = John. ink-o = ink. jugx-i = to judge.). . teach. there. 260). jurist-o = jurist. insist-i = to insist. inteligent-a = intelligent. insekt-o = insect. intermit-i = to be intermittent. JX. -ist. 185.).influence. jupo = skirt. jung-i = to harness. intim-a = intimate. just-a = just. something (233). inside. inspir-i = to inspire.). inform-i = to give information. short coat. some.= suffix indicating profession. already.

a moment before.). kagx-o = cage. jxongl-i = to juggle. posxtkarto. kant-i = to sing. postcard. karton-o = pasteboard.. K. karakter-o = character. and. kalkul-i = to calculate. kaskad-o = waterfall. kares-i = to caress. kamero = camera. jxurnal-o = newspaper. cashier. treasurer. kanot-o = canoe. just. kajer-o = notebook. karn-o = flesh. jxauxd-o = Thursday. karot-o = carrot. kamel-o = camel. kapel-o = chapel (for prayer). kart-o = card..kaj. heel of a shoe. both. prized. rascal. kar-a = dear.and. kaj = (conj. kapitol-o = capitol. kalkan-o = heel (of the foot). cascade. . treasury. kaldron-o = caldron. kapt-i = to catch. kanap-o = sofa. in ruin. kapital-o = capital (money). kanajl-o = scoundrel. karb-o = coal. kalesx-o = carriage. journal. kahel-o = tile (for paving). --isto. kadr-o = frame (of pictures). kaduk-a = decaying. kamen-o = chimney.jxaluz-a = jealous. kasx-i = to hide. karcer-o = jail. visiting card. seize. kand-o = candy. cast. jxet-i = to throw. karusel-o = merry-goround. swear. (26). vizitkarto.). kas-o = money-box.. kalendar-o = calendar. kaj. kapabl-a = capable. kandel-o = candle. kastel-o = castle. kaf-o = coffee. jxus = (adv.. hurl. jxur-i = to take oath. kamp-o = field. --umo.. kap-o = head. kadavr-o = corpse. reckon.

brownie. why (129). kel-o = cellar.).).). 156). kauxz-o = cause. drawer. klimat-o = climate. in which way. koket-a = coquettish. kilometr-o = kilometer (284). --aj. bend. klak-i = (trans. 185). klub-o = club (organization) knabo = boy.). kat-o = cat. what (233). katen-o = fetter. tirkesto. kol-o = neck. kling-o = blade (of knife.). kok-o = cock (domestic fowl).).). klin-i = (trans. when (123. kia = what kind of (112. kobold-o = sprite. klopod-i = to undertake initiative work. kelner-o = waiter (in hotel or restaurant). whose (107.conceal (252). 259. etc. possessive). ke = (conj. well-in-formed. kis-i = to kiss. 150). . kasxtan-o = chestnut. chain.). to incline. kiu = (pronoun). kilolitr-o = kiloliter (284). kolbas-o = sausage. clatter. how. kial = (adv. kilogram-o = kilogram (284). as (134. kler-a = enlightened. 262). 83. distinct. kio = (pronoun). klar-a = clear. 146). how. 151). 105. etc. where (118. to clap. more than one or two. 164. klav-o = key (of piano. klas-o = class. 147). kobold. kiamanier-e.). kaz-o = case (grammatical). kofr-o = trunk. kies = (pronoun. kest-o = chest. how much (140. kiom = (adv. chest with a lid. kav-o = cavity. hole. several.). kiel = (adv. 155). kie = (adv. take steps toward. labor for the success or completion of something. kelk-a = some. who (106. kiam = (adv. that (53. koks-o = hip.

komisi-i = to entrust with. koncert-o = concert (musical). disposition to oblige. komun-a = common. komplet-o = suit (of clothes). komedi-o = comedy. stipulation. kompost-i = to compose. conduct . employee. dove. train. compositor. condition. komiz-o = clerk. put in charge of. komerc-i = to trade.). kolekt-i = (trans. assistant. koncern-i = to concern (266). know. give the agency for. lose the temper. --atigxi kun. etc. commence. komplez-o = kindness. mutual. courtesy. komplik-i = to complicate. komand-i = to command (military and naval). komenc-i = (trans. gather. kondamn-i = to condemn. want. koler-i = to be angry. komitat-o = committee.kolegi-o = college. kolomb-o = pigeon.). kondut-i = to behave. kompani-o = company (commercial organization). have compassion for. kompat-i = to pity. kolonel-o = colonel. lead. kolon-o = column. konduktor-o = conductor (of car.) to compare. to begin. kondicx-o = terms specified. kon-i = to be acquainted with. kompren-i = to understand. preserve. komfort-o = comfort (freedom from pain.). kompar-i = (trans. engage in commerce. konduk-i = to conduct.). komb-i = to comb. set (type). pillar. etc. to become acquainted with (117). kolor-o = color. (266). to collect. kolport-i = to peddle. --isto. kompot-o = jam. komunik-i = to communicate.

konform-i = to be in conformity with (266). konstant-a = constant. kopi-i = to . konstru-i = to build. opposed to (159. kontuz-i = to bruise. konkurenc-o = competition (in business. consult. kontrol-i = to control. inspect. compete. kontralt-o = contralto. etc. kontinent-o = continent (geographical). konsul-o = consul. konspir-i = to conspire. konkur-i = to vie. examine and check. konsol-i = to console.). be fitting or convenient. kongres-o = congress (assembly). konsonant-o = consonant. konserv-i = to keep. formal competition (for prizes. konstat-i = to verify. confound. konsult-i = to seek advice of. konfes-i = to confess. etc. agree.). konk-o = shell (of mollusk. against. etc. konfid-i = to trust. konvink-i = to convince. pickle (fruits. commercial). konsist-i = to consist. preserve. admit. agree.). contour. konsil-i = to advise. 160). etc. konstituci-o = constitution. opposite. kontent-a = content. certify. satisfied. konkurs-o = prearranged trial of skill. konven-i = to be suitable. persuade.oneself. comfort. konservativ-a = conservative. konfuz-i = to confuse. counsel. plot. kont-o = account (book-keeping. save. konscienc-o = conscience. kontur-o = outline. kontrakt-i = to contract. konsci-i = to be conscious. konsent-i = to consent. kontraux = (prep. konfit-i = to preserve. ascertain the truth of. have confidence in.).).

koridor-o = corridor. kortego = court (royal. to crucify. save. kost-i = to cost. kort-o = courtyard. krut-a = steep. court. korv-o = raven. kostum-o = costume. kot-o = mud. Krist-o = Christ. korpuso = corps (military). kripl-a = crippled. kron-o = crown. beside. kran-o = faucet. aside from. kruc-o = cross. krev-i = (intrans. except. korekt-i = to correct. korb-o = basket. krad-o = grating. krak-i = to clack. krajon-o = pencil. kret-o = chalk. krem-o = cream. krim-o = crime. to burst.copy. etc.). kritik-i = to criticise. corporeal. tea-pot. crack open (suddenly and with noise). kork-o = cork (bark). krom = (prep. kred-i = to believe (265).). correspond. krepusk-o = twilight. lattice. kre-i = to create. pay one's share of an assessment. kubut-o = . krust-o = crust. krocx-i = to hook. korp-o = body. tap. kribr-i = to sift (with a sieve). kotlet-o = cutlet. kruel-a = cruel.). korn-o = horn. --a. krab-o = crab. chop. tekrucxo. korespond-i = to exchange letters. koverto = envelope kovr-i = to cover. kresk-i = to grow. kov-i = to brood (of birds). half-light of dawn or evening. crackle. passage. kor-o = heart (of the body). krestomati-o = chrestomathy. krur-o = leg. collection of selected passages. --umi. jug. kri-i = to cry out. but. kring-o = ringshaped biscuit. krucx-o = pitcher. kravat-o = cravat. grate. kotiz-i = to pay dues. kotono = cotton.

a). lacx-o = string.). kuragx-o = courage. etc. kupr-o = copper (metal). a patient.elbow. kuz-o = cousin. lag-o = lake. four (136). laktuk-o = lettuce.). kvartal-o = quarter (of a city). kverk-o = oak. labor-i = to work. 76. kvin = (adj. kun = (prep. as if (250). --ajxo. kugl-o = bullet. kuk-o = cake. 159). kvitanc-o = receipt (for payment). with (70. kurioz-a = uncommon. kvalit-o = quality.). 201. as though. kviet-a = calm. lad-o = tin plate (sheet iron covered with tin). 120. kukum-o = cucumber.). L. kukurb-o = pumpkin. kuv-o = tub. the (II. a physician. kulp-a = guilty. kurac-i = to treat for illness. farm. lamp-o = lamp. lakt-o = milk. kvar = (adj.). five (136). 160. kultur-i = to cultivate. lac-a = tired. kurs-o = course (of lessons). kurten-o = curtain. kuir-i = to cook. kupon-o = coupon. kunikl-o = rabbit. habit. kvazaux = (conj. la = (article).). curious. kvankam = (conj. pastry. medical man. texture. kvant-o = quantity. cure. labor. kvadrat-o = square (equilateral rectangle). quiet. kudr-i = to sew. recline (239). amount. terkulturi. 47. lan-o = wool. weary. large basin. while (concessive). kusx-i = to lie. --ato. kutim-o = custom. kur-i = to run. 280. kurb-o = curve. though. kuler-o = spoon. although. lace (of shoe. --isto. lam-a = lame. kusen-o = cushion. to till the soil. lanc-o = .

him (32. rent (engage and pay rent for). in accordance with. lek-i = to lick. lini-o = line. laux = (prep. spyglass. along. li = (pronoun). bind. --ilo. broad. let. summerhouse. literal. limo = limit. long-a = long. log-i = to allure. lev-i = to raise. lorn-o = telescope. leg-i = to read. lign-o = wood. lauxlitera. --haroj. leon-o = lion. latin-a = Latin. limonad-o = lemonade. bond. that which ties or fastens. literatur-o = literature. skilful. fasten. --ilo. lauxt-a = loud. local. . liter-o = letter of the alphabet. las-i = (trans. lit-o = bed (for sleeping). --eto. he. league. legx-o = law. lokomotiv-o = locomotive. lern-i = to learn. lok-o = place. by (191). lu-i = to hire. feathers). to leave. ruler. liber-a = free. 42). led-o = leather. lepor-o = hare. --a. alliance. boundary. largx-a = wide. moustache. lang-o = tongue (of the body). lantern-o = lantern. permit. country. larm-o = tear (of the eye). liver-i = to deliver. lauxd-i = to praise. lonicer-o = honeysuckle.). litr-o = liter (284). --o. lip-o = lip. libr-o = book. leter-o = letter (epistle). legom-o = vegetable. --ajxo. land-o = land. opera-glasses. lanug-o = down (hairs.lance. 37. spear. reside (133). supply. furnish. lavi = to wash. lig-i = to tie. logx-i = to dwell. lud-i = to play. knot. lert-a = clever. lauxb-o = arbor. lard-o = bacon. last-a = last (in a series). lecion-o = lesson. lingv-o = language.). lift.

lup-o = wolf. lul-i = to lull to sleep. mart-o = March. majstr-o = master (of his art or profession).). makaroni-o = macaroni. manuskript-o = manuscript. medicin-o = medicine (the science).).) masxin-o = machine. etc. maten-o = morning (93). mard-o = Tuesday. mantel-o = cloak. notwithstanding. marmor-o = marble (stone). maiz-o = maize. jawbone. mark-o = mark. marsx-i = to walk.luks-o = luxury. mantle. way. macx-i = to chew. to be lacking. . man-o = hand. lund-o = Monday. manier-o = manner. mastr-o = master (of a house. --osto. magazen-o = warehouse. mandat-o = money-order. majest-a = majestic. lunatik-o = lunatic. matur-a = ripe. marmelad-o = marmalade. mal. malic-a = malicious. mangx-i = to eat. maj-o = May. mar-o = sea. mebl-o = piece of furniture. maleol-o = ankle. malgraux = (prep. mature. magi-o = magic. Indian corn. manik-o = sleeve. stain. majones-a = mayonnaise. magistr-o = master of arts (A. Mari-o = Mary. martel-o = hammer. maksimum-o = maximum. marsh. --ilo. mank-i = (intrans.). lum-i = to shine (275). marcx-o = swamp. M. material-o = material. makul-o = spot. lun-o = moon.= prefix forming opposites (67).M. wanting. cradle. makzel-o = jaw. masticate.

met-i = to put. handicraft. milit-i = to fight. etc. mez-o = middle. minimum-o = minimum. fashion. mon-o = money. mend-i = to order (of a store. menton-o = chin.mehxanik-o = mechanics.). merit-i = to deserve.). mizer-o = misery. moment-o = moment. place. mejl-o = mile. 37). metod-o = method. merl-o = blackbird. meleagr-o = turkey. milion-o = million. metal-o = metal.). ministr-o = minister (political). merit. mond-o = world. min-o = mine (of coal. to recall to memory. mod-o = mode. merkred-o = Wednesday. silver.). mem = (pronoun). mol-a = soft. minut-o = minute. mir-i = to wonder. memor-i = to remember. rememori. modest-a = modest. wage war. melon-o = melon. mineral-o = mineral. mensog-i = to lie. menu-o = menu. to mix. selves (219). milimetr-o = millimeter (284). mild-a = mild. mister-o = mystery. melk-i = to milk. miop-a = shortsighted. meti-o = trade. mezur-i = to measure. tell lies. mi = (pronoun). mont-o = . metr-o = meter (284). etc. membr-o = limb. --a. melodi-o = melody. instantaneous. mok-i = to mock. model-o = model. mien-o = appearance. thousand (142). I. monahx-o = monk. mil = (adj. way. mien. member. self. momentary. moder-a = moderate. minac-i = to threaten. monarhxi-o = monarch. miks-i = (trans. keep in mind. monat-o = month. mielo = honey. me (32.

negativ-o = negative (photographic). tomorrow (171). nobody's (221). mustard-o = mustard. neces-a = necessary. nap-o = turnip. mut-a = dumb. none. nor (31).). bellow. mist. najl-o = nail (of metal). for no reason (229). to move. put in motion. muze-o = museum. nobody. 66. mor-o = conduct (in regard to right or wrong). no one. ne = (adv. --igi. naiv-a = artless.). no. not (27. neniom = (adv. mur-o = wall. natur-o = nature. --eco.). montr-i = (trans. bring forth. naux = (adj. never (226). nagx-i = to swim. neniam = (adv. naci-o = nation. not any (231). neniu = (pronoun).). musx-o = fly. mute. no (220). mord-i = to bite. muel-o = mill (for grinding). nenies = (pronoun. mult-a = much (81). nenio = (pronoun). nothing (233). give birth to. muzik-o = music. morgaux = (adv. nenie = (adv. nek = (negative conj. --oj. 171). neniel = (adv. ingenuous. morals.).mountain. in no way (230). murmur-i = to murmur. to show. naive. nowhere (225). moral-a = moral. mort-i = to die.).). mus-o = mouse. nask-i = to produce. nenia = no kind of (224).). mugx-i = to roar.). nine (136).). to kill. . nenial = (adv. nebul-o = fog. neither.). a. mosxt-o = title of respect (258). morality. najbar-o = neighbor. negx-o = snow. naz-o = nose. N. possessive). mov-i = (trans.

nevo = nephew. nutr-i = to nourish. us (32.). naked. slanting. numeral (No. -nj. novel. oficial-a = official. --isto. novembro = November. nordo = north. odor-i = to smell (good or bad). 37). nuks-o = nut. thing. office (the place). we. nostalgi-o = homesickness. oficir-o = officer (military or naval). take note of. anew. nub-o = cloud. unfailingly. only. to name. O.= suffix forming multiples (186). --ejo. objekt-o = object. hue. well! (273). neuxtral-a = neutral.). nun = (adv. to feed. obe-i = to obey (265). mention. nepr-e = inevitably. denove. numer-o = number. nu = (interjection). recent. naught. norveg-o = Norwegian.). nivel-o = level. merely. . observ-i = to observe. ofer-i = to sacrifice. ocean-o = ocean.= suffix forming affectionate diminutives (283). nigr-a = black. certainly. nud-a = bare. nokt-o = night.nep-o = grandson. officer (of firm or organization). nur = (adv. -obl. now (171). nombr-o = number (quantity). ni = (pronoun). oblikv-a = oblique. nobl-a = noble (in character). again. nom-o = name. ofic-o = office. not-o = note. objektiv-o = lens. employment. nest-o = nest. --i. tint. non-partisan. nuanc-o = shade. nude. nerv-o = nerve. nobelo = nobleman. objective. nul-o = zero. obstin-a = obstinate. ofend-i = to offend. nov-a = new. offer.

97. okaz-i = to happen. think. okcident-o = west. ordinar-a = ordinary. pac-o = peace. orf-o = orphan. ostr-o = oyster. bid. palis-o = stake. -op. palac-o = palace. orangx-o = orange (fruit). ov-o = egg. pagx-o = page (of a book. command. 98).). organiz-i = to organize. etc. -on= suffix forming fractions (166). occur. pag-i = to pay.= suffix forming collective numerals (261).). onkl-o = uncle. adorn. eksterordinara. ol = (conj. ombrel-o = umbrella. ort-a = rightangled. they (54). ornam-i = to ornament.oft-a = frequent. ord-o = order (methodical or proper arrangement). (musical instrument). pacienc-o = patience. extraordinary. osced-i = to gape. convenient. padel-i = to paddle. . okul-o = eye. orgen-o = organ. P. pal-a = pale. one. oliv-o = olive. pak-i = to pack. orient-o = east. than (82. ok = (adj. organ-o = organ (physical). oktobr-o = October. ost-o = bone. eight (136). pajl-o = straw. oper-o = opera.). ond-o = wave. opini-i = to have the opinion. opportune. oni = (pronoun). ordon-i = to order. yawn. or-o = gold. take place. ombr-o = shadow. orel-o = ear (of the body).). ostracism-o = ostracism. paf-i = to shoot (with gun. --aro. orkestr-o = orchestra. shade. original-o = original. etc. oportun-a = handy. ole-o = oil. okup-i = to occupy.

with. to pass. pasi-o = passion. pejzagx-o = landscape.). part-o = part. to pasture. feed.). pent-i = to repent. patr-o = father. par-o = pair. twitter. Pask-o = Easter. pel-i = to chase away.). parker-e = by rote. clergyman. paragraf-o = paragraph. pastecx-o = patty. share. pasagxer-o = passenger. pelt-o = coat or wrap of fur. from memory. morsel. pan-o = bread. pat-o = pan. pardon-i = to forgive. pasiv-a = passive. parol-i = to speak (77).). pentr-i = to paint. by means of. small pie. --ado. touch (the sense). pauxz-o = pause. pen-i = to strive. paralel-a = parallel. pek-i = to sin. --isto. penetr-i = to penetrate. parfum-o = perfume. per = (prep. pec-o = piece. pend-i = (intrans. pekl-i = to pickle (meat.). frying-pan. pardon (265).palisade. by heart. park-o = park. pere-i = to perish. etc. pep-i = to chirp. perd-i = to lose. pas-i = (intrans. particip-o = participle. to hang. try. pastr-o = pastor. --a. paper-o = paper (material). palpebr-o = eyelid. palp-i = to feel (with the fingers.). hair pencil. pantofl-o = slipper. . pantalon-o = trousers. parenc-o = relative (person). etc. papili-o = butterfly. by (64). pens-i = to think. pasxt-i = (trans. shepherd. penik-o = paintbrush. paradiz-o = paradise. pasx-i = to step. perfid-i = to betray. pastinako = parsnip. priest. perfekt-a = perfect. pavim-o = pavement. paser-o = sparrow. drive off.

