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INDUSTRIAL CONFLICTS 10. PROMOTION, TRANSFER, DEMOTION 11. PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT
MEANING OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL performance appraisal may be understood as the assessment of individual’s performance in a systematic way, the performance being measured against factors such as job knowledge, quality and quantity output, initiative, leadership abilities, supervision, dependability, co-operation, judgment, versatility, health and the like. Assessment should be confined to past performance alone. Potentials of the employee for future performance must also be assessed. Performance appraisal is a method of evaluating the behavior of employees in the work spot, normally including both the quantitative and qualitative aspect of job performance. Performances here refer to the degree of accomplishment of the tasks that make up an individual’s job. It indicates how well an individual is fulfilling the job demands. Often the term is confused with effort, but performance is always measured in terms of result and not efforts. A formal definition of performance appraisal is “it is the systematic evaluation of the individual with respect to his or her performance on the job and his or her potential for development.”
FEATURES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Performance appraisal is the systematic description of an employee’s job relevant strengths and weaknesses. The basic purpose is to find out how well the employee is performing the job and establish a plan of improvement. Appraisals are arranged periodically according to a definite plan. Performance appraisal is not job evaluation. It refers to how well someone is doing the assigned job. Job evaluation determines how much a job is worth to the organization and there for, what range of pay should be assigned to the job.
Performance appraisal is a continuous process in every large scale organization.
PROCESS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Performance appraisal is planned, developed and implemented through a series of steps: ESTABLISHING PERFORMANCE STANDARD
CONNUNICATION OF PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
MEASUREMENT OF ACTUAL PERFORMANCE
COMPARISON OF ACTUAL PERFORMANCE WITH THE STANDARDS
FOLLOW UP ACTIONS 1) Establish Performance Standards. Appraisal systems require performance standards, which serve as benchmarks against which performance is measured. In order to be useful, standards should relate to the desired results of each job. Appraisals must have a clear- cut criteria. Performance standards must be both to the appraiser and the appraise. The performance standards of goals must be developed after a thorough analysis of the job. Goals must be written down. They must be measurable within certain time and cost considerations.
2) Communicate the Standards. Performance appraisal involves attract two parties; the appraiser who does the appraisal and the appraise whose performance is being evaluated. Both are expected to do certain things. The appraiser should prepare job descriptions clearly, help appraise set his goals and targets; analysis results objectively; offer coaching and guidance to appraise whenever required and reward good results. The appraiser should be very clear about what he is doing and why he is doing. For this purpose, the performance standards must be communicated to appraise and their reactions are noted initially. These standards must be revised or modified as and when required. 3) Measure Actual Performance. After the performance standards are set and accepted, the next step is to measure actual performance. This requires the use of dependable performance measures, the ratings used to evaluate performance. Performance measures in order to be helpful must be easy to use, reliable and report on the critical behaviors that determine performance. Generally, managers regarding how to measure actual performance use four common sources of information: personal observation, statistical reports, oral reports and written reports. 4) Compare Actual Performance with Standards and Discuss the Appraisal. Actual performance may be better than expected and sometimes it may even go off the track. The assessment of another person's contribution and ability is not an easy task. It has serious emotional overtones as it affects the self-esteem of the appraise. Any appraisal asked on subjective criteria is likely to be questioned by the appraisers and leave him quite dejected and unhappy when the appraisal turns out to be negative.
5) Taking Corrective Action, if Necessary. Corrective action is of two types: The one, which puts out the fires immediately and the other one, which strikes at he root of the problems permanently. Immediate action sets things right and get things back or track, whereas the basic corrective action gets to the source of deviations and seems to adjust the difference permanently. Basic corrective step seek to find out how and why performance deviate.
METHODS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL: Methods of Performance Appraisal
A) Traditional Methods Confidential report Ranking Graphical rating scale Checklists Forced distribution Critical incidents Essay evaluation Group appraisals
B) Modern Methods 1. Human resource accounting 2. management by objective 3. Assessment centre 4. BARS( Behaviorally anchored rating scale )
Traditional methods: Confidential report method It is mostly used in government organizations. It is a descriptive report generally prepared at the end of the year, by the employee’s immediate superior. The report highlights the strengths, weaknesses, major mistakes, merits, good work done etc. of the subordinate. The impression of the superior about the superior is merely recorded here. It does not offer any feedback to appraise. It is a narrative method of performance appraisal since the report is not made public and hence no freedom is available, the subjective analysis of the superior is likely to be hotly contested. Ranking method This is relatively easy method of performance evaluation. In it, the ranking of an employee in a work group is against that of another employee. The relative position of each employee is tested in terms of his or her numerical rank, for example, when there are five employees (A,B,C,D,E) to be compared, then A’s performance is compared with that of B’s and decision is arrived at as to whose is the better or worst. Next, B is
also compares with all others. Since A is already compared with B, this time B is to be compared with only C, D, and E In this evaluation is asked to rate the employees from highest to lowest on some overall criterion. It is easier to rank the best and the worst employee, it is very difficult to rank the average employees. Graphical rating scale It is the oldest and the most commonly used method of performance in this, a printed form is used to evaluate the performance of an employee. Four to twelve factors are selected, depending upon the category to which the employee belongs. Some of these factors are quantity of out put, quality of out put, initiative, integrity, dependability etc. these factors and their degrees are marked on a graph paper provided in the form. The rater has merely to check on the scale where he thinks the employee belongs. Checklists and weighted checklists The checklist is a simple rating technique in which the supervisor is given a list of statement or world and ask to check statement representing the characteristic and performance of each employee a checklist represents a set of objective statement about the employee and his behavior. A more recent variation of the checklist is weighted list. Under this the value of each question may be weighted more heavily than others. The following are sample questions in the checklist: - Is the employee is really interested in the task assigned? - Is he respected of his colleagues? - Does he follow instructions properly? - Does he give respect to his superiors? - Does he make mistakes frequently? Yes/ No Yes/ No Yes/ No Yes/ No Yes/ No
A rating score from the checklist helps the manager in evaluation of the performance of the employee. Forced distribution method It was developed to eliminate the bias and the preponderance of high ratings that might occur in some organizations. Its primary purpose is the correct tendency of the
In it. Actually the statement items are grounded in such a way that the rater cannot which statement applies to the most effective employee. Employees understanding about the company’s programmes. Critical incident method The manager prepares test of statements of every effective and ineffective behavior of an employee. two of which are positive and two of them are negative and the rates is asked to indicate which of the four phrase is the most or least descriptive of a particular employee. The head of department or manager may be the chairman of the group and the supervisor may act as the coordinate for the group activities. These critical incidents or events represent the outstanding poor behavior of the employees. The employees general planning. The immediate supervisor enlighten . the recorded critical incidents are used in the evaluation of the workers’ performance. Group appraisal In this method an employee is appraised by a group of appraisers. The attitude and perceptions of the worker.rates to give consistently high and low ratings to all employees. in general. etc. This method makes those of several sets of pair phases. The manager prepares records of the critical incidents of the worker’s behavior. organizing and controlling ability. In this the overall objectivity is increased in the employee’s performance because the rater does not know how high or low he is evaluating the individual. The employee’s relation with the co-workers and superiors. Essay Appraisal Under this method the rater is asked to express the strong as well as the weak points of the employee’s behavior. manager or head of department or consultant. other supervisors who have close contact with employee’s work. as he has no access to the storing key. This technique is normally used with a combination of the graphical rating scale because the rater an elaborately present the scale by sustaining an explanation for his rating. The favorable qualities earn a plus credit and the unfavorable ones earn the severest. objective. policies. the rater considers the following factors: Job knowledge and potential of the employee. At the end of the rating period. This group consists of the immediate supervisor of the employee.
This method shows the investment the organization makes in the people and how the value of these people change over a time. therefore suggests ways for improvement of performance. The concept of MBO is actually the outcome the pioneering work of Drucker. Managers have become increasingly aware that the traditional performance evaluation systems are characterized by facing goals. as performance is evaluated by multiple rates. MBO can be described as the process whereby the superior and subordinate manager of an organization jointly identify its common goals. standards or performance etc. However. each individual’s areas of operations. The goals can be then used to evaluate the employee performance . The MBO can be described in four steps: The first step is to establish the goals each subordinate is to attain. studies the need for change in the job analysis and standards and recommends changes. compares the performance with the standards. demand. in this method the employees’ performance is evaluated in terms of costs and contributions of employees. The goals typically refer to the desired outcome to be achieved. In brief. It is process of accounting people as an organization resource. Management by objectives It is the modern method of evaluating the performance of personnel. B) Modern Methods: Human resource accounting HRA is a sophisticated way to measure in financial terms the effectiveness of the personal manager activities and the use of people in an organization. Mcgreger and Odioine in management science. it is very time consuming process. The acquisition of employee is compared with the replacement cost from time to time. if necessary. discusses the reasons. responsibility in terms of results expected of him and use these measures as a guide for operating the unit and assessing the contributions of each of its members. MBO thus represents more than an evaluation process. then the group appraise the performance of the employee. prepares an action plan. This method eliminates “personal bias” to a large extent. It tries to place a value on the organizational human resources as assets and not as expenses.other members about the job characteristics. finds out the deviation.
. The process is repeated. new strategies for goals that previously not attained.The second step involves setting of the performance standard fro the subordinates in a previously arranged time period. The critical incidents serve as the anchor statement on a scale and the rating form usually contains six to eight specifically defined performance dimensions. This step helps to determine the training needs. The evaluator explores the reasons or the goals that were not met and the goals that were exceeded. It is the combination of the rating scale and critical incident techniques of employee performance evaluation. they offer an excellent means for conducting evaluation process in an objective way. The final step involves establishing new goals and. This method represent he latest innovation in the performance appraisal. It also alerts the superior of the conditions that may affect but over which the subordinate has no control. Observers rank the performance of each and every participant in order to merit since assessment centers are basically meant for evaluating the potential of candidates to be considered for promotion. At this point. Subordinates who successively reach the established goals may be allowed to participate more in the goal setting process the next time. subordinate and superior involvement in the goal setting may change. In the third step. training on development. the actual level of goal attainment is compared with the goals agreed upon. possibly. Behaviorally anchored rating scale This method is also known as behavioral expectation scale. All assesses get an equal opportunity to show their talents and capabilities based on merit. Assessment center In this approach individuals from various departments are brought together to spend two or three days working on an individual or a group assignment similar to the ones they would be handling when promoted.
Sometimes other supervisors. Subordinates . Moreover. Performance Appraisal by all these parties is called 360° Performance Appraisal. This is because superiors are responsible free managing their subordinates and they have the opportunity to observe. Subordinates. user of service and consultants. which in turn is reviewed by the departmental head/ managers. contents to be appraised. General practice is that immediate superior appraises the performance. standards of contents and who observes the employee's by performing a job. He should prepare reports and made judgments without bias. The appraisal should be capable of determining what is more important and what is relatively less important. direct and control the subordinate continuously. Peers Peer appraisal may be reliable of the workgroup is stable over a reasonably long period of time and performs tasks that require interaction.360° PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL The appraisal may be any person who has thorough knowledge about the job contents. they are accountable for the successful performance of their subordinates. other superiors having knowledge about the work of the employee and department head or manager. peers. who have close contact with employee work also appraise with a view to provide additional information. employees themselves. Typical appraisals are supervisors. Supervisors Supervisors include superiors of the employee.
employees who appraise their own performance may become highly motivated. every six month or annually. Example. students better judge a teacher’s performance. the concept of change superiors rated by subordinates in being used in most organizations. Self-Appraisal If individuals understand the objectives they are expected to achieve and the standards by which they are to be evaluated. However. systematic appraisals are conducted on a regular basis. they are to a great extent in the best position to appraise their own performance. Subordinate's ratings in such cases can be quite useful in identifying competent superiors. . Also.In developed countries. When to appraise? Informal appraisals are conducted whenever the supervisor or personnel manager feel it necessary. say for example. Consultants Sometimes consultants may be engaged for appraisal when employees or employers do not trust the supervisory appraisal and management does not trust the self-appraisal and the appraisal done by subordinates. In such situation. Users of Services/Customers The customers on users of services can. the consultants are trained and they observe the employee at work for sufficiently long periods for the purpose of appraisal. since employee development means selfdevelopment. speed in doing the job and accuracy. better judge employee performance in service organizations relating to behaviors. Such a method can be useful provided the relationships between superiors and subordinates art cordial. promptness.
PURPOSES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL To create and maintain a satisfactory level of performance. it should tell he employee what set of activities or what qualities are considered desirable by the organization. The system should be both valid and reliable: The validity of the ratings is the degree to which they are truly indicative of the intrinsic merit of the employees. The system should be sufficiently grounded in the requirement of the organization: It should reflect the value system of the organization. To provide information for making decision regarding lay off. To guide the job changes with help to continuous ranking. Similarly. In fact functioning as a definition of performance. self and management development programmes. The appraisal system of many organizations lacks this objectivity and bunches all employees into one or two . REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD APPRAISAL SYSTEM: It must be easily understandable: If the system is too much complex or to time consuming. either by different sectors. To help the superior to have a proper understanding about their subordinates. To contribute to the employee growth and development thought training. It musty has support of all line people who administer it: If the line people think that there role is not very important then they will not consider the system seriously. one by one rater at different times. retrenchment etc. if the people find that the system is too theoretical. too ambitious. To facilitate fair and equitable compensation based on performance. Both validity and reliability result from objectivity. As such it should have linkage with the job description. The reliability of the ratings is the consistency with which the ratings are made. or that has been foisted on them by the ivory-tower staff consultants who have no comprehension of the demand then they will recent it. it may be anchored to the ground by its own dead weight of complicated forms which nobody but the experts understand.
there is need for classification of duties or for additional training or job rotation or job enrichment. the system must help in identifying employee’s strengths and weaknesses and indicate corrective actions. such a connection throttles downward communication of performance appraisal because superiors do not like being questioned by disgruntled subordinates. For example it may reveal that goals need to be modified on. The systems should focus more on the development and growth: Of the employee than on generating data for administrative decision making related to promotions. The system should be open and participative: It should involve employees in goal-setting process. increments. This helps in planning performance better.top ranks without taking into account their merits. In their opinion. This raises outstanding performances but also raises doubts about the validity of the system. advocate against the direct linkage between the appraisal and rewards. The system should have built-in incentive: This means that the reward should follow satisfactory performance. . etc. Many authors however.
The union can challenge certain rules or their application. If there is any reasonable way of dealing with the issue as a . It must involve interpretation or application of the provision of the labour contract.” Jucius defines a grievance as “any discontent or dissatisfaction. and must grow out of something connected with company operations or policy. Is the contract the only means to resolve member's grievances? Of course not. there are many grievances that fall into a large category which we say are discipline-related. But it is probably the strongest leg you have to stand on. whether exposed or not. The contract provides us with the strongest ammunition in resolving the issue for our member. So for all practical purposes. unjust or inequitable. Lastly. It can be valid or ridiculous. We may argue that a member is being disciplined without "just cause" or he or she is suffering from disparate treatment. So the best advice that can be offered in handling a member's problem is to check the contract first. a right that is usually.” A grievance is more than likely a violation of an employee's rights on the job. every union officer must go back to the contract first when a member comes in with a complaint or a problem. In seeing a grievance in this way.GREIVANCE 1) MEANING/ DEFINITION : The concept ‘Grievance’ has been defined in several ways by different authorities some of the definition are follows: Beach defines a grievance as “any dissatisfaction or feeling of injustice in connection with one’s employment situation that is brought to the notice of the management”. but not always defined by the contract. whether valid or not. believes or even feels to be unfair. where as Flippo indicate the grievance as “a type of discontent which must always be expressed A grievance is usually more formal in character than a complaint. The two expressions are simply an arbitrator's or lawyer's way of saying the member is being disciplined unfairly. we can understand better that the best place to look for a way to defend the member is in the language of the contract. arising out of anything connected with company which an employee thinks.
You and your local union are only limited by the contract. and the power of the local union.contract violation. the skills of the grievance representatives. which also acts as a means of upward communication. Moreover. If an explosive situation develops. productivity and their willingness to cooperate with the organization. for these supervisor may not have had a proper training for the purpose. discontent and frustrations. executive and judicial protection and they get this protection from the grievance redressal procedure. this can be promptly attended to if grievance handling procedure is already in existence. and they may lack authority. Summary . you ought to use it. It serves as an outlet for employees gripes. 2)CONSIDERS GOOD PRACTICE IN HANDLING DISCIPLINARY AND GRIEVANCE ISSUES : endorses the ACAS Code of Practice1 for handling disciplinary and grievance issues summarizes the statutory procedures which came into force in October 2004 includes the CIPD viewpoint. This may affect their moral. It acts like a pressure value on a steam boiler. there may be personality conflicts and other cause as well. NEED FOR A GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE Grievance procedure is necessary for any organization due to the following reason: Most grievances seriously disturb the employees. It is not possible that all the complaints of the employees would be settled by firsttime supervisors. The employees are entitled to legislative. It serves as a check on the arbitrary action of the management because supervisors know that employees are likely to see to it that their protest dose reach the higher management.
or any other matters subject to the authority of the ADOA Director and for which no other method of redress is provided or prohibited in the Personnel Rules. assign. any examination. An employee may submit a grievance concerning a specific performance factor rating by utilizing the EPAS Grievance Procedure. means. to maintain efficiency of government operations. and retain employees. certification or appointment. Restrictions An employee may not submit a grievance challenging the following management rights. or the use of any job-related supplemental rating factors to determine the receipt or amount of an increase. and. the following: Retirement issues. include. safety. suspension for more than 40 working hours. to hire. the following: All allegations of discrimination. Non-Applicable Matters A summary of issues which cannot be addressed through either the Basic or the EPAS Grievance Procedure. insofar as these personally affect the employee: The agency's right to direct its employees.A summary of issues which can be addressed through the Basic Grievance Procedure include. improvement of systems. practices or procedures. promote. working conditions. the amount of any increase or decrease. and any reduction in force . demotion. or dismissal resulting from disciplinary action. decrease. health. An employee may submit a grievance using the Basic Grievance Procedure within 10 days of receipt of a planning EPAS or within 10 days of failing to receive. and to determine the methods. or special performance award. but may submit a grievance concerning the manner of their administration. but are not limited to. but are not limited to. life insurance or health insurance issues. the non-receipt of a performance increase or special performance award. transfer. materials or equipment. supervisory practices or procedures considered improper or unfair. any classification action. An employee may not submit a grievance concerning the receipt of a performance decrease. disciplinary actions such as suspensions of 40 hours or less. a planning document. after written request. and personnel by which these operations are to be conducted. allegations of non-compliance with the Personnel Rules. reprimands or memos of concern.
