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A vast country like India cannot be run by the central government and the state government alone.

Many of the states in India are internally very diverse. A local government is needed because there are a large number of problems and issues which are best settled at the local level. People have better knowledge of problems in their localities. They also have better ideas on where to spend money and how to manage things more efficiently.

The local government of India is divided into two categories: Panchayati Raj (Rural areas) Municipalities (Urban areas)


Muncipal corporation Muncipalities

Rural Zilla Parishad Panchayat samiti

Gram Panchayat

Rural government is divided into 3 Categories: Zilla Parishad Panchayat Samiti Gram Panchayat

Each village, or a group of villages in some states, has a gram panchayat. This is a council consisting of several ward members, often called Panch,

and a president or sarpanch. It is the decision making body for the entire village. It has to meet at least twice or thrice in a year to approve the
budget of the gram panchayat and to review the performance of the gram panchayat.

The local government structure goes right up to the district level .A few gram panchayats are grouped together to form what is usually called a panchayat samiti. The members of this representative body are elected by all the panchayat members in that area.

Some of the functions of the samiti are: Implement schemes for the development of agriculture. Establishment of Primary Health Centres and primary schools. Supply of drinking water, drainage, construction/repair of roads. Development of cottage and small-scale industries and opening of cooperative societies. Establishment of youth organisations.

All the panchayat smitis in a ditrict together constitute the zilla parishad. Most members of the zilla parishad are elected. Members of Lok Sabha and MLAs of that district and other officials of other district level bodies are also its members.

Some of the functions of the zilla prishad are: Provide essential services and facilities to the rural population and the planning and execution of the development programmes for the district. Supply improved seeds to farmers. Inform them of new techniques of training. Undertake construction of small-scale irrigation projects and percolation tanks. Maintain pastures and grazing lands. Set up and run schools in villages. Execute programmes for adult literacy. Run libraries. Start Primary Health Centers and hospitals in villages. Start vaccination drives against epidemics and family welfare campaigns. Construct bridges and roads. They construct roads,schools,& public properties. And they take care of the public properties.

Urban government is divided into 2 Categories: Municipalities Municipal corporation

Municipalities are set up in towns. Big cities are constituted into municipal corporations. Both municipalities and municipal corporations are controlled by elected bodies consisting of peoples representatives. Municipal chairperson is the political head of the municipality. In a municipal corporation such an officer is called the mayor. The municipal bodies of India are vested with a long list of functions delegated to them by the state governments under the municipal legislation. These functions broadly relate to public health, welfare, regulatory functions, public safety, public infrastructure works, and development activities.