dabble (a liquid). persevere. plej = (adv. period-a = periodic. scales. most (74. pionir-o = pioneer. to ascertain the weight of. pist-i = to crush. piedestal-o = pedestal. saucy. persekut-i = to persecute. 81. pingl-o = pin. . perl-o = pearl. kerosene. petrosel-o = parsley. placx-i = to please. puree.). pin-o = pine (tree).). plant-i = to plant. pedestrian. persist-i = to persist. plad-o = flat dish. plac-o = public square. place (broad. plan-o = plan. --ilo. roguish. to be heavy. let.). pipr-o = pepper. permes-i = to permit. pied-o = foot. 79. pinnacle. pir-o = pear. pik-i = to prick. sting. person-o = person. mash. pilk-o = ball (to play with). to splash. pes-i = (trans. to be pleasing (265). balance. pet-i = to request. peruko = wig. summit. stoop (entrance porch).perfidious. beg. plank-o = floor. pice-o = spruce (tree). plat-a = flat. pint-o = point. ask. --ajxo.). peron-o = platform (railway). pez-i = (intrans. plane. allow. pilgrim-i = to go on a pilgrimage. plafon-o = ceiling. pi-a = pious. weigh. pinakotek-o = picture gallery. --iranto. pip-o = pipe (for smoking). prosecute. 162). pitoresk-a = picturesque. planed-o = planet. petrol-o = petroleum. treacherous. pincx-i = to pinch. piz-o = pea. pland-o = sole (of the foot). plauxd-i = (trans. petol-i = to be mischievous. scheme. persik-o = peach. short street or open space).

pig. less (80). plait. post = (prep. posx-o = pocket. pomp-o = pomp. potenc-a = powerful. porcelan-o = porcelain. pokal-o = goblet. polv-o = dust.). polic-o = police (force). for (95. --isto. bear.). cup. pord-o = door. pra. po = (prep. least (80). popular-a = popular. plug-i = to plow. mailbox. 81). china. plet-o = tray. polus-o = pole (geographical). --marko. plen-a = full. plenum-i. port-i = to carry. plumb-o = lead (metal). pneuxmatik-o = pneumatic tire. pluv-o = rain. more. plend-i = to complain. politik-o = politics. por = (prep. pol-o = Pole.). posed-i = to possess. 120). portret-o = portrait. at the rate of (175). feather. polur-i = to polish.= prefix indicating remoteness in line of descent (282). pork-o = swine. share. hog.). postage stamp. can (72). braid. --mandato. pom-o = apple. pli = (adv. to fulfil. praktik-o . 98. plumber. --kesto. poet-o = poet. polm-o = palm (of the hand).malplej. mighty. after. own.). 79. more (74. plu = (adv. demand. plor-i = to weep. poesy. further. popol-o = a people. pont-o = bridge. splendor. plezur-o = pleasure. postul-i = to require. poezi-o = poetry. malpli. pot-o = pot. plum-o = pen. porci-o = portion. posxt-o = post (mail). pov-i = to be able. behind (89. make smooth and glossy. postal money order. 262). any more. cry. plekt-i = to weave. poem-o = poem. folk.

sham. projekt-o = project. proksim-a = near. --ejo. princ-o = prince. beyond. progres-i = to progress. profund-a = deep. for (86). about. procrastinate. pres-i = to print. printemp-o = spring (season). --anto. procent-o = interest. presiding officer. prez-o = price. by. pregx-i = to pray. pren-i = to take. prem-i = to press. preter = (prep. almost. concerning. other people's. --igi al si. offer. pri = (prep.= practice. in the right. pretend-i = to make pretension to.). to profit (by). prize. pretekst-i = to make pretext of. lay claim to. --i. princip-o = principle. pretend. preciz-a = precise. promen-i = to go walking. offer. malpropra. pro = (prep. president. church. past. prefiks-o = prefix. profit-o = profit. chief. pret-a = ready. propon-i = to propose. chairman. prezid-i = to preside. proporci-o = proportion. calling. preskaux = (adv. prepar-i = to prepare.).). profesor-o = professor. propr-a = own (one's own). legal process. premi-o = premium. prezent-i = to present. because of. precipa = principal. profesi-o = profession. occupation.). to . proklam-i = to proclaim. on account of. problem-o = problem. prefer-i = to prefer. proces-o = lawsuit. prav-a = right. promes-i = to promise. percentage. of (160. produkt-i = to produce. profil-o = profile. profound. c). 264. prediki = to preach. promenade. prokrast-i = to delay.

rand-o = edge. rakont-i = to relate. ran-o = frog. give proof of. --ejo. spoke (of wheel). pupitr-o = desk. border. ramp-i = to creep. attempt. to publish. protest-i = to protest. pudr-i = to powder. rab-i = to pillage. pump-i = to pump. refinery. dignity. protekt-i = to protect. --o.). to borrow. rapid-a = rapid. etc. piece of prose. prudent-a = reasonable. protokol-o = minutes (of a meeting).). --isto. robber. rafin-i = to refine. proz-o = prose. to repulse. prov-i = to try. prujn-o = hoar frost. pun-i = to punish. . --e preni. discount or rebate. make one's own. prosper-i = to have success. rang-o = rank. prunt-o = loan. etc. plunder. purpur-a = purple. --i. R. radius. pure. radik-o = root. puding-o = pudding. rabat-i = to rebate. rajd-i = to ride (horse. prosper. --igi. pruv-i = to prove. psalm-o = psalm. proviz-i = to provide. punt-o = lace (point. rabarb-o = rhubarb. pulv-o = gunpowder. sensible. rajt-o = right (to something). to lend. rafan-o = radish. --ajxo. --e doni. clamber.appropriate. publik-o = public (the). pugn-o = fist. quick. radi-o = ray (of light). repusxi. pup-o = doll. narrate (77). give a reduction. pur-a = clean. put-o = well (for water). prose composition. rad-o = wheel. grade. crawl. prun-o = plum. test. pusx-i = to push. rational. pulm-o = lung.

direct. mutual (180). revu-o = journal. enroll. to meet. raucous. rezult-i = to . --ilo. give a report. nation). to regale. registr-i = (trans. stay. people. real-a = real.speed. raz-i = to shave. treat (to food or drink).).). respekt-i = to respect. grate. --emo. redakt-i = to edit. subject. reklam-i = to advertise. ras-o = race (tribe. regn-o = state. rekomend-i = to recommend. ret-o = net. reprezent-i = to represent. rezon-i = to reason (exert the power of reasoning). rasp-i = to rasp. re. regx-o = king. rekompenc-i = to recompense. regal-i = (trans. rel-o = rail. pad. stuff. rauxk-a = hoarse.). undeviating. renkont-i = (trans. rav-i = to enchant.). restoraci-o = restaurant. govern. give in resume. review. governed body. rekt-a = straight. to upset. grater. rem-i = to row. redaktor-o = editor. refut-i = to refute. respublik-o = republic. to register. rev-i = to indulge in revery. renvers-i = (trans. raport-i = to report.= prefix indicating repetition or return (223). reign. fancy. register (a letter). reciprok-a = reciprocal. citizen. redingot-o = frock coat. regulation. religi-o = religion. rembur-i = to upholster. regul-o = rule. rest-i = to remain. redakci-o = editorial department. region-o = region. resum-i = to summarize. reg-i = to rule. reward. rat-o = rat. haste. respond-i = to answer. netting. dream. magazine. --ano.

rest. S. rob-o = dress. way. rilat-i = to have relation (to) (266). vivrimedoj. romp-i = (trans. rost-i = to roast. sak-o = sack. sal-o = salt. rimed-o = means. dressing. river-o = river. ring-o = ring. to break. ripet-i = to repeat. salat-o = salad. salon-o = parlor. rugx-a = red. sagx-a = wise. to roll (ball. round. sap-o = soap. rifuz-i = to refuse. sed . wages. rubus-o = blackberry. ricev-i = to receive. rus-o = Russian. sankt-a = sacred. repair. san-a = healthy. Robert-o = Robert. rigl-i = to bolt (fasten). rikolt-i = to harvest. sci-i = to know (117). salajr-o = salary. holy. ruz-a = crafty. sang-o = blood.).). hungry. ruband-o = ribbon. salt-i = to jump. rimark-i = to notice. rigard-i = to look. se = (conj. etc. rip-o = rib. rimen-o = thong. leap. ruin-o = ruin. note. sarden-o = sardine. reap. rond-o = circle. cunning. scienc-o = science. malsata. bag. gravy. sauxc-o = sauce. sat-a = sated.). sag-o = arrow. salut-i = to salute. if (240). sabat-o = Saturday. sabl-o = sand. rutin-o = routine. rescue.result. sam-a = same. ros-o = dew. ripar-i = to mend. riz-o = rice. sly. drawing-room. ripoz-i = to repose.). means of livelihood. greet. ring. sav-i = to save. rid-i = to laugh (265). rust-i = to rust. strap. rul-i = (trans. well. ricx-a = rich. robe. riprocx-i = to reproach. roz-o = rose (flower).

sekv-i = to follow. signif-i = to signify. serv-i = to serve. soif-i = to be thirsty. similar. send-i = to send. only. Mr. --ano.). sekund-o = second (of time). 44. sezon-o = season.). to sow. to sound. semajn-o = week. reflexive). senator. sigel-i = to seal. silent-i = to be silent (239). skot-o = Scot. meaning. trace. sen = (prep. sid-i = to sit (239). etc. sibl-i = to hiss. songx-i . --i.). look for. 274). whistle (wind. sole.). sercx-i = to seek. perceive. sent-i = to feel. senat-o = senate. sinjor-o = gentleman. sitel-o = pail. seg-i = to saw. soldat-o = soldier. six (136). himself.). sign-o = sign. without (248).= (conj. silab-o = syllable. bucket. skrib-i = to write. mark. silk-o = silk. sep = (adj. mean. son-i = (intrans. serur-o = lock. simil-a = like. herself. skrap-i = to scrape. sel-o = saddle.). Sirakuz-o = Syracuse. segx-o = chair. stern. solen-a = formal. solemn. ses = (adj. (40. septembr-o = September. but. sekret-o = secret.). senc-o = sense. Scotchman. to shake. societ-o = society. servic-o = course (of a meal). skulpt-i = to carve. sculpture. somer-o = summer. sem-o = seed. skatol-o = small box or case. simpl-a = simple. si = (pronoun. (163). sku-i = (trans. sekretari-o = secretary. seven (136). sek-a = dry. Sokrat-o = Socrates. simio = monkey. etc. sever-a = severe. sojl-o = threshold. skiz-i = to sketch. sol-a = alone. hunt. sklav-o = slave.

sprit-a = witty. sample. flag.). sonor-i = (intrans. strik-o = strike (of labor). elspiri. blottingpaper.). . sound. stil-o = style. elspezi. spite = (prep. to stretch. sigh. bell. --ilo. spert-a = experienced. spec-o = kind. savage. sorcerer. stimul-i = to stimulate. sub = (prep. strat-o = street. stat-o = state (of being). spes-o = speso (international unit of money. lot. star-i = to stand (239). enspezi. etc. stamp. peculiar. stuf-i = (trans. expert. boat. stamp-i = to mark officially. spend. special-a = special. sopir-i = to yearn. strike out. stump-o = stump (of tree. receive (funds). to stew. strio = streak. spir-i = to breathe. fate. surstreki. spac-o = space. strecx-i = (trans. ensorcxi. staci-o = station (railway. stan-o = tin (metal). condition. specimen-o = specimen. strek-i = to make a streak. stud-i = to study. or line.). species. long. sort-o = destiny. band.).= to dream (in sleep). spegul-o = mirror. expend. student-o = student (college. etc. to underline. sorb-i = to absorb. sorcx-o = witchcraft. to exhale. stenografi-o = shorthand. standard-o = standard.). etc. sovagx-a = wild. strang-a = strange.). to disburse. spinac-o = spinach. to bewitch.). stang-o = pole. sort.). substreki. spez-o = clearing (financial). --isto. to cross off. 284). to ring. trastreki. stripe. to take in. in spite of. --papero. stomak-o = stomach. stel-o = star. stenography.

upon (160). make tremble. beneath (121. her (32. --ido. prize. to oscillate. sxild-o = shield. sxi = (pronoun). alter. --viro. sxanc-o = luck.). succulent. sur = (prep. to change. froth.). --ega. super = (prep. 37. sun-o = sun. sxargx-i = to burden. jest. on.). sum-o = sum. over (159). chance. --ajxo. subit-a = sudden. sufer-i = to suffer. --idajxo. above. suker-o = sugar. sxat-i = to like.). upper. sxauxm-o = foam. sufiks-o = suffix. sup-o = soup. suficx-i = to suffice. sxerc-i = to joke. endure. vacillate. 42). bonsxance. sxelk-o = suspender. sxancel-i = (trans. swoon. to suffocate. lamb. load.under. sxangx-i = (trans. sud-o = south. mutton. appear.). peeling. surtut-o = overcoat. amount. supr-e = (adv. bark. sved-o = Swede. substanc-o = substance. sufok-i = (trans. she. wrinkle. surface. sxaf-o = sheep. brandish. sxajn-i = to seem. abundant.). etc. 160). lamb (meat). sukces-i = to succeed. supoz-i = to suppose. sxink-o = . --a. surd-a = deaf. above. SX. sulfur-o = sulphur.). ram. sxel-o = shell. svis-o = Swiss. --ajxo. suk-o = sap. superior. abrupt. juice (of plants. suspekt-i = to suspect. sxal-o = shawl. luckily. supersticx-o = superstition. --a. supporter. above. sulk-o = furrow. --a. surpriz-i = to surprise. sven-i = to faint. sugesti-i = to suggest. swing. sving-i = (trans.).

). tabul-o = board. sxtel-i = to steal (252). sxpin-i = to spin. sxu-o = shoe.ham. spurt (of liquids). tali-o = waist. sxirm-i = to shelter. --mezo. smear. schedule of rates. rate. beltalia. shapely. tamen = (conj. sxrank-o = cupboard. sxlim-o = slime. sxultr-o = shoulder. tabl-o = table (furniture). round. however. be indebted. sxvit-i = to perspire. plank. --ilo. sxnur-o = string. --aro. sxpruc-i = to gush. sxovel-i = to shovel. noon. stopper. tantiem-o = percentage of profit. taks-i = to estimate. sxpar-i = to spare. yet. royalty. sxut-o = chute. sxton-o = stone. shield. tarif-o = tariff. sxose-o = broad roadway. sxtat-o = state (political). tabulation. index. push. sxtip-o = log. sxip-o = ship. supersxuo. still. sxtrump-o = stocking. nevertheless. tapisx-o = carpet. tajlor-o = tailor. be economical of. to pour (as in a chute). talent-o = talent. sxrauxb-o = screw. tambur-o = drum. cork. sxtup-o = step. screen. sxlos-i = to lock. tas-o . sxtal-o = steel. block of wood. sxov-i = to shove. stair-case. tabel-o = table. spout. T. dawn. tabak-o = tobacco. sxir-i = to tear. sxtop-i = to stop up. sxuld-i = to owe. having a good figure. overshoe. key. --igxo. sxtof-o = cloth. value. --ilo. become swollen. --ilo. sxmir-i = to anoint. --i. tag-o = day. stuff. drive. wardrobe. sxvel-i = to swell.

tia = that kind of. --karno. --meblo. tigr-o = tiger. tio = (pronoun). teras-o = terrace. termin-o = term. tendo = tent. subject. telefon-i = to telephone. such (65). that (233. draw. tenor-o = tenor (voice). tint-i = to jingle. 156). thus. that much. teatr-o = theatre. teler-o = plate. terur-o = terror. therefore (78. play. this (60).). temp-o = time. 164). tomat-o = tomato.= cup.). soil. tern-i = to sneeze. teks-i = to weave. tie = (adv. there (68). tongue. tosto = toast (sentiment). tikl-i = to tickle. this one. tiom = (adv. ten-i = to hold. teg-i = to cover. te-o = tea. good for.). toler-i = to tolerate. tol-o = linen. tem-o = theme. tibi-o = shin bone. be afraid of. tial = (adv. . subtaso. enterigi. terpom-o = potato. tiel = (adv. tibia. tiu = (pronoun). tegment-o = roof. task-o = task. tond-i = to shear. sideboard. so (88. tavol-o = layer. that one. saucer. templ-o = temple (building). tomb-o = tomb. tili-o = linden. 83). 234). titol-o = title. ter-o = earth. so much (104. tir-i = to pull.). --ajxo. shaft. teritori-o = territory. timon-o = pole. at that time (73). then. tiran-o = tyrant. to inter. ted-i = to be tedious.). keep. tent-i = to tempt. tinkle. that (56). telegraf-i = to telegraph. tiu cxi. tiam = (adv. calf (of the leg). definition (word). tempi-o = temple (of the head). grave. ton-o = tone. put a covering upon. teori-o = theory. tim-i = to fear. tauxg-i = to be fit for.

tusx-i = to touch.). trink-i = to drink. --veturilo. turk-o = Turk. very much.). tuber. tord-i = to twist. trakt-i = to treat of (in essay. very.). tub-o = tube. --a. street-car. tranquil. tualet-o = toilet. tramway. trotuar-o = sidewalk. trab-o = beam (wooden). to turn. tropik-o = tropic. tru-o = hole. . train (of a dress). pipe. tre = (adv. tus-i = to cough. tuber-o = bulb.). the other side of (160). tren-i = to drag. speech. maltrafi. triumf-o = triumph. crooked. altrudema.). importunate. too. to touch (the heart of). all. trud-i = to force upon.). tuj = (adv. shears. tram-o = tram. trancx-i = to cut. trot-i = to trot. draw. trem-i = to tremble. tron-o = throne. tritik-o = wheat. dip. through (46. --vojo. --ajxo. tri = (adj. turo = tower. --ato.--ilo. tut-a = entire. treatise. 160). traf-i = to reach. tremp-i = to drench. immediately tuk-o = piece of cloth. trik-i = to knit. tro = (adv. trankvil-a = serene. traduk-i = to translate. to miss. winding. calm.). trans = (prep. at once. turment-i = to torment. tromp-i = to deceive. three (136). trajt-o = feature. impose. too much. trov-i = to find. whole.). kortusxi. pavement. knot. tondr-i = to thunder. trezor-o = treasure. etc. haul. street-car line. turn-i = (trans. scissors. attain (that which was aimed at or sought). tra = (prep. trunk-o = trunk (of tree or body). across. sever.

universitato = university. cxefurbo. satchel. util-a = useful.= indefinite suffix (268). --ego. to enlist. vend-i = to sell. to abuse. vaks-o = wax. urb-o = city. fruitless. -uj. velur-o = velvet. one (136. bag.= suffix indicating person characterized by that in the root (132). wilt. Uson-o = United States of America. veget-i = to vegetate. -ul. uragan-o = hurricane.= suffix indicating receptacle. union.U. valor-i = to be worth. vapor. vejn-o = vein. univers-o = universe. valiz-o = valise. vast-a = vast. vendred-o = Friday. wither. basin. 180). grow (as plants).). vapor-o = steam. --isto. railway carriage. capital. unuigxo. uz-i = to use. to wake. val-o = valley. ven-i = to come. ulm-o = elm. V. vang-o = cheek.). unu = (adj. trouzi. vafl-o = waffle. awake. vant-a = vain. to roam. extensive. varb-i = (trans. vel-o = sail. -um. van-a = vain. ung-o = nail (of finger). vagabond. vad-i = to wade. vak-i = to be vacant. vek-i = (trans. vagon-o = car. that which bears or contains (181). spacious. vegetar-a = vegetarian. talon. claw. velk-i = to fade. conceited. vag-i = to wander. urs-o = bear.). venen-o . ve! = (interjection). vaz-o = vase. 137. varm-a = warm. recruit. urgx-i = to be urgent or pressing. woe! ho ve! alas! (273). vals-i = to waltz.