Confidentiality and Use of Official Authority The preparation. It is the employee's responsibility to provide documentation to support the allegations raised in the grievance.action and matters not subject to the Department of Administration control. Correspondence regarding a grievance should be handled in a confidential manner. Copies of written responses sent at each step of the procedure are limited to respondents at the preceding steps. grievant may select one representative to provide advice and/or speak for the grievant at any meetings determined necessary by management in the course of the grievance process. Amendments Once a grievance is referred to any step beyond the immediate supervisor. submittal. If additional documentation is submitted by the grievant after the initiation of the grievance. Representation At any step of the grievance procedure after the mandatory pre-grievance oral discussion (see below). the reviewing official may remand the grievance to the appropriate previous level for reconsideration. the agency head or the agency head's designee unless it is necessary to notify additional personnel because the response requires another individual to take some action. Other avenues exist to seek redress or remedy involving these actions. An ADOA employee who serves as a representative is required to request and obtain prior approval for annual or compensatory leave for any time devoted as a representative during regular working . it may not be amended. and envelopes containing grievance material should be clearly labeled "confidential. Any person found guilty may be subject to penalty under ADOA Personnel Rule R2-5-501. review and response to a grievance are confidential." No reference to the complaint shall be included in the employee's official personnel file. No person shall directly or indirectly use any official authority or influence in any manner to discourage the use of this procedure.
Preparation Time During the entire formal grievance process (after the oral discussion at Step I). Extensions The ADOA Personnel Rules require that the agency head respond to a grievant not later than 40 working days after receipt of the grievance at the first step. one member who will act as the group's contact person. the employee may submit to the next step. If at any step the response is not made within the prescribed time and no extension has been agreed upon. the employee is REQUIRED to have an oral discussion with the immediate supervisor prior to initiating a formal . the representative shall be identified on the grievance form Group Grievance Should a group of employees file a grievance. all employees of the group are required to sign the grievance and to clearly designate. Within the 40 working days requirement. Employees must request and obtain prior supervisory approval for time off. the time at any step may be extended by the agency head with concurrence of the grievant. employees are allowed up to four hours with pay to prepare the grievance and/or confer with their official representative on the grievance. Employees cannot use state equipment for this process. The contact person will act as a speaker for the group in any meetings determined necessary by management.A. The time an employee devotes to attending any meetings scheduled by management to discuss the grievance is considered work time and is not included in the four-hour limitation specified above. on the grievance form. Mandatory Oral Discussion In accordance with Personnel Rule R2-5-702.1. which will be subject to the operational needs of the unit.hours. If a representative is chosen.
the employee must sign the grievance at each step and state why the response at the previous level was not satisfactory. Procedures When an employee wants to submit a basic grievance. Step I The Step I responding authority is the employee's immediate supervisor. If a suspension is being grieved. The purpose of the meeting is for both parties to explore the issues and the requested resolution. It is the employee's responsibility to remember that the Step I grievance must be submitted within 10 working days after the occurrence of the action being grieved. the issues involved. state the specific resolution which is sought. The employee must also meet the mandatory oral discussion requirement prior to submitting the complaint and adhere to the required time limitation for submitting a grievance. the grievance WILL NOT be accepted through the formal grievance procedure. and. The employee may select a representative at any step after the oral discussion with the supervisor. and that these 10 days are not extended by the date on which the oral discussion takes place. circumstances and issues involved. the employee must: Use the appropriate form. If the employee fails to take this step. The employee must clearly state to the supervisor the employee's intentions of filing a formal grievance. The time limit for submitting the grievance is 10 working days from the date of the action being grieved. of a Personnel Rule violation is alleged. The date the action occurred is not counted when determining 3)WHY ARE DISCIPLINARY AND GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES NECESSARY? . provide all the appropriate documentation to support the allegations. the date of the action is considered to be the first day of the suspension. and the requested resolution. the specific rule alleged to have been violated must be stated as well as an explanation of how the rule was violated. state the problem and outline all of the specific facts.grievance.
To identify obstacles to individuals achieving the required standards (e. They are necessary to ensure that everybody is treated in the same way in similar circumstances. To provide points of contact and timescales to resolve issues of concern. to ensure issues are dealt with fairly and reasonably and that they are compliant with current legislation. additional support needed) and take appropriate action. Disciplinary procedures are needed: So employees know what is expected of them in terms of standards of performance or conduct (and the likely consequences of continued failure to meet these standards). As an opportunity to agree suitable goals and timescales for improvement in an individual's performance or conduct.g. As a point of reference for an employment tribunal should someone make a complaint about the way they have been dismissed Grievance procedures are needed: To provide individuals with a course of action should they have a complaint (which they are unable to resolve through regular communication with their line manager). lack of clarity of job requirements. .Disciplinary and grievance procedures provide a clear and transparent framework to deal with difficulties which may arise as part of their working relationship from either the employer's or employee's perspective. training needs. The legal position Most of the provisions governing discipline and grievances at work are to be found in the Employment Act 2002 and the detailed regulations made to implement the provisions of that Act namely the Employment Act 2002 (Dispute Resolution) Regulations Some important examples include the: Employment Rights Act 1996 as amended Employment Rights Dispute Resolution Act 1998 2004 (SI2004/752). Numerous other pieces of legislation cross refer to discipline and grievance issues.
for example if one party reasonably believes there is a significant threat. security. dismissal and grievance procedures which must be followed in most cases failure to follow the statutory procedures by the employer prior to dismissal will render that dismissal automatically unfair employers will pay a potential increase in compensation of between 10-50% if the procedures are not followed by the employer an employee may be prevented from presenting some types of claim in the employment tribunal if they have not followed the grievance procedure first the procedures are non-contractual until further notification by the Department of Trade and Industry unless an organization chooses to incorporate the statutory minimum into their own contractual procedures. the Employment Act 2002 made it a legal requirement for all organizations to follow minimum disciplinary. and modified. . These statutory procedures amount to a minimum standard that must be followed by all employers and employees. It is envisaged that the standard procedure will be used in all but the most exceptional circumstances. to dismissals which occur on the expiry of a fixed-term contract and in a smaller scale redundancies. There are two sets of procedures: standard. These procedures apply in a wide range of circumstances which are not limited to issues relating to the capability or conduct of the employee but. The ACAS Code of Practice Disciplinary and Grievance Procedures1 provides CIPD members can find out more on the legal aspects of this topic from our FAQ on in the Employment Law at Work area of our website. or if there are issues of national detailed guidance for employers. dismissal and grievance procedures From 1 October 2004.Employment Relations Act 1999. The statutory disciplinary. dismissal and grievance procedures in certain circumstances. harassment or it is not practical to go through the procedures for reasons beyond their control. for example. The Main Features Of The Procedures Are: Three step statutory disciplinary. There are some exemptions to the statutory procedures. CIPD endorses this Code.
including: the three stages of the statutory procedure and any further elements of the organization’s additional procedures with whom to raise the complaint and appropriate sources of support timescales within which the organization will seek to deal with the complaint details of the stages of the grievance procedure e. This helps concerns to be heard and responded to as soon as possible. All line and senior managers must be familiar with their organization’s grievance procedure. such as counseling or sources of advice. record keeping is important . Where this has been unsuccessful. that is available to them. As in disciplinary matters. An employee should be given the right to be accompanied to grievance hearings by a colleague or trade union representative as explained above. There are a number of additional factors to bear in mind when dealing with grievances concerning harassment. Employees must know to whom they can turn in the event of a grievance and the support. then matters should raised formally through the grievance procedure. For further details see our fact sheet on Handling grievances informally Individuals should be encouraged to discuss ordinary. or circumstances make this route inappropriate for the individual. Handling grievances formally Employees should also be aware of the formal route open to them. Failure to address grievances leaves employees with ‘residual anger’ and can lead to general unrest and disputes in the workplace. how a complaint may be raised with the next level of management if a satisfactory resolution is not reached.Top of Form Grievance policy and practice It is essential that grievances from employees are treated in the same fair manner.g. day-to-day issues informally with their line manager.
Gather your thoughts before the meeting. and you’re not a union member. you have a legal right to take a ‘companion’ (who is a colleague or trade union representative) to the meeting with you. Written statement You must set out your grievance in writing (often called a ‘step one letter’). They’re protected from unfair dismissal or other mistreatment for supporting you.4)GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE PROCEDURES: THE STANDARD THREE-STEP Your employer’s grievance procedure may have more than three steps. Don’t be afraid to write down what it is you want to say. 2. It is up to your employer what format the meeting takes but they will normally go through the issues that have been raised and give you the opportunity to comment. If no colleague is willing to accompany you. Conciliation and Arbitration Service (Aces) have a code of practice which sets out how your employer should carry out a grievance procedure. The main purpose of the meeting should be to try to establish the facts and find a way to resolve the problem. If that’s the person causing the problem. Meeting: Your grievance should be looked into in a fair and unbiased way. There is nothing wrong with reading this out at the meeting. send it to the HR department or to the person’s boss. If your employer doesn’t agree (and they don’t have to). Your employer should invite you to a meeting (sometimes called a hearing) to discuss the problem. but make sure that your lack of preparation time is noted. they might also be there (but you should tell your employer if you are uncomfortable with this). The meeting must be at a convenient time for your companion. You can ask for a postponement of up to five days if necessary to get . talk on your behalf and confer with you during the hearing. The Advisory.The meeting should be at a convenient time for you and anyone else involved. If you ask your employer beforehand. Your employer’s grievance procedure should say who to send your letter to. If there is someone else involved. 1. ask if you can bring a family member or a Citizen’s Advice Bureau worker (but your employer does not have to agree to this). The companion can present and/or sum up your case. or if they’ve ignored previous complaints. you should go to the hearing. but it must include the following. ask for more time. and you should attend if you can. If you think you’ve not had enough time to prepare.
and copies of any information given by other people.your chosen companion there. and about your right to appeal if you’re not satisfied. If they don’t. maintain peace and channel their efforts towards organizational goal. You might be told of the outcome verbally at first but it will usually be confirmed in writing. you can get help through mediation. as before. Appeal meeting: If you’re not satisfied with the decision. If you are considering taking your issue to an Employment Tribunal you may want to appeal even if it seems pointless. If that isn’t possible. your employer should tell you reasonably quickly what’s been decided. and say that you’ll provide more information later. This is usually heard by a higher level of management. CONCEPT . because a tribunal award could be reduced if you don’t. make your appeal anyway. DISCIPLINE 1)INTRODUCTION: Discipline is required for both the organization and the individual. you have the right to an appeal. 3. Your employer should give you enough time to appeal. if your employer agrees to it. conciliation or arbitration. If you can’t sort out the dispute. or you think the procedure followed was seriously flawed. The appeal hearing is similar to the original meeting. You should be given notes of the meeting. and you have a right to a companion. Unless they need to investigate further. In the organization it is needed to regulate the behavior of people. Sad to sate. most people do not exercise self discipline and this fact makes external control necessary for brining order within an organization. your employer could ask an Aces mediator or other independent person to hear it.
discipline is interpreted as a sort of check or restraint on the freedom of person. Where the organizational climate is market by two-way communication. “to have a greater freedom in that he enjoys a greater degree of self-expression in striving to achieve the objective. out of conductive willingly organization so that employees established rules . It is viewed with fear and suspicion in organization.” 2)DIFFEREANCE BETWEEN POSITIVE & NEGATIVE DISCIPLINE : Point Concept Negative Discipline Positive Discipline is the creation climate confirm of in to a an the It is adherence to established It fear of punishment. which he identifies as his own. NEGAIVE DISCIPLINE Traditionally. clear goals. according to Spriegel enables an employee. effective leadership. The multiple explanation advanced by different expert in the filed have only added to the prevailing confusion.” POSITIVE DISCIPLINE Employees comply with rules not out fear of punishment but out of an inherent desire to cooperate and achieve goals. Positive discipline. they are punished.Discipline is not a glamorous term. norms and regulation. “Discipline is the force that prompts an individual or a group to observe the rules. If employees fail to observe rules. regulations and procedures which are deemed to be necessary to the attainment of an objective. adequate compensation employees need not be discipline in the traditional way. Discipline is used to the act of imposing penalties for wrong behavior.
Second. moulds and strengthens. This form of discipline is raised on to psychological principles. some firms have formalized the procedure. 5)THE RED HOT STOVE RULE: . goals. a self. serious punitive steps could be initiated. Often. If the violation requires a written warning. First. if the conduct of the employees is still not along desired lines. In order to assist a manager to recognize the proper level of disciplinary action. it must be done according to a procedure. punishment seldom produce the desired result.control to meet organizational objectives. object ivies. it produce undesirable result.discipline he mans the training that correct. After written warnings. If inappropriate behaviour is minor in nature and has not previously occurred an oral may be sufficient.respecting person tends to be a better worker than one who is not. Supervision Require intense supervisory Employees from going off the track.” 4)PROGRESSIVE DISCIPLINE: The concept o progressive discipline states that penalties must be appropriate to the violation. exercise self- control to prevent employees control to meet organizational 3)SELF DISCIPLINE AND CONTROL: Behavioral scientist view discipline as a self. In case of major violations such has hitting a supervisor may justify the termination of an employee immdiately. It refers to one’s efforts at self control to certain needs and demands.Conflict Employees do not perceptive There is no conflict between the corporate goals as there individual and organizational own. Megginson clarified the term thus. “By self.
it must occur immediately so the individual will understand the reason for it. redreassal of these terms and condition may lead to misconduct or indciplpine. people have tendency to convince themselves that they are not fault. working hours. According to the Red Hot Stove rule disciplinary action should have following consequences: A} Burns immediately: If disciplinary action is to be taken. the employee concerned should be issue a charge . the disciplinary procedure followed in Indian industries usually consist of the following steps: a. With the passage of time. As you move closer to hot stove you are warned by its heat that will be burned. They indicate duties and responsibility on the part of both the employer and the employees. leave. B} provides warning: It is very important to provide advance warning that punishment will follow unacceptable behaviour. stoppage of work. C} Burns impersonally: Disciplinary action should be impersonal. But disciplinary action against a delinquent employee is painful and generates resentment on his part. no manager can get things done. attendance.Without the continual support of the subordinate. holidays. The term Standing order refers to the rules and regulation which governs the condition of employment of workers. 6)JUSTICAL APPROCH TO DISCIPLINE: The Industrial Employment Act was passed in 1946 with a view to improve the industrial relation climate. shift working. The standing order contains rules relating to classification of employees. There are no favorites when this approach is followed. 7)DISCIPLINARY ACTION: Though there is no rigid and specific procedure for taking disciplinary action. suspension. The Act requires that all establishment must define the service rules and prepare standing order. Issuing the letter of charge: When a employee commits an act of misconduct that required disciplinary action.
time. Holding of a full fledge enquiry : These must be in conformity with the principle of natural justice. Capability/performance It is inevitable that at some stage all employers will encounter difficulties with the performance of their employees in the workplace (these can stem from difficulties on the part of the organization such as insufficient training and support. Enquiry should also initiated by first serving him a notice of enquiry indicating clearly the name of enquiring officer. 8)DISCIPLINARY POLICY AND PRACTICE:Using the disciplinary process There are two main areas where the disciplinary system is used: capability/performance and conduct. b. of being heard. d. the enquiry officer should suggest the nature of disciplinary action. date and place of enquiry etc. On the contrary when the management is not satisfied with the employees explanation there is a need for serving a show-cause notice. Consideration of explanation: On getting the answer for the letter of charge served. no disciplinary action need be taken. as well as the individual who is struggling to fulfill their responsibilities). It is good practice and also more efficient . the explanation furnished be consider and if it is a satisfactory. or a lack of leadership or inappropriate systems of work. When the process of enquiry is over an findings of the same are record.sheet. that is the employee concerned must be given an opportunity. Charges of misconduct or indiscipline should be clearly and precisely stated in the charge sheet. c. Show-cause notice: Show-cause notice is issued by the manager when he believes that there is a sufficient prima facie evidence of employees misconduct.
unacceptable levels of absence could still result in the employer making use of warnings. Record-keeping All records should be kept meticulously. In all cases. by managers via discussions which clarify 'what good performance looks like'. an employer should attempt to follow the statutory procedures. Situations where an individual is unable to do their job because of ill-health also fall into this category. goal setting. fighting and committing criminal offences. abuse of the organization’s computer system or Internet access. it should always have three main stages: 1] Letter 2] Meeting 3] Appeal. Only when these options have been exhausted and where there is no alternative should managers should enter a more formal disciplinary procedure. .that such issues are addressed informally. keeping records is vital. bullying behaviour or creating a hostile work environment. through to theft. copies of correspondence etc. There must always be a full and fair investigation to determine the facts and to decide if further action is necessary. Since the burden of proof is on the employer to show that the dismissal is not unfair or unreasonable. Stages of the process If disciplinary action is to be taken. However. as this will be vital should a case be perused at an employment tribunal. Conduct Employee misconduct could range from continued lateness. support and timely positive feedback where appropriate. Type of records that should be kept by employers is minutes of meetings. as and when they arise. The more grave offences may constitute gross misconduct. In these instances an employee should be dealt with sympathetically and offered support. failure to follow a reasonable management instruction. even gross misconduct. attendance. notes of telephone calls.
