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Angel V. Peterchev Prof. Seth R. Sanders
Intel 2004 Technology Symposium
Power Electronics Group Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley
2004] challenge to regulation 2 .Microprocessor Supply Trends regulation tolerance ± 2 % [Yao .
) challenge to regulation [Yao . 2004] 3 .Microprocessor Supply Trends (Cont.
10 mΩ ESR Ceramic cap 3.5 mm3 100 x 100 µF. high profile High density.VRM Implementations Low density.2x2. low profile Electrolytic cap 10x10x20 mm3 820 µF.5x2. 2 mΩ ESR 4 .
Feedback Control 5 .New Results In framework of all-ceramic capacitor VRM’s Critical Inductance Expression Dynamic Load Line vs. Static Load Line Load Current Feedforward vs.
Microprocessor VRM Load Line PC “silver box” 12 V Vref ~1V rC microprocessor ESR 6 .
Critical Inductance Critical Inductance – largest inductance for which load-line specification can be met Unloading transient more constraining – low voltage across inductor rise/fall time const. control delay unload. overshoot Rref ≠ ESR 7 .
2 µs Î with ceramic caps rC < Rref Dynamic Load Line 8 . ceramic caps rCC = 0.Dynamic Load Line with Ceramic Caps Li ~ 100’s nH for efficient operation at fsw < 1 MHz Lcrit ∝ C → C > 100’s µF electrolytic caps rCC = 10 µs.
Feedback Bandwidth Considerations In conventional feedback designs Rref = rC.2 µs): fsw ~ 10 MHz Î high switching losses ~ fsw 9 . and 1/2πrCC < ~ BW < fsw Î electrolytic caps (rCC = 10 µs): fsw = 200—500 kHz Î ceramic caps (rCC = 0.
fsw > 1 MHz Î To use small C: Use load current feedforward to avoid feedback bandwidth constraint.) With ceramic caps design for rC < Rref 1/2πRrefC < BW < fsw still for small C < 1 mF.Feedback Bandwidth Considerations (cont. at conventional fsw 10 .
Controller Paradigm exogenous variables Vin Io D inputs converter state variables Vo IL feedfwd controller feedback controller Feedforward handles bulk of regulation action Feedback compensates for feedforward non-ideality and DC precision 11 .
Load Current Feedforward feedback Vref Z1 modulator power train Vin load Z2 Vc Vx L C Vo Io Z4 Z3 Zref Io load line 12 feedforward .
Load Current Feedforward (cont.) Feedforward bandwidth not limited by stability constraints load current is (approx.) exogenous variable Î Fast response with conventional switching frequencies Î Response limited by modulator and switch delay Î Modulator must have low turn-off latency Non-idealities of feedforward attenuated by feedback Î Feedback contributes robustness 13 .
) Applicable to both Voltage-Mode and Current-Mode Modulation Voltage-Mode: Current-Mode: (high current-loop gain) Feedforward control law approximately 1st order TF Load current estimation needed for FB load-line regulation Î Little added complexity 14 sL .Load Current Feedforward (cont.
2-Phase VRM Diagram 15 .
Vo = 1. 4-phase.3 V 16 . Li = 390 nH.50 A Loading Transient estimated load current C = 8 x 100 µF. fsw = 1 MHz. Vin = 12 V.
Vin = 12 V.3 V 17 .8 A Unloading Transient C = 8 x 100 µF. Li = 390 nH. 4-phase. fsw = 1 MHz. Vo = 1.
50 A Unloading Transient duty ratio saturation (Vc = 0) 18 .
output capacitor ESR < loadline slope Load current feedforward enables fast VRM response not limited by feedback stability constraints Feedforward can be used with different modulation schemes. as long as low turn-off latency The increased effective bandwidth allows for VRM operation with only a few ceramic output capacitors 19 .Conclusion In ceramic-capacitor VRM’s.