274). verk-i = to compose (music or literature). bet. vok-i = to call. vanquish. visage. wish. vizagx-o = face. dress.= poison. vinber-o = grape. volum-o = volume (book). --doni. voj-o = road. verd-a = green. vost-o = tail. volumen-o = volume (of a body). vojagx-i = to journey. vest-i = to clothe. vers-o = verse. viv-i = to live (133). siavice. verand-o = veranda. in turn. porch. vol-i = to be willing. will. vort-o = word. vir-o = man virt-o = virtue. vokal-o = vowel. vetero = weather. volvi = to roll (something around something). their) turn. violono = violin. vilagx-o = village. vice-president. ver-o = truth. viol-o = violet. visx-i = to wipe. verm-o = worm. its. volont-e = willingly. vi = (pronoun). vesxt-o = vest. vermicxel-o = vermicelli. etc. vidv-o = widower. sekvinbero. you (32. vocx-o = voice. boat. vengx-i = to avenge. vicprezidanto. vic-o = turn. versx-i = to pour (a liquid). venk-i = to conquer. dictionary. brisk. vin-o = wine. vigl-a = alert. in his (her. --ino. vertikal-a = vertical. to vote. vintr-o = winter.). vetur-i = to ride. vent-o = wind. widow. lauxvice. waistcoat. vinagro = vinegar. raisin. vesper-o = evening (93). vid-i = to see. place in a series. --aro. . way. 37. vitr-o = glass (material). vizit-i = to visit. vip-i = to whip. vet-i = to wager. go (in vehicle. voyage. viand-o = meat. vibr-i = to vibrate. travel.

belt. vund-i = to wound. zigzag-o = zigzag. also the references under Prefixes and Suffixes in the Index. vulgar. zink-o = zinc. vulgar-a = common. vulp-o = fox. and a large number of additional roots (to facilitate original composition). 171. zum-i = to hum. zorg-i = to care (for). see 160. References are to sections. all primary words of the language. 176. ***** ENGLISH-ESPERANTO VOCABULARY. zone.] For other parts of speech than those indicated. The following vocabulary includes all Esperanto roots used in the preceding lessons. zenit-o = zenith. The . or their various English meanings. for which an English-Esperanto Dictionary should be consulted.vual-o = veil. to include all of the roots of the language. unless the page (p. 116. be anxious (about). see Word Formation. 120. zingibr-o = ginger. zon-o = girdle. 167.) is given. [Since page numbers have no relevance in this etext version. such references were deleted. 159. however. No attempt has been made. zoologi-o = zoology. For formation of compound words other than those given. 184. Z. buzz.

konatigx-i. abash = hontig-i. acid = acid-o. abrupt = subit-a. cxirkaux. accompany = akompan-i. accustomed = familiar-a. --on. prep. add = aldoni (160). etc. (adv. abominable = abomen-a. laux (191). (of play) akt-o. (on) account of = (prep. act = ag-i.). kulpig-i.). A abandon = forlas-i. adv. (chance) okaz-o. = conjunction. accurate = akurat-a. pro (86).). super (159). address = (on letters. actor = aktor-o. (lecture) parolad-o.following abbreviations are used: adj. accuse = akuz-i. supr-e. intrans.). (story) rakont-o. above = (prep. = intransitive.). (approximately. trans.). proksimum-e. (behave) kondut-i. = preposition. academy = akademi-o. ache = dolor-o. (be) able = pov-i (72). ver-a. (in) accordance with = (prep. conj.). (grammatical). trans. (be) acquainted with = kon-i (117). acquire. (bill) kalkul-o. efik-i. cxi supre. active = agema. = transitive. become --. account = kont-o.= repetition of the English word. kutimit-a. accent = akcent-o.) adres-o. (adv. actual = efektiv-a. -. accept = akcept-i.). aktiv-a. = adverb. akcel-i. accident = akcident-o. across = (prep. abundant = suficxeg-a. accelerate = (trans. acute = akr-a. accusative = akuzativ-o. . absorb = sorb-i. adequate = suficx-a. = adjective. about = (prep. akir-i. (concerning) pri.

(music) ari-o. of quantity) cxiom (194).adjacent = apud-a (159). allude = alud-i.). (give an) agency = komisi-i. allure = log-i. algebra = algebr-o. kune kun. alone = sol-a. . profit-o. affable = afabl-a. Alexander = Aleksandr-o. aim at = cel-i. admit = konfes-i. advertise = reklam-i. already = (adv. jam. admonish = admon-i. re-e (223). affair = afer-o. affirmative = jes-a (171). Alfred = Alfred-o. agitate = agit-i. almanac = almanak-o.). Africa = Afrik-o. adore = ador-i. (be) afraid = tim-i. all = (pronoun and adj. post (89). regrettable --. alliance = lig-o. alive = viv-a. agony = agoni-o. alphabet = alfabet-o. plenagx-a. kontraux. adorn = ornam-i. (contract) kontrakt-i. agreeable = agrabl-a. age = agx-o. agent = agent-o. (indefinite pronoun) cxio (233). adverb = adverb-o. maljunec-o. Alexandria = Aleksandri-o. advantage = util-o. aid = help-i. almost = (adv. old --. domagx-o. aloud = lauxt-e. allow = permesi. again = denov-e.). adjective = adjektivo. alas! = ho ve (273). laux (191). administer = (manage).). after = (prep. (whole. afternoon = posttagmez-o. -. cxiuj (173). to --. against = (prep.).). along = (prep. of --. alcohol = alkohol-o. alert = vigl-a. agree = konsent-i. (adv. administr-i. preskaux. alms = almoz-o. alcove = alkov-o. (let in) allas-i. entire) tut-a. air = aer-o. aerum-i. advise = konsil-i.with. admire = admir-i.

). answer = respond-i. sxangx-i. antelope = antilopo. ancestor = prapatr-o (282). animal = best-o. ant = formik-o.). angry = koler-a. etc. 235. almet-i.to (for information. aper-i. (seem) sxajn-i. always = (adv. apply = (put on). -. although = (conj.also = (adv. amid = meze de.). amphitheatre = amfiteatr-o. annoy = cxagren-i. apathy = apati-o. (adv. and = (conj. any = (pronoun and adj. appearance = (aspect). aliig-i. amphibious = amfibi-a. antique = antikv-a. alter = (trans. ancient = antikv-a. a certain --. announce = anonc-i. amind-a. apartment = apartament-o. appropriate .). kvanto. --thing.).). kaj (26). --kind. iom (217). vidigx-o. amiable = afabl-a.). among = (prep. apparatus = aparat-o. cxiam (187). antipathy = antipati-o. any more = (adv. plu.). altar = altar-o..). sin turni al. anoint = sxmir-i. aspekt-o. amount = sum-o. ankle = maleol-o. appear = (come in sight). anecdote = anekdot-o. appetite = apetit-o. inter (85). angle = angul-o. mien-o. America = Amerik-o. applaud = aplauxd-i. angel = angxelo. anchor = ankr-o. etc. apology = (defence). of quantity) iom (217). see table. iu (203). amuse = amuz-i. anew = denov-e. anvil = ambos-o. approach = alproksimigx-i al. apologise = pardonon pet-i. apologi-o. ankaux. inter (85). analyse = analiz-i. kvankam. anxious = maltrankvil-a. apple = pom-o. --time.

= proprigi al si. ashes = cindr-o. krom..). arrow = sag-o.) kiel. apricot = abrikot-o. street --. association = . kvazaux (250). arrange = arangx-i.. kunvok-i.. as . arouse = incit-i. Archimedes = Arhximed-o.. -.. mien-o.. aquarium = akvari-o. -much . architecture = arhxitektur-o. artless = naiv-a... as . Arthur = Artur-o.. ascertain = certigx-i. ass = azen-o. asparagus = asparag-o. (be) ashamed = hont-i. apron = antauxtuk-o. Aristeides = Aristejd-o. dec-a. (156). approximate = proksimum-a. aspect = aspekt-o. brak-o. konven-a. Asia = Azi-o.. arm = (of the body). -. konstat-i. -. Arab = arab-o. as . army = arme-o.though.the truth of. arrive = alven-i. approve = aprob-i. archer = pafarkist-o. (weapon) armil-o. Aristotle = Aristotel-o.far as. around = (prep.. assist = help-i. tiom . argue = argument-i. kiom (164). aristocrat = aristokrat-o. article = (grammatical. arcade = arkad-o. kiel . arithmetic = aritmetik-o. (request). as = (adv. bub-o. cxirkaux (89. literary) artikol-o. pet-i. art = art-o.. arrest = arest-i. arbitrate = arbitraci-i. vek-i. artificial = artefarit-a. demand-i. 160). arrogant = arogant-a.if. assemble = kunven-i. April = april-o.. ask = (inquire). 46).. aroma = arom-o. gxis (prep. aside from = (prep.)... arena = aren-o. tiel . arc = ark-o. (suitable). -. arbor = lauxb-o.

bake = (trans. (scales). aks-o. attain = ating-i. balance = (trans.of arts (A. bag = sak-o. to the rear (adv. baby = infanet-o. verkist-o. August = auxgust-o.(organization). away = (adv. bal-o. axe = hakil-o. -. bord-o. back = (of the body). abiturient-o.). autumn = auxtun-o. valiz-o.). (music). po (175). certigo. asoci-o. attribute = atribut-o. vek-i. bandage = bandagx-i. dors-o. bank = (financial). attack = atak-i. (become) bankrupt = bankrot-i banner = flag-o. banquet = festen-o. pesil-o. avenge = vengx-i. balanc-i. athlete = atleto. bare = nud-a. automatic = auxtomat-a. at = (prep. cxe (125.the rate of. avoid = evit-i. -. band = (stripe). barbarian = barbar-o. (globe). bachelor = frauxl-o. malantauxen (121). (group). pilk-o. orkestr-o.). malproksim-e (170). avaricious = avar-a.B.). ar-o (126). babble = babil-i. bagatelle = bagatel-o. glob-o. author = auxtor-o. (distant). . avenue = ale-o. axis = (axle). assurance = aplombo. awake = (trans. bacon = lard-o. bank-o. attempt = prov-i. banana = banan-o.). for (71).). stri-o. je (260). traf-i. atmosphere = atmosfer-o.). ball = (to play with). Australia = Auxstrali-o. 160). bark = (of trees). bulvard-o. attentive = atent-a. standard-o. bak-i. attest = atest-i. B. (dance). (shore). bar = bar-i. banish = ekzil-i.

komenc-i (see also prefix "ek-". elport-i. antaux ol (97. fab-o. naski. jen (228). (of dogs). almozon pet-i.). vid-i. tial ke (83).). (carry). bend = .). beef = bovajx-o (227. trabo. bas-o. give birth to). become = igx-i. post. ban-i.). bear = (animal). (adv. bass = (voice). (surpass). radi-o. beg = (request). (ask alms). (light). 160). 120. be = est-i (109). (adv. beam = (wooden). boj-i. gurd-o. pro (86). fundament-o.of (prep. Belgian = belg-o.). (conj. farigx-i (232).).).). battle = batal-i. c). sub-e. baz-o. bench = benk-o. bathe = (trans. barrel = barel-o. venk-i. 90. bed = lito. basin = vaz-o. port-i. beggar = almozul-o. barren = senfrukt-a. believe = kred-i (265). konven-i. dec-i. antaux (89.sxel-o. beard = barb-o. (ignoble). because = (conj. barytone = bariton-o. before = (prep. (be suitable). sufer-i. belong = aparten-i. behind = (prep.). 206). -organ. malnobl-a. cxar (83). beat = bati. 159. (garden bean). beautiful = bel-a. pet-i. barrister = advokat-o. beak = bek-o. (adv. behave = kondut-i. beet = bet-o. antauxe. sub. behold = rigard-i. 98). beefsteak = bifstek-o. jxus antauxe. bell = sonoril-o. begin = (trans.). malsupr-e. (produce. fazeol-o.). super-i. -. beast = best-o. kuv-o. (endure). base = (foundation). below = (prep. basket = korb-o. bee = abel-o. belt = zon-o. urs-o. bean = (leguminous fruit).

book = libr-o. -. bor-i. dubeblu-a. blouse = bluz-o. preter. bleat = blek-i. boil = (intrans. (reckoning). kitel-o. bone = ost-o. bit = (piece). (wounds).(trans. inter (85. bol-i (275). rigl-i.). to -. blood = sang-o. fiancx-o. (ring-shaped). iom (217). (at the side of). kalkul-o.). bind = (fasten).(shoes. pec-o. . (weary). bonbon = bombon-o. bill = (of bird). betrothed = (man).). blackbird = merl-o. bat-o. blade = (of knife. copy--. block = (of wood). boat = boat-o. bank --. benevolence = bonfar-o. (be) born = naskigx-i. sxipet-o. bird = bird-o. cir-i. makul-o. note--. bek-o. blush = rugxigx-i. berry = ber-o. body = korp-o. afisx-o. (food). stip-o. bore = (holes). flanke de. blind = blind-a. bless = ben-i. beside = (prep. adiaux-i. kring-o. ordon-i. board = (plank). borrow = pruntepren-i. klin-i.). etc. biscuit = biskvit-o. blackberry = rubus-o. bite = mord-i.). bolt = (fasten). black = nigr-a. bond = (fastening).farewell.). lig-i. between = (prep. bid = (order). bankbilet-o. fleks-i. blot = (spot). bicycle = bicikl-o. bandagx-i. blue = blu-a. blow = blov-i. kajer-o. (near). bewitch = ensorcx-i. beyond = (prep. enuig-i. sorbpaper-o. boast = fanfaron-i. blotter = sorbilo.). tabul-o. nutrad-o. 89). etc. hand--. big = grand-a. boot = bot-o. ligilo. border = (edge). apud. (stroke). krom. --ish. blacking = cir-o. rand-o. kling-o. bet = vet-i.). (adv. bloom = flor-i (116). betray = perfid-i.

bud = burgxon-o. breakfast = matenmangx-o. brancx-o. bracket = (shelf). bow = (of ribbon). brain = cerb-o.). brood = (birds). brute = brut-o. bucket = sitel-o. -. brown = brun-a.. bullet = kugl-o. small --. bulb = tuber-o. box = kest-o. braid = plekt-i. Bulgarian = Bulgar-o.up (educate). buckle = buk-o. break = (trans). ambaux (238). brother = frat-o. brandy = brand-o. bungle = fusx-i. nask-i.). pakajx-o. fak-o. bundle = fask-o.). branch = (of tree). bough = brancx-o. brag = fanfaron-i.). bottom = fund-o. burden = sxargx-i. bridge = pont-o. sed. krom. bulb-o. (for shooting).to pieces. pafark-o. breathe = spir-i. bunch = fask-o. bant-o. (of work or study). build = konstru-i. bring = alport-i. bronze = bronz-o. burst = (intrans. bret-o. bouquet = buked-o. burn = (intrans. brick = brik-o. brownie = kobold-o. Briton = Brit-o. brochure = brosxur-o. -forth (produce). brandish = sving-i. hel-a. malsupr-o. romp-i. brul-i (275). (adv. klinigx-i. (prep. kaj (26). frakas-i. boy = knab-o. bow = (bend). kov-i. bottle = botelo. butcher = bucx-i. skatolo. but = (conj. boundary = lim-o. bruise = kontuz-i. brisk = vigl-a. bull = bovvir-o.Boston = Boston-o.).). brush = bros-i. brave = brav-o. broad = largxa. salut-i. bridle = brido. eduki. . bury = enterig-i. both = (pronoun and adj. krev-i. bright = (clear). boulevard = bulvard-o. -. bread = pan-o.

. (holder). preter. cat = kat-o. veturil-o. case = (small box). cause = ig-i (214). catch = kapt-i. vizitkart-o. proces-o. car = vagon-o. laux (191). carpet = tapisx-o. capitol = kapitol-o. capital = (money). zorg-i (pri). butonum-i. tial-o. cxefurb-o. (past). carve = skulpt-i. per (64). butterfly = papili-o. capable = kapabl-a. kial-o. visiting --. cauliflower = florbrasik-o. candy = kand-o. castle = kastel-o. calling = (profession). cabbage = brasik-o. cap = cxap-o. carrot = karot-o. call = vok-i. cashier = kasist-o. trankvil-a. etc. cab = fiakr-o. kauxz-i.). C. (preserve fruit. ing-o (237). (according to). button = buton-o. (produce a result). (grammatical). buy = acxet-i. carry = port-i. candle = kandel-o.). buzz = zum-i. konfit-i. tibikarn-o. caress = dorlot-i. skatol-o. cattle = brut-o. calm = kviet-a. uj-o (181). by = (prep. (legal). cast = jxet-i. (visit). care = (for). boneg-a. kapital-o. cascade = kaskad-o. pov-i (72). to --. calf = bovid-o. vizit-i. kest-o. brutar-o. caldron = kaldron-o. kares-i. camera = kamer-o. card = kart-o. camel = kamel-o. profesi-o. calculate = kalkul-i. (city). (of the leg). carriage = kalesx-o. can = (be able). de (169. kaz-o. cake = kuk-o. okaz-o. (occasion). (excellent).butter = buter-o. (chest). cage = kagx-o. 170). (motive). calendar = kalendar-o. canoe = kanot-o.

chin = menton-o.. cease = (intrans. etc. cxes-i. chemistry = hxemi-o. certig-i. montar-o. centigram = centigram-o (284). (drive off). chatter = babil-i. -. chest = (box). cherry = cxeriz-o. chair = segx-o. chemist's shop = apotek-o. chestnut = kasxtan-o. (fetter). (opportunity).(espoused or advocated). cellar = kel-o. celery = celeri-o. (leader). etc. moner-oj. chapel = kapel-o. cavity = kav-o. 235. prez-o. precip-a. (hazard). celebrate = fest-i. see table. (be) chairman = prezid-i. chain = cxen-o. chemise = cxemiz-o. ja (215). (with a lid). --ed. chase = (game. charge = (commission). cxas-i. character = karakter-o. konstat-i. chapter = cxapitro. cent = cend-o. centiliter = centilitr-o (284). cheese = fromagx-o. okazo. charm = cxarm-i.). solenig-i. certain = cert-a. iu (pronoun and adj. komisi-o. check = (on bank). (of mountains). chew = macx-i. cheque = cxek-o. caution = avert-i. (coins). 203). china = . forpel-i. certainly = nepr-e. chief = cxef-a. ceiling = plafon-o. change = (trans. child = infan-o. sxangx-i. kofr-o. cheek = vang-o. chance = sxanc-o. proces-o. cost). chalk = kret-o. center = centr-o. fama. chimney = kamen-o. (burden).amount. kost-o. sxargx-o. afer-o. katen-o. cert-e. (legal). centimeter = centimetr-o (284). id-o (207).). hazard-o. a -(one). cxek-o.. certify = atest-i. estro (253). kest-o.). (price.

hela.). claim = pretend-i.to (prep. chocolate = cxokolad-o. circle = cirkl-o. clearing = (financial). clock = horlogx-o. Christ = Krist-o. citizen = regnan-o. etc. city = urb-o. cloak = mantel-o. cigarette = cigared-o. kolekt-i.). clothe = vest-i. pregxej-o. dens-a. -. choose = elekt-i. (woollen. klar-a. cigar = cigar-o. climate = klimat-o. clack = krak-i. proksim-e de (170). redingoto. cock = (fowl). clamber = ramp-i. choir = hxor-o. Chinaman = hxin-o. colonel = kolonel-o. kotlet-o. cirkuler-o. ferm-i. supren ramp-i. tuk-o. circular = (letter. cinnamon = cinam-o.). college = kolegi-o. (frock). coal = karb-o. tablotuk-o. church = (building). clerk = komiz-o. cirkonstanc-o. clap = (trans. cloth = (in general). coat = vest-o. . clergyman = pastr-o. collect = (trans. table--. kok-o. sxtof-o. over--. (distinct). color = kolor-o. chrestomathy = krestomati-o. chirp = pep-i. climb up = grimp-i. Hxinuj-o. klak-i. cloud = nub-o. circumstance = okaz-o. bastoneg-o. clay = argil-o. clean = pur-a. urban-o. (country). (dense). rond-o. (weapon). coffee = kaf-o. civilise = civiliz-i. close = (trans. club = (organization). etc. surtut-o. klub-o. klak-i. chute = sxut-o. apud. cipher = cifer-o.).). class = klas-o. (short). clatter = (trans. detal-o.). clever = lert-a. clear = (bright).(porcelain). porcelan-o.). chop = hak-i. (piece of). drap-o. jak-o. spez-o. claw = ungeg-o. (cutlet).