.not the duration. ideally more than 48 hours. Make sure the employee knows from the letter inviting them to the meeting why they have been asked to attend and that they have a right to have a companion present. Give the employee ample opportunity to put forward their side of the story and call any supporting witnesses. You can also call witnesses.Handing disciplinary interviews All line managers should be trained and supported so that they are able to carry out disciplinary meetings with their team. Make sure another member of management can be there to take detailed notes and help. so that they have a chance to arrange an appropriate representative if they wish. but they can only be in the room for the relevant part of the interview . Make sure the individual has reasonable notice. Start the interview by stating the complaint to the employee and giving appropriate statements from people involved. The HR department should be able to assist them by providing a source of independent advice on preparing for and conducting the interview. You can also use if things become heated or people are upset during the interview. as well as sharing knowledge about similar cases in the organization and relevant legislation. Conduct the interview. Make use of adjournments: always take a break to consider and obtain any extra information you need before reaching your decision. Never pre-judge the outcome of the interview before hearing the employee's perspective. The key points to consider are: Ensure you have investigated all the facts in advance (including consulting the individual's personal file for relevant information) and plan how you will approach the meeting.
confirm review periods and ensure you give details of how to appeal. Confirm the decision in writing. For example. but the following are likely: Recorded oral warning First written warning Final written warning. if an employee was unclear about what was expected from them and they agree to try to resolve the issue via additional support or counseling. An organization’s policy should outline exactly what warnings will be given. It is important that everyone involved in disciplinary action understand the importance of following the correct procedure.Deliver the decision (and give reasons. they can still be deemed to have been treated unfairly if the correct procedures are not followed. Warnings Alternatively. the employer may decide to give the employee a warning. Clearly these stages represent an increase in seriousness. . Ultimately. With the exception of extreme examples of misconduct. it would be inappropriate to 'skip stages' in the process. taking into account any mitigating circumstances). the employer may decide that no action is necessary. failure to reach the organization’s standards may result in dismissal. as even if the case against an employee seems proven. An individual is entitled to be accompanied by a work colleague or trade union official at formal disciplinary and grievance interviews. It would be good practice for an employer also to offer this at any purely investigatory meeting. and to select a companion of their choice. No action After the meeting. Any warning should also specify a review period during which the individual receives appropriate support and their performance can be monitored.
2 years.1 year final written warning . . Recruitment refers to “Discovering potential applicants for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies. RECURITMENT Recruitment means to estimate the available vacancies and to make suitable arrangements for their selection and appointment. Recruitment is the process of identifying the sources for prospective candidates and to stimulate them to apply for the job. Typical timescales for the types of warning are: recorded oral warning .Disciplinary warnings should normally have a specified 'life' after which they are disregarded when considering any subsequent warnings. to employ effective measures for attracting potential manpower in adequate number”. It’s linking activity bringing together those with jobs and those seeking jobs. In recruitment process available vacancies are given wide publicity and suitable candidates are encouraged to submit application so as to have a pool of eligible candidates for scientific selection. Where misconduct has been very serious. It locates the source of manpower to meet the requirements and job specifications. Recruitment is a process “To discover the source of manpower to meet the requirements of staffing. it may be appropriate for the warning to continue to be regarded indefinitely.6 months first written warning .
internal promotions. DEFINITION OF RECREUITMENT According to Edwin Flippo. employment exchange. etc. “Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. Recruitment is a positive function in which publicity is given to the jobs available in the organization and interested candidates (qualified job applicants) are encouraged to submit applications for the purpose of selection. In the recruitment. . a pool of eligible and interested candidates is created for the selection of most suitable candidate. To search for talents globally and not just within the company. are used. To search or head hunt/head pouch people whose skills fit the company’s values. 2) To meet the organization’s legal and social obligations regarding the demographic composition of its workforce. To infuse fresh blood at all levels of the organization. information is collected from interested candidates.In recruitment. PURPOSE OF RECRUITMENT Recruitment has three major purposes: 1) to increase the pool of job applicants with minimum cost. Recruitment represents the first contact that a company makes with potential employees. For these different sources of recruitment such as newspaper advertisement. To develop an organizational culture that attracts competent people to the company. To induct outsider with a new perspective to lead the company. OBJECTIVES OF RECRUITMENT The objectives of recruitment are as follows: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) To attract people with multi-dimensional skills and experiences that suit the present and future organizational strategies.
facilities. SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT The sources of recruitment may be grouped into: Internal sources External sources INTERNAL SOURCES: As the term implies internal source of recruitment is for those who are currently members or the organization.Transfer refers to a change in job assignment. death and labour turnover. E. 2) Transfers: .g. transfers. It may involve a promotion or demotion. permanent disability. depending the necessity of filling jobs. management follows the policy of internal promotions. Promotion means shifting of an employee to a higher position carrying higher responsibilities. somebody from within the organization may be looked into. Whenever any vacancy arises. Various positions in the organization are usually filled up by promotions of existing employees on the basis of merit or seniority or a combination of both. status and salaries. A transfer may be either temporary or permanent. retirement.3) To help increase the success rte of the selection process by reducing the percentage of applicants who are either poorly qualified or have the wrong skills. transfer from head office to branch office. 1) Promotions: . (b) Creation of new vacancies due to growth. NEED FOR RECRUITMENT The need for recruitment may be due to the following reasons/situations: (a) Vacancies due to promotions.In order to motivate the existing employees. or no change in terms of responsibility or status. In addition. expansion and diversification of business activities of an enterprise. termination. new vacancies are possible due to job respecification. . following are the internal sources of recruitment.
Company managements have to use eternal sources for the recruitment of supervisory staff and managers as and when necessary. might be willing to come back for higher wages incentives. It usually includes new entrants to the labour force the unemployed and people employed in the other organization seeking the change. This may be with a view to introducing the ‘new blood’ in the organization. The best example for newspaper advertisement is the Times of India’s Asscent supplement which comes on every Wednesday and contains both domestic as well as international jobs. his leave may be extended. management may not find suitable candidate in place of the one who had retired. Private sector is able to attract many aspirants.College Campuses are another very popular recruitment source. after meritorious service. EXTERNAL SOURCES As the term implies the external source of recruitment is of potential workers who are not currently member of the organization. it provides wide choice as it attracts a large number of suitable candidates from all over the country. 4) Recalls: . Newspaper advertising typically generates a large applicant flow. 2) Campus Recruitment: .At times. Following are the most common external source of managerial recruitment. 5) Former employees: . It is an excellent source of recruiting .Individuals who left for some other job.3) Retirements: .When management faces a problem. 1) Newspaper Advertisement:-Newspaper advertisements are overwhelmingly popular source of recruitment. it may be decided to recall that person. IIts and Regional Engineering Colleges has provided a popular source of recruitment. Under this circumstances management may decide to call retired manager with new extension. An advantage with these sources is that the performance of the person/employee is already known. A message containing general information about the job and the organization is placed in various newspapers. After the problem is solved. Though costly. which can be solved only by a manager who has proceeded on long leave. External recruitment is one way of bringing into the organization that has new skills or abilities and different way of approaching job task. The growth of Management institutes.
This source is quickly growing in popularity.Job fairs are very effective. A job fair is an event sponsored by a "job fair" company who charges a fee to participating employers. If a job fair results in just one hire it is usually cost effective. The promising students get job security immediately after securing degrees due to such campus interviews/recruitment. More and more organizations are placing information about open positions on the World Wide web. day and timing during which the applicant can ‘walk in’ for an interview. however. The "job fair" company will typically advertise in local media to attract qualified applicants. A large and fast growing proportion of employers use the internet as a recruitment tool. . The applicant is not required to submit any applications. 4) Job Fairs: . Most employment advertisement firms can also post the jobs on the Internet. 6) Walk-ins. 3) Recruitment through internet: . Currently employers can post their openings to any of several newsgroups for free. 5) Employment Agencies: .naukri. Because the applicants may be interviewing with multiple employers. Write-ins and Talk ins:. they charge a fee. The advertisement mentions date.com.com. Some of the examples are www. it is imperative to respond quickly with invitations for in-plant interviews of qualified candidates. www. These applicants a raked to complete application forms for further processing.monster. There are many web sites through which recruitment takes place. The company provides the agency with information about the job. which the agency then passes along to its clients. etc.The most economical approach for recruitment of candidates is direct applications.The Internet has quickly become a very popular source of employment advertising.management trainees. Write-ins are those who send written inquiries.The firm contacts an organization whose main purpose is locate job seekers. Hiring managers can meet multiple candidates and conduct on-thespot interviews. Clients may be either employed or unemployed. Fees may be charged to either or both the client seeking a job and the company seeking applicants. Talk-ins is now becoming popular and the applicants are required to meet the employer for detailed talks. Agencies can either be public or private. The job seekers submit applications or resumes directly to the employer.
In brief. 8) People recruited from within the organization do not need induction or training. 4) The organization will not be able to attract capable persons from outside if internal sources are used extensively.ADVANTAGES OF INTERNAL RECRUITMENT 1) Internal recruitment is economical. 4) It provides security and continuity of employment. DISADVANTAGES OF INTERNAL RECURITMENT 1) Internal promotions create a feeling of discontent among those who are not promoted. 6) It reduces labour turnover as capable employees get promotion within the organizations. 3) Promotion to certain key post may not be possible due to non-availability of competent persons. This means there is motivation to employee to develop and reach to higher positions. 5) Internal recruitment helps to raise the morale of employees and develop cordial relations at the managerial levels. 7) Internal recruitment is a quick and more reliable method. 2) The present employees already know the company well and are likely to develop a loyalty for the same. 3) It tends to encourage existing employees to put in greater efforts and to acquire additional qualification. 5) It may encourage favoritism and nepotism. ADVANTAGES OF EXTERNAL SOURCE OF RECRUITMENT . internal methods of recruitment should be used to extent possible but too much dependence on internal methods is undesirable and may prove costly to the organization in the long run. 2) It prevents the entry of young blood in the organization. 6) Promotions by seniority may not be always beneficial to the organization.
3) The present employees may lose their sense of security. 4) Employees feel frustrated due to external recruitment and their morale is adversely affected. 2) The relations between employer and employee deteriorate leading to industrial disputes and strikes. DISADVANTAGES RECRUITMENT OF EXTERNAL SOURCE OF 1) External recruitment leads to labour turnover particularly of skilled. experienced and ambitious employees. 2) Wide scope is available for selection.1) Entry of young blood in the organization is possible. Their loyalty to the organization may be adversely affected. This facilitates selection of people with rich and varied experience. 5) The management can fulfill reservation requirements in favour of the disadvantaged section of he society. SELECTION MEANING AND DEFINITION OF SELECTION . 4) Scope for heartburn and jealousy can be avoided by recruiting from outside. 3) Selection can be made in an impartial manner as large number of qualified and interested candidates are available.
In short. In the words of Dale Yodev. the development of job analyses. . Selection is next to recruitment. Selection means a process by which the qualified personnel can be choosen from the applicants who have offered their services to the organization for employment. Thus.Selection is one of the most important of all functions in the management of personnel. The objective of the selection decision is to chose the individual who can most successfully perform the job from the pool of qualified candidates. human resource planning and recruitment are necessary prerequisites to the selection process. abilities and personality to successfully fill specific jobs in the organization. Thus selection process is negative function because it attempt to eliminate applicants. leaving the best to be selected. and behavioral. “Selection is the process in which candidates for employment are divided into two classes – those who are to be offered employment and those who are not”. “Right man at the right job” is the basic principle in selection. 3) Candidates for screening have been attracted. The selection procedures cannot be effective until and unless: 1) Requirements of the job to be filled. Selection is more closely related to recruitment because both are concerned with processing individuals to place them in a job. etc) 2) Employee specifications (physical. have been clearly specified (job analysis. selection is the process of choosing a person suitable for the job out of several persons. The breakdown in any of these processes can make even the best selection system ineffective. The selection procedures are the system of functions and devices adopted in a given company to ascertain whether the candidate’s specification is matched with the job specification and requirements or not. social. After identifying the sources of human resources. searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organization. Selection is the process of collecting and evaluating information about an individual in order to extend an offer of employment. It is the process of logically choosing individuals who posses the necessary skills. the management has to perform the function of selecting the right employees at the right time. etc) have been clearly specified. mental.
Proper selection of personnel reduces personnel problems in the organization. the selection procedure is not a single act but . Selection of skilled personnel also facilitates the expansion in the size of the business. 2) Reduce Cost of Training and Development: . the organization can develop different training programmes for different persons on the basis of their individual differences. It is in the interest of the organization in order to maintain the supremacy over the other competitive firms. 3) Absence of Personnel Problems: . Skilled workers help the management to expand the business and to earn more profits and in turn management compensates. knowledge. Further.IMPORTANCE OF SELECTION The importance of selection may be judged from the following facts:1) Procurement of Qualified and Skilled Workers: . Therefore. benefits etc. They can understand the technique of work better and in less time. SELECTION PROCEDURE Selection procedure employs several methods of collecting information about the candidate’s qualification. physical and mental ability. absenteeism and monotony shall not be experienced in their severity in the organization. thus reducing the time and cost of training considerably. Many problems like labour turnover. experience. aptitude and the like for judging whether a given applicant is or is not suitable for the job. Selection of skilled personnel reduces the labour cost and increases the production. nature and behaviour.Proper selection of candidates reduces the cost of training because qualified personnel have better grasping power. the workers with high wages. Labour relation will be better because workers will be fully satisfied by the work.Scientific selection facilitates the procurement of well qualified and skilled workers in the organization.
Thus preliminary interview is useful as a process of eliminating the undesirable and unsuitable candidate. the data become a part of the employee’s record.Application Form is also known as application blank. If the candidate seems to possess the basic minimum requirements for efficient job performance. personal details. Applications will not be accepted after the . Every organization should finalize the job analysis. salary. The information is generally required on the following items in the application forms: Personal background information. job specification and employee specification before proceeding to the next step of selection. Work experiences. The applicant who seems to be not fit for the job on the basis of information given in the application blank is rejected out rightly at this stage. 3) Preliminary Interview: .Job analysis is the basis for selecting the right candidate. he is given an application form for being filled out by him. 4) Screening Application Form: . The technique of application blank is traditional and widely accepted for securing information from the prospective candidates.Preliminary or initial interview is often held in case of “at the gate” candidate. Selection procedure is lengthy and time consuming particularly in the case of supervisory post. 2) Application Form: . job description. Educational information. This interview usually of short duration and is aimed at obtaining certain basic information with a view to identifying the obvious misfits or unqualified.is essentially a series of methods or stages by which different types of information can be secured through various selection techniques. Following are the steps/ procedures of selection: 1) Job Analysis: . The applicants who have not furnished the required information may also be rejected. Where application forms are use. facts may come to light which are useful for comparison with the job requirement and employee specifications.Information given in the application form is used for selection purposes. At each step. expected salary and allowances etc.
6) Final interviewing: . aptitude test measures individuals capacity or talent ability to learn a job if he is given adequate training.close date. verbal comprehension. After the close date of the recruitment. In this step the interviewer matches the information obtained about the candidate through various means to the job requirements and to the information obtained through his own observation during the interview. the interviewee should also be given a chance to ask questions if he so likes. in this situation. Interview must be conducted in a friendly atmosphere and the candidate must be made to feel at ease. The interviewer should not ask unwarranted questions which make the candidate nervous. numbers. word fluency etc. This is the most essential step in the process of selection.The organization have to conduct written examination for the qualified candidates after they are screened on the basis of the application blanks so as to measure the candidate’s ability in arithmetical calculations. reasoning. These references may be from the individuals who are familiar with the candidate’s academic . 5) Written test:. to know the candidate’s attitude towards job. The basic objective of the interview is to measure the applicant against the specific requirements of the job. A recruitment date may be extended if there are no qualified candidates. general knowledge and English language. applicants are reviewed and interviewed on a regular basis until an eligible candidate can be selected and appointed to the available position. It being the two way communication. Intelligence test measures the individuals capacity or reasoning. the Job Expert for the hiring department and Human Resources will screen the application forms for minimum education and qualification requirements. 7) Reference Checks: . to measure the candidates aptitude. knowledge in various disciplines. vocabulary.After completion of the final interview. about the job and the organization. Candidates are required to give the name of reference in their application forms. the personnel department will engage in checking references.Final interview is usually followed by testing. Recruitments can also be open until the position is filled.
a great deal can be learned about a person that an interview or tests cannot elicit.If a candidate successfully overcomes all the obstacles or tests given he would be declared selected. 9) Selection: . This is very important because of a person of poor health cannot work competently and the investment in him may go waste.achievement or from the applicant’s previous employer. A good reference check used sincerely fetches useful and reliable information to the organization. Thus. post on which selected etc. pay scales. who is well versed with the applicant’s job performance. .The candidates who have crossed the above hurdles are required to go for the medical examination. 8) Physical Examination: . If reference is checked in the correct manner. and sometime from co-workers. A appointment letter will be given to him mentioning the terms of employment. a thorough medical examination is essential.
