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DEVELOPMENTS TOWARDS H.V. SUBSTATIONS WITHOUT DISCONNECTOR SWITCHES AND WITH MODERN CONTROL SYSTEMS
H. Timmerman EDON Transport, The Netherlands
J. F. Groeman
KEMA, The Netherlands
In open-air high-voltage substations, disconnector switches are applied to ensure personnel safety during maintenance of circuit breakers. However, disconnector switch maintenance has become significant in comparison to circuit breaker maintenance. Therefore, a study has been performed to investigate the consequences of leaving out the circuit breakers from a substation; this would result in significant cost reductions. The results of the analysis shows that, if certain precautions are taken, personnel safety of a substation without disconnectors is comparable to that of a substation with disconnectors. Next, a new medium-size 110 kV substation had to be realised. It was decided to omit the line disconnectors, i.e. the disconnector switches between circuit breakers and the line connection. A modem SMS (substation management system) has been used with distributed interfacing on primary equipment level. Optimal serial communication between SMS and protection equipment leads to savings on cabling and measurement equipment The savings on secondary equipment are about 25 % and on primary equipment about 10 %. In future the expected savings on a substation without disconnector switches are up to 20 % of the total life-cyclexost
tors. The experiences during basic design and engineering of a new substation are reported in this paper. An important tool to reduce the overall costs of substations is the optimal use of SMS (substation management system). A good example is the distribution of the I/O interfacing on the primary equipment level. SMS also gives the opportunity to reduce the number of primary equipment and to reduce the maintenance costs by continuously monitoring the equipment. The co-ordinated control system SAS2000 has been developed by EDON in co-operation with a Dutch manufacturer and been implemented in a new substation.
A STUDY INTO HIGH-VOLTAGE SUBSTATIONS WITHOUT DISCONNECTORS
The application of disconnector switches stems from times when circuit breakers required much more preventive and corrective maintenance than they do now. It seems that the innovation and cost reduction rates of circuit breakers are much higher than for disconnector switches. The vast improvements in circuit breaker reliability have led to a situation in which maintenance of the disconnector switch itself has become significant in comparison to circuit breaker maintenance. Could it be better to leave out the disconnector switches? Leaving out disconnector switches would reduce substation life-cycle cost but safety during maintenance could be affected. In a feasibility study, safety, economics, reliability and design aspects have been studied by means of comparing a substations without disconnector switches with a traditional one. The following, typical Dutch open-air high-voltage substation has been used as a study case: 0 an new open air substation, voltage level 150 kV. two power transformer bays and four line bays for two double-circuit lines. 0 double busbar configuration: - traditional substation: according to figure 1 (in the Netherlands, most 110 and 150 kV substations are of this type). - substation without disconnector switches: according to figure 2.
This paper focuses on efforts to achieve significant cost reductions in 110 kV and 150 kV substations in the Netherlands. Highlights are placed on: 0 reduction and elimination of disconnector switches. e application of substation automation with its associated advantages.
A discussion on eliminating disconnector switches was started by several individual Dutch utilities in the 1980s. Next, KEMA, in close co-operation with the Dutch utilities, has carried out a study, funded by the association of Dutch utilities (EnergieNed), giving an indication of the feasibility of the idea. One further step was to implement the idea and to build a substation without disconnector switches. As a first step, EDON decided to build a new 110 kV substation without line disconnec-
Trends in Distribution Switchgear, 10-12 November 1998, Conference Publication No. 459 0 IEE 7998
The advantage is caused by: elimination of the disconnector switches themselves. personnel safety of a substation without disconnectors is comparable to that of a substation with disconnectors. if certain precautions are taken. control and protection. From these basic events. e. The method has been used for assessing the safety of e. personnel may not be in the open-air substation during switching. provided following conditions be fulfilled: circuit breakers and earthing switches can be manually locked against accidental operation during maintenance. capitalised to the moment of the investment. . it is recommended that a monte carlo analysis be carried out. Application of fault and event trees is relatively traditional failure probability assessment method. and their associated probabilities. the circuit breaker type should have an excellent reliability record. the circuit breaker should have a withstand voltage across open contacts in accordance with values used for disconnector switches or better. The investment cost include highvoltage equipment. using event and fault trees. the manual fault and event tree calculations become too laborious and. In such cases. It is suitable in simple situations in which all failure modes and combinations thereof can be foreseen. to account for all possible combinations of failures and mistakes. For more complex situations. prone to mistakes. at some locations. civil works. but also the maintenance cost should be taken into account. In order to quantify this requirement. nuclear plants.g. In that case. starting to work in the wrong bay etc. the circuit breakers should have a clear position indication. not unimportant. the chance of an accident have been estimated.g. Safety should. not only include satisfaction of legal requirements. flashovers over open circuit breaker con- Economic comparison In order to determine the economical advantage of a substation without disconnector switches. the number of probable failure mechanisms increases drastically. In order to determine the accident rate. Possible technical failures are. land area and engineering cost. The results of the analysis showed that. earthing switches are remotely controlled. a quantitative comparison has been made of the probability of an accident. New legal requirements in the Netherlands concerning safety give more freedom to ensure safety than previously. the latter argument has been treated by requiring that the disconnectorless substation should not be less safe than a traditional one with disconnector switches. 'igure 1: Single-line diagram of the (double-busbar substation with disconnector switches as used for the study Tr 1 Tr 2 igure 2: Single-line diagram of the double-busbar substation without disconnector switch.es as used for the study Safety comparison regarding safety quantitatively - Most important of a substation without disconnector switches is the safety issue.41 tacts. the possible combinations of failures and human errors leading to an accident have been determined. The result of the cost estimation has yielded a potential saving of 15% by elimination of the disconnector switches. not only the initial investment cost. even though the number of circuit breakers is higher in the scheme without disconnector switches (12 instead of 7). In the study. A utility refraining from safety provisions (such as disconnector switches) should also be convinced that the risks of a disconnectorless substation are acceptable. removable parts are necessary to ensure sustained safety. reduction of supports. Possible human errors are forgetting basic safety measures. however.