c). comfort = (console). (percentage of profit). confound = (confuse). compare = (trans. (for prizes). kondicx-o. concern = koncern-i (266). come = ven-i. confide = konfid-i. communicate = komunik-i. konkurs-o. (in business). company = (commercial). compassion = kompat-o. congratulate = gratul-i. complicate = komplik-i. koncert-o. complain = plend-i. condemn = kondamn-i. (state). (264. (mutual). condition = cirkonstanc-o. kompanio.column = kolon-o. (presence). konduktor-o. cxeest-o. konduk-i. kondut-o. commission = (entrusted). komisi-o. maltrankvilec-o. comedy = komedi-o. pri. kompostist-o. common = (general). verk-i. commerce = komerc-o. komand-i.). (military and naval). (guests). komisipag-o. compete = konkur-i. gastar-o. (anxiety). conduct = (behavior). confess = konfes-i. etc. komun-a. . (freedom from pain. concert = (musical). competition = konkurado.). konkurenc-o. konsol-i. komfort-o.oneself (behave). etc. konfuz-i. mor-o. kompar-i (266). compose = (music or literature).). kondut-i. conceal = kasx-i (252). gxeneral-a. compositor = (of type).). comb = komb-i. vulgar-a. -. (stipulation). command = ordon-i. tantiem-o. conduct = (lead). (vulgar). committee = komitat-o. (in regard to right or wrong). stat-o. conform = konform-i (266). conductor = (of car. concerning = (prep.

corps = (military). conspire = konspir-i. corpse = kadavr-o. cotton = koton-o. contaminate = infekt-i. (be) conscious = konsci-i. country = land-o.congress = kongres-o. corporal = corporeal. console = konsol-i. consul = konsul-o. consent = konsent-i. ekzempler-o. county = grafland-o. content = kontent-a. consist = konsist-i. oportun-a. (be) courageous = kuragx-i. reg-i. pet-i konsilon de. (right). continue = dauxr-i. continent = (land). constant = konstant-a. kontinent-o. cost = kost-i. counsel = konsil-i. contralto = kontralt-o.). corner = angul-o. corridor = koridor-o. course = (of . (bark of cork tree). consonant = (letter). costume = kostum-o. copper = kupr-o. dauxrig-i. (of a book. constitution = konstituci-o. sum-i. do. conscience = konscienc-o. cook = kuir-i. cork = sxtop-i. conquer = venk-i. konsonant-o. correct = korekt-i. kork-o. consult = konsult-i. prav-a. count = kalkul-i. contour = kontur-o. coquettish = koket-a. (govern). korp-a. coupon = kupono. kontrakt-i. correspond = korespond-i. etc. kontrauxstarem-a. control = kontrol-i. kampar-o. consequently = sekv-e. copy = kopi-i. (person). contract = (commercial and legal). cough = tus-i. convince = konvink-i. graf-o. convenient = konven-a. tial (78). contrary = mal-o (67). (be) conservative = konservativ-a. (as opposed to city). nombr-i. korpus-o.

fason-o. custom = kutim-o. (shout). Cyrus = Cirus-o. (burst open) (intrans. curious = (odd). crippled = kripl-a. plauxd-i. -. cucumber = kukum-o. curve = kurb-o. (angry). cravat = kravat-o. kurs-o. crack = (split) (trans. cunning = ruz-a. (of a garment). krev-i. (crackle). cover = kovr-i. cupboard = sxrank-o. 126). korteg-o.the soil. -. cushion = kusen-o. (goblet). crab = krab-o. crucify = krucum-i. criticise = kritik-i. (tax). cry = (weep).). court = kort-o. cutlet = kotlet-o. in the -. courteous = gxentil-a. curtain = kurten-o. cross = kruc-o. cruel = kruel-a. crime = krim-o. blek-i. cousin = kuz-o. creep = ramp-i. courtesy = gxentilec-o. fend-i. scivol-a. komplez-o. crazy = frenez-a. (of animals).of. create = kre-i.off. pokalo. kurb-a.up. teg-i. anar-o (145. dabble = (a liquid). cultivate = kultur-i. cut = trancx-i. malrekt-a. crawl = ramp-i. terkultur-i.). cradle = lulilo. crooked = tord-a.lessons). crush = pist-i. cup = tas-o. curl = (of hair). (inquisitive). cylinder = cilindr-o. kraki. jugxej-o. D. (put covering upon). impost-o. of --. bukl-o. grimp-i. crown = kron-o. crowd = amas-o. -. crust = krust-o. premeg-i. en la dauxro de. koler-a. crafty = ruz-a. plor-i. servic-o. (kindness). kri-i. trastrek-i. kurioz-a. cream = krem-o. dainty = delikat- . kompreneble. (of a meal).

defend = defend-i. dekameter = dekametr-o (284). deserve = merit-i. ornam-i. deck (of ship) = ferdek-o. deny = ne-i (171). (time). delay = prokrast-i. deaf = surd-a. different = . dew = ros-o. deceive = tromp-i. Damocles = Damokl-o. deep = profund-a. sxim-o. declaim = deklam-i. date = (fruit). dekaliter = dekalitr-o (284). delegate = deleg-i. danger = dangxer-o. kar-a. (adorn). debase = (adulterate). (just reward). kaduk-i. skribtabl-o. desert = dezert-o.) = fak-o. daktil-o. desire = dezir-i. dance = danc-i. day = tag-o. decimeter = decimetr-o (284). department (of work. liberig-i. demand = postul-i. destroy = detru-i. delusion = iluzi-o. placxeg-a. delicate = delikat-a. dense = dens-a. fals-i. December = decembr-o. (set free). (in health). sort-o. dictate (letters) = dikt-i. degree = grad-o. deer = cerv-o. detail = detal-o. decigram = decigram-o (284). difin-i. Dane = dan-o. dessert = deserto. neniig-i. diamond = diamant-o. die = mort-i. malbonig-i.a. etc. (lot). dictionary = vortar-o. decay = (mould). (make bad). dat-o. deliver (supply) = liver-i. deciliter = decilitr-o (284). priskrib-i. decide = decid-i. merit-o. dear = (prized). desk = pupitr-o. damage = difekt-i. destiny = destino. multekosta. delightful = cxarm-a. dekagram = dekagram-o (284). dawn = tagigx-o. (expensive). destine = destin-i. define = defin-i.

elpag-i. dress = vest-i (sin). (medical). diverse = divers-a. dignity (rank) = rango. malsupren.divers-a. drip = gut-i. (vehicle). --handle. ampleks-o. konfuz-i. disdain = malsxat-i.). rev-i. drag = (trans. dig = fos-i. (downward) (adv. discuss = diskut-i. --suit. diplomat = diplomato. drive (off) = pel-i. kuracist-o. diligent = diligent-a. (size). dip (in liquid) = tremp-i. (roadway). priparol-i. distinguish = disting-i. disburse = elspez-i. (frock). diplomit-o. tren-i. suficx-i. dron-i. dove = kolomb-o. drown = (intrans. disturb = gxen-i. do = far-i. differentiate = diferencig-i. (suffice). diferenc-a. --store. diploma = diplom-o. divide = (trans. divid-i. drench = tremp-i. veturig-i. down (hair or feathers) = lanug-o. door = pord-o. dollar = dolar-o. sxose-o. dressing (sauce) = sauxc-o. donkey = azen-o. drawing-room = salon-o. doll = pup-o. discount = rabat-i. dish (flat) = plad-o. distract (the attention) = distr-i. dispatch (letter) = depesx-o. malsam-a. (sketch). doctor = doktor-o. doubt = dub-i. direct (guide) = direkt-i. (undeviating). rekta. . distance = distanc-o.).). (fancy). (confuse). Diogenes = Diogen-o. drug = drog-o. dog = hund-o.). distinct = klar-a. drawer = tirkesto. skiz-i. dimension = dimensio. holder of --. dream (in sleep) = songx-i. draw (pull) = tir-i. maltrankvilig-i. rob-o. drink = trink-i. malestim-i. frak-o. ans-o.

apotek-o. kotiz-i. effect = efekt-o. dum (96). uz-i. editorial body = redakcio. editor = redaktor-o. empire = imperi-o. ambauxflanke (238). enchant = ensorcx-i. elk = alk-o. duty = dev-o.). bis. be on --. edit = redakt-i. okupad-o.). sin okupi. embroider = brod-i. egg = ov-o.oneself. oficist-o. (of rivers. eight = (adj. brut-o. -.).). cxiu (173). each = (adj. dust = polv-o. aux.side (adv. encore = (adv. eagle = agl-o. educate = (rear). earth = ter-o. (adv. instru-i. economical = sxparem-a. en la dauxro de-. E. ok (136). effective = efektiv-a. (the planet). echo = ehx-o. elm = ulm-o. ear (of the body) = orel-o. dejxor-i. eager = avid-a. early = fru-a. terglob-o. eat = mangx-i. dues = kotizajx-o. cxiu (173). eminent = eminent-a. rav-i. elbow = kubut-o. employ = (hire). employee = komiz-o. dusk = krepusk-o. east = orient-o. dry = sek-a. dung-i. duck = anas-o. iu (203).). and pronoun). eduk-i. (use). on -. dumb = mut-a. electric = elektr-a. easy = facil-a. eloquent = elokvent-a. dwell = logx-i. Egypt = Egipt-o. Easter = Pask-o. bord-o.animal.). dungit-o. unu aux la alia. senpolvig-i. drum = tambur-o. either = (pronoun and adj. during = (prep. employment = ofic-o. (teach). etc.). remove the --. -. edge = rando. end = . (be) efficacious = efik-i. pay --.

).). gxust-a. estimate = taks-i.and check. cxiam-a. (pronoun and adv. konstat-i. -. registr-i. parnombro. expend = (money). ekzerc-i. entire = tut-a. iam (212).).. (energy. experiment = . evening = vesper-o (93). enlightened = kler-a. ajn (236). kontrol-i. (demand). example = ekzempl-o. (always). esteem = estim-i. -. eben-a. endure = sufer-i. (be an) epicure = frand-i. uz-i.). Excellency = (title). enroll = (trans. -. sin amuz-i. see table. evangel = evangeli-o. fond-i.). epoch = epok-o.(trans.). err = erar-i. (actually) (adv. cxiam (187). exhale = elspir-i. -. evolution = evoluci-o. entrust = komisii. alkonfid-i. -. exile = ekzil-i. (prove. varb-i.oneself. envy = envi-i. elspez-i.).dress (of man). eluz-i. postul-i. exist = ekzist-i. endow = dot-i. etc. examine = ekzamen-i. every = (one). elport-i. krom.). frak-o. except = escept-i (266). kovert-o. Englishman = angl-o. even = (level). experienced = spert-a. enjoy = gxu-i. (indefinite adv. establish = establ-i.). etc. (prep.). fin-i. eternal = etern-a. cxiu (173). enthusiasm = entuziasm-o.way. envelope = (of letter). model-o. (model). mosxt-o (258). expect = atend-i. excite = ekscit-i. --thing. ever = (adv. exact = akurat-a. enlist = (trans.). Europe = Euxrop-o. ecx. exercise = (trans.number. engineer = ingxenier-o. exhort = admon-i. equal = egal-a. varb-i. 235. estate = bien-o. etc.

gxis (46). eye = okul-o. efektiv-e. fame = fam-o. fact = fakt-o. rapida vagonaro. . 273). fable = fabel-o. explore = esplor-i. katen-o. (corpulent). fatal = fatal-a. ampleks-o.).as (prep.). and interjection). fein-o. expert = spert-a. lert-a. as -. a --. destin-o. vastampleks-a. terkultur-i. express = esprim-i. father = patr-o. favorable = favor-a. feel = sent-i. fakt-e. (train). (beautiful). feature = trajt-o. family = famili-o. bel-a.). palp-i. perfid-a. far = malproksim-e. explode = (intrans. faucet = kran-o. pligrandig-i. (with fingers. (till the soil). kutim-a. plilongig-i. fair = (just). in --. fay = fe-o. extent = (size). --brow. feed = nutr-i. -. rev-i. farewell = (adv. fancy = imag-i. (treacherous). extensive = vast-a. just-a.). feather = plum-o. komplezo. farm-i. fall = fal-i. fear = tim-i. (autumn). extraordinary = eksterordinar-a. mod-o.eksperiment-i. extinguish = esting-i. favor = favor-i. fat = gras-o. adiaux (171. brov-o. false = fals-a. etend-i. faint = sven-i. faithful = fidel-a. female = in-o (59). fairy = fe-o. etc. fetter = (chain. fatal-o.flocks. --lid. eksplod-i (275). dik-a.). familiar = familiar-a. fate = sorto. pasxt-i. face = vizagx-o. palpebr-o. fashion = fason-o. fein-o. fade = velk-i. fasten = lig-i. etc. farm = (as a tenant). F. auxtun-o. ja (215). extend = (trans. fervor = fervor-o.

kvar (136). flower = flor-o (116). for = (prep. dec-i. musx-o.). -.(upon). fog = nebul-o. montra fingro. forehead = frunt-o. flag = flag-o. ekbrulig-i.to. fit = almezur-i. postir-i. folk = popol-o. fluid = fluid-a. . four = (adj. little --. follow = sekv-i. 98. tauxg-i. (catch fish). middle --. finger = fingr-o. form = form-i. malgranda fingro. force = fort-o. pro (86). standard-o. foam = sxauxm-o. forgive = pardon-i. find = trov-i. floor = plank-o. foot = (of the body). field = kamp-o. flow = flu-i. fore.= pra. fire = fajr-o. fish = fisx-o. fir = abi-o. forge = (falsify). flex = (trans. devig-i. (conj. fine = bel-a. fill = plenig-i. (measure). kvin (136). (compel). finish = (trans. foreign = fremd-a. found = fond-i.).(282). ring --. flat = glat-a. fiance = fiancx-o. fly = flug-i. fondle = dorlot-i. set -. (of money). por (95. longa fingro. fist = pugn-o. alform-i. fox = vulp-o. (be) fond of sweets = frand-i.fever = febr-o. fount = font-o. flour = farun-o. delikat-a. flesh = karn-o. fold = fald-i. fight = batal-i. plat-a. eben-a. (decent). pied-o. fie = (interjection).). ringa fingro.). fals-i. index --. focus = fokus-o. (insect). monpun-o. fleks-i. fisxkapt-i.). formal = solen-a. firm = firm-a. fin-i. fountain = fontan-o. fi (273). model-i. cxar (83). forget = forges-i. (be) fitting = konven-i. fut-o. milit-i. postven-i. foundation = fundament-o. five = (adj. altrud-i (al).). (be) --. fork = fork-o. 262).

frame = (of picture). fry = (trans. (provide).). Friday = vendred-o. (adj. pelt-o. from = (prep. funereal = funebr-a. garland = girland-o. gas = gas-o. fruitless = (vain). fulfil = plenum-i. 170). general-o. (coat or wrap). G. fresh = fresx-a. friend = amik-o. (hoar). furnish = (supply).). el. full = plen-a. fruit = frukt-o. futile = van-a. fur = fel-o. froth = sxauxm-o. van-a. meblo. vizitad-i. etc. furniture = (piece of). gain = gajn-i. gazette = gazet-o. garden = gxarden-o. function = (of machinery. liver-i. free = liber-a. estont-o. funkci-i. gaze = fikse rigard-i. (a house). gallery = galeri-o. German = german-o. gay = gaj-a. (military). furrow = sulk-o. prujno.fragrance = arom-o. . komun-a. fuse = (trans. pro (86). estont-a. gather = (trans. kadr-o. frequent = oft-a. (visit often). frost = frost-o. geometry = geometri-o. future = estontec-o. gentleman = sinjor-o.). proviz-i. furious = furioz-a. nov-a. gamin = bub-o. frog = ran-o. gallop = galop-i. Frenchman = franco. fringe = frangx-o. gape = (yawn). (grammatical). further = (adv. general = gxeneral-a. mebl-i. bonodor-o. de (89. osced-i. frivolous = malserioz-a. obten-i. pinakotek-o. Frederick = Frederik-o. (cause).).). fand-i. frank = afrank-i. Gertrude = Gertrud-o. kolekt-i.). frock coat = redingot-o. (for pictures). plu. frit-i.).

grammar = gramatik-o. -. (remote in ancestry).information. and interjection). grade = grad-o. gray = griz-a. etc. vitr-o.(282). dubeverd-a. (be) glad = gxoj-i (116). Greek = grek-o.for. -floor. glas-o. grandfather = av-o.) malgxoj-i. grating = (bar or lattice). gospel = evangeli-o. pra. gravitate = gravit-i. gnash = grinc-i. pilgrimi. grav-a. nask-i. tauxg-i por.).). goal = cel-o. grape = vinber-o. --ish. grate = rasp-i.on a pilgrimage.ghost = fantom-o. (as a gift). gram = gram-o (284). (serious). groan = gxem-i. be -. ginger = zingibr-o. glossy = (polished). glory = glor-o. -notice. inform-i. grandson = nep-o. adiaux (171. grieve = (trans. -. greet = salut-i. grasshopper = akrid-o. grass = herb-o. (tumbler). go = ir-i. krad-o. polurit-a. . grave = tomb-o. globe = glob-o. (intrans. boat.witness. govern = reg-i. ground = ter-o. girdle = zon-o. -. graceful = graci-a. goblet = pokal-o. group = grup-o. gravy = sauxc-o. glove = gant-o. vetur-i. God = Di-o. good-bye = (adv. give = don-i. green = verd-a. grind = grinc-i. teretagx-o. goose = anser-o. aviz-i. rang-o. veget-i. donac-i. (unit) er-o (276). ar-o (126). cxagren-i. (rank). grater. gift = donac-o. atest-i. raspil-o.birth to. etc. malgxojigi. grain = (wheat. (in vehicle. gren-o. great = grand-a. 273). glue = glu-i. grow = kresk-i. glass = (material). good = bon-a.). glide = glit-i. -.

hektogram = hektogram-o (284). handbill = afisx-o. gunpowder = pulv-o. hajl-o. ham = sxink-o. state of (good or bad) --. fazeol-o. kalkanum-o. hazard = hazard-o. have = hav-i. (carriage). penik-o.).). hay = fojn-o. pend-i. hektoliter = hektolitr-o (284). harness = jung-i. hektare = hektar-o (284). hektometer = hektometr-o . hare = lepor-o. harvest = rikolt-i. happen = okaz-i.to.guard = gard-i. guilty = kulp-a.). haughty = fier-a. (of shoe). habit = kutim-o. cxef-a. varmig-i.) rapid-i. heat = (trans. heavy = pez-a. heel = (of foot). gush = (of liquids). harbor = haven-o. hand = man-o. 37.). montril-o. astr-o. hail = (frozen rain). sxpruc-i. handy = oportun-a. -. hack = hak-i. hazel-nut = avel-o. guide = gvid-i.). akcel-i. half = duon-o (166. H. halt-i. heavenly body.pencil. hammer = martel-o. li (32. direkt-i.). -. kalkan-o. (by rote). hang = (intrans. by --. hardly = (adv. happy = felicx-a. 277). hasten = (trans. parker-e. apenaux. Hebrew = hebre-o. 42). hat = cxapel-o. heart = kor-o. haul = tren-i. handsome = bel-a. guess = diven-i. heaven = cxiel-o. fart-o. haricot = (bean). handicraft = meti-o. health = san-o. (intrans. (adj. hear = auxd-i. (a) hair = har-o. halt = (intrans. head = kap-o. he = (pronoun). fiakr-o. dev-i. hejt-i. guest = gasto. (of clock).