MEANING AND DEFINITION OF PLACEMENT .
” A proper placement reduced the employee turnover. One the employee is selected he should be placed on a suitable job. man next” should be the principle of placement. if the employee show a good performance. It is very difficult for a new employee who is quite unknown to the job and environment. companionship with other promotional possibilities etc. . Neither higher. The job should not be adjusted according to the qualifications or requirements of the man. PRINCIPLE OF PLACEMENT Following principles are followed at the time of placement of an employee: 1) The man should be placed on the job according to requirements of the job. 2) The job should be offered to the man according to his qualifications. an effort should be mad to develop a sense of loyalty and cooperation in him so that he may realize his responsibilities better towards the job and the organization. the probation period or trial period is a transition period at the end of which management has to take decision whether the employee should be made regular or discharged from the job. For this reason. and his assignment to that job. absenteeism and accident rate and improves the morale. 3) The employee should be made conversant with the conditions prevailing in the industry and all things relating to the job. According to Pigors and Myres. placement may be defined as “the determination of the job to which an accepted candidate is to be assigned. it is matching of what he imposes(in strain. Placement is not an easy process. 4) While introducing the job to the new employee.Placement means offering of the job to the finally selected candidate. he is confirmed as a regular employee of the organization. nor lower job should be offered to the new employee. Thus. “Job first. He should also be made aware of the penalties if he commits a wrong. It is matching of what the supervisor has reason to think he can dos with the job demands(job requirements). the employee is generally put on a probation period ranging from one year to two years. working condition) and what offers is the form of pay roll. At the end of the probation period.
the career path includes the following job positions: . The employees will develop new skills will be available to the organization. even experts are available to help youth in their career planning. This type of career planning can be described as organizational career planning. The term career planning and development is used extensively in relation to business organizations. inclinations. This is described as career path. psychological tests etc. At present. they should decide what they want to achieve in their life and adjust their education and other activities accordingly. prosperous and rich in quality. family members and college teachers offer helping hand and guide young boys and girls in selecting the most suitable career. This means they have to plan their career. It is argued that if the organizations want to get the best out of their employees. and decide what they want to be in their life. workshops and TV programmes are arranged for guiding students on career selection (particularly after the declaration of HSC results). In other words. likes and dislikes. MEANING OF CAREER (WHAT IS CAREER?):A career is a sequence of positions/jobs held by a person during the course of his working life. are also available on career planning. Even lectures. According to Edwin B. IQ and other tests are also conducted for this purpose. Such programmes offer benefits to employees and also to the organizations. order and meaning to a person’s life”. psychological make-up. In the case of an ordinary worker. Flippo “a career is a sequence of separate but related work activities that provide continuity. they must plan the career development programmes in their organization effectively. Career planning enables them to use their abilities/qualities fully and make their life happy. Career of an employee represents various jobs performed by him during the course of his working life. parents. College students are expected to consider their qualities (physical and mental). Lot of literature. etc. In such career planning.CAREER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION:The term career planning is frequently used in relation young boys and girls studying at the college level.
skills and so on. higher status and opportunity to use knowledge. Employees (of all categories) want to grow in their careers as this provides more salary. career planning and development have become crucial in management process. He joins the organization with a desire to have a bright career in terms of status. As already noted. ability. they must plan regularly the career development programmes in their organizations. An organization has to provide better opportunities to its employees in their career development and also use their efficient services for the benefit of the organization. Career planning and development is the responsibility of the HR department of the organization. An organization has to provide facilities/opportunities for the career development of individual employees. every person joining an organization has a desire to make career as per his potentiality. From the point of view of an organization. 2) To attract and retain the right type of persons in the organization. NEED/PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES OF CAREER PLANNING:1) To map out careers of employees as per their ability and willingness and to train and develop them for higher positions. career planning refers to the formal programmes that organizations implement to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the human resources available. MEANING OF CAREER PLANNING (WHAT IS CAREER PLANNING?):Career planning is one important aspect of human resource planning and development. education and skills effectively. Every individual who joins an organization desires to make a good career for himself within the organization. In brief. An individual with potentials joins a firm not for job but for career development. If the organizations want to get the best out of their employees. . compensation payment and future promotions.Unskilled worker – Semi-skilled worker – Skilled worker – Highly skilled worker – Assistant foreman – Foreman.
efforts will be made to identify the number of employees required in future.3) To utilize available managerial talent within the organization fully. b) CAREER INFORMATION:Here. c) CAREER COUNSELLING:Such counselling is next to supplying career information. 6) To improve employee morale and motivation by providing training and opportunities for promotion. It is a type of internal guidance and motivation of employees for the selection of possible career paths. SCOPE OF ORGANISATIONAL CAREER PLANNING:The following activities/areas are covered within the scope of organizational career planning: a) HUMAN RESOURCE FORECASTING AND PLANNING:Here. Supplying career information/opportunities has special significance as this motivates employees to grow and reach to higher position. In addition. 4) To achieve higher productivity and organizational development. training for self development. d) CAREER PATHING:Management now plans job sequences for transfers and promotions of their employees. 5) To provide guidance and assistance to employees to develop their potentials to the highest level. Such counselling is needed when employees have to plan their own careers and develop themselves for career progress. etc) will be supplied to employees. information relating to career opportunities (promotions. This makes transfers and promotions systematically with advance information to employees. Career pathing creates suitable mental make up of employees for self development. Career counselling is possible by senior executives through periodic discussions with their subordinates. Such career guidance encourages subordinate employees to take interest in certain areas where suitable opportunities of career development are available. e) SKILL ASSESSMENT TRAINING:- . the selection procedure will be adjusted with the overall strategic goals of the organization.
etc. Career planning encourages him to avail of the training and development facilities in the organization so as to improve his ability to handle new and higher assignments. v. public sector development. Career planning can become a reality when opportunities for vertical ability are available. influence . ii.Training is essential for career planning and also for manpower development. it is not suitable for a very small organization. growth of backward areas. organizational and job manpower requirement analysis should be undertaken by the management. etc. The employees required to fill job vacancies in future can be identified and developed in time. environmental factors such as government policy. ADVANTAGES OF CAREER PLANNING:A properly designed system of career planning can provide the following benefits: i. therefore to group together people talking on a similar wavelength and place them under supervisors who are responsive to that wavelength. iv. Career planning anticipates the future vacancies that may arise due to retirement. Therefore. it provides a fairly reliable guide for manpower forecasting. Career planning involves a survey of employee abilities and attitudes. ii. Therefore. Along with job analysis. at managerial level. Career planning helps an employee to know the career opportunities available in an organization. Career planning facilitates expansion and growth of the enterprise. It becomes possible. death. In a developing country like India. resignation. DISADVANTAGES/LIMITATIONS OF CAREER PLANNING:The main problems in career planning are as follows: i. This prepares proper background for the introduction of career planning programmes for employees. iii.
business and industry. Therefore, career plans for a period exceeding a decade may not be effective. iii. iv. Career planning is not an effective technique for a large number of employees who work on the shop floor, particularly for illiterate and unskilled workers. In family business houses in India, members of the family expect to progress faster in their career than their professional colleagues. This upset the career planning process. v. Systematically career planning becomes difficult due to favouritism and nepotism in promotions, political intervention in appointments and reservations of seats for scheduled castes/tribes and backward classes.
HOW TO INTRODUCE CAREER PLANNING PROGRAMME? (PROCESS OF CAREER PLANNING):It is not easy to introduce career development programme at the level of an organization. Moreover, such career development planning is a continuous activity. What is happening in most of the organizations is that this concepts is given only lip service and theoretical importance. If the organization wants to get the best out of their employees, it must plan the career developments programmes continuously and effectively in its organization. DETAILS OF THE STEP IN CAREER PLANNING:1) ANALYSIS OF PERSONEL SITUATION:This is the first step which needs to be completed before the introduction of career planning programme. This relates to a time from which career planning is to be introduced. Here, the base line will be prepared to help the planners to make projections for the planning period and to help in the evaluation of plans. In order to analyze the present career situation, the following information will be required: i. ii. iii. iv. Total number of employees – their age distribution, qualifications, positions, specializations, etc. Structure – broad as well as detailed and the qualifications required for each grade. Personnel need of the organization. (Category wise) Span of control available within the organization.
Field staff at head office with necessary details, and Facilitates available for training and development within and outside the organization.
The information collected on these aspects serves as the base for the preparation of career development plan for the future period. 1. ANALYSIS OF PESONNEL SITUATION
2. PROJECTION OF PERSONNEL SITUATION 3. 4. 5. IDENTIFYING CAREER NEEDS SELECTION OF PRIORITIES DEVELOPMENT OF CAREER PLANS
6. WRITE UP OF FORMULATED CAREER PLANS 7. 8. 9. 10. MANAGERIAL PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW AND EVALUATION FUTURE NEEDS
2) PROJECTION OF PERSONNEL SITUATION:In this second step, an attempt is being made to find out the situation likely to develop after the completion of career development plan. This can be done on the basis of assumption which can predict what is likely to happen at the close of the career development plan. 3) IDENTIFYING OF CAREER NEEDS:In this third step of career development plan, efforts are made to find out precisely the career development needs of the future period. It is possible to
identify the scope and limitations of career development needs on the basis of the data collected (through personnel inventory of the organization, employee potentials, and appraisal of employees). 4) SELECTION OF PRIORITIES:It is rather difficult to meet all the needs of the employees and the organization for career development immediately i.e. through one career development plan. Naturally, there is a need to select the pressing and urgent problems of employees and organization. In addition, other factors such as technical, financial and administrative must be taken into consideration while finalizing the priorities. 5) DEVELOPMENT OF CAREER PLAN:This is the most important step in the whole process of career developing plan. Such plan must describe the following in concrete form/forms: a. What is to be attained/achieved? b. The extent to which it is to be attained, c. The employees involved, d. The department in which the proposed plan will operate; e. The length of time required the achieving the goals. In order to execute the career development plan, the organization should: a) Introduce systematic policies and programmes of staff training and career development for all categories of employees so as to enable them to: I. Improve their level of skill and knowledge; II. Gain wider experiences; and III. Assume higher responsibilities. b) Establish and effectively implement a system of study leave; c) Develop the experience of the employees by encouraging their rotation from one region to another; d) Take positive steps to encourage career development, such as: I. Providing within the organization; II. Giving priorities in the filling of vacancies in the following order for: 1. promotion within the organization; 2. Transfer within the organization; 3. Outside recruitment.
MONITORING OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT PLAN:Monitoring of the plan is essential for its effective execution. For effective implementation. 7) MONITORING PLANNING i. The new priorities are decided and the details of the new career development plan are prepared. Such evaluation should be done by experts. This writ-up should contain all necessary details such as schedule (time sequence of plan). Such evaluation avoids mistakes. on the basis of the achievements of the current plan. Actual benefits available will be known only through such review and evaluation. Removing artificial barriers to promotion. the next major step is to prepare a write up (brief report) of the career plan. 9) REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF CAREER PLANS:A plan needs periodical review. procedures and other details so that the evaluation of the plan will be easy and meaningful. the career needs of the future period (of employees and also of the organization) are estimated. 8) IMPLEMENTATION (OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT PLAN):Implementation/execution of the plan is an integral aspect of planning process itself. In addition. short falls) can be located quickly. Here. Planned (expected) targets and targets actually achieved can be compared through suitable monitoring of the plan. The implementation needs proper monitoring so as to avoid possible shortfalls. It is built-in device to measure the effectiveness of the plan. It should be conducted systematically and also impartially.e. suitable remedial measures can be taken to rectify the shortfalls. 6) WRITE-UP OF FORMULATED PLAN:After deciding the priorities of career development plan. The gap between the two (i. 10) FUTURE NEEDS:This is the last step/stage of the current career development plan and the first step/stage of the next plan. IV. Establishing a register of employees for promotion on merit-cumseniority basis.e. deficiencies. co-operation and co-ordination at all levels is necessary.III. etc during the implementation stage. Planning is a continuous . Expected results/benefits will be available only when the plan is implemented properly.
responsibility. Many a time they are not sure about future prospects but take up a job in anticipation of rising higher up in the career graph later. They go through the following stages: 1) EXPLORATION:Almost all candidates who start working after college education start around mid-twenties. depending on available opportunity. there is marked deterioration in their performance. This may either result in migration to another job or he will remain with the Same job because of lack of opportunity. Chances are they change jobs. This rule is applicable to career development plans of an organization. this stage is of no relevance because it happens prior to the employment. employees who are unhappy and frustrated with the job. Authority. Some candidates who come from better economic background can wait and select a career of their choice under expert guidance from parents and well-wishers. On the other hand. People go for school and college education and prepare for their occupation. 3) MID-CAREER STAGE:This career stage represents fastest and gainful leap for competent employees who are commonly called “climbers”. 2) ESTABLISHMENT:This career stage begins with the candidate getting the first job getting hold of the right job is not an easy task. Very few people stick to the same job throughout their life. Where opportunity is restricted they continue with the same job. CAREER STAGES:Education is thought of in terms of employment. In other to show their utility to the organization. . Most of them switch job either within the organization or in some other organization. Candidates are likely to commit mistakes and learn from their mistakes. Ambitious candidates will keep looking for more lucrative and challenging jobs elsewhere. several times before retirement. rewards and incentives are highest at this stage. Slowly and gradually they become responsible towards the job. employees must remain productive at this stage.process/activity. There is continuous improvement in performance. From the point of view of organization. “climbers” must go on improving their own performance.
Employees tend to settle down inn their jobs and “job hopping” is not common. 4) LATE CAREER:This career stage is pleasant for the senior employees who like to survive on the past glory. HIGH EXPLORATION ESTABLISHMENT MID-CAREER LATE CAREER DECLINE LOW 25 35 AGE 45 55 60 STAGES IN CAREER DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT/INTRODUCTION TO CAREER DEVELOPMENT:- . Such employees enjoy playing the role of elder statesperson. There is no desire to improve performance and improve past records. 5) DECLINE STAGE:This career stage represents the completion of one’s career usually culminating into retirement. Others may think of “life after retirement”. After decades of hard work. Employees who were climbers and achievers will find it hard to compromise with the reality. They are expected to train younger employees and earn respect from them. such employees have to retire.
).. a new learning experience. The terms ‘career development’ and ‘employee development’ need to be differentiated at this stage. for years men have used private clubs. old-boy networks to gain exposure and achieve their career ambitions. INDIVIDUAL CAREER DEVELOPMENT:Career progress and development is largely the outcome of actions on the part of an individual. LOYALTY TO CAREER:- .Career development consists of the personal actions one undertakes to achieve a career plan. which implies becoming known by those who decide promotions. jumping the jobs frequently (job-hopping) may not be a good career strategy in the longrun. III. II. IV. V. etc.g. LEVERAGING:Resigning to further one’s career with another employer is known as leveraging. PERFORMANCE:Career progress rests largely on performance. EXPOSURE:Career development comes through exposure. etc. even modest career goals can’t be achieved. You must undertake actions that would attract the attention of those who matter most in an organization. Some of the important steps that could help an individual cross the hurdles on the way ‘up’ may include: I.). When the opportunity is irresistible. professional associations. The actions for career development may be initiated by the individual himself or by the organization. Career development looks at the long-term career effectiveness of employees where as employee development focuses of effectiveness of an employee in the immediate future. lucrative job offers. NETWORKING:Networking implies professional and personal contacts that would help inn striking good deals outside (e. business deals. transfers and other career opportunities. however. the only option left is to resign from the current position and take up the new job (opportunity in terms of better pay. If the performance is substandard. new title.