Figure 4: Typical hardware configuration I In the past years. the remaining circuit will not get overloaded. The co-ordinated control system consists of centralised redundant multi-processor units (user interface. the other transformer will not become overloaded. From there on connections are made with multi-core cables to the co-ordinated control system and the protection equipment in the central control building. in case of deenergisation of one circuit of a double-circuit line. In the case where no disconnector switches are applied. the reduced maintenance period gives rise to a reduction of the period when the system is most vulnerable to equipment failures. as well as the protection equipment. the optimal use of a SMS (substation management system) is discussed. . amongst which: 0 the line bays belong to two double-circuit lines. A MODERN CONTROL SYSTEM CONCEPT As a second cost reduction item. Under these assumptions. The activities we employed are described below. substation processor and bay processing) and bay wise process interface modules. reduction in land area. The interface modules are connected to the central control units with a number of independent local area networks (LAN's) as redundant glass fibre rings. in case of de-energisation of one transformer. The interface modules of the co-ordinated control system. The cabling of all primary equipment of a specific bay is connected to a marshalling cabinet in the switch yard (figure 4). The concept is shown in Figure 3. the unexpected unavailability of the transmission and distribution function appears to be dominated by the situation when one bay is deenergised (e. which are fully redundant. Figure 3: Schematic principle of SMS The communication between the distributed interface modules and the centralised control units is extremely reliable and with a high performance. both in primary and secondary equipment. They are mounted into cubicles in the central control building or in bay kiosks. i. reduction of engineering and maintenance costs. Reliability comparison Not applying disconnector switches has an influence on the expected and unexpected non-availability of a substation.e. i. II Dabbuted P m c e Interface Module. The length of the cabling in the switch yard can add up to many kilometres.e. Several assumptions have been made.42 0 reduction of control equipment. 0 the two power transformers are fully redundant. For this study. are bay oriented. an analytical comparison has been made of the unavailability of a substation with or without disconnector switches. we have achieved considerably savings in the construction and refurbishment of substation. for maintenance) and a failure of another bay occurs at the same time.g. The calculations show a slight decrease (5-10%) of the unavailability of transmission and distribution functions of the substation.
Leave out VT's in feeder bays Many of EDON's substations have 6 feeder bays and a busbar system. This not only lead to cost reduction. currents. if we could eliminate the dominant problem that can still lead to failing breakers. In substations. Leave out breaker failure protection Modern circuit breakers have extremely low failure rates. required by other equipment. 0 Serial exchange of measurement data like voltages. In conventional substations. equipped with SMS. This leads to the decision not to implement the breaker failure protection in substations. 0 Central access to fault recordings. The protection equipment is installed in the control building and is serial connected to the interface module in the control building. respectively). 0 The protection relay has limited storage capabilities. This can be achieved by continuously monitoring the closing coil of the breaker by the SMS. we use a simple software function and kipp relays to select the right voltage for a particular protection. Serial communication with protection equipment Most vendors of digital protection equipment support the IEC 870-5-103 protocol standard. mounted in a water resistant cabinet close to or mounted on the primary equipment. 0 The recordings of all protection equipment (if connected via serial link) is stored centrally. The return on investment for the development cost was 2 to 3 substations. equipped with modern circuit breakers. which requires the current and voltage for that bay. which can switch the current (up to 5 A) that flows through the switch's coils. Only trip signals. as well as a considerable saving on material costs. reactive power and frequency. this function is implemented in software. which is wired to all protection relays. but also to additional functionality: Serial exchange of alarm indications. . Using this standard. Distributed YO interfacing on equipment level The distributed 1/0 concept on equipment level is shown in figure 5. All other signals are exchanged via the serial link. In case of a double rail system. You just need to have access to the control system. Mass storage of fault recordings (disturbance data). we measure the busbar voltage. whereas the control unit is capable to store all recordings that may occur during the life-cycle of the substation. disconnectors and transformer) has his own interface module (outdoor mini IM). The savings are considerable. eliminating the cost for the regulator. a separate transformer regulator is applied. The feeders are protected by a distance relay. Instead of the line voltage. Snitch-yard 14Control Building Figure 5 : Process interfacing in the switchyard Most primary equipment (circuit breakers.43 Integration of auxiliary relays and measurement converters Software transformer regulator The digital output channels of the SMS are equipped with on-board relays. we exchange information with the control system. The mini interface module has only a few digital inputs and outputs to control the primary equipment. The analogue input channels of SMS can be wired directly to the output of voltage and current transformers (1 10 Vac and 5 or 1 Aac. This means a reduction of engineering effort. power. are hard-wired. the main remaining failure mechanism is a fault in the control circuit.