honey = miel-o. holder = (handle). help = help-i (265). lu-i. cxehejme. cent (142). horizontal = horizontal-a.). kiom (140. tamen. -. (houses. hero = hero-o. herb = herb-o. home = hejm-o. horse-radish = armoraci-o. (as term of address).). -. human being = hom-o.(284). sxelk-o. etc. homesickness = nostalgi-o. hoar = (frost). hue = nuanc-o. hum = zum-i. (cavity). hotel = hotel-o. (adv. hold = ten-i. ajn (236). hope = esper-i. horse = cxeval-o. humble = humil-a. fel-o.). hesitate = hezit-i.of (prep.supporter. hiss = sibl-i. hen = kokin-o. hoarse = rauxk-a. dung-i. honest = honest-a. horn = korn-o. hour = hor-o (185). hurdy-gurdy = gurd-o.much. Hiero = Hieron-o. house = dom-o. Holland = Holand-o. honeysuckle = lonicer-o. hunt = sercx-i. kav-o. ho = (interjection). hip = koks-o. high = alt-a. honor = honor-i. (receptacle). hole = tru-o. ho (273). kiamanier-e. hungry = malsat-a. tenilo. ing-o (237). kiel (134). hog = pork-o. history = histori-o.). hire = (persons). hinge = cxarnir-o. how = (adv. 185). mosxt-o (258). ans-o. at the -. hurl = jxet-i. (game or wild animals). cxe (125. hide = kasx-i (252). at --. hundred = (adj. however = (conj. hurrah = (interjection). uj-o (181). 160). horizon = horizont-o. prujn-o. cxas-i. .). hose = sxtrump-oj. holy = sankt-a. humor = humor-o. hook = krocx-i. (skin of animals).).

insist = insist-i. mi (32.corn. -. inevitable = nepr-a. hurricane = uragan-o. as --. 37. I. 274). ja (215). in = (prep. klin-i. importunate = altrudem-a. idea = ide-o. Indian = (American). intern-e. ideal = idealo. incite = incit-i. ink = ink-o. cxe (125. -. inform = inform-i. cxu. do. impose = trud-i.). insect = insekt-o. (whether). industri-o. infect = infekt-i. inside = (adv. 160). important = grav-a. inhabitant = logxant-o. imagine = imag-i.the presence of. an-o (145). ekzamen-i. indian-o. sciig-i. serioz-a.hura (273). (food). en (46. husband = edz-o. maiz-o. incommode = gxen-i.). inebriate = ebri-a. se (240). illustrate = ilustr-i. influence = influ-i. impulse = impuls-o. hurry = rapid-i. impress = impres-i. image = bild-o. indeed = (adv. illusion = iluzi-o. efektiv-e. ingenuous = naiv-a. kvazaux (250). immediate = tuj-a (171). index = tabel-o. identical = ident-a. impost = impost-o. idiot = idiot-o. (prep. implicate = implik-i.). en. idiom = idiom-o. (be) indebted = sxuld-i. indifferent = indiferent-a. industry = (trade). ice = glaci-o. incline = (trans. if = (conj. ignore = ignor-i. rugxhauxtul-o. 89.). I = (pronoun). inch = col-o. 160). inspect = inspekt-i. hypocrite = hipokrit-o. inhale = enspir-i. glaciajx-o. inquire = demand-i.). neevitebl-a. imitate = imit-i. rigard- .).

island = insul-o. it = (pronoun).). K. anstataux (98. gxust-a. instantaneous = moment-a. (of the skull). 274). --bone. jewel = juvel-o. jxus. instead of = (prep. makzelost-o.in mind. just = (upright). invite = invit-i. 159). January = januar-o. konserv-i. gxust-e. jump = salt-i. revu-o. 51. jealous = jxaluz-a. June = juni-o. fauxk-o. tint-i. just-a. J. interpret = interpret-i. journal = jxurnal-o. jail = karcer-o. gxi (32. jaw = (orifice. internal = intern-a. insult = insult-i. memor-i. Jew = hebre-o. certig-i. jug = krucx-o. journey = vojagx-i. glad-i. (of money). jacket = jak-o. see also 50. interest = interes-i. Italian = ital-o. (exact). investigate = esplor-i.i. intelligent = inteligent-a. John = Johan-o. inspire = inspir-i. (preserve). (make certain). intend = intenc-i. jest = sxerc-i. (order). -. makzel-o. fer-o. iron = (metal). intimate = intim-a. insure = (with a company). (be) intermittent = intermit-i. joint = artik-o. ekzamen-i. elsercx-i. juggle = jxongl-i. kerosene = petrol-o. July = juli-o. 42. opening). kontrol-i. procent-o. jurist = jurist-o. judge = jugx-i. fruktajx-o. ordon-i. key = . instruct = instru-i.). Jesus = Jesu-o. jingle = (intrans.). (linen). joke = sxerc-i. (adv. keep = ten-i. gard-i. asekur-i. jam = kompoto. 37. intoxicated = ebri-a.

king = regx-o. bien-o. lead = . pretend-i.claim. bon-a. (meat). ter-o.). (be) lacking = (intrans. (be acquainted with). knee = genu-o.). lake = lag-o. lace = punt-o.sxlosil-o. large = grand-a. (soil). kobold = kobold-o. klav-o. what --. knot = tuber-o. kindness = komplez-o. see table. lark = (bird). -. lamb = sxafido. klopod-i. (in a series). law = legx-o. bant-o. regul-o. 235. -. lantern = lantern-o.. late = malfru-a. proces-o. --dom. knock = frap-i. language = lingv-o. (of piano. lamp = lamp-o. L. kilometer = kilometr-o (284). --suit. bonkor-a. kon-i (117). lawyer = advokat-o. lattice = krad-o.) mank-i. (estate). know = scii. -. sxafidajx-o. Latin = latin-a. demeti. lay = meti. alauxd-o. (of a shoe). last-a. kind = (species). dauxr-i. antaux-a. legxist-o. lance = lanc-o. kiss = kis-i. latter = cxi-tiu (61. laugh = rid-i (265). kill = mortigi. layer = tavol-o. (of ribbon). (previous) pasint-a. lame = lam-a. that --. (good). regxolando. land = land-o. latch = ans-o.aside. etc. 62). etc. landscape = pejzagx-o. knit = trik-i. kusxig-i. labor = labor-i. kneel = genufleksi.for the success or completion of something. (tied). (rule). kiloliter = kilolitr-o (284). spec-o. ligajx-o. lacx-o. bonkorec-o. last = (intrans. kilogram = kilogram-o (284). knave = fripon-o.

like = sxat-i. listen = auxskult-i. strek-o. library = bibliotek-o. malpez-a. pruntedon-i. klin-i.). leather = led-o.). (permit). lemon = citrono. liter-o. legal = legx-a. lemonade = citronajx-o.process. lesson = lecion-o. league = (alliance). . line = lini-o. (with slightly affectionate sense).off (intrans. -. luig-i. liter = litro (284). limonad-o. lig-o. lead = (metal). lick = lek-i. vic-o. (news. plumb-o.konduk-i. learn = lern-i. least = (adv.). etend-i. lightning = fulm-o. brancx-o. cxes-i. learned = kler-a.). mensog-i. leg = krur-o. lion = leon-o. lettuce = laktuk-o. apog-i.). (flat). lip = lip-o. liquid = fluid-a. superjar-o.). lengthen = (trans. let = (trans. iom (217). literal = lauxliter-a. leap = salti. level = nivel-o. eben-a. -. leaf = folio.). kusx-i (239). (rent). linden = tili-o. --year. iom post iom. (adv. at --. permes-i. lend = prunt-i. simil-a. light = luma. less = (adv. leave = (trans. leter-o. limb = membro. malpli (80). limit = lim-i. (not fat). (tell falsehoods). proces-o. malpli multe (81). (collection of books). las-i. see also 250. sciigx-i. literature = literatur-o. -. malplej (80). las-i. malpli multe (81). lift = lev-i.by --. almenaux. (of the alphabet). librar-o. et-a (198). malgras-a. little = malgrand-a. lie = (recline). (similar).). lean = (trans.). linen = tol-o. hel-a. malmulte. plilongig-i. lens = objektiv-o. (not heavy). letter = (epistle). etc. (of a tree).

lucky. luxury = luks-o. lot = (fate). make --. malgajn-i. make = far-i (see also 214). majestic = majest-a. -. lose = perd-i. sign-o. marmalade = marmelad-o. amindum-i. erar-i. stamp-o. (dwell). marble = (stone). local = lok-a. lull = kvietig-i. M. manuscript = manuskript-o. magazine = gazet-o.box. sopir-i je. lung = pulmo. mosxt-o (258). . magic = magi-o. mantle = mantel-o.time.live = viv-i.love. amindum-i. sercx-i. mastrum-i. machine = masxin-o. man = vir-o. (official). sort-o. lojal-a. marmor-o. march = marsxad-i. -. lul-i. direkt-i. log = sxtip-o. maize = maiz-o. -. look = rigard-i. see table. serur-o. love = am-i.for. pruntedon-i. mor-o. posxtkest-o. long = long-a.. jxurnalo. revu-o. (right or wrong). manufacture = fabrik-i. majesty = (term of address). lunatic = lunatik-o. logx-i (133). -. manage = administr-i. bonsxanc-a. manner = manier-o. lodge = logx-i. in every --. malfru-i.for. -. mad = frenez-a. luck = sxanc-o. in that --. load = sxargx-i. lock = sxlos-i. (to sleep). mark = mark-o. loan = prunt-i. (a household).mistakes. -. (fail to profit). etc. macaroni = makaroni-o. marry = (become married). enposxtig-i. maple = acer-o. loyal = fidel-a. March = mart-o. malicious = malic-a. 235. (fastening). mail = posxt-o. loud = lauxt-a. locomotive = lokomotiv-o.

270. melody = melodi-o. kunven-i. mention = nom-i. nur. (possessive adj. mechanics = mehxanik-o. means = rimed-o. kuracist-a. member = membro. mine = (coal. by --. maximum = maksimum-o. fluidigx-i.M. millimeter = milimetr-o (284). degel-i.). middle = mez-o. meat = viand-o. million = milion-o. merit = merit-i.). min-o. by -. cit-i. May = maj-o.). mineral = mineral-o. mild = mild-a. (cloth). mean = signif-i. centr-o. festen-i. melki. mile = mejl-o. majstr-o.of Arts (A. parker-e. metal = metal-o. method = metod-o. menu = menu-o. melt = fluidig-i. pastr-o. -.). meaning = senc-o. medical = medicina. mezur-i.). measure = (trans. matter = afer-o. milk = lakt-o. meter = metr-o (284). mien = mien-o. (clergyman). intenc-i.of (prep. . medicin-o. material = material-o. renkont-i. merely = (adv. mill = muel-o. (science). per (64). etc. merry = gaj-a. mature = matur-a. mi-a (43).edzigx-i. malnobl-a. medicine = (drug. memory = memor-o. memor-e. (assemble). (draw the milk of). mend = ripar-i. etc).). traf-i. melon = melon-o. magistr-o. meet = (trans. an-o (145). kuracilo. minimum = minimum-o. minister = (political). alumet-o. see 269. (auxiliary verb). make --. ministr-o. (patch). kuracart-o. master = mastr-o. match = (for fire).). mayonnaise = majones-a. flik-i. (of his profession or art). sxtof-o. merry-go-round = karusel-o.

mourning = funebr-o. frauxlin-o (163). plu. mirror = spegul-o. (quantity). (adv. moral = moral-a. mouth = busx-o. morning = maten-o (93). mistake = erar-o. (notice the absence of). morals. komun- . (change residence) translogx-i.). moon = lun-o. ju pli. enflu-o. a -. monk = monahx-o. minut-o. moderate = moder-a. elflu-o. miss = (fail to reach). mountain = mont-o.ago. moment = moment-o. mank-i.box. monarch = monarhx-o. Mister = Sinjor-o (163. morsel = pec-o. Monday = lund-o. minutes = (of a meeting). miks-i. -. plej multe (81).order. (quantity). malgrand-a.). (very). murmur = murmur-i. bonmor-a. plej (74. monkey = simi-o. mud = kot-o.). detal-a. 79). modest = modest-a. mutual = reciprok-a (180). most = (adv. 79). mov-i. mock = mok-i. music = muzik-o. mute = mut-a. -. month = monato. (adj. model = model-o. (of river). des pli (84). mouse = mus-o. the --. protokol-o. misery = mizer-o. tre. senti la foreston de. more = (adv. mist = nebul-o. jxus. pli multe (81). move = (trans. pli (74. (be missing). mandat-o. money = mono. mushroom = fung-o. mutton = sxafajx-o.minute = (time). 286). mix = (trans. much = mult-a (81). mode = fason-o.). mod-o. maltraf-i. kas-o. must = dev-i (247). miserly = avara. (further). mould = sxim-o. museum = muze-o.). (young lady). moroj.). moustache = lipharoj.

). neniu (220). night = nokto. 235. bilet-o. nobody = (pronoun).a. myopic = miop-a. nod = (the head). -.). nek (31). (pronoun and adj. none = (adj. noble = nobl-a. neck = kol-o. never = (adv. noon = tagmez-o. neniu (220).). (prep. nek (31). N. negativ-o. 159). no = (adv.. nice = delikat-a. net = ret-o. news. nerve = nerv-o. neniu (220). balanc-i (la kapon). negative = ne-a (171). (adj.). tagjxurnal-o. non-partisan = neuxtral-a. nephew = nev-o. noise = bru-o. near = proksim-a (170). a). --where. a).). new = nov-a. (none). nest = nest-o. (adv. neniam (226). neither = (conj. (notice). not = (adv. etc. naked = nud-a. neniu (220). (of the finger or toe). novajx-o. neniom (231). neniom (231). north = nord-o. 66. note = not-o. rimark-i. neutral = neuxtral-a.). and pronoun). .). mystery = mister-o. (photographic). ne (27. naught = nul-o. narrate = rakont-i. see table. nine = (adj. name = nom-o.).one. not-i. needle = kudril-o. nobleman = nobel-o. naux (136). neighbor = najbaro. ne (27. nevertheless = (conj. nor = (conj. 66. kajer-o. necessary = necesa. nitrogen = azot-o. nail = (metal). ung-o. Norwegian = norveg-o. need = bezon-i.).). najl-o. naive = naiv-a. apud (120.). nation = naci-o. newspaper = jxurnalo. --book. nature = natur-o. tamen. fresx-a.

). multfoj-e. official = oficial-a. oficist-o. object = objekt-o.nothing = nenio (233). offer = propon-i. el. oh = (interjection). oil = ole-o. oficir-o. office = ofic-o. odor = odor-o.). of = (prep. now = (adv. olive = oliv-o. prezent-i. novel = nov-a. malgraux. 103). -.). okup-o. . 170). neniig-i. c). not-i. obstinate = obstin-a. oft-e. often = (adv. ocean = ocean-o. protest-i. 100. obligation = (financial). oficej-o.). (conj. okaz-o. objective = objektivo. oats = aven-o. nun. pri (160. (concerning). occasion = foj-o (127).account of. occupation = profesi-o. devig-i. notwithstanding = (prep. observe = observ-i. nude = nud-a. ofer-i. (numeral). October = oktobr-o.). 160. serv-i. 264. dev-o. tamen. (book). (oppose). nombr-o. once = (adv. O. (moral). obstruct = bar-i. officer = (of organization or firm). de (49. on = (prep. nourish = nutr-i. sur. (make) oath = jxur-i. November = novembr-o. (aim). (place). meti-o. nut = nuks-o. occur = okaz-i. pro (86). kontrauxparol-i. nullify = nulig-i. noti. ho (273). oblique = oblikv-a. 101. far-i komplezon. numer-o.). da (99. offend = ofend-i. notice = rimark-i. (military or naval). sxuld-o. occupy = okup-i. oak = kverk-o. kontrauxstar-i. cel-o.). give --. rimark-i. (render service). obey = obe-i (265). aviz-i. oblige = (compel). roman-o. number = (quantity).

money --. mandat-o. (too).). ostracism = ostracism-o. 180). -more. -. tro. . ali-e. pagx-o. (mere).). mend-i. ordinary = ordinar-a. orange = (fruit). malpropr-a. pen-o. only = sol-a. (remaining). P. surtut-o. oscillate = (intrans. pail = sitel-o. --coat. pack = pak-i. (material). pad = rembur-i. bis. oyster = ostr-o. pain = dolor-o.on a time. profil-o. cetera. original = original-o.).). opposite = (converse). outside = (prep. at --. nur-a. ox = bov-o. ekster (120. oni (54). out of = el. organ-o. organ = (physical). onion = bulb-o. 137. --wise. skiz-o. opposed to = (prep. -glasses. 121). order = ordon-i. balancigx-i. See 235. lornet-o. orangx-o. other = ali-a.). etc. over = (prep. kontraux. organize = organiz-i.people's.).). (musical). (effort). (across). tuj. owe = sxuld-i. (methodical or proper arrangement). (pronoun). propr-a.unufoj-e. page = (of book. pen-i. orphan = orf-o. super. outline = kontur-o. kolorigil-o. kontraux. (profile). mal-o (67). or = (conj. iam (212).). supersxu-o. one = (adj. trans. ornament = ornam-i. (of store. take pains. opera = oper-o.). paddle = padeli. orgen-o. (concerning).). opinion = opini-o. etc. orchestra = orkestr-o. unu (136. paint = pentr-i. ord-o. --shoe. own = posed-i. pri. (prep. (sketch). aux. (adv. opportune = oportun-a. -.

oni . kuracat-o. news--.). pasxt-i. estint-o. pastor = pastr-o. (grammatical). (sidewalk). (indefinite pronoun). passion = pasi-o. path = vojet-o. pas-i. peach = persik-o. participle = particip-o. pardon = pardon-i (265). palm = (of the hand). parallel = paralel-a. glu-i. pencil = krajon-o. pan = pat-o. pen = plum-o. trotuar-o. pamphlet = brosxur-o. kotiz-i. ej-o (III). apartig-i. hair--.--brush. patient = (ill person). pass = (intrans. pause = pauxz-i. pedestal = piedestal-o. polm-o. peculiar = strang-a. peddle = kolport-i. pearl = perl-o. jxurnal-o. paper-o. pay = pag-i. of a work or book. disdivid-i. -. past = (prep. paradise = paradiz-o. pastry = kukajx-o. peeling = sxel-o. kurioza. preter. penik-o. patty = pastecx-o.dues. (enclosure). passive = pasiv-a. estintec-o. separate (trans. (bygone). paragraph = paragraf-o.). pasteboard = karton-o. pear = piro. paper = (material). palisade = palisar-o. (time). patch = flik-i. parlor = salon-o. parsley = petrosel-o. penik-o. disir-i. people = popol-o. parsnip = pastinak-o. pasture = (trans.). pea = piz-o. pale = pal-a. passage = koridor-o. penetrate = penetr-i. estint-a. pair = par-o. pavement = pavim-o. passenger = pasagxer-o. park = park-o. patience = pacienc-o. palace = palaco. paste = (glue). pedestrian = piedirant-o. kajer-o.). peace = pac-o. part = part-o.