ORGANISATIONAL CAREER DEVELOPMENT:The assistance from managers and HR department is equally important in achieving individual career goals and meeting organizational needs. is someone in the organization who can create career development opportunities. MENTORS AND SPONSORS:A mentor is. A variety of tools and activities are employees for this purpose. develop suitable action plans and point out obstacle that come in the way. After individuals complete their self-assessment. generally speaking. Two self-assessment tools are quite commonly used in the organizations. interests. a) SELF-ASSESSMENT TOOLS:Here the employees go through a process in which they think through their life roles. They identify career goals. They do not think that career-long dedication to the same organization may not help them further their career ambitions. Individuals use this company specific. To overcome this problem. they share their findings with others in career workshops. on the other hand. These workshops throw light on how to prepare and follow through individual career strategies. The second tool. an older person in a managerial role offering informal career advice to a junior employee. A sponsor. tailor-made guide to learn about their career chances. This guide. innovative compensation packages in addition to employee stock option plans for those who remain with the company for a specified period.Professionals and recent college graduates generally jump jobs frequently when they start their career. consists of a form of career guide in the question-answer format outlining steps for realizing career goals. . called as a career workbook. They act as role models. skills and work attitudes and preferences. The first one is called the career-planning workshop. NIIT. companies such as Infosys. VI. Mentors take junior employees under their protégé and offer advice and guidance on how to survive and get ahead in the organization. WIPRO (all information technology companies where the turnover ratios are generally high) have come out with lucrative.
qualifications for jobs and career ladders. job rotations and mentoring programmes are used to develop a broad base of skills as a part of such developmental activities. They are coming out with schemes such as part-time work. realizing these problems. workshops. Seminars. When we talk of dual career couples (a situation where both husband and wife have distinct careers outside the home) certain puzzling questions arise naturally : whose career is important. This is. CAREER DEVELOPMENT ACTIONS:a) JOB PERFORMANCE:- . what if the wife gets a tempting promotion in another location . who buys groceries and cleans the house if both are busy. Counselling is generally offered by the HR department. long parental leave. if supervisors act as coaches they should be given clearly defined roles and training. c) EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES:These consist of skill assessment and training efforts that organizations use to groom their employees for future vacancies. who takes care of children . Here discussions of employees’ interests goals. It is usually done through face-to-face meetings between the employee and the counselor or coach. Sometimes outside experts are also be called in. b) INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING:Employee counselling is a process whereby employees are guided in overcoming performance problems. a costly and time-consuming process. child care centers. there is growing evidence regarding dual career families developing tensions and frictions owing to their inability to reconcile the differences between the family roles and work demands. current job activities and performance and career objectives take place.generally throws light on organization’s structure. however. career paths. flexible working hours and promotions and transfers in tune with the demands of dual career conflicts. d) CAREER PROGRAMMES FOR SPECIAL GROUPS:In recent years. organizations are providing a place and a procedure for discussing such role conflicts and coping strategies. etc.
c) RESIGNATIONS:Employees may resign the present job in the organization. performance etc. . knowledge. achievements. if they find that career opportunities elsewhere are better than those of the present organization. e) CAREER GUIDANCE:And counselling provides information. to those who take the decision about career progress. qualifications.Employee must prove that his performance on the job is to the level of standards established. d) CHANGE THE JOB:Employees who put organizational loyalty above career loyalty may change the job in the same organization are better than those in the present job. if he wants career progress. advice and encouragements to switch over to other career or organization.. where career opportunities are better. b) EXPOSURE:Employee’s desire for career progress should expose their skills.
the main purpose of training is to develop the human resources present within the employees. training is not a one step process but is a continuous or never-ending process. Even for old workers. marketing and other aspect of business. It comes next to recruitment and selection. It also creates positive attitude towards fellow employees. job and the organization where he is working. In fact. Training is the responsibility of the management as it is basically for raising the efficiency and productivity of employees. Training makes newly recruited workers fully productive in the minimum of time. Training is for developing overall personality of an employee. The purpose of training is to achieve a change in the behaviour of those trained and to enable them to do their jobs in a better way. training is the watchword of present dynamic business world.EMPLOYEE TRAINING INTRODUCTION:Training plays an important role in human resource development. training is necessary to refresh them and enable them to keep . New machines. technical knowledge. problem solving ability or attitudes etc. Training is necessary due to technological changes rapidly taking place in the industrial field. In brief. new methods and new techniques are introduced in the production. The trainees will acquire new manipulative skills.
3. Training is a short-term educational process and utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which employees learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. PRINCIPLES OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING:A sound training programme must possess the following characteristics: 1. Training programme should be designed taking in view the interests of both employer and employees.up with new methods and techniques. Training programme should be developed for all in the organization and not for a particular group. Training programme should be less expensive. 2. 7. placed and introduced he or she must be provided with training facilities. moulds the employee’s knowledge. MEANING AND IMPORTANCE:After an employee is selected. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge an skill of an employee for doing a particular job. It is not essential to follow the single method of training for all the employees. Training should be followed by a reward. DEFINITION OF TRAINING:According to Edwin Flippo. skill. training is “the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job”. In other words training improves. Sufficient time should be provided to practice what has been learned by the employees. changes. In short training is the act of improving or updating the knowledge and skill of an employee for performing a particular job. 4. The purpose of training is to develop the men and therefore more than one method may be followed for different groups. aptitude. and attitude . A reward should be provided at the conclusion of the training such as promotion or a better job so that employees may be motivated. 5. behaviour. The programme should be conducted by a senior and experienced supervisor or executive of the concern or by the training director who is incharge of the training section under personnel department. 6.
. productivity. Trained employees would be a valuable asset to an organisation. skills. If the organisation desires to adapt these changes. to the tune of the job requirements and organizational needs. the need for training arises due to the following reasons: I. III. Training refers to the teaching and learning activities carried on for the primary purpose of helping members of an organization. . instructions and guidance is given to all categories of employees. behaviour etc. If the organisation does not adapt itself to the changing factors in the environment. Hence. training is important to develop the employee and make him suitable to the job. first it has to train the employees to impart specific skills and knowledge in order to enable them to contribute to the organizational efficiency and to cope with the changing environment. As stated earlier. Organizational efficiency. i. NEED FOR EMPLOYEE TRAINING:The need for training of employee is universally accepted and practical training in the form of information. It is a must for raising efficiency of employees. Training is the most important technique of human resource development. no organization can get a candidate who exactly matches with the job and the organizational requirements. II. stability and growth can also be achieved through training. to acquire and apply the knowledge.e. it will lose its market share. Training is necessary in the present competitive and ever changing industrial world.towards the requirements of the job and organization. abilities and attitudes needed by a particular job and organization. Organizational viability and the transformation process: The primary goal of most of the organizations is that their viability is continuously influenced by environmental pressure. attitude. Specifically. knowledge. Organizational objectives like viability. Training is needed to fill these gaps by developing and moulding the employee’s skill. To match the employee specifications with the job requirements and organizational needs: Management finds deviations between employee’s present specifications and the job requirements and organizational needs. mechanization. Technological advances: Every organization in order to survive and to be effective should adopt the latest technology. progress and development to a greater extent depend on training.
techniques or technology. organisation of most of the companies has become complex. diversification and expansion. Change in the job assignment: Training is also necessary when the existing employee is promoted to the higher level in the organisation and when there is some new job or occupation due to transfer. OBJECTIVES/PURPOSES OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING:1) To raise efficiency and productivity of employees and the organization as a whole. This creates the complex problems of coordination and integration of activities adaptable for and adaptable to the expanding and diversifying situations. So training in human relations is necessary to deal with human problems (including alienation. will not be complete until they are manned by employees possessing skill to operate them. So.computerization and automation. . This means to maintain and improve the work performance of employees. Training is also necessary to equip the old employees with the advanced disciplines. managements of most of the organizations has to maintain human relations besides maintaining sound industrial relations although hitherto the managers are not accustomed to deal with the workers accordingly. extension of operations to various regions of the country or in overseas countries. integration and adaptability to the requirements of growth. organization should train the employees to enrich them in the areas of changing technical skills and knowledge from time to time. This situation calls for training in the skills of co-ordination. manufacturing of multiple products and by-products or dealing in services of diversified lines. V.) and to maintain human relations. inter-personal and intergroup conflicts etc. VI. IV. So today. Adoption of latest technological means and methods. crossing the human relations approach. Human relations: Trends in approach towards personnel management has changed form the commodity approach to partnership approach. Organizational complexity: With the emergence of increased mechanization and automation.
instructions to be followed. TYPES OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING:1) INDUCTION (ORIENTATION) TRAINING:Induction training is basically for introducing the organisation to newly appointed employees. 3) To provide opportunities of growth and self-development (career planning) to employees and thereby to motivate them for promotion and other monetary benefits.2) To create a pool of well trained. methods to be used and precautions to be taken while performing . the purpose of training is to improve the culture of the organisation. process of production. It creates a feeling of involvement in the minds of newly appointed employees. In addition. 4) To avoid accidents and wastages of all kinds. It is a very short informative type of training given immediately after joining the organization. healthy and safety attitudes among the employees. Induction training creates favourable impression on the newly appointed employees and this impression remains in their mind over a long period. 5) To meet the challenges posed by new developments in the field of science and technology. 8) To develop certain personal qualities among employees which can serve as personal assets on long term basis. information booklets are issued and short informative films are shown. In addition. 7) To develop positive attitude and behaviour pattern required by an employee in order to perform a given job efficiently. In other words. to develop balanced. It gives information about machines. capable and loyal employees at all levels and thereby to make provision to meet the future needs of an organization. In addition. to give safety and security to the life and health of employees. lecture by personnel manger/HRD manger is also arranged. 2) JOB TRAINING:Job training relates to specific job which the worker has to handle. 6) To improve the quality of production and thereby to create market demand and reputation in the business world. For induction training.
the next decision is who should be trained? For a small business. precise and of short duration. absence without prior sanction or smoking in a “No smoking” area or not using safety devices while operating dangerous machines. Training must be given for performing duties at a higher level efficiently. 3) TRAINING FOR PROMOTION:Promotion means giving higher position. it is important to carefully select who will be trained. Here. 5) CORRECTIVE TRAINING:Corrective training is necessary when employees violate company rules and procedures. techniques and procedures for raising efficiency. It gives information about new developments and techniques to trainees and enables them to use new methods. especially when he or she leaves your firm for a better job. this question is crucial. Therefore. SELECTION OF TRAINEES:- Once you have decided what training is necessary and where it is needed. and to make the most efficient use of .the job. the behaviour of employee cannot be changes simply by disciplinary action. This training develops skills and confidence among the workers and enables them to perform the job efficiently. He should motivate concerned individual to correct his behaviour. Training programs should be designed to consider the ability of the employee to learn the material and to use it effectively. For this. The manager should criticize the act and not the individual. Training an employee is expensive. The manager should handle the problem with treatment that corrects the outlook rather than giving punishment. This training is specific. information and experience of persons occupying important executive positions. 4) REFRESHER TRAINING:The purpose of refresher training is to refresh the professional skills. For example. training is given after promotion and before actually joining the new assignment. This facilitates easy and quick adjustment with the new job and also develops new insight into the duties and responsibilities assigned.
The problem of transfer of trainee is also minimized as the persons learns on-the-job. METHODS OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING:As a result of research in the field of training. It is also important that employees be motivated by the training experience. TRAINING GOALS:- The goals of the training program should relate directly to the needs outlined above. The training programmes commonly used to train operative and supervisory personnel are discussed below. while others are improvements over the traditional methods. Some of these are new methods. Selecting the right trainees is important to the success of the program. Goals should include milestones to help take the employee from where he or she is today to where the firm wants him or her in the future. Employee failure in the program is not only damaging to the employee but a waste of money as well. is the most commonly used method. The trainee learns under the supervision and guidance of a qualified worker or instructor. On-the-job training has the advantage of giving first hand knowledge and experience under the actual working conditions. the individual is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform that job. These programmes are classified into onthe-job and off-the-job training programmes. ON-THE-JOB TRAINING METHODS This type of training. a number of programmes are available. a) JOB ROTATION:This type of training involves the movement of the trainee from one job to another. The trainee receives job knowledge and gains experience from his supervisor or trainer in each of the different job assignments. job instruction or training through step-by-step and committee assignments. Though this method of training is common in training managers for general management . Under this method. coaching. also known as job instruction training. Setting goals helps to evaluate the training program and also to motivate employees. Allowing employees to participate in setting goals increases the probability of success. Course objectives should clearly state what behavior or skill will be changed as a result of the training and should relate to the mission and strategic plan of the company. Onthe-job training methods include job rotation.resources possible.
b) ROLE PLAYING:- . Often the trainee share some of the duties an responsibilities of the coach and relieves him of his burden. This type of training is commonly used for training personnel for clerical and semi-skilled jobs. actual work conditions are simulated in a class room. OFF-THE-JOB METHODS Under this method of training. Under this method.positions. he can place his entire concentration on learning the job rather than spending his time in performing it. The supervisor provides feedback to the trainee on his performance and offer him for suggestions for improvement. The duration of this training ranges from days to a few weeks. Since the trainee is not distracted by job requirements. It develops team work. b) COACHING:The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who functions as a coach in training the individual. trainees can also be rotated from job to job in workshop job. There is an opportunity for freedom of expression for the trainees. The trainer appraises the performance of the trainee. This method gives an opportunity to the trainee to understand the problems of employees on other jobs and respect them. the trainee is separated form the job situation and his attention is focused upon learning the material related to his future job performance. files and equipments those are used in actual job performance are also used in training. Material. the trainer explains to the trainee the way of doing the job. The trainees solve the problem jointly. c) JOB INSTRUCTION:This method is also known as training through step by step. Off-the-job training methods are as follows: a) VESTIBUTE TRAINING:In this method. job knowledge and skills and allow him to do the job. a group of trainees are given and asked to solve an actual organizational problem. provides feedback information and corrects the trainee. Theory can be related to practice in this method. A limitation of this method of training is that the trainee may not have the freedom or opportunity to express his own ideas. d) COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS:Under the committee assignments.
INCREASE IN WAGE EARNING CAPACITY:Training helps the employees in acquiring new knowledge and job skills. 2. To be effective. superintendents. 1. In this way. training increases their market value and wage earning power. foreman. learning to use new kinds of equipment and adjusting to major changes in job contents and work relationship. d) CONFERENCE OR DISCUSSION:It is a method in training the clerical. such as the production manager. The participants play the role of certain characters. doing and practice. professional and supervisory personnel. in that the discussion involves twoway communication and hence feedback is provided. test assumptions.It is defined as a method of human interaction that involves realistic behaviour in imaginary situations. quality control inspectors. all of which contribute to the improvement of the job performance. The success of this method depends on the leadership qualities of the person who leads the group. maintenance engineers. c) LECTURE METHOD:The lecture is a traditional and direct method of instruction. This method involves a group of people who pose ideas. ADVANTAGES OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING:Training is advantageous not only to the organization but also to the employees. and draw conclusions. Discussion has the distinct advantage over the lecture method. costs and time involved are reduced. . This method is mostly used for developing interpersonal interactions and relations. The instructor organizes the material and gives it to a group of trainees in the form of a talk. An advantage of lecture method is that it is direct and can be used for a large group of trainees. mechanical engineer. workers and the like. This increases their pay and status. the lecture must motivate and create interest among the trainees. examine and share facts. Thus. The participants feel free to speak in small groups. This method of training involves action. JOB-SECURITY:Continued training can help an employee to develop his ability to learnadapting himself to new work methods. ideas and data.
the content he learned. Training makes the fresh and old employees more skilled and accurate in performance of their work. trainer’s ability and trainee ability are evaluated on the basis of quantity of content learned and time in which it is learned and the learner’s ability to use or apply. 6. Hamblin suggested five levels at which evaluation of training can take place. EVALUATION OF TRAINING PROGRAMME:The process of training evaluation has been defined as “any attempt to obtain information on the effects of training performance. CHANCES FOR PROMOTION:Training also qualifies the employees for promotion to more responsible jobs. reactions. 4. and to assess the value of training in the light of that information. FOLLOW UP OF SELECTION PROCEDURE:Training is a follow up of selection procedure. REACTIONS:Training programme is evaluated on the basis of trainee’s reactions to the usefulness of coverage of the matter. LEARNING:Training programme. learning. A well trained employee is self-reliant in his work because he knows what to do and how to do it. .. method of presentation. Training can be used in spotting out promising men and in removing defects in selection process. viz. teaching methods etc. i.” Evaluation leads to controlling and correcting the training programme. job behaviour. organization and ultimate value. depth of the course content. It helps in choosing the most appropriate individuals for different jobs. ii. BETTER PERFORMANCE:Training brings about an improvement of the quality and quantity of output by increasing the skill of the employees. Training does not eliminate the need for supervision but it reduces the need for detailed and constant supervision.3. REDUCTION IN COST OF PRODUCTION:If the employees are given proper training the need for supervision is lessened. 5.
iv. morale. and to the individual goals like development of personality and social goals like maximizing social benefit.iii. b) IDENTIFYING PRODUCTION PROBLEMS:Production problems like low productivity. profitability etc. JOB BEHAVIOUR:This evaluation includes the manner and extent to which the trainee has applied his learning to his job. The following steps are taken to organise the training programme: 1) IDENTIFYING THE TRAINING NEEDS:Training programme should be set up only after having decided the decided the clear-cut objective in mind. should be identified to indicate the need for training. Training programmes differ on the basis of many individual characteristics of the organisations and the employees usually in the organisation of training programmes. high rate of absenteeism. ORGANISED TRAINING PROGRAMME IN AN INDUSTRY:It is not possible to suggest a training programme equally good for each and every organisation. growth. labour turnover etc. poor quality. a) ANALYSING JOBS AND MEN:If the men are less capable to perform the particular jobs they can be given training to increase their skills. quality. learning and change in the job behaviour of the department/organization in the form of increased productivity. its operations and manpower resources available in order to find out “the trouble spots” where training may be needed. c) COLLECTING OPINIONS:- . The most important step is to make a thorough analysis of the entire organisation. sales turnover and the like. ULTIMATE VALUE:It is the measurement of ultimate result of the contributions of the training programme to the company goals like survival. A training programme should be established only when it is felt that it would assist in the solution of specific operational problems. ORGANISATION:This evaluation measures the use of training. v.. Jobs and worth of the men should be analysed through job analysis and performance appraisal. high cost.
b) SELECTION OF TRAINING METHOD:Now it is advisable to lay down which method is to be adopted fro the training. Different methods of training may be suggested for the different levels of personnel. to skilled and semi-skilled workers. c) PREPARATION OF TRAINER OR INSTRUCTOR:The success of the training programme much depends upon the instructor. may be recommended. On-the-job and apprenticeship training may be awarded. A trainee should be trained for the kind of job he likes and is suitable to perform. The proper selection of trainees is very important to obtain permanent and gainful results of training. It should be decided beforehand what is to be taught and how. 2) GETTING READY FOR THE JOB:Following are the steps taken in this regard: a) IDENTIFYING THE TRAINEE:Under this step it is to be decided who is to be trained. He should be able to divide the job into . Instructor must be well-qualified and may be obtained from within or outside the organization. lectures and seminars etc. Trainee should be given the proper background information before he starts learning new job skills and knowledge.Opinions should be obtained from the management and the working people through interviews or through questionnaire regarding necessary and desirable training programmes. who is to be trained – the new comer or the older employee or the supervisory staff or all of them selected from different departments. its relationship with the work flow and the importance of training. Careful screening of candidates for training raises the effectiveness of the training work. For supervisory and executive personnel Onthe-job and Off-the-job methods such as role-playing. Trainer should explain the trainee the importance of the job. Unskilled workers may be trained on the job.