(fulfil). epoko. -gallery. far-i. pinch = pincx-i. piece = pec-o. placard = afisx-o. (be a) pilgrim = pilgrim-i. (patty). plenumi. -ej-o (111). perform = (act). short street or . perfume = parfum-o. perspire = sxviti. pickle = pekl-i. pine = (tree). pick = (choose). pineapple = ananas-o. pig = pork-o. persuade = konvink-i. perfect = perfekt-a. -. petroleum = petrol-o. gxen-i. percentage = procent-o.(54). perfidious = perfid-a. (worry). pioneer = pionir-o. (for smoking). elekt-i. person = person-o. physician = kuracist-o. pinakotek-o. tantiem-o. pepper = pipr-o. kolekt-i. period = period-o. pipe = tub-o. photograph = fotograf-i. (do). (gather). sopir-i je. pillar = kolon-o. permit = permes-i. picture = bild-o. picturesque = pitoresk-a. punkt-o. pharmacy = farmaci-o. physics = fizik-o. place = lok-o. perceive = sent-i. pastecx-o. Pharaoh = faraon-o. (portrait). (of profit). pinnacle = pint-o. pentrind-a. domagx-o. (shop).for. portret-o. pip-o. turment-i. phrase = fraz-o. persecute = persekut-i. pillage = rab-i. pin-o. bonodor-o. pitcher = krucx-o. pie = kukajx-o. pigeon = kolomb-o. (broad. (for something). perish = pere-i. persevere = persist-i. phantom = fantom-o. pet = dorlot-i. vid-i. apotek-o. pious = pi-a. (see). ag-i. (of time). (punctuation). pity = kompat-i. philosopher = filozof-o. (regrettable affair). pin = pingl-o. (odor).

popular = popular-o. (put). play = lud-i. polish = polur-i. kreskajxo. kredebl-a (270). plural = multenombr-o. portrait = portret-o. kontentig-i. (geographical). poison = venen-o. plumber = plumbist-o.out. possess = posed-i. plunder = rab-i. polurit-a.). (stoop). aktor-o. (vegetable growth).open space). (of manner). platform = (railway). pork = porkajx-o. (balcony). muzik-i. post = . afabl-a. -. (dish) teler-o. balanc-i. teatrajx-o. poise = (trans. possible = ebl-a (161. pomp = pomp-o. met-i. plum = prun-o. montr-i. peron-o. skiz-o. timon-o. balkon-o. poem = poem-o. plait = plekt-i. plow = plug-i. projekt-o. pleasure = plezur-o. aplomb-o. plac-o. planet = planed-o. politics = politik-o. part-o. point = punkt-o. porch = verand-o. portion = porci-o. (in requests). poet = poet-o. polished. pneumatic = pneumatik-a. dolcx-a. pleasant = agrabl-a. plank = tabul-o. glat-a. (music). polite = gxentila. pole = stang-o. port = haven-o. Pole = pol-o. please = placx-i (265). (shaft of vehicle). (sharp). polus-o. far-i plezuron al. plane = plat-a.in. mi petas. plant = plant-i. plan = plan-o. porcelain = porcelan-o. plot = konspir-i. bonvolu. pocket = posx-o. pint-o. police = polic-o. 162). plate = plat-o. take -. poetry = poezi-o. popol-a. perono. vegetajx-o. player = (theatrical). gxu-i. (theatrical).

pretend = (make pretext of). antaux. present = prezent-i. sxut-i. (feign). gxust-a. ten-i. (premium). priest = pastr-o. don-i. cxe (125). kompot-o. presence = cxeest-o. -. estant-a. prefer = prefer-i. sxatat-a. sxajnig-i. preside = prezid-i. donac-i. (lay claim). process = metod-o. powder = pudr-o. afrankit-e. pretekst-i. procrastinate . president = prezidant-o. posxtkart-o. regxid-o. power = pov-o. pres-i. in the -. (be urgent). practice = praktik-i. donac-o. altetaksat-a. estantec-o. preach = predik-i. (wardrobe). konserv-i. (print). (mail). (keep safe). premium = premi-o. funt-o. --card. poster = afisx-o. urgx-i. pretend-i. principal = precip-a. predestined = fatal-a. prepare = prepar-i. problem = problem-o. nun-a (171). prefix = prefiks-o. precise = preciz-a. praise = lauxd-i. potato = terpom-o. batat-o. potenc-o. cxeestant-a. postage = (cost). posxt-o.(pole). prick = pik-i. posxtelspezo. print = pres-i. preserve = (keep). cxef-a. sxrank-o. konfitajx-o. price = prez-o. prize = sxat-i. (food). (in attendance).). --paid. (as in a chute). pound = pist-i. sweet --. prized = kar-a. stang-o. posxtmark-o. prince = princ-o. versx-i. (legal). kost-o. pray = pregx-i. proces-o. present = (gift).stamp. proclaim = proklam-i. premi-o. prepay = afrank-i. (time).of (prep. press = prem-i. (measure). pot = pot-o. apudest-o. pour = (liquids).

(fourth). puree = pistajx-o. project = projekt-o. profile = profil-o. (be) proper = dec-i. nask-i. Q. efik-i. psalm = psalm-o. eldon-i.= prokrast-i. quality = ec-o (202). pumpkin = kukurb-o. quick = rapid-a. (doubt). ec-o (202). kolerig-i. -. (percentage). propose = propon-i. prozajxo. promenade = promen-i. propensity = inklin-o. put = met-i. proportional = proporci-a. any --. provoke = incit-i. (test). sugesti-i. pull = tir-i. punish = pun-i. ekscit-i. intenc-i. quantity = kvant-o. (characteristic). profession = profesi-o. pump = pump-i. 235. iom (217). promise = promes-i. protect = protekt-i. prosper = prosper-i. (texture. sxov-i. (give birth to). public = publik-o. gard-i. (lively).). nask-i. etc. professor = profesor-o. viv-a. produce = produkt-i. profound = profund-a. piece of --. profit = profit-i. quarter = (of a city). pure = pur-a. prokrast-i. . (problem). posedajx-o. --ly. (land). progress = progres-i. prosecute = persekut-i. question = demand-o. -. a certain --. em-o (192). tantiem-o. kvartal-o. push = pusx-i. purple = purpur-a. kvaron-o. problem-o. kvalito. proud = fier-a prove = pruv-i. property = proprajx-o. pudding = puding-o. kauxz-i. trimonat-a. publish = publikig-i. dub-o.off. see table. protest = protest-i. bien-o. prose = prozo. prov-i.a result. purpose = cel-i. (shove).

rate = taks-i. (money). antauxnelong-a (90). recent = nov-a. rank = rang-o. vagon-o. reason = (exert the power of reasoning). reasonable = prudent-a. for any --. enspez-i.quiet = kviet-a. rapid = rapid-a. --way. see table. read = leg-i. ravishing = rav-a. rezon-i. reckon = kalkul-i. raven = korv-o. real = efektiv-a. trankvil-a. (grade). (cause). (to memory). ver-a. rabbit = kunikl-o. traf-i. raise = lev-i. procent-o. raw = nekuirit-a. racional-a. kvitanc-o. prezar-o. --way station. --way carriage. reach = ating-i. raging = furioz-a. fervoj-o. ready = pret-a.). (schedule of prices). reap = rikolt-i. receipt = (for payment). rascal = fripon-o. rag = cxifon-o. rememorig-i. raucous = rauxk-a. akcept-i. cxielark-o. race = (people). raisin = sekvinber-o. receptacle = . recall = revok-i. at the -. quite = (adv. for what --. ray = (of light). (motive).of (prep. rain = pluv-o. radish = rafan-o. radius = radi-o. rail = rel-o..). rasp = rasp-i. (a goal). real-a. etc. radi-o. quince = cidoni-o. tut-e. quote = cit-i. rememor-i. horse--. tarif-o. rap = frapet-i. raspberry = framb-o. rat = rat-o. armoraci-o. rational = prudent-a. rebate = rabat-i. stacidom-o. silent-a. (to another's memory). grad-o. po (175). kial-o. (percentage). kanajl-o. receive = ricev-i. 235. kauxz-o. R. --bow. ras-o. (accept).

cetera. rent = lu-i. repose = ripoz-i. reduction = (of price).). (farm out). reign = reg-i. repel-i. religion = religi-o. (be penitent for). repulse = repusx-i. (an account). recompense = rekompensx-i. relative = (person). ing-o (181). rely = konfid-i. remember = memor-i. represent = reprezent-i. respect = respekt-i. repent = pent-i. remain = rest-i. . reddish. reside = logx-i. glor-o. report = raport-i. refuse = rifuz-i. (need).affair (pity). repeat = ripet-i. recite = deklam-i. (patch). rakont-i. repair = ripar-i. (price). remaining (other). rescue = sav-i. refute = refut-i. reciprocal = reciprok-a (180). renown = fam-o. (recall to memory). malpermes-i. resanigxi.uj-o (237). ripoz-i. rest = (repose). parenc-o. republic = respublik-o. ig-i (214). regale = regal-i. rekomend-i. registr-i. liver-i. recline = kusx-i (239). (vacation). alkov-o. register = (trans. regulation = regul-o. rememor-i. duberugx-a. luig-i. luprez-o. flik-i. -. recover = (find). render = far-i. legx-o. rabat-o. (tell). don-i. reproach = riprocx-i. rejoice = gxoj-i (116). region = region-o. require = postul-i. recess = (alcove). (get well). prezent-i. regret = bedauxr-i. (let). retrov-i. refine = rafin-i. fid-i. red = rugx-a. recommend = rekomend-i. (for one object). request = pet-i. pent-i. (letters). libertemp-o. domagx-o. relate = rilat-i (266). bezon-i. regrettable = bedauxrind-a. farm-i.

row = (boats).). rightangled = ort-a. river = river-o. right = prav-a. ruin = ruin-o. (roundabout) (prep. ring = (intrans. Robert = Robert-o. roam = vag-i. (-. lauxdir-a. ripe = matur-a. run = kur-i. (in vehicle. fripona. review = (magazine). robe = rob-o. ride = rajd-i. roar = mugx-i. apog-i sur. rice = riz-o. ridicule = mok-i. (draw lines). reven-i. 120. root = radik-o. royalty = regxec-o. volv-i. rub = frot-i. (regulation). redon-i. resume = resum-o. ribbon = ruband-o. (come back). lini-i.). (rascally). flu- . rumor = fam-o. roof = tegment-o. registr-o. list-o. rem-i. 159. room = cxambr-o. (broad roadway). sxtel-i. roast = rost-i. revu-o. ridind-a. (list). rule = reg-i. regul-o. robber = rabist-o. routine = rutin-o.upon). bukl-o. (of ladder). reir-i. rib = rip-o. spac-o. (something around something else). (space). sxose-o. boat. dekstr-a. road = voj-o. roll = (trans. restaurant = restoraci-o. vetur-i. round = rond-o. sonor-i. rajt-o. rhubarb = rabarb-o. return = (go back). ring-o. bulk-o. (not left). (bread). rul-i. rose = roz-o.(remain). result = rezult-i. etc. rich = ricx-a.). ringlet = (of hair).) cxirkaux (89. rumored. worthy of -(ridiculous). (of fluids). (give back). (to something). sxtupet-o. (by) rote = parker-e. rob = rab-i. (share of profit) tantiem-o. (circlet). 160). rest-i. reward = rekompenc-i. roguish = petol-a. revery = rev-o.

). Russian = rus-o. (prep. insultem-a. sauce = sauxc-o. monkest-o. scent = (trans. a -. sand = sablo. secret = sekreto. screen = sxirm-i. zorg-i pri. -. say = dir-i (77). senrisk-a. satin = atlas-o. part-o. scissors = tondil-o.). --driver. er-o (276). salute = salut-i. (in order). escepte de. tarif-o. sample = specimen-o. sekund-o. see = vid-i. . screw = sxrauxb-o. scoundrel = kanajl-o. scrape = skrap-i. sxrauxbturnil-o. science = scienc-o.time (adv. saw = seg-i. same = sam-a. sap = suk-o. oferdon-i. saucer = subtas-o. krom. savage = sovagx-a. skot-o. (of hunger). safe = sendangxer-a. scales = (for weighing). satchel = valiz-o. saucy = petol-a. rust = rust-i. sxpar-i. secretary = sekretari-o. Scot = (Scotchman). save = sav-i. duafoje.to. sea = mar-o. S. rab-i. saddle = sel-o. season = (of the year). malgxentil-a. sacred = sankta. second = (of time).). sail = vel-o. sardine = sarden-o.i. apenaux. bis.). sacrifice = ofer-i. salad = salat-o. pesil-o. Saturday = sabat-o. teleret-o. sated = sat-a. konserv-i. sat-a. salt = sal-o. section = sekci-o. sausage = kolbas-o. sezon-o. sculpture = skulpt-i. (keep). scarcely = (adv. (chest). (plunder). schedule = (of rates). flar-i. fripon-o. dua. satisfied = kontent-a. sack = sak-o. (economize). salary = salajr-o. seal = sigel-i.

sxi (32. --ing. series = seri-o. shear = tond-i. share = partopren-i. sheep = sxaf-o. sep (136). grav-a. shin-bone = tibi-o. sense = prudent-o.out (start). sentence = fraz-o. several = kelk-aj.). sxirmil-o. she = (pronoun). sxancel-i. (legal). tauxg-i por. konk-o. disir-i. (protect).advice of. subir-i. sharp = akr-a. to remove the --. timon-o. -free. seven = (adj. shelf = bret-o. send = send-i. kompost-i. severe = sever-a. sell = vendi. --ly. see 39.). (screen). separate = (intrans. konsult-i. sagx-o. shield = sxild-o. (feeling). seem = sxajn-i. senc-o. shelter = sxirm-i. serve = serv-i. ombr-o. -. forir-i. (pointed). 44. disigx-i.). (intensive). shawl = sxal-o. shine = . shave = raz-i. self-command = aplomb-o. sku-i. kvazaux-a. (tint) nuanc-o. shell = sxel-o. shaft = (of vehicle). shake = (trans. ekir-i. sham = pretekst-i. liberig-i. shape = form-o. seek = sercx-i.seed = sem-o. senate = senat-o. mem (219). kelk-e. sxajn-a. shepherd = pasxtist-o. self = (reflexive). (type). -. shatter = frakas-i. shade = (shadow). (meaning). sxirm-i. sent-o. jugx-o. serious = serioz-a. seize = kapt-i. September = septembr-o. vic-o. (distinct). -hands. divid-i. 37. set = meti. porci-o. beltali-a. manprem-i. (oscillate). (of mollusk). sew = kudr-i. (be good for). pint-a. sensxelig-i. 40. apart-a. serene = trankvil-a. 42). kondamn-o. select = elekt-i. (of the sun). part-o.

ship = sxip-o. sift = kribr-i. --sighted. trial of --. slave = sklav-o. --hand. simple = simpl-a. sign = sign-o. sin = pek-i. sneeze = tern-i. etc.). (therefore). sit = sid-i (239). single = sol-a. de. akrason-a. -. (thus). signify = signif-i. six = (adj. tiel (88. telermebl-o. shrill = akr-a. sleeve = manik-o. smile = ridet-i. so = (conj. shore = bord-o. sleep = dorm-i. hauxt-o. tial ke (83). stenografi-o. smooth = glat-a.). (adv. --walk. (adv. -. (intrans. lull to --. silent = silent-a (239). montr-i. shun = eviti. lul-i. miop-a.).). trotuar-o. snow = negx-i.much. shove = sxov-i.). silver = argxent-o. show = (trans. polurit-a. ardez-o. smoke = fum-i. marbord-o. fel-o. --wise. shoulder = sxultr-o. (of animals). (polished). sketch = skiz-i. de tiam. shirt = cxemiz-o.). sly = ruz-a. sigh = sopir-i. skill = lertec-o. oblikv-a. smear = sxmir-i.).). 156). slanting = oblikv-a. paf-i.). ses (136). ferm-i.). shop = butik-o. shovel = sxovel-i. depost (89). (prep. slide = glit-i. skin = (human). konkurs-o.the name. smell = (trans. similar = simil-a. sky = cxiel-o. klin-a. shoe = sxu-o. shoot = (with gun. --board. short = mallong-a. tial (78). skirt = jup-o. side = flank-o. . slipper = pantofl-o. slime = sxlimo. unuop-a. -man (unmarried man).bril-i. slaughter = bucx-i. do. silk = silk-o. subskrib-i. since = (conj. slate = (stone). flar-i.). shut = (trans. lum-i. frauxl-o. odori. cxar. sing = kant-i.

radi-o.). pardon-i. soon = (adv. soup = sup-o. spell = silab-i. spoke = (of wheel). (witchcraft). klas-o..). sonor-i. . --one. speak = parol-i (77). some = kelk-a.tiom (104. rapidec-o. Socrates = Sokrat-o. soul = anim-o. ordig-i. south = sud-o. spectre = fantom-o. specialty = fak-o. soft = mol-a. fend-i. spot = makul-i. sow = sem-i. ledpland-o. species = spec-o. (professional). 164). spite. spend = (money). specimen = specimen-o. baldaux. 235. etc. --how. pasig-i. spacious = vast-a. enfakig-i. soiled. militist-o. soil = ter-o. model-o. spite = malic-o. spinach = spinac-o. (in good condition). sort = spec-o. (of foot). sorcxajx-o.). bonstat-a. spoil = (trans. special = special-a. society = societ-o. iom (217). son-i. sour = acid-a. spider = arane-o. elspez-i. malpur-a. plauxd-i. spare = (save). malgraux. son = fil-o. difekt-i. speso = spes-o (285). space = spac-o. sound = (intrans. (of shoe). speed = rapid-o. (pardon).). (put in order). bril-o. spout = (liquids). see table. grandampleks-a. split = (trans.of. sole = sol-a. (time). pland-o. (prep. kelk-e. apart-a.). maldolcx-a. sofa = kanap-o. grandspac-a. sparrow = paser-o. solemn = solen-a. in -. (of bells). spin = sxpin-i. sorcerer = sorcxist-o. spoon = kuler-o. Spaniard = hispan-o. spear = lanc-o.). sxpar-i. soldier = soldat-o. splash = (trans. splendor = pomp-o. belegeco.

steal = sxtel-i. ankoraux. stern = sever-a. (conj. peron-o. font-o. spruce = (tree). tamen. jam.up. --glass. stampi. konstant-a. stair = (staircase). regn-o.). sxtop-i. stick = bastono. sxtat-o.). sxtupar-o. (endure). starch = amel-o. halt-i. stipulate = kondicx-o. stop = (intrans.sxpruc-i. (any heavenly body). pice-o.). etc. spy = spion-o. stoop = klinigx-i. lorn-o. stay = rest-i. standard = (model). piedfrap-i. standard-o. stew = (trans. stain = makul-i. (leave off). square = kvadrat-o. plac-o. (flag). cxes-i. spring = (season). sxpruc-i. nemovebl-a. palis-o. stuf-i. stand = star-i (239). magazen-o. steady = firm-a. printemp-o. stacidom-o. incit-i. sting = pik-i. silent-a. (catch sight of). rab-i (252). stag = cerv-o. algluigx-i. state = (condition). step = pasx-i.). (adv. stomach = stomak-o. ekvid-i. spurt = (of liquids). (of stairs). stat-o. sufer-i. station = (state). staci-o. (governed body). (of water). stat-o. elport-i. (adhere). stimulate = stimul-i. (with foot). steel = sxtal-o. (railway. stamp = (officially).). stocking = sxtrump-o. steep = krut-a. fe-o. stopper = sxtopil-o. posxtmark-o. butik-o. star = stel-o. (public). astr-o. postage --. stake = (of palisade). sxtup-o. (entrance porch). -. steam = vapor-o. still = (silent). model-o. konservej- . store = (shop). stone = sxton-o. (warehouse). (political). sprite = kobold-o.

(grammatical). bat-i. lacx-o. struggle = barakt-i. propon-i. fort-o. senig-i. stove = forn-o. streak = stri-o. etagx-o. (foreign). student = student-o. proces- . strecx-i. banderol-o. fason-o. suggest = sugesti-i. kurioz-a. subjekt-o.). strap = rimen-o. street = strat-o. vest-oj. succulent = suk-a.off. straw = pajl-o. tiel (88). permes-i. tem-o. prosper-i.bean. studant-o. (fare well). tramvoj-o. etc. -. komplet-o. (follow). suit = (of clothes). neatendit-a. stretch = (trans. sugar = suker-o. sukplen-a.arab. abon-i. trastrek-i. suffocate = (trans. cloth. straight = rekt-a. (forcibly). make a --. tenej-o. (force). suffix = sufiks-o. suffice = suficx-i. mod-o. strip = (of paper. strik-o. bub-o. etc. strike = frap-i. -. rakont-o. stress = akcent-o. sekv-i. (person studying).). succeed = sukces-i. string = sxnur-o. sufok-i.).). street-car = tramveturil-o. rembur-i. stuff = sxtof-o. strong = fort-a. (to magazine. -. sudden = subit-a.). (of laborers). stump = stump-o. (shoelace). strange = strang-a.). stripe = stri-o. -. fazeol-o. toler-i. (ruled).o. -out. regat-o. subscribe = subskrib-i. fabel-o. fremd-a.line. such = tia (65). (at law). (adv. subject = (theme). strek-i. (permit). strive = pen-i. story = (tale). suffer = sufer-i. study = stud-i. postveni. etc. style = stil-o. (of house). strawberry = frag-o. substance = substanc-o. (furniture. etend-i.

T.). proviz-i. tauxg-a. tail = vost-o. Swede = sved-o. summit = pint-o. sun = sun-o. (bird). summarize = resum-i. suspect = suspekt-i. etc. tall = alt-a. syllable = silab-o. superstition = supersticx-o. tailor = tajlor-o. rimark-i.). tabl-o. table = (furniture). suite = (of rooms). opini-i. swallow = glut-i. sweet = dolcx-a. summer = somer-o. apartament-o. swim = nagx-i. sulphur = sulfur-o. surprise = surpriz-i. swan = cign-o. -. (total). -. distr-i. jxur-i. bala-i. -. suppose = supoz-i.in (money). -. okaz-i.). tuto. swamp = marcx-o. --potato. suspend = pendig-i. (magazines. lauxb-o. altkresk-a. Sunday = dimancx-o. klopod-i.steps toward accomplishing.the attention of. tale = fabel-o. konfitajx-o. superul-o. balanc-i (279). hirund-o. swear = jxur-i. -. observ-i. suspenders = sxelk-o. sword = glav-o. take = pren-i.place. be fond of --. sum = sum-o. (tabulation).oath. Swiss = svis-o.o. sukerajx-o. frand-i. (person). supply = liver-i. -. swine = pork-o. enspez-i.note of. konform-a. --house. -. grand-a. gxu-i. talent = talent-o. sure = cert-a. supr-o. (balance). sweetmeat = bombon-o. swoon = sven-i. etc. sving-i. suitable = konven-a. surface = suprajx-o. superior = super-a. tabelo. Syracuse = Sirakuz-o. batat-o. . abon-i.pleasure in. dec-a. swing = (trans. sweep = (floors.

tap = (rap). tempi-o. (time). lose the --. -.). gustum-i. calling . terrace = teras-o. post-e.caddy. -. tariff = tarif-o. tear = sxir-i. telephone = telefon-i. test = prov-i. -. degel-i. kondicx-o. theatre = teatr-o. enuig-a. 201. kares-a.).). tiu (56). (adv. ju. ke (53. (faucet). koler-i. tea = te-o. taste = gust-o. lacig-a.much. kiam (155). that = (conj. (of the eye). (building).). theory = teorio. des (84). (when) (adv. (afterwards). 259. templim-o. tent = tend-o. a). tease = turmentet-i. texture = kvalit-o.). ten = (adj. (thing woven). tiel (88). tiamanier-e. tenor-o. 234). tiam (73). tempt = tent-i. 83. 105. term = (word). 156). temper = humor-o. (adv. mensog-i. -. then = (conj. --pot. task = task-o. 98). there = (adv. theme = tem-o. teuj-o (181).). tax = impost-o. tiel (88.lies. tiom (104. 280. dek (136). territory = teritori-o. (pronoun). templ-o. (course). teksajx-o. tio (233. (adv. (condition). ekzamen-i. tie (68). thank = dank-i (265). 262). tiel mult-e. la (11.). temple = (of the head). 164). 47.). rakont-i (77). cxagren-i. tenor = (voice). kran-o. dauxr-o. than = (conj. larm-o.talon = ungeg-o. telescope = teleskop-o.). thaw = (intrans. 97. telegraph = telegraf-i. terror = terur-o. ol (82. -. the = (article).). termino. tia (65).kind. tender = delikat-a. frapet-i. do. tell = dir-i. (adv. tedious = ted-a.way. mol-a. tekrucx-o. teach = instru-i.

(shoes. thing = afer-o.. see also 51. thong = rimen-o. tin = (metal). (prep. See table. (because of). kvankam. oni (54). -. thousand = (adj. per (64). time = (in general). brik-o. 42).). (have the opinion). -window. cxio cxi. dens-a. (occasion). tickle = tikl-i. any--. de (170). throng = amas-o.). foj-o (127). 234). . -. ci (40). what --. thunder = tondr-i. 37. gxis (46. (by means of). tri (136). etc. 235. thread = faden-o. thus = (adv. though = (conj. thou = (pronoun). see table. through = (prep. throne = tron-o.). ili (32. as --. tie = lig-i. etc. threaten = minac-i.). kas-o. pro tio. Thursday = jxauxd-o. throat = gorgx-o. pro (86). (of day). therefore = (adv. stan-o. think = pens-i. tiger = tigr-o. (brick). thumb = dika fingr-o. ar-o (126). tiamanier-e.the soil. all --.a needle. tial (78). (epoch). tiu cxi (60). terkultur-i. -. kvazaux (250). tra (46. tiel (88. they = (pronoun).attention). three = (adj. tio cxi (233. mil (142). hor-o. thorn = dorn-o. thigh = femur-o. 235. 160). threshold = sojl-o. tile = kahelo. till = (money box). throw = jxet-i. (indefinite). 89). objekt-o.). lacx-i. ticket = bilet-o. 156). enkudrilig-i fadenon.). (be) thirsty = soif-i.).).plate (sheet iron covered with tin). this = (pronoun). temp-o. lad-o. gicxet-o.). epok-o. ajx-o (227). sekv-e. tint = nuanc-o. jen (228). opini-i. thrifty = sxparem-a. tinkle = tint-i. thick = dik-a. (pronoun and adj.

(by vehicle).).kolor-o. gxis (46. treasurer = kasist-o. tro multe. tire = (trans. tomorrow = (adv. tongue = (of the body). 89). meti-o. regal-i. -the heart of. 171). pneuxmatik-o. tro. to = (prep. al (46. kviet-a. tolerate = toler-i. toilet = tualet-o. lacig-i. toad = bufo. 252).). -. trakt-i. travel = vojagx-i. (too much). 251. vagonar-o. treacherous = perfid-a.above.). intersxangx-i. tomato = tomat-o. 251. 171).). etc. lingv-o. superstar-i. tower = tur-o. toe = piedfingr-o. postsign-o. al (46. tree = arb-o. (pneumatic). hodiaux (93. kondut-i kontraux. treat = (in speech or writing). panrostajx-o. trenajx-o. treasury = kas-o. enuig-i. tram = tramo. tooth = dent-o. (regale). today = (adv. tomb = tomb-o. touch = tusx-i. tremble = . tramvoj-o. tobacco = tabak-o. morgaux (93. trade = (occupation). (of vehicle). kortusx-i.). -. (commerce). lang-o. (sentiment). tone = ton-o. tray = plet-o. total = tut-o. top = supr-o. too = (adv. (act towards). 252). trace = sign-o. (language). tramveturil-o. toast = (bread). tro. --way. tool = il-o (63). (for illness). veturi. (feel with the fingers. torment = turment-i. sufer-i. treatise = traktat-o.). 160. treasure = trezor-o. 160.). translate = traduk-i. tost-o. toward = (prep. sense of --. timon-o.car. palp-i. (of dress). (exchange). palpad-o. tranquil = trankvil-a. train = (of cars). komerco. kurac-i.

U. turn = (trans. malgxoj-o. cert-e.initiative work. kunig-o. underline = substrek-i.trem-i. twitter = pep-i. tune = ari-o. unanimous = unuvocx-a. nepr-e. Tuesday = mard-o. unuigx-o. trunk-o. sub (121. turnip = nap-o. konkurs-o. nezorgem-a.).). twilight = krepusk-o. negrav-a. (vacillate). kofr-o. esplorad-o. tumbler = (for drinking). tropic = tropiko. umbrella = ombrel-o. tub = kuv-o. undeviating = rekt-a. (attempt. prov-i. uncle = onkl-o. union = unuig-o. truth = ver-o. (of tree). trousers = pantalon-o. tord-i. triumph = triumf-o. (test). prov-o. (affliction). trifle = bagatel-o. (financial). trust-o. undertake = entrepren-i. klopod-i. turnstile = gicxet-o. (of skill). -. pen-i. two = (adj. ekzamen-o. glas-o. tuber = tuber-o. twist = (trans. unuanim-a. 160). Turk = turk-o. prov-o. du (136). try = (legally). (strive). (juggler). kunigx-o. understand = kompren-i.). sxanceligx-i. trunk = (chest with lid). under = (prep. trot = trot-i. tube = tub-o. unimportant = indiferent-a. jxonglist-o. unfailing = (adv. unconcerned = indiferent-a. jugx-i. turn-i. (in a series). konfid-i. trust = fid-i. (attempt).). vic-o. tyrant = tiran-o. trial = jugxa auxskultado. uncommon = kurioz-a. turkey = meleagr-o. nekomun-a. test). sufer-o. universe = . melodi-o.).

supre. vagabond = vagist-o. tre. c).). renvers-i. upholster = rembur-i. gxis (89) up = (adv. grand-a. (proud). vain = (futile). have the -. upon = (prep.to. velvet = velur-o. vase = vaz-o. (poesy). varied = divers-a. verse = vers-o. vanquish = venk-i. vegetajx-o. senutil-a. ebl-o (161.). vantparol-i. supren (121). vacillate = sxanceligx-i. urge = urgx-i. vex = cxagren-i. vibrate = (intrans. van-a. vane. upright = just-a. valise = valiz-o. (intensive) mem (219). (like).). (plant growth). V. -. vegetarian = vegetar-a. until = (prep. sxat-i. vegetable = (edible). vie = konkur-i. legom-o. vast = vast-a. upset = (trans. university = universitat-o. (adj. vegetate = veget-i. kreskajxo (227. vic-. veranda = verand-o. veil = vual-o. vaunt = fanfaron-i. senfrukt-a.). vertical = vertikal-a. .of. upper = supr-a. value = (appraise). sur (160). gxis (46). vertikal-a. see also 162). vice = (wickedness). vibr-i. taks-i. esti neokupata.). very (very much) = (adv.). (prefix). valley = val-o. village = vilagx-o. (vertical). malsimil-a. vermicelli = vermicxel-o. insiste pet-i. valor-i. malvirt-o. (be) vacant = vak-i. veal = bovidajx-o (207. fier-a. vein = vejn-o. vapor = vapor-o. ident-a. vant-a. utmost = ekstrem-a. sam-a. poezi-o. kontrol-i. a).). in --. tre multe.univers-o. verify = konstat-i.

akvarel-o. flirt-i. war = milit-i. wardrobe = (garments). (be lacking). walk = marsx-i. waste = (prodigality). visage = vizagx-o. rimed-o. voice = vocx-o. want = (need). (refuse).). (for pleasure). vestosxrank-o. promen-i. trotuaro. wave = ond-o. voyage = vojagx-i. dezert-o. virtue = virto. bezon-i. waist = tali-o. (flutter. gard-i. make --. --coat. waffle = vafl-o. vesxt-o wake = (trans. manier-o. wash = lav-i. (means). voli. wages = salajr-o. vivid = hel-a. volume = (book). wall = mur-o. kutim-o. dezir-i. (custom). warm = varm-a. wax = vaks-o.vindication = apologi-o. -over. sxrank-o. waltz = vals-i. volum-o. wait = (wait for). (furniture). antauxsciig-i. wager = vet-i. water = akv-o. etc. W.). -on. (road). volumen-o. rigardad-i. malsxpar-o. violet = viol-o. watch = (look at). kaskad-o. metod-o. aviz-i. ale-o. brandish). atend-i. varmig-i. (extremity). vowel = vokal-o. violin = violon-o. vinegar = vinagr-o. balot-i. (give notice). forjxetajx-o. visit = vizit-i. warn = avert-i. kelner-o. side--. mizereg-o. (of a body). way = (manner). sving-i. vek-i. (timepiece). vote = vocxdon-i. wade = vad-i. -. (desert). (method). serv-i. etc. waiter = (in restaurant. vestaro. (desire). posxhorlogx-o. mank-i. --fall. (of park. . hejt-i. warehouse = magazen-o.). wander = vagi.color.

preskaux. west = okcident-o. weather = veter-o. kiu (106. whistle = fajf-i. 234). -. who = (pronoun).out. -. kvankam.). kler-a. (adv. (hiss). you are --.way. kiu (106. tut-a. dubeblank-a. wet = malsekig-i.).way. see table. 234). -. whether = (conj.time. -. kial (129). (concessive). (while). -. c). whip = vip-i.). tremp-i. -. weep = plor-i. 235.). (for water). 143). 147). welcome = bonven-i. cxu (30. 66. pez-i.). ventoflag-o.informed. puto. a). whale = balen-o. weigh = (trans. (intrans. see table. dum (96). pripens-i (264. whole = (entire). whitish. kio (233. kio (233. this --.). well = (healthy). (interjection). (be) wearied = enu-i.).. -. plekt-i. etc. (pronoun and adj. kiam (125. bone. kial (129). dum (96). what = (pronoun). kies (107. any--.). where = (adv. weave = teks-i. when = (adv. we = (pronoun).).. --cock. etc. bon-e.). enirejo. why = (adv. volonte farite. iom da tempo. san-a. 155). 151). wheel = rad-o. nu (273). eluz-i. while = (prep. pes-i. ni (32.nigh (adv. 146). kie (118. sibl-i.). -kind. -kind. dum (120. tial (78). 146). which = (pronoun). week = semajn-o.in. etc. wear = port-i. white = blank-a. (be heavy). (pronominal adj. Wednesday = merkred-o. 235. 37). see table. (conj. a --.). --fore. ("no thanks needed"). (plait). estas nenio. kiu (106. 235.voj-o. 159). pro . bone akcept-i. (meditate upon). wheat = tritik-o. whose.

faldet-o. articles. widow = vidvin-o. wolf = lupo. wrong = malprav-a. wish = vol-i. wonder = mir-i. --draw. (= having). wreath = girland-o. dezir-i. winter = vintr-o. wither = velk-i. wrestle = barakt-i. ticket --. tord-i. survolvi. make --. witch = sorcxistin-o. maljust-a. wretch = fripon-o. funkcii. verk-o. (interjection). wood = lign-o. music). worship = ador-i. wig = peruk-o. ve (273). mizer-a. widower. (by means of). winding = tord-a. (give) witness = atest-i. wicket = gicxet-o. parol-o. wool = lan-o. verk-i.). (spoken). (a watch). --ed. write = skrib-i.regard to. wrinkle = sulket-o. wine = vin-o. wise = sagx-a. wild = sovagx-a. wind = vent-o. gicxet-o. strecx-i. je (260). window = fenestr-o. wipe = visx-i. Y. acx-a (272). kanajl-o. 120.kio. (be) worth = valor-i. plilargxig-i. (literary composition). rilate (266). --craft. (agent of the passive). (be) willing = vol-i. wound = vund-i. per (64). -. havante (222). . kun (70. Diserv-o. 160). witty = sprit-a. de (169). etend-i. worm = verm-o. woe = malgxoj-o.). sorcx-o. without = (prep. worthy = ind-a (154). (divine service). wilt = velk-i. woo = amindum-i. sen (248). wide = largx-a. (twist). word = vort-o. 76. erar-a. 159. work = labor-i. (of machinery). forir-i. elir-i. (books. willingly = volont-e. vidv-o. world = mond-o. with = (prep.

= infinitive. 191. 108. year = jaro. ftn. zone = zono. participles of. 37. Accent. ftn. Abstract nouns. The following abbreviations are used: ace. jes (171). tamen. dezireg-i. zero = nul-o. p. For Esperanto words whose use or meaning is specially explained. adj. 39). = transitive. zinc = zink-o. adv. zeal = fervor-o. = adjective. = preposition. . = footnote. yet = (adv. 49. 107. (open). zigzag = zigzag-o. yes = (adv. = adverb.). Accordance. Active voice. references are given in the Vocabulary. zenith = zenit-o.yawn = osced-i. = intransitive. A. vi (32. you = (pronoun). of ordinals. Abbreviations. ftn. 171).) is given. distinguished from instrumentality and opposition. unless the page (p. = accusative. of elided word. Z. inf. The references are to sections. trans. Accompaniment. antaux-hieraux.).). (offspring). 202. young = jun-a. intrans. = expressed. 280. zoology = zoologi-o. id-o (207). --ish. 70. ankoraux. 8. day before --. expr. prep. p. by "laux". jam. yesterday = (adv. yearn = sopir-i. yellow = flav-a. yoke = jug-o. fendigx-i. expr. dubeflav-a. (conj. see also oni (54). hieraux (93. b.). INDEX. 286.

defined. formation of. ("preter") p. ftn. 65. instead of prepositional phrase. derived. demonstrative. 24. 267. 150. (after trans. Accusative. agreement. 108. gxis. 94.) 171. of adj.. not used after prep. Adjectives. ("al. 43. (with pronouns) 33. 266. 21. of measure.. not used with predicates. (with words connected by "nek") 31. 37. 13. 210. not used with article. verb. 19. 74. of pronoun. (from prep. ordinal. 25. (from adv. distinguished from adv. 91.. 23. interrogative. 92.. demonstrative. 24. see Tenses.) 120. 69. 116. c. 36. a. (from prep.. verbs. 12. "cognate. 93. of direction. 66. ending of. ending. causative verbs from roots of. Adverbs. 149. ("tiam") 73. after adv.. 44. primary. intrans. 17. 121. 224. 214.119. synopsis of. 24. with intrans. when avoided. (pronominal use of) 45. in composition. possessive. with "da"." see acc. with intrans. cardinal. ("tie") 68. 208. 265. 264. tenses of. verbs) 210. 46. 139. 266. distributive. defined. ftn. ("tiel") 88. ("tiom") . a.. with nouns expressing motion. 264. 112. with temporal adv. verbs from roots of. 152. 79. negative. p.. (with nouns) 17. of time. 12. 25. 232. relative. acc. distinguished from temporal adv. ("tial") 78. plural of. 66.) 159. 139. predicate. attributive. tra") 46. of. indefinite. reflexive possessive. 263. of adv. 177. 103. use of. comparison of. 136. 132.

283 (also 198. Alphabet. ("neniam") 226. p. of adj. p. 33. ("nenie") 225. p. negative.. 257. ("cxie") 182. ("kie") 118. d. 66.104. 32. ftn.. 69. 170. as interjections. 17. expr. numeral. Affixes. ("kiom") 140. . ("nenial") 229. ("kiom") 164. position of. interrogative. ftn. indefinite. by "de". Advice. p. of adj. 94. 232. 31. 121. ftn. ("ial") 213. ("cxu") 30. expr. ("kial") 129. ("kiam") 123. 221). ("ajn") 236. of adj. distributive. with two or more nouns. 214. Adversative conjunctions. a. ("kie") 151. ("kiel") 134. ("ne") 27. ftn. ftn. 17. 216.. generalizing. ("kiel") 156. 93. ("iom") 217. ("neniel") 230. Adverbial clauses. expression of. 168. 66. calling attention. I. 171. see Prefixes. Suffixes. (translating "without") p. 48. Affectionate diminutives. of time. and ftn.) 24. ("cxiel") 193. participle. 222. p. of nouns in apposition. ftn. of attributive adj. verbs from.. 66.. ("neniom") 231. with words connected by "nek". of predicate noun and adj. 193. relative. with prep.. ("cxiam") iS7. Agency. of participle. Agreement. causative verbs from. 108. 87. 169. derivation of words from primary.. ("cxiom") 194. ("jen") 228. ("ie") 209. 21. a. ("kiam") 155. with pronouns. ("cxial") 188. distinguishing from acc. 266. with acc. ("iam") 212. Anticipation. ("iel") 216. 259. intrans. 158. (with acc. Affirmation. 38. c. with expressions of time.. p.. expressing direction of motion.