v. In explaining why of the whole job and relating it to some job the worker already knows. The written material should be distributed among the trainees so that they may come prepared in the lecture class and may be able to understand the operation quickly and remove their doubts. d) TRAINING MATERIAL:There should always be the training material with the instructor. As because training must be based upon the needs of the organization therefore. In stating the importance of ingredients of the job and its relationship towards flow. He should also encourage the question from the trainees. trainee’s learning capacity and the training media used. The time of training whether before or after or during working hours should be decided by the personnel manager taking in view the loss of production and benefits to be achieved by training. This may be prepared in the training section with the help of supervisors. In creating interest and encouraging questions. The putting the learner at case so that he does not feel nervous because of the fact that he is on a new job. It should not be in a vacuum. if any. In explaining he is being taught. Training materials may include some text or written materials as a basis for instruction. 2) PREPARATION OF THE LEARNER:This step consists: i. the trainer must have a clear-cut picture of the objectives of training in mind. Generally no single session should last longer than two hours. iv. finding out what the learner already knows about his job or other jobs. ii. iii. purpose of the training. e) TRAINING MATERIAL:The length of training period depends upon the skill of the trainees.logical parts so that he may teach one part at a time without losing his perspective of the whole. . Trainer needs professional expertise in order to fulfill his responsibility. review and reference.
the trainee is asked to go through the job several times slowly. illustrate and question I order to put over the new knowledge and operations. The learner should be told of the sequence of the entire job and why each step in its performance is necessary instructions should be given clearly. he must be given full guidance by the immediate supervisor and should be initiated to ask questions to remove the doubts. 5) FOLLOW-UP:On the completion of training programme trainees should be placed to the job. gradually building up skill and speed. materials tools and trade terms. The supervisor should have a constant vigil on the person still facing any difficulty on the job. Then the trainee is asked to do the job. show. 3) KNOWLEDGE:This is the most important step in a training programme. Trainer should demonstrate or make use of audio-visual aids and should ask the trainee to repeat the operations 4) PERFORMANCE TRY-OUT:Under this. The trainer should clearly tell. and vii. Mistakes are corrected and if necessary some complicated steps are taken for the trainee for the first time. In planning the learner as close to his normal working position as possible. PRESENTATION OF OPERATIONS AND COLLECTIVE BARGAINING . completely and patiently.vi. In familiarizing him with the equipment. explaining him each step. The trainee is then tested and the effectiveness of a training programme evaluated.
Before the Industrial Revolution. more or less. To resolve the differences between workers & management though voluntary negotiations & arrive at a customer. The week bargaining strength of employees tempted them. realized the importance of peaceful co-existence for their mutual benefit & continued progress. This collective fighting spirit is behind the back of collective bargaining. Workers as a result became restless & widespread protests followed. the collective bargaining process has undergone significant changes. enjoyed unquestioned powers on matters relating to wage. According to them collective bargaining is a method by which trade unions protect & improve the conditions of their members’ working lives. To protect the interests of workers through collective plan. more or less. working conditions & other matters affecting employees. to exploit the vulnerable situation to their advantage. Workers realized the importance of fighting jointly on all work-related matters. the employer. To avoid third party intervention in matters relating to employment. Governmental intervention was of little help.INTRODUCTION The phrase ‘Collective bargaining’ is coined by Sydney & Beatrice Webb. With the growth of union movement all over the globe & the emergence of employers’ associations. Functions of Collective Bargaining . OBJECTIVES The main objectives of Collective bargaining are given below: To settle disputes / conflicts relating to wages & working conditions. on occasions. Both parties have.
It builds up a system of industrial jurisprudence by introducing civil rights I the industry. . It provides a method of the regulation of the conditions of employment of those who are directly concerned about them.Collective bargaining plays an important role in preventing industrial disputes. Establish uniform conditions of employment. Achieve an efficient functioning of the organization. Promote the stability & prosperity of the company. Secure a prompt & fair redressal of grievances. setting these disputes & maintaining industrial peace by performing the following functions: Increase the economic strength of employees & management. In other words. It provides a solution to the problem of sickness in the industry & ensures old age pension benefits & other fringe benefits. Lay down fair rates of wages & other norms of working conditions. it ensures that the management is conducted by rules rather than by arbitrary decisions.
both the parties can make mutually acceptable amendments. He directs & presides over the process. The chief negotiator presents the problem. viz. its terms & conditions throughout the organization. in tern. SUGGESTIONS FOR EFFECTIVE IMPLIMENTATION OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING . 2. become a binding contract for both the parties. From time to time depending upon changing circumstances.COLLECTIVE BARGAINING PROCESS There are two stages in collective bargaining. its intensity & nature & the views of both parties. Both parties concerned sign the agreement which. whether the problem is minor that it can be solved with the other party’s acceptance on its presentation & does not need to involve the long process of collective bargaining process etc.. it is put on the paper. both the parties prepare themselves for negotiations. (i) the negotiation stage & (ii) the stage of contract administration. When a solution is reached at. taking concerned legislations into consideration. The union takes steps to see that all the workers understand the contract & implement it. Management usually distributes the printed contract. (c) Negotiations of Agreement Usually there will be a chief negotiator who is form the management side. Contract Administration Implementation of the contract is as important as making a contract. Negotiation (a) Identification of Problems The nature of the problem influences the whole process-whether the problem is very important that is to be discussed immediately or it can be postponed for some other convenient time. 1. (b) Preparing for Negotiations When it becomes necessary to solve the problem through collective bargaining process.
Govt. As such. Adjudication should be used only as a last resort. Unions should be made strong by creating awareness among workers. Presently. can make legislation for compulsory collective bargaining before resorting to adjudication. Interference of political leaders should be avoided. they are now encouraging negotiations & amicable solutions. The unions should separate themselves from politics. . They are also realizing how important cooperation between management & workers for the effective functioning of an organization. Govt. should make efforts for the growth of collective bargaining. Management should develop a positive attitude toward unions. Much headway has already been made in this direction. managers are mostly aware of the rights of workers.
1947. or between employers & workmen or between workmen & workmen. ⇒ Management’s attitude towards workers. which is connected with the employment or non employment or term of employment or with the conditions of labour of any person.INDUSTRIAL CONFLICTS All the issues refer to collective bargaining may not be settled to the satisfactions of both the parties. According to Mukherjee. when more than presents. . Deep seated & more basic causes of disputes can be identified through in depth probe.” CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL CONFLICTS It is not easy to identify a single factor as a cause of industrial conflicts as multifarious causes blended together result in industrial disputes. ⇒ Government machinery & ⇒ Other causes.” Causes of industrial conflicts may be grouped into four categories. DEFINITION OF DISPUTE / CONFLICT According to the Industrial Disputes Act. which means the control of the tools of production by the small entrepreneur class has brought to the fore the acute problem of friction between management & labour throughout the world. though surface manifestations appear to be responsible for conflicts. Such issues result in Industrial Conflicts. The relative importance of these causes. “Industrial dispute means any dispute or difference between employers & employers. ⇒ Industrial factors. is often very difficult to gauge. “The development of capitalistic enterprise. Section 2(k).
” employed in an industry acting in combination.TYPES OF INDUSTRIAL CONFLICT Strike A strike is a spontaneous and concerted withdrawal of the labour from production temporarily. it is called as sympathetic strike. Such strikes are supported by the contributions of those who are still in work. The industrial disputes act 1947 has define a strike as “an assertion of work by a body of persons. It is a collective stoppage of work by group of workers for pressuring their employer to accept certain demands. firm by firm. Slow-down strike . Sectional strike It is refusal of a section of a given class of workers to perform their normal duties. tool down. Sympathetic strike When a strike is undertaken to show sympathy with workers in other industries. the order being chosen by the union. General strike It is a strike by all or most of the unions in a industry or a region Unofficial strike It is a strike undertaken without the consent of the unions. Bumper strike It is a strike when the unions plan to paralyse the industry. Strikes are of several types. or a concerted refusal or a refusal under a common understanding of any no of persons who are or have been so employed to continue to work or to accept employment. Sit down strike (also called stay-in. pen down strike) It is a strike in which workers cease to perform this duties but do not leave the place of work.
or the suspension of work or the refusal of an employer to continue to employ any number of persons employed by him”. employers may decide to go for lock-out. The National Commission on Labour. In this method a group of workers initiate collective action aimed at preventing members of the management from leaving the office. while refusing to accept it as a form of industrial protest. He may also draw the shutter down so as to bring psychological pressure on the workers to agree to his condition or face closure of the unit. There is an element of surprise in such cat-call strikes. Gherao Gherao means to surround. Small batches of workers may also go on a relay hunger strike in a sequential order. It is a weapon available to the employer to close down the factory till the workers agree to resume work on the conditions lead down by the employer. Lightning strike Out of provocation. If it is impossible to meet the demand of workers. The persons who are ‘gheraoed’ are not allowed to move for a long time. . Hunger strike To gain sympathy from the public & get noticed by the employer. sometimes without food or water. Such non-violence protests generally bring moral pressure on employers to iron out the differences with quickly. This can happen outside the factory premises too. workers may decide to forego food for a specified period. Lock-outs Lock-out is the counterpart of strike. The industrial Dispute Act of 1947 defined it as “the closing of a place of an employment.Known as a ‘go-slow’ tactic the workers do not stop working but put brakes to the normal way of doing things. opined that gheraos tend to inflict physical duress (as against economic pressure) on the persons affected & endanger not only industrial harmony but also create problems of law & order. workers may go on strike without notice or at very short notice.
Through forceful appeals & negative behavioral acts. PREVENTION OF INDUSTRIAL CONFLICTS . banners & play card (in connection with the dispute) & prevent others from entering the place of work & persuade others to join the strike. Boycott aims at disrupting the normal functioning of an enterprise. striking workers prevent others from entering the place of work & persuade them not to cooperate with the employer.Picketing & Boycott In picketing workers carry / display signs.
works committees & councils. welfare work & all such measures which can bridge the gap between the employers & the employed.500.” The significant preventive measures may be broadly outlined as below: Prevention Measures of Industrial Conflicts Labour Welfare Officer Standing Orders Grievances Procedure Joint Consultation Strong Trade Unions Joint Consultations Collective Bargaining Labour Co-partnership & Profit Sharing Labour welfare Officer Sec. & trade boards. the assistance & or additional welfare officers are required to be appointed to assist the welfare officer. wage boards. 49 (1) & (2) of the factories act. housing. specifies that every factory wherein 500 or more workers are ordinarily employed. These methods “cover the entire field of relations between industry & labour & include enactment & enforcement of progressive legislation. Standing orders .Prevention of industrial disputes may have different methods. 1948. profit sharing & co-partnership. education. where the number of workers are in excess of 2. at least 1 officer must be appointed.
To prevent the industrial conflict relating to employment conditions. Collective bargaining As discussed earlier. collective bargaining helps for settlement of issues & prevention of industrial disputes. Strong trade unions Strong trade unions have the stability of membership.Majority of the industrial disputes are related to conditions of employment. The standing orders regulate the conditions of employment from the stage of entry to the stage of exit or retirement. Joint consultations A Joint consultation between the employees & employer are the differences between them & prevents industrial conflicts. to come closer to each other & come to an agreement. Grievance procedure Grievances generally arise from day – to – day working relations. Government also helps trade unions & govt. they think & act for the benefit of the company. Such unions think & act constructively for the mutual benefit of the employees & the management. These practices naturally prevent the industrial conflicts. It was made obligatory that standing orders should govern the conditions of employment under the industrial employment (standing orders) act of 1946. Grievances of the employees are redressed by the management. sound financial position & healthy polices. Labour co – partnership & profit sharing Labour co – partnership & profit sharing create a sense of belongness among the employees & they fill that they are the partners in the company. SETTLEMENT OF CONFLICTS . As such. standing orders are formulated. Management can prevent the occurrence of industrial disputes by solving the individual problems. Standing orders act as a code of conduct for the employees during the working life of employees as they provide do’s & do nots.
In this method. If meditation is conducted skillful & sympathetically along proper lines. There may be three kinds of meditation: a. the strikes & lock-outs are required to be stopped & employers should not make any change in the conditions of employment. It takes place with the consent of both the parties. Meditation Another attempt to settle disputes is Meditation. Conciliation . The result of investigation has no serious effect on the dispute because the general public is least bothered to make note of the dispute. but by analyzing the facts. they aim at bringing about an amicable solution. It may be voluntary or compulsory. Semi-Government Board. When the investigation is compulsory. & c. it is voluntary. The mediator performs the messenger’s job for both the parties & he neither imposes his will nor his judgment upon them. If the Government appoints a Court of Inquiry to investigate into a dispute without the consent of the parties. 3. If the investigation is conducted on an application by either or both the parties to the dispute. The main aim of meditation is the settlement of disputes by brining about a voluntary agreement. The Eminent Outsider. Non-Government Board.The methods of the settlement of conflicts generally include those mentions in the below 1. Investigation This is conducted by a board or court appointed by the government. it is compulsory. 2. an outsider assists the parties in their negotiation. Investigations do not aim at bringing about the settlement of disputes directly. b. it can bring about the adjustment of differences that might otherwise contribute to stoppage of work.
The conciliator induces the parties to a course of action. It is a process of rational & orderly discussions of differences between the parties to a dispute under the guidance of a conciliator. The subsequent attendance of witness & investigations & The enforcement of an award may not be necessary. protector. either by themselves or with the help of a mediator or conciliator. The task of conciliation is to offer advice & make suggestions to the dispute on controversial issues. advisor. 5. they are ready to accept. who agrees to submit the dispute to an impartial authority. stimulator. The essential elements in voluntary arbitration are: The voluntary submission of dispute to an arbitration. 4. It is the practice by which the services of the neutral third party as used in a dispute as a means of helping the disputing parties to reduce the extent of their differences & to arrive at an amicable settlement or agreed solution. distrust etc. He acts as a safety value & a communication link. Conciliation is a process by which representatives of both workers & employers are brought together before a third party with a view to persuading them to arrive at some sort of settlement. Conciliation machinery consists of a conciliation officer & board of conciliations.The main objective of a condition & arbitration is to reunite the two conflicting groups in the industry in order to avoid interruption of production. face saver. It is an extension of collective bargaining with third party assistance. He plays the role of an innovator. discussion leader. Voluntary Arbitration If the two parties to the dispute fail to come to an agreement. Compulsory Arbitration / Adjudication . whose decision.
It may be said that Compulsory Arbitration may be at times & under certain circumstances. The nature. . Any one of the parties may apply to the appropriate governments to refer the dispute to adjudication machinery.Where trade unions are week. the method of Compulsory Arbitration is used. necessary & desirable. The objective of state intervention in the field of industrial relations should be to do social justice & make the weaker party equally strong to enable it ultimately to stand & survive on its own & settle its differences through negations & collective bargaining. Compulsory Arbitration is utilized generally when the parties fail to arrive at a settlement though the voluntary methods. Compulsory Arbitration is enforced because collective bargaining was not used for regulating wages & other conditions of employment. In India. Compulsory Arbitration is one where the parties are required to arbitrate without any willingness on their part. scale & timing of state intervention should be suited to the needs of different occasions.
► Definition:“Promotion is advancement of an employee to a better job. Promotion may be temporary or permanent depending upon the organizational needs and employee performance. more prestige or status. the internal candidates may also apply for post and may be tested and selected for higher level job in the organizational hierarchy at par with external candidates.promotion When there are vacancies in an organization.” . Myers. enhanced status and usually with increased income though not always so.better in terms of grater responsibility. Is such upward movement of an employee a promotion? Or it is purely selection? It is purely a selection.” Paul Pigors and Charles A. greater skills and especially increased rate of pay or salary. Though the organization prefers to fill up the vacancies by the external candidates through the selection procedure. the main conditions of promotion are:1) Reassignment of higher level job to an employee than what he is presently performing. Saiyadain.Arun Monappa and Mirza S. . Such upward movement can be said as promotion. Promotion is the reassignment of a higher level job to an internal employee with delegation of responsibilities and authority required to perform that higher job and normally with higher pay. “The upward reassignment of an individual in an organizational hierarchy. 3) Promotion normally accompanies higher pay. they can be filled up by the internal or external candidates. accompanied by increased responsibilities. If the organization prefers to fill a vacancy only by the internal candidates. 2) The employee will naturally be delegated with greater responsibility and authority than what he has had earlier. Thus. it assigns that higher level job to the selected employee from within through promotion tests.