48. (imperative). of words expressing quantity. subordinate imperative. p. Article. 34. Complement of prep. (past) 35. "ju" and "des" in. 259. (present) 14. 244. 218. 78. 86. Comparison. by clause. defined. of imaginative comparison.. containing "ol".by clause.. see Accusative. b. with intrans. Assumption. 214. 105. 18. verbs. 96. Aoristic tenses. 32. generic. Augmentatives. by inf. (conditional) 241. by "kun". p. 97. 81. 79. implied. "Cognate acc. causal.. ftn. 97. expression of. 256. p. elision of. formation of. 280. 109. of anticipation. 201." see acc. Commands. ftn. of adj. 126. (future) 55. 47. 264. 36. explained. . 29. 122. p. of adv. Case. 83. in subordinate clause... 240. defined. a. 222. by "ke". 74. 83. Argumentative conjunction. for possessive adj. definite. ftn. expr. with possessive adj. Clauses. II. 250. Cause. 222. ftn. C. 142. 11. by adverbial participle. 45. Possessive.. of purpose. Collective nouns. Nominative. of duration of time. Characteristic. ftn. of result. 84. 168. by "pro". with prep. conjugation of. 259. adverbial. p. Dative. Apposition. Causative verbs.. Collective sense given by use of "da". no indefinite. Complementary inf... 82. 98. 254. 25. Cardinal numerals. 76. 103. Auxiliary verbs. invariable. expr... 136. 262.

"kaj". ftn. Consent. conditional sentences.. defined. Conjugation. expr. 49. 4. factual. in less vivid conditions. 227.. see Tenses. "se". independent use of.. see Correspondence. 53. of tenses. ftn. compound tenses of. 222. vivid. indefinite. by "de". 32. explained. less vivid. "sed". 3. dependent. 110. 243. 26. ftn. ftn. 31. summary of. 34. possessive. Conclusion (of conditions) defined.. of "devi". conjugation of. p. by "je". 243. 244. 52. 32. p. 246. ftn. (in result clause) 105. Coordinating . (in purpose clause) 262. (of letters). Consonants. 6. "nek". descriptive. Contrary to fact conditions. of impersonal verbs. 240. p. Conditional mood. combinations of. "tamen". 240. 260. 179. see Conditions. 250.. Concrete nouns. Compounds. coordinating. defined. "ke". 32. 53. (in subordinate clauses) 259. synopsis of. p.Composition. see Compounds. 267. see Tenses. expr. subordinating. expression of. p.. (in causal clauses) 83. 246. pronunciation of. Compound tenses. p. 241. 240. names of. 32. 32. (in subordinate imperative clause) 259. p. "do". Conditions. 176. 240. 249. see p. 109. 32. p.. 242. Connection.. (in indirect statements). contrary to fact. (not omitted) p. "aux". 34. 247.. "kvazaux". Conjunctions. ftn. ftn. 246. 189. 257. 184. 167. ftn. ftn. ftn. in contrary to fact conditions. 52. formation of.

Copulative conjunctions. D. see Complement.. ("tiu") 56. 29. clause as. Correlative words. 263. 100. 176. advs. p. 175. of words from primary adv. Dates. "Dative. as." ethical. expr. (of adv.. of words from prep. 79. defined. Deliberation. Diminutives. 156. Definite quantity. E. of separation. Diphthongs. 90. p. of adv. 29. Double letters. 32. ("tiel") 88. prep. see Correspondence. 66. see Complementary inf. ftn. expr. Correspondence. cxi tio") 233. 235.. 53. (from prep. 278. adv. affectionate. expr. 89. pronoun. (in subordinative clause) 259. of reference.. Direction. by "antaux".. 259. 283. 6. highest possible.conjunctions. ("kiel") 134.. . see Adverbs. of. 23. expr. 36. on letters.) 121. nouns of. followed by "de". Demonstrative. e. 162. inf. 171. of prep. ("cxiu") 173. 177. Derivation. Direct object. pronoun. see "po".. by acc. Disjunctive conjunctions.) 120. Dependent compounds. 198. 52. 159. 108. by acc. 32. 197. by prep.. Degree. p. Descriptive compounds. see Adverbs. 278. 5.. adv. of complementary inf. expression of. ("cxio") 233. see also Comparison. 167. adj. Distributive. ("tio. adjective.. ftn. 257. 91. (of noun) 46. 65.. ("cxi tiu") 60.. of participle. ftn.

Ending. 197. by "ecx". F. 259. 66. I. (passive) 183. 79. 254.. by "ja". (passive) 199. 14. ftn. (progressive) 114. of noun. 254. 162. of feminines. Fractions. a. 166. Exhortation. 23. from primary words. b. of adv. 240. 257. "ajn". 236. Feminine nouns.. Factual conditions. periphrastic. 215. Future perfect tense. 255. of conditional. 148." p. of inf. to express purpose. 255. 116. 159. of participle.Elision. of plural. Highest degree possible. of acc. of words. see Participles. in subordinate clauses. 259. 171. 12. in commands and prohibitions. 260. H. formation of. use of "je" in. 239. of indicative. 256. (active) 152. 201. Future tense. "Ethical dative. Emphasis. 250. in resolve and exhortation. Formation. of opposites. 280. Imperative mood. Future participle. 67. Frequentative verbs. (passive) 196. less peremptory uses of.. Imaginative comparison. of adj. G. 262. Generic article. 241. Exclamations. 115.. of imperative. Expedience. 27. Generalizing adv. 35. with "-ig-" and "-igx-". expressions of. 59. 153. 10. 59. 55. 55. 218. Emphatic negation.. 16. . 200. 28. 218.

ftn. a. by clause. formation of names of. prep.. 101. Intention. requests for. Intensive pronoun. 267. c. see Adverbs. Indefinite. 267. 49. "Indirect object. modifiers of. 241. 208. p. distinguished from accompaniment. b.. "mem". quantity. expr. Indicative mood. ("iu") 203. 284. weights and measures. 259. 99. 112. see Synopsis. a. 260. Interrogation.. Indirect quotation.. adj. Indefinite connection. roots. 219. pronoun. 285. modifiers of. advs. ("io") 233.Imperfect tense. (personal) 54. defined. expr. 257. Infinitive. expressions of. 130. 141. 179. ftn. tenses of. 63. (orders). from noun roots. complementary. 122. 260. Impersonal verbs. 29. see Adverbs. 241. ftn. 58... no passive. 232. suffix. with "da". Independent use of conditional mood.. ending of. 64. p. 268. advs. 141. modifiers of. 28. defined. 38. 98. ftn. as subject. (passive) 178. 232. 113. from adj. Instrumentality. Instruments. adj. by "per"." see "al". 22. synopsis of. 259. 30. Impersonally used verbs. 28. 50. by "je". Instruction. Interjections. Interrogative. questions in. Intransitive verbs. Inchoative verbs. p. 66. 53. expr. 170. defined. 218. replaced by noun. statements in. with prep. compound tenses of. pronoun. ("kiu") 106. tenses in. 273. 141. 29. p. . 244.. International money system. explained. (kio) 233.

of cardinals. of verb. 284. 18.. weights and. of. 259. ("nenio") 233. indicative. Material. of letters. Letters. Inversion. 219. expression of. expression of. 232. The international. of "mem". N. advs. d. in conditions. from trans. Less peremptory uses of imperative. Means. Negative. Limitation of third personal pronoun. 6. 86. expr. ftn. see Adverbs. names of. double. not needed in questions. 284. pronoun. of. 18. orthography of proper. advs. Measures. Mood. preps. 136. 53. suffixes.. by "kun". . 243. by adverbial participle. expr. Motive or reason. 197. 254. M. by "je". Moral obligation. by clause. 257. 222. 241. ("neniu") 220.. Money system. 141. expression of. 64. not needed. ace. Less vivid conditions. by prep. of article. expr. 76. Introductory particle. (table of). 30. expr. 83. by. Invariability. 50. pronunciation of. "per". Modifiers of impersonally used verbs. conditional. see Conditions. expr.. 4. see 267. see Adverbs.advs. 278. inf. 51. L. see Infinitive. 279.. 42.. see also Correspondence. Manner. 232. 4. verb roots. 241. of. 247. Necessity. Measure. Metric system. 285. 139. Names. e. prefixes. imperative. p. adj. defined. 260. b. 128.

ftn. from prep. 10. 157. 218. numeral. p. conjunction. 136.. Object. 49. Complement. Opposites.. 59. Number. abbreviation of. elision of. distinguished from accompaniment.. 128. ending of. Numeral nouns. (moral) 247. fractional. 205." how rendered.. from adv. "gxis". by "de". (for adj. 10. expression of. followed by acc. Orthography. 100. 159. ordinal. ftn. c. replacing inf. Noun. advs. d. feminine. 171. 210. 25. 263. replacing participial phrase.. followed by "da". followed by "el". possessive case of. p. Noun roots. 158. see Direct object.. ("al". of. 158. 10. intrans. verbs from.224. see Plural. 107. causative verbs from. p. b. P. ftn. see also Position. 138. "tra") 46. "Nominative absolute. see Adverbs. 107. 80. of predicate noun and adj. cardinal. 166. 247. ending of. Opposition.) 12. 20. b. expressing quantity.. acc. (after noun) . of word endings. (for nouns) 10. 23. ftn. 169. predicate.. advs. abbreviation of. of proper nouns... 280. O.. 214. 142. Order. formation of. Part of the whole. 31. ftn. 149. formation of. Ordinal numerals. p. with prep. Obligation. 157. Indirect object. 211. 16. 193. 49. ftn. participial. 99. 232. 36.. expressing motion. advs. plural of. 67. 149. p. Nominative case. defined. of "pli" and "plej". Numerals. p.

195.) 101. Personal pronouns. of adv. 50. 256. 37. of "-ig-" formations. see Participles. of. defined. 124. 205. 232. Participle. see Adverbs. Particle. 119. 108. Participial nouns. of emphatic . (passive) 190. advs. (translating "without") p. 203. expression of. 169. Plural. 56. 74. see Past participle. Perfect tense. not needed. 193. 153. 108. see Participles. 42. (passive) 200. none of pronouns ending in "-o". of. of pronouns. 233. (passive) 189. III. Periphrastic futures. 108.. 128. 259. position of unemphatic. present action with. 239. 18. 259. 131. 137. Past tense. of adj. of nouns. 32. expr. ftn. 125. 220. expression of. (after adv. Perplexity. 51. 269. none of article. introductory. Permission. (passive) see Imperfect. past. 222. by "-ej-". agent of. reflexive. (passive). Partitive construction. participles of. past participle. Past periphrastic future.. ftn. Peremptory commands and prohibitions. 16. distinguished from "-igx-" formations. (passive) 165. of "unu". 135.. 35. indefinite. of attributive adj. 153. expr.. present. 152. Past inception. agreement of. 257. adverbial. advs. by "cxe". 16. Pluperfect tense. b. perfect participle. 66.. see Tenses. Place. (passive) 199. 106. tenses of. Passive voice. (passive) 200. future. Position.99. 39. 173. a. 54. 40. p. 222. limitation of third personal. acc. 13. 274.

making intrans. causative verbs from. 153. defined. 270. causative verbs from. advs. "mal-". 206. 282. (progressive) 110. 232. noun. clause as. c. 87. ftn. expr. 211. b. ("kies") 107. see also Possessive adjective. Possessive. ftn. 67. Possessive compounds.. 46. of unemphatic pronoun. 159.. 131. 21. Possession. (passive) 200. "duon-". 44. 49. 71. "Possessive pronouns. interjection as.. 184. verb. verbs from. intrans. reflexive. 214. p. 160. "ek-". word derivation from. by "de". 248. "bo-". 147. 36. 245. verbs. after trans. a. 49.. 216. 21. 274. c. instead of. 20. adj. 14. ("ies") 204. 160. d. 120. 232. adjective. 30. c. expressing time relations. ("cxies") 174. intrans. p. case use with. Present periphrastic future. after trans. 277. 265. as prefixes." p. 277. . 98. "dis-". Present participle. 167. from. Present tense. 223. see also references in Vocabulary. adverb as. as. 43. with inf. 221. 87. 210. "re-". of interrogative adv. (passive) 165.. 89. Predicate. 19. ("ties") 62. Prepositions. 36. 43. 264. verbs from. 108. d. expression of. Possibility.. verbs trans.negative. Possessive case of nouns. 47. 214. ("nenies") 221. of pronouns. 27.. prep. with adv. "pra-". Prefixes. 24. "ge-". with other preps. acc. Present action with past inception. 281. 271. 266. Prepositional phrase. agreement of. agreement of. article for.. 259. ftn. "eks-".

present. reflexive. 219. interrogative. 220. ("neniu") 220. Probability. demonstrative. construction with nouns expressing. correlation of predicative or relative. by prep.. 56. Progressive tenses. Proper nouns. 45. 95. 115. see Possessive case. ("kiu") 106. indefinite. 234. ftn. defined. Proximity. 39. p. intensive. ("kiom") 140. ("neniom") 231. use of "je" in. pronoun as. by imperative. ftn. 66. ("cxiom") 194. relative. 110. passive.(passive) 168. 32. 233. Protestations. Pronouns. Prohibition. 233. 270. Pronominal adjective. 60. 128. 171.. possessive. ("iu") 203. construction with advs. Primary adverbs. 233. followed by "el". 164. 233. 262. p. negative. expression of. 100. 99. 229. future. possessive form of. 98. 60.. 146. defined. ("tiom") 104. summary. 260. 114. derivation of words from. 54. indefinite personal. personal. possessive adj. position of unemphatic. 233. "ambaux". 173. ("ambaux") 238. ("cxiu") 173. distributive. 256. by inf. 200. 32. 60. 235. 233. 40. 146. ftn. 238. limitation of third personal. 233. as.. 42. Q. ftn. expression of. orthography of. 203. . series in "-o". 274. Purpose.. ("iom") 217. 106. 33. expr. advs. of. Quantity. 132. ("tiu") 57. 173. by "cxi". expressing. agreement with. 101. p. 259. 66. expr. 38. (in composition) p. 24.

defined. 115. Request. for instructions. 15. S. 39. 257. 38. 180. expression of. Resolve. 259. (of manner) 156. distinguished from verbs in "-igx-". Root.. 232. . 40. with substantival inf. by adverbial participle. 245. expr. 170. Subject. indirect. 130. R. Reflexive possessive adjective. 257. ftn. defined. indirect. 53. or for instructions. expression of. perplexity. expr. 259. by "al". expr. 191. 141. 255. Relative adjective.. ("kiu") 146. 222. by "de". 262. Relative pronoun. clauses of. p. by "al". Reference. Reciprocal expressions. Reflexive verbs. expr. expression of. 257. 170. 259. p. by "dis-". (temporal) 155. Relative clause. 222. 30. of deliberation. ftn. of adverbial participle. ftn. of first and second persons. 71. 125. 42. of third person. Quotations. 44. 259. Result. (quantitative) 164. inf. Statements. Separation. p. 51.comparison of advs. 150. tenses in. expr. ftn. 106. Route. defined. 105. clause as. by "de". by "for". 53. by "cxe". see 146. as. Salutations. Questions. Subordinate clause. b. p. indirect. 251. 170. preceded by verb. 58. 233. Source. 58. ("kio") 233. Reflexive pronouns. Situation. 53. see Adverbs. imperative in. 252. relative adverb. 259.. 41. 81. 130. expressing. not omitted.

ftn. ftn. Suffixes. ("diri: paroli: rakonti") 77. 126..conditional in. "-em-".. 222. ftn. 193. 283.. with inf. by prep. "-er-". ftn. "-obl-". 122. inf. 259. "-id-" 207. 198. followed by "el". 250. "-et-". 53. p. 154. 130. 7. "-ing-". 243. 112. 218. 154. 98. 214. of noun for inf. "-ad-". ("cxiu: tuta") p.. 268. "-estr-".. b. 63. "-ec-". "cxu". "-cxj-". 186. 192. 272. 75. ("ankoraux: jam") p. ftn. 218. ("provi: peni: jugxi") p. by prep. 67. 237. Substantive.. ftn. Synonyms. "il-". 267. 198. ftn. Synopsis of the verb. "-ej-". verbs from. intrans. 276. expr. ftn. "-an-". 162. "-in-". 161. "-uj-". (adj. "-on-". 124. 59. defined. apparent. 239. (not omitted) p. 232. "-acx-". p. "ist-". 246. c. ("logxi: vivi") 133. ftn. 232. 214. 53. 38. 228. (adv. "-nj-". p. 253. ftn. expr. "-igx-".. fojo") 127. "ig-". "-ebl-". 63. 283.. "-ul-". "-op-".) 79. 202. 128. ftn. "se". ftn. causative verbs from. d. p. 249. 239. "-eg-". 105.) 74. 279. Subordinating conjunctions. "-ajx-". 259 ("tial ke") 83.. 227.. . 111. ("por ke") 262. 240. 145.. 275. Superlatives. 34. ftn. "kvazaux". 261.. ("tempo. ("indiferenta: nezorga") p. ("trovigxi: sin trovi: kusxi: sidi)" p. clause as... 166. ("koni: scii") 117. "-ind-". p. 217. as. see Conditions. ftn. Summary of conditions. Substitution. 172. 71. 181.. "-um-". ftn. 132. p. Syllables. "ar-". ("gxuste: juste: jxus") p. 130. p. 98. "ke". ("antikva: maljuna: malnova") p.

ftn. correlative. roots. position of. Unemphatic words. 241. in conditions. 242. compound. 264. Temporal adverbs. 258. expr. of conditional. see Temporal adverbs. 35. pluperfect. (progressive) 110. affectionate. 124. formed by "-ig-". 14. ("ankoraux") p.. 153. 124. 89. use of "mosxto". see Endings. p. (of impersonal verbs) 179.. Terms of address. 235. (passive) 200. expr. 96. imperfect.System. expr. 267. 214. 155. in indirect quotations. 163. Terminations. ("kiam") 123. 222. by acc. 284. of imperative. Tenses. 185. ftn. (passive) 178. of money. ftn. from intrans. synopsis of all. p. 66. 155. (passive) 183. (passive) 190. future. (negative) 27. by prep. U. 155. 58. ("iam") 212. (progressive) 114. 275. future perfect. 116. of. 78. by clause. b. ftn. 285. 254. defined. 22.. of day.. Time. 221. 91. (pronoun) 274. (passive) 195. 55. advs. periphrastic. expr. 148. 283. past. Transitive verbs. 113. 267. perfect. ("tiam") 73. ("jxus") p. 135. c. 109. (passive) 168. ("neniam") 226. 163.. T. 112. 96. ("cxiam") 187. (passive) 178. Temporal clauses. list of some. 249. . aoristic. present. Titles. by adverbial participle. ftn. of inf. (passive) 190. ("jam") p. metric.

Weights and measures. order of.. 214. from intrans. b. 275. frequentative. 279. 116. ftn. p. 156.. Verbs. correlative. (synopsis) 267. from prepositions. (route) 191. 214. 18. roots. Wish. (in exclamations) 115. roots. 189. 51. W. intrans. 218. p. 159. 235. see Compounds. Vivid conditions. Verbal nouns in "-ad-". 232. expression of.. expression of. 228. formation of. inchoative. see also Position. intrans. Words. 250. 34. invariable. 41.. composition of. causative verbs from. 22. p. as interjection. 232. a. 22. 171. b. 216. ftn. causative. 257. Way. 259. Vowels. 193. a.. 241. Verbal roots. (in comparisons) 82. with prepositional phrase containing "da". (manner) 76. 171. (in salutations) 115. defined. ftn. trans. reflexive. 284. by Ivy Kellerman *** END OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK A COMPLETE GRAMMAR OF ESPERANTO *** .V. 2. 30. pronunciation of. 218. from primary advs. 50. implied. conjugation of. 102. mood of. trans. b. in question. End of Project Gutenberg's A Complete Grammar of Esperanto. 159. from prep.. defined. preceding the subject. impersonal. from trans. from adv.

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