► Purpose of promotion:Organizations promote the employee with a view to achieve the following purposes:1) To utilize the employee’s skills. ability. knowledge etc. required by higher level jobs. 3) To develop competent internal source of employees ready to take up jobs at higher level in the changing environment. 9) To get rid of the problems created by the leader of workers’ unions by promoting them to the officer’ levels where they are less effective in creating problems. Merit as a basis of promotion:Merit is taken to denote an individual employee’s skills. knowledge at the appropriate level in the organizational hierarchy resulting in organizational effectiveness and employee satisfaction. It reduces labour turnover. It result in maximum utilization of human resources in an organization 2) Competent employees are motivated to exert all their resources and contribute them to the organizational efficiency and effectiveness 3) It works as golden hand-cuffs regarding employee turnover. training and past employment record. efficiency and aptitude as measured from educational. 4) Further it continuously encourages the employees to acquire new skill. knowledge etc. 4) To promote employee’s self development and make them await their turn of promotions. The merits of merit system of promotion are: 1) The resources of higher order of an employee can be better utilized at a higher level. 2) To develop competent spirit and inculcate the zeal in the employees to acquired the skills. Despite these advantages the merit systems suffer from some demerit. for all-round development. 6) To promote interest in training. They are: 1) Measurement or judging of merit is highly difficult. development programmers and in team development areas. . 5) To promote a feeling of content with the existing conditions of the company and a sense of belongingness. 7) To build loyalty and to boost morale. knowledge. 8) To reward committed and loyal employees.
particularly trade union leaders. efficiency but not the future success. 6) It minimizes the scope for grievances and conflicts regarding promotion. They are: . distrust the management’s integrity in judging merit. ► In spite of these merits.2) Many people. Hence. 3) The techniques of merit measurement are subjective. 2) There would be full support of the trade unions to this system. 3) Every party trust the management’s action as there is no scope for favoritism and discrimination and judgment. This system is also based on the custom that the first in should be given first chance in all benefit and privileges. 4) It gives a sense of certainty of getting promotion to every employee and of their turn of promotion. ► Advantages of seniority as a basis of promotion are: 1) It is relatively easy to measure the length of service and judge the seniority. The logic behind considering the seniority as a basis of promotion is that there is a positive correlation between the length of service in the same job and the amount of knowledge and the level of skill acquired by an employee in an organization. 5) Senior employees will have a sense of satisfaction to this system as the older employees are respected and their inefficiency cannot be pointed out. 7) This system seems to reserve the purpose in the sense that employees may learn more with increase in the length of service. the purpose of promotion may not be served if merit is taken as sole criteria for promotion. 4) Merit denotes mostly the past achievement. Senior as a basis of promotion Seniority refers to relative length of service in the same job and in the same organization. this system also suffers from certain limitations.
researcher.1) The assumption that the employees learn more relatively with length of service is not valid as this assumption has reverse effect. are made eligible for promotion and then merit is taken as the sole criteria for selecting the employee for promotion from the eligible candidates. experience as apprentice trainee. a combination of both of them may be regarded as an effective basis of promotion. trainee. 3) It kills the zeal and interest to develop as everybody will be promoted with or without improvement. In other words employees learn up to a certain age and beyond that stage the learning ability of the cognitive process diminishes.viz:1) Minimum length of service and merit:Under this method all those employees who complete the minimum service. Hence. 2) It denominates the young and more competent employees and results in employee turnover particularly among the dynamic force. Hence a combination of both seniority and merit can be considered as the basis for promotion satisfying the management for organizational effectiveness and employees and trade union for respecting the length of service. A balance between seniority and merit should be struck and a new basis is to be developed. it is highly difficult in practice as the problems like job seniority. zonal/regional seniority. length of service not only by days but hours and minutes will crop up. service in different organizations. But trade union favour seniority as the sole basis for promotion with a view to satisfy the interests of majority of their members. say five years. 4) Organizational effectiveness may be diminishes through the deceleration of the human resource effectiveness as the human resource consists of mostly undynamic and old blood. 5) Judging the seniority though it seems to be in the theoretical sense. company seniority. Most of the . There are several ways in striking the balance between these two basis. Seniority-cum-merit Management mostly prefers merit as the basis of promotion as they are interested in enriching its human resources. Thus the two main basic of promotion enjoy certain advantages and at the same time suffer from certain limitations.
► Benefit of promotion:1) Promotion places the employees in a position where an employee’s skills and knowledge can be better utilized. refusal of promotions etc. 4) It increases interest in acquiring higher qualifications.commercial bank in India has been following this method for promoting the employees from clerk’s position to officer’s position. Candidates are selected for promotion based on their seniority only from the eligible candidates. 3) Minimum merit and seniority:In contrast to the earlier methods. 6) Ultimately it improves organizational health. 2) It creates and increases the interest of the other employees in the company as they believe that they will also get their turn. it creates certain problems. in training and in self development with a view to meet the requirement of promotion 5) Promotion improves employee morale and job satisfaction. Promotion disappointment some employees:- . minimum score of merit which is necessary for the acceptable performance on the future job is determined and all the candidates who secure minimum score are declared as eligible candidates. They are disappointment of the candidates. 3) It creates among employees a feeling of content with the existing conditions of work and employment. 2) Measurements of seniority and merit through a common factor. ► Problems with promotion:Though promotions benefit the employee and the organization.
regions and categories of jobs. But their are several incidents where employees refuse promotions. The characteristics of a systematic promotion policy are: . ► Promotion policy Every organizational has to specify clearly its policy regarding promotion based on its corporate policy.Some employees who are not promoted will be disappointed when their colleagues with similar qualifications and experience are promoted either due to favoritisms or due to lack of systematic promotion policy. promotion that level where the employee feels that he will be quite incompetent to carry out the job. The other problems associated with the promotion are: some superiors will not relieve their subordinates who are promoted because of their indispensability in the present job and inequality in promotional in different departments. and when trade union leader feel that promotion causes damage to their position in trade union. Employee may develop negative attitude and reduce their contributions to the organization and prevent organizational and individual advancement. Some employee refuse promotion:There is a general tendency that employee accept promotion. Promotion problems can be minimized though a career counseling by the superiors and by formulating a systematic promotion policy. delegation of unwanted responsibilities. These include promotion together with transfer to an upward place.
In other cases. potentiality etc. and the other elements remain stagnant. favoritism etc. 3) Systematic line of promotion channel should be incorporated 4) It should provide equal opportunities fro promotion in all categories of jobs. in certain cases. it should also contain reinforcing the future chances in the mind of rejected candidates and a provision for challenging the managements decision and action by employee or union within the limits of promotion policy. length or service. In other words it should not give room for nepotism. responsibilities and pay. 2) It should be fair and impartial. and regions of an organization 5) It should insure open policy in the sense that every eligible employee should be considered for promotion rather than a closed system which consider only a class of employees 6) It should contain clear cut norms and criteria for judging merit..1) It should be considered the sense that policy should be applied uniformly to all employees irrespective of the background of the persons. job requirement and acquiring the required skills. But. a promotion involves an increase in status. departments. ► Types of Promotion As already noted. . encouragement. only the pay increases. knowledge etc. 7) Appropriate authority should be entrusted with the task of making final decision 8) Favoritism should not be taken as a basis for promotion 9) It should contain promotional counseling. guidance and follow-up regarding promotional opportunity.
prestige and pay. promotions may be classified into the following types: 1) Horizontal Promotion:This type of promotion involves an increase in responsibilities and pay. 2) Vertical Promotion:This type of promotion results in greater responsibility. This type of promotion is referred to as upgrading' the position of an employee. responsibility. A promotion is vertical when a canteen employee is promoted to an unskilled job. a lower division clerk is promoted as an upper division clerk. together with a change in the nature of the job. The concerned employee naturally transgresses the job classification. skills needed or compensation” .the status only increases without a corresponding increase in pay or responsibilities. But the employee concerned does not transgress the job classification. Transfer ► Meaning:Transfer is defined as “ a lateral shift causing movement of individuals from one position to another usually without involving any marked change in duties. and a change in designation. 3) Dry Promotions:Dry promotions are sometimes given in lieu of increases in remuneration. For example. Depending on which elements increase and which remain stagnant. Designations are different but no change in responsibilities. The promotee may be given one or two annual increments.
demotion is a downward job reassignment whereas transfer is a latter or horizontal job reassignment. . (2) Providing training to employees: Transfers are made for providing opportunities to employees for training and development. Thus promotion is upward reassignment of job. Shortage of employees or increase in the work in one department due to different reasons leads to transfer of employees from other departments to that department. (4) Satisfying personal needs of employees: Transfers are necessary in order to satisfy the personal needs (personal difficulties) of the employees. same status and same level of pay.Transfer is also defines as “the moving of an employee from one job to another. transfers are basically for the convenience of employees.different departments/sections. It may involve a promotion. Here.” However transfer is viewed as change in assignment in which the employee moves from one job to another in the same level of hierarchy requiring similar skill involving approximately same level of responsibility. They include family problems. ► Purposes of transfer:The transfer in an organization may be due to any one of the following reasons: (1) Variation in the volume of work: Transfers are necessary due to variation in the volume of work in . sickness. Female employees want transfer to join their husbands. Similarly. transfers are necessary in order to utilize the services of an employee in the best possible manner. Workers demand transfers when the climate of the place of work is not suitable to them. This leads to transfers. demotion or no change in job status other than moving from one job to another. and education of children and so on. Workers are transferred from surplus department to another department where there is shortage of staff. Such transfers take place especially among female employees. (3) Rectification of poor placement: Transfers are necessary for the rectification of poor placement made in the initial period.
This may affect the work of the department. (6) Meeting organizational needs: Transfers are necessary in order to meet the organizational needs developed out of expansion programmers or fluctuations in work requirements or changes in the organizational structure or dropping of existing product lines. To break this monotony. the employee is transferred. (10) Rectification of poor personal relations: The relations between the worker and his superior may not be smooth and cordial. made in order to meet the mutual needs of two employees.(5) Meeting mutual needs of employees: Transfers are. He is transferred to a new place or post and is given an opportunity to improve his performance at a new place. . sometimes. It is a type of mutual exchange and is usually accepted by the management. (8) Avoiding fatigue and monotony: Transfers are made for avoiding fatigue and monotony of work in the case of employees. made when the worker fails to perform his job efficiently. transfer is treated as a better alternative to outright dismissal. This transfer may be necessary for removal of the incompatibilities between the worker and his/her boss or between one worker and the other. For example. The productivity of an employee may decline due to monotony of his or her job. One method to solve this problem is to transfer the worker from that department to some other suitable department. Here. (9) Giving punishment for negligence: Transfers are sometimes made as a punishment for negligence and indiscipline on the part of an employee. (7) Solution to poor performance: Transfers are. senior and experienced workers and supervisors are transferred to new plants/factories in order to manage the work smoothly. sometimes.
A junior employee may be replaced by a senior employee to avoid laying off the latter. Problem employees are transferred to some other jobs or to remote places. Similarly. shift and remedial. unless they are transferred to another department. are intended to avoid imminent lay-offs. too. Such transfers are also called shift transfers. Those making possible adjustment to varying volumes of work within the firm. A replacement transfer programmed is used when all the operations are declining.(11) Providing convenience to employees: Transfers are made to help employees to work according to their convenience. Those designed to enhance training and development. 3. This practice is widespread mainly in government offices and police department. particularly. They may be made as a disciplinary action for serious mistakes on the part of employees. and is designed to retain long-service employees as long as possible. 3) Versatility Transfers:- . transfers may be production. ► Types of Transfers Broadly speaking. versatility. on certain occasions transfers are made for indulging in undesirable activities. transfers may be classified into three types: 1. replacement. Surplus employees in a department have to be laid off. 1) Production Transfers:As mentioned earlier. 2. a shortage or surplus of the labour force is common in different departments in a plant or several plants in an organization. of senior employees. Specifically. 2) Replacement Transfers:Replacement transfers. (12) To provide relief and to punish employees: Transfers may be made in order to give relief to the employees who are overburdened or are working under heavy risks or tension over a long period. Those designed to remedy the problem of poor placement. Transfers affected to avoid such imminent lay-offs are called production transfers.
therefore. viz. Transfers between shifts are common. at the bank. or the type of job or working conditions may not be well-adapted to his or her present health or accident record. ► Reasons for transfer: Transfers are of basically of three categories. If the job is repetitive. such transfers being made mostly on a rotation basis.Versatility transfers are effected to make employees versatile and competent hi more than one skill. this transfer can be classified into temporary and permanent transfers. and company initiated transfer and public initiated transfers. He or she may be getting too old to continue in his or her regular job. Versatile operations are valuable assets during rush periods and periods when work is dull. are transferred from one section to another over a period of time so that they may acquire the necessary skills to attend to the various activities. Remedial transfers take place because the initial placement of an employee may have been faulty or the worker may not get along with his or her supervisor or with other workers in the department. 1) Employee initiated transfer:These transfers are also known as personal transfers. the worker may stagnate and would benefit by transfer to a different kind of work. Clerical employees in banks. for example. Some request a transfer to the second shift or the night shift in order to avail the free time during the day to take up part time jobs. called personal transfers. employee initiated transfer. 5) Remedial Transfers:Remedial transfers are affected at the request of employees and are. Transfers may also be affected on special requests from employees. a) Temporary transfers: - . Further. These transfers are primarily in the interest of the employee and according to his convenience and desire. although this is not permitted by law. industrial establishments operate more than one shift. Versatile transfers may be used as a preparation for production or replacement transfers 4) Shift Transfers:Generally speaking.
Employee may not be interested with the work or working condition or environment of his present job and hence may require a transfer. b) Permanent transfers:There are several reasons for employee initiated permanent transfers. 2) Due to family problem like taking care of old parents. 3) With a view to correct his wrong placement. technology. They can be classified into temporary and permanent. 2) Due to family problems like taking care of domestic affairs in his native place. 6) With a view to search for challenging and creative job. organizational structure as discussed earlier. 4) In order to relive him from the monotony or boredom caused due to doing the same job for year together. 7) With a view to search for job with opportunities for advancement to a higher level job. opportunities for advancement to a higher level job. 3) Due to short vacations.The reasons for employee initiated temporary transfers are: 1) Due to ill health or involvement of employee in accidents. the situation should be corrected by other means like developing that superior in interpersonal skills etc. lines of activity. 2) Company initiated transfer:Transfer is also at the initiative of the company. . b) Permanent transfer: . opportunities for financial gains etc. 3) Due to other adhoc problem like pursuing higher education. 5) To avoid conflict with his superior. a) Temporary transfers: reasons for the company initiated temporary transfers are: 1) Due to temporary absenteeism of employees. rather than transferring the subordinates. Employee prefers transfers: 1) Due to chronic ill health or permanent disablement caused by accident. 2) Due to fluctuation in quality of production and thereby in work load. If most of the employees working under the same superior request for a transfer.reasons for the company initiated permanent transfer are: 1) Changes in the quality of production.
Thus. and increase employees job satisfaction. The majour drawback of public initiated transfer is the politicalisation of the issue. This drawback is more severe in government departments and public sector unit. Thus. They are: . 2) If the function of an employee is against the public interest. Further they prepare the employee to meet the organizational exigencies and meet the fluctuation in business and organizational requirements. they improve employee’s morale. Benefit of transfer: Transfers benefit both the employees and the organization. Some employees may be transferred frequently because of political victimization and company initiated transfer of some employees may be stopped due to political favoritism. Further they improves employee’s skills. 3) Public initiated transfers:Public also initiate the transfers generally through the politicians/ government for the following reasons: 1) If an employee’s behavior in the society is against the social norms orderprocessing if he indulges in any social evils. knowledge etc. they enhance human resource contribution to organizational effectiveness. Transfer reduce employee’s monotony. 3) To improve the employee job satisfaction.2) To improve the versatity of employees. they correct erroneous placement and interpersonal conflicts. boredom etc. 4) To minimize bribe order-processing corruption. Problems of transfer: Despite these benefit some problems are associated with transfers.
superior and colleageoues. 3) transfer from one place to another result in loss of Mondays. that are to be allowed to the employee in the new job. 5) Reasons which will be considered for personal transfers their order of priority etc. transportation etc. Similarly. description and classification etc. 2) Transfer from one place to another cause which inconvenience and cost to the employees and his family members relating to housing. Merit. 9) Specification of pay. Special allowance for packaging luggage. benefit etc. length of service.1) Adjustment problem to the employee to the new job. place. It causes frustration among employees. these problems can be minimized through formulating a systematic transfer policy. As such organization may find it difficult to manage the transfer policy. commitment and contribution. Most of the people may ask for transfer to risk less and easy job and places. 4) Company initiated transfer result in reduction in employee contribution 5) Discriminatory transfer affects employees’ morale. Otherwise superiors may transfer their subordinates arbitrarily if they do not like them. education to children etc. subordinates may also request fro transfer even for the petty issues. environment. However. Transfer policy: organization should specify their policy regarding transfers. Systematic transfer policy should contain the following items: 1) Specification of circumstances under which an employee will be transferred in the case of company initiated transfer. . job satisfaction. 4) The region order-processing unit of the organization within which transfer will be administrated. Allowances. seniority. 8) Specification of basis for transfer like job analysis. 6) Reasons for mutual transfer of employees. 10) Other facility to be extended to the transferee like special leave during the period of transfer. 7) Norms to decide priority when two order-processing more employees request for transfer like priority of reasons. 2) Specification of superior who is authorized and responsible to initiate a transfer 3) Jobs from and to which transfers will be made based on the job specification.
► Need for demotions: Demotions are necessary for following reasons: . line managers administer the transfers and personnel managers assist the line managers in this respect.Generally. Demotion is the reassignment of a lower level job to an employee with delegation of responsibility and authority required to perform that lower level job and normally with lower level pay. Organizations use demotion less frequently as it affects employee career prospects and morale. Demotion The remaining type of internal mobility is demotion. It is the opposite of promotion.
3) New technology and new methods of operation demand new and higher level skills. organizations demote them to the lower level jobs where they are suitable. This is one of the extreme steps and as such organizations rarely use this measure. knowledge and aptitude suit to the job requirements. teacher handling 10TH class were demoted to the level of 8 TH class teachers when the syllabus were revised and the teachers were found misfit even after training in one school in Andhra Pradesh. For example. withdrawal of some lines of products. In addition. Junior employees will be retrenched and senior employees will be demoted under such conditions. some of the employees promoted on those bases may not meet the job requirements of the higher level job.1) Unsuitability of the employee to higher level jobs: Employees are promoted based on the seniority and past performance. In most cases employees are promoted to the level of the incompetence. as it reduces employee status not only in the organization but also in the society in addition to reduction in responsibility authority and pay. closure of certain department orderprocessing plants. But. there should be a systematic demotion policy. 4) Employees are demoted on disciplinary grounds. organizations resort to economy drives. Job satisfaction etc. Such employees may be demoted to the lower level jobs where their skill. ► Demotion policy: Organization should clearly specify the demotion policy. Systematic demotion policy should contain following items: . 2) Adverse business conditions: Generally adverse business conditions force the organization to reduce quality of production. If the existing employees do not develop themselves to meet those new requirements. Consequently organizations minimize the number of employees. Though the demotion seems to be simple it adversely affects the employee morale. Some employees selected for higher level jobs may prove to be incompetent I doing that job. Otherwise the superiors demote the employees according to their whims and fancies. Hence.
whether it is permanent order-processing temporary if it as a disciplinary action it should also specify the guidelines for determining the seniority of such demoted employee. 4) Specification of basis for demotion like length of service. the opinion & suggestions of workers are taken into account while framing policies particularly those. As a result. demotions will be made and specification of lines orderprocessing ladders of demotion. The concept of participative management developed in Western countries & has proved to be successful. . which are directly connected with them or affect them directly. It is a process of giving & sharing views. Employee’s participation in management means associating workers with the decision-making process. 7) Specification of nature of demotion i. it acquired world-wide recognition & popularity. 2) Specification of a superior who is authorized and responsible to initiated a demotion 3) Jobs from and to which. 6) It should contain clear cut norms for judging merit and length of service. Participation in an emotional involvement of employees in the working of their company. PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT Meaning of Participative Management The concept of participative management is closely related with the concept of industrial democracy. ideas & information in between the employer & employees through certain channels / mechanism.1) Specification of circumstances under which an employee will be demoted. 5) It should provide for open policy rather than a closed policy. indisciplinary cases. like reduction in operations. merit order-processing both.. In industrial democracy.e. It is a type of mental & emotional involvement of workers in industrial management.
promotions & transfers. Concept has limitations: Employees will not be allowed to participate in financial & other decisions of the management. Higher status to employees: In participative management. etc. Works comities. As a result. holidays. production methods. safety. Revolutionary concept: It is a powerful tool. Economic: Automation. etc. E. through the representatives of employees. lay-offs. Personnel: Recruitment. 4. 3. which ensures cordial industrial relations. which can make industrial democracy a reality. This gives psychological satisfaction to employees. 5. 9. welfare facilities. Beneficial to both parties: The participative management will be beneficial to both parties only when company’s management is professional or progressive. 6. etc.Features of Participative Management 1. 7. etc. Participation is indirect: Employees participation in the management is indirect i. It is restricted to those aspects of management where employees are directly involved. Provides psychological satisfaction to employees: Participation is an emotional involvement of employees in the working of their company. Brings employees & management closure: It facilitates meaningful communication between management & employees. Universally recognized concept: It is introduced in different countries in different forms. sanitation.g. 2. work rules. Special attention to view of employees: The views of employees are given special attention in regard to following matters: • • • Social Matters: Hours of work. production schedule. work distribution. settlement of grievances. They feel that they are given better status & treatment & not treated merely as wage earners. 8.e. . employees are given higher status with power of participate in the decision-making & running of their business enterprise. health. some management decisions are as per the expectations of employees.
. 3) Creating uniform approach of employer & workers: This avoids possible disputes. Needs of Participative Management: 1) Giving higher status & psychological satisfaction to workers: Employees are important & that their views are being taken into account while taking decisions on the matters relating to them. ⇒ To establish cordial industrial relation. ⇒ To raise industrial productivity. Such participation satisfies the urge of self-expressions.Objectives or Purposes of Participative Management: ⇒ To create uniform approach of employer & workers. ⇒ To introduce industrial democracy. ⇒ To workers in confidence. So there needs to establish cordial labour-management relations through mutual understanding. 2) Cordial labour-management relations: The participation of the workers in management can act as an effective means for preventing industrial disputes. Even for maturity & personality development of workers.
It removes suspicion among workers. This leads to industrial democracy. respect & opportunity of selfexpression. 9) Introducing industrial democracy: Workers participation acts as a means for achieving the dream of industrial democracy. They are consulted as equal partners in the production process. which is one useful supplement of political democracy. skills & talents for the benefit of the company. 8) Raising employee’s morale: For raising the morale of employees & in order to use their knowledge. The committees are for the removing the causes of friction between employers and the workers in the day to day working in factory . The method used is means while effective participation is the end. 5) Creating platform for direct negotiations: It is needed in order to create a platform for direct negotiations & collective decisions.4) Raising industrial production: As workers generally take interest in their work when they are given due importance. forums or platforms through which effective communication between workers and management will be possible and joint decision will be arrived at the methods of Participative management are different alternative. Employees and workers can select any one of the method popular and also purposeful. 1. disciplined & constructive in their approach in relation to the activities of the company. Methods of participative management Participative management is possible by creating suitable agencies. Works committees: The industrial disputes act 1947 provided for the setting up of a work committees consisting of representative of management and employees in every undertaking employee 100 or more employees. 7) Encouraging communication between employer & workers: It enables management to understand the workers point of view at the time of decisionmaking. This is the nature as the method selected is not important but the result oriented Participative is important. 6) Creating responsible approach among workers: To make workers more responsible.
many other committees are formed. In India. Matters like wage payment. However. Such joint consultative committees exist in UK and Sweden. They only provide platform for discussions. 2. etc. are discussed in the meetings of JMCs. the JMCs are not operation effectively in India due to limited interest and initiative in their functioning by managements and workers. After discussion. In addition to works committee. problems such as welfare facility. However. they are neither effective nor popular in India. Absence of cordial industrial relations in spite of JMCs indicates their overall failure. This joint consultative committee meets frequently for discussion on common problem before workers and the company. The suggestions put forward by representatives are not binding on the management. Unfortunately. discipline. Such councils serve no useful purpose. but for quarrels and heated exchanges between the representatives of management and workers. discipline. participative management through this mechanism is not effective or purposeful in India. removal of workers. Workers express their views. training. JMCs are mostly consultative bodies and this type of workers participation is of loose type. holidays. participative management is mainly through joint management councils. common grievances. As a result. Such committees are constituted in large number of industrial unit. They are not used for exchange of information. working conditions etc. they are not effective as agencies of participative management. In India. training. views. are discussed in such meetings. bonus. Workers committees are extremely popular and effective in France and England. joint decisions are taken and such decisions are binding on both the parties. Joint management councils (JMCs): These council are similar to works committees with equal representation to employer and employees. suggestions. etc. JMCs are in addition to works committees which are statutory in nature. Meeting of such committees are also arranged. there is statutory provision for the establishment of worker committees under the industrial disputes act. Many managers feel that such committees have only a nuisance value. . 1947. welfare facility.level. rationalization. expansion programmes.
Many companies in India offer their shares to employees but the response of the employees is not encouraging.3. The representative of workers can put the views of workers before the directors and can also safeguard the interests of workers. workers are converted into shareholders of the company (by offering equity shares to them) and are allowed to participate in the management like other shareholders. This suggests that co-partnership as a method of participative management is not effective / popular in India. The company may give financial assistance to workers to purchase equity shares. two or three representatives of workers are taken on the Board of Directors of the company. employees participate in the management as co-owners i. workers are given higher status. As a result. Co-partnership is also a method for introducing industrial democracy. Voting rights are also given to employees. Workers show limited interest in purchasing shares of their company as and when offered. They work in two different capacities as workers and as co-owners. Unfavourable decisions to workers will be avoided and better treatment will be ensured to them. employee directors act as connecting link between workers and top level management. Co-partnership ( Participation through ownership) : In co-partnership. They can elect their representatives on the Board of Directors. Here. the experiment of co-partnership is not popular. In India. 4. The employee directors / workers directors are elected by workers and they express the views of workers in the meetings of the Board. the personnel policies will be fair and favourable to workers. the participation of workers in the management is weak and ineffective. Naturally. Very few workers purchase the shares and join the company as members. . Such participation ensures cordial industrial relations. Workers are also allowed to attend meetings of the company and participate in the discussions. This gives them an opportunity to participate in the decision making and policy framing of their company at the highest level. Employee Directors: Here. In this method. shareholders.e. Here.
heads of departments and technical experts. In addition. This scheme also exists in the case of nationalized banks. etc. Suitable suggestions relating to production activities. 5. co-operative banks. waste management. In addition. Finally. suggestion boxes are kept in all departments. the worker director may not be able to play a constructive role due to limited knowledge and experience. DCM. Such suggestions are for improvement in the existing organizational setup. Workers representatives on the Board are minority. and HMT Ltd. The worker director may enjoy the status on par with other directors but will feel inferior to others due to his shortcomings. In India. are promptly accepted and executed. working conditions. They may not be able to protect the interests of workers as decisions are taken on the basis of majority vote. Suggestion Programme / Scheme: Under suggestion programme. cost control. Representation on the Board does not substantially enhance the participation of workers in the management of the company. workers are asked to give their suggestion to the management on various administrative and other matters such as machine utilization. workers directly connected with work give creative and practical suggestions which are useful to the management in different ways. On May occasions. Tatas. energy conservation and safety measures. They may raise productivity or reduce the cost of production. This method of participative management has many limitations. For collecting suggestions. Workers directors are now appointed in companies like Hindustan Antibiotics Ltd. quality improvement. The suggestions which are suitable are accepted. rewards are also given to those who make constructive suggestions. Suggestion . Tatas and some more companies from the private sector. Their suggestions are considered by a joint committee representing workers.. His contribution may not be satisfactory for the workers and also for the management. DCM and other industrial groups have introduced suggestion scheme. Suggestion scheme of participative management encourages workers to think (individually or collectively) and participate in raising the efficiency of the organization.This mechanism of workers participation is now used extensively in the public sector undertaking in India as per the initiative taken by the government.
etc. This leading unit was closed down in 1985 due to sickness. This idea of participative management is now put into operation through quality circles which are popular in Japan and now function in may Indian Companies. Naturally. The Supreme Court also allowed the workers to run the unit. 1989. workers take over the industrial unit and manage it completely on co operative basis.e. Workers co-partnership / Auto Management: In this extreme form of labour participation. workers have contributed to its capital and have become its owners. if found suitable. Quality Circle: Quality circle consist of a small number of employees who comes together on voluntary basis with one item on the agenda i. One example in India under this category is that of Kamani Tubes Limited.scheme will give good results if workers are encouraged to think and make concrete suggestions. As a practice. to improve quality or to raise productivity or to avoid wastages. The suggestion should be implemented. This circle highly proved to be highly successful because the problem is solved by member themselves through two way communication and brainstorming seriously and studies them effectively and promptly. Now. It is one significant constructive development in the field of trade unionism in India. Member of quality circle is given free hand to solve problem related to the quality. the entire management is by the workers themselves. Workers suffered heavy loss. this form of participation is voluntary. 7. 8. if they fail they can request to management to depute an expert to sort out the problem. Collective Bargaining: . meetings are held once in the week lasting for about as hour. 6. The Kamani Employees’ Union took initiative in starting this unit with the co-operation of financial institution form 6th April. This is the first example of participative management in the manufacturing sector in India. The Government of Maharashtra has taken a decision to hand over sick industrial units to workers for regular functioning on co-operative basis. This method is called “Auto-management”.
they feel responsible. Job enlargement and job evaluation: Job enlargement is the process of increasing the scope of the job by adding more tasks to it. Collective bargaining is a better alternative to strike and industrial disputes. 10. It results into signing an agreement thereby restricting each party that it cannot take unilateral decision harming the interest of the other party. 9. As they are competent to speak on the job. In this sense. Empowered Team: When the authority is delegated to the employees its called empowering.Collective bargaining is the process in which the representative of the employer and employer and employees meet together to negotiate a contract government both the parties. A strong trade union can protect the interest of worker can more effectively through direct negotiation and consultation rather than through disputes and strike which are normally harmful to workers. employer and society at large. Employees become quality conscious and contribute to quality improvement in product and services. . employment takes place when employees enjoy power and they experience a sense of ownership and control over the jobs. This sort of joint meeting can bring fruits proved barraging is done in the right spirit with positive attitude. Participation brings both the parties together and improves the understanding thus making the way for the two way dialogue to sort out the problems. Employees when empowered. As tasks are related. understanding that the job belong to them. Job enrichment is designing a job in such a way that it provide the employee grater autonomy for planning and control his own performance. Job enrichment makes the jobs more interesting and challenging. employees to get the opportunity to make grater use of their mental and physical skills. Information is shared at every level leading to improved performance. This happens to motivate them and they go out of the way to work. It is peaceful and democratic method for solving the problem and demands for workers through direct negotiation between the representative of workers and management.
They also need information. The basis purpose of above noted scheme of participative management is to associate the worker with the decision-making process. Strong trade unions: Existing of strong trade with creative and enlightened leadership is necessary for participative management. PRE-REQUISITES OF PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT 1. Difference methods are use in the different countries as per the situation available. Workers participation will be ineffective if these pre-request are absent. 3. Management should not feel that its position it’s threatened by such participation. He must be mentally willing to associate with his workers on equal level and discus the problem freely and frankly with them. Voluntary participation is always better and more effective. Favourable attitude of management: The attitude of the management should be progressive and democratic. Workers and their union must have genuine desire and interest in such participation. proper training and ability to participate in the discussions in an effective manner. The conservative and autocratic outlook of management will defeat participative management in practice. Mutual trust and confidence: . Politicisation and multiplicity of trade union defeat the very purpose of participative management 2. Both the job enrichment and job enlargement are considering method of participative management as they provide freedom to each employee to use his judgment. The method used for workers participation is not impotent. Statutory labour participation is not effective as it is mechanical and also imposed on both the parties by force. This freedom is course limited and restricted.The main objective of job enrichment and job enlargement is to force the worker from boredom which occurs because of excessive specialization. Management have to accept due importance of employees and their status as their partners and not merely as wage earners. Workers participation in management may be voluntary or statutory.
This facilitates participative management in practice. The objective must be clearly define and complementary in characters. Meaningful sharing of information: Worker representative should have adequate technical. understand the views and come to certain acceptable decision is necessary for success of participative management. financial and managerial knowledge and information. This will make labour participation effectively. a suitable training needs to be given to the workers representatives. 7. There must be a free flow of information and communication between management . Employer should not take such participation as an imposed liability and worker should not use it merely for expressing there grievances and demands. 5. For this. It is just not possible when there are disputes and strike in the industrial unit. Peaceful atmosphere: Labour management relation should be a cardinal or at least there should be a no tension in the relation. The outlook of employer and worker must change and become favourable for mutual trust and understanding. Both parties are agree to stay together in an atmosphere of understanding. 4. Management should also provide all relevant information to employees for their consideration. Fair participation is not possible when the mutual confidence is absent. Genuine urge for co-operation: Genuine desire on the part of employer and worker to discuss. 6.Existence of atmosphere of mutual trust and confidence is the sine quo non of participative management. Participation should be for achieve the objective which are accepted by both the parties and also beneficial for both the parties. Active participation of workers in management is possible under such peaceful atmosphere. Clear understanding of objective: Employers and workers must understand clear the objective of such participation. This must be supplemented by desire to genuine desire to share authority and responsibility in mutually agreed to sphere.
In addition. Voluntary character desirable: Participative management should not be made compulsory but should be kept voluntary in character. The participation of trade union leaders should be discourage as the approach of such leaders may not be positive or fair. Similarly. It will not work fruitfully if it is imposed on the both the parties. 8. This will make the concept of participative management among popular among the workers and will ensure its success. Real representative of workers can put forward the views of all workers with confidence. .and worker. Education and training of workers: Workers education and training should be make significant contribution to meaningful participative management. This avoids suspicion and distrust and ensures purposeful participative management. Participation of supervisory staff: Supervisory staff should be given a place on the join management council. Trade union and government should provide such education and training to the workers. 10. Thus voluntary condition character is one pre-condition for the success of participative management. The need of such participation must be felt by both the parties and they should introduce the scheme of participation on voluntary basis. It should not be government sponsored. 9. Participative management will be effective if the entire labour force covered by such participation. subject earmarked for collective bargaining must be kept outside for the joint consultation. the representative of the worker must be drawn from themselves.
Participative management has wider socio-economic importance as it given various advantages to workers. . Participative management is important it satisfies the psychological needs of self expression of workers. the progress is not satisfactory even when consultative machinery exists in many countries. In the countries of west. Industrial peace and cordial industrial relation are also established through participative management. Efforts are being made in all countries in this regards. In addition. workers’ participation brings industrial democracy in reality. this experiment is reasonable successful while in developing countries including India. Even the process of decision making is made democratic through the workers participation. The ILO has given morale support to employee’s participation and has advocated its adoption in all countries. It helps consumer in an indirect manner. social and human values connected with it. Participative management introduces a new set of volume for the workers and employers in which power is to be replaced by persuasion and compulsion by cooperation. Employee participation is useful for raising industrial production and productivity.Importance of participative management: The importance of participative management is universally accepted and efforts are being made for introducing such participation through suitable agencies and methods. It bring human element in industrial management. the concept of participative management is important because of economics. The national economy also gets certain benefits when industrial peace and harmony exits over a long period. In brief. employers and society at large. Such participation gives higher status to workers and enable them to think and express their view on the working of their company.
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