trend data. we can also download files (e. The outdoor mini interface modules and the central located interface modules are connected to the central control units in the control room via a fibre optical local area network. Several of the previously described issues are applied in this substation: 0 leave out the line disconnectors. especially the mounting of cabinets and cabling and testing. 0 saving of personnel costs. it was disconnected to leave out all disconnector switches. In comparison with the present concept the main differences are: 0 "bay control" cubicles do not exist any more. 0 saving on cable ducts in the switchyard. alarm lists. It has a double busbar. In the previously mentioned study. one overhead line bay for a coupling with the 220 kV network and one cable bay for the coupling with a 520 MVA generator (figure 6). All the other measurements are derived of the protection systems. Apart from implementing this idea. amounting to 25 % of the cost of the secondary equipment and to 10 YOof the cost of primary equipment. In comparison with the present concept the total savings are about 25 % of the secondary equipment.g. In comparison with the I/O concept on bay level 4 to 6 field IM's are needed instead of 1 IM (depends on the number of the primary apparatus in a bay field).e. as long as there is a TCPIIP connection with the control unit.44 The analogue signals of the measurement transformers are directly connected to the interface modules in the control building. We expect that this will reduce the number of visits to the (unmanned) substations. the disconnector switches. 0 saving on cabling in the switch yard. The most important savings are on engineering. 0 remote diagnosis Although there is not yet operational experiences with this substation (April 1998) the expected savings have already been reached during engineering and construction. construction and testing costs (84 % of the total savings). The savings on equipment amount to 5%. We can now place our MMI anywhere we choose. 0 extra outdoor mini interface modules. THE WEIWERD SUBSTATION FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS In April 1998 EDON put into use a new open air substation. 0 saving on marshalling cabinets in the switch yard. 0 a fibre optical local area network in the switchyard. i. . as well as the protections. High-voltage installation As has been shown. 11 1 I 1 Figure 6: Single line diagram of the Weiwerd substation Remote MMI via TCP/IP A major break-through was the implementation of the TCP/IP protocol stack in the control unit. 0 saving on cubicles in the control building. fault recordings) from the control system. This step was not taken as the legal requirements at the moment of decision were not yet clear. future developments may include: 0 a review of the reliability of circuit breakers. a substation without disconnector switches promises significant cost reductions. voltage level 110 kV in Weiwerd. 0 leave out the VT's in the four line bays (in the coupling bay with the 220 kV network and cable bay to the generator a VT is still applied to enable synchronisation and metering) 0 the IM's (interface modules) of the SMS are build in the driving-cabinets of the breakers and disconnectors 0 Only the voltage and frequency of the both busbar systems are directly measured by SMS. Apart from bringing the process mimics to the remote PC. single-breaker configuration with four overhead line bays for two double circuit lines. which are usually applied between the circuit breakers and the line connection.
SMS derives the line voltage from the busbar voltage. remote control gives a lot of information to the protection engineer and the maintenance engineer without visiting the unmanned substation. 0 distributing of the interface modules on the primary equipment level. the applicability of the first solution will be limited due to selectivity requirements. 0 circuit breakers integrated with disconnector switches. assemblies have been developed to integrate the breaking and disconnecting function in one apparatus. For air-insulated metal clad medium voltage switchgear. dependant on the switching configuration. As a first step. removable links on either side of the circuit breaker and a line earthing. Each bay consists of a “maintenance free” circuit breaker. Consequences or possibilities can be summarised as follows: savings on primary and secondary components and therefore on maintenance. SMS monitors on line the state of the HV breakers. This yields reductions in installation cost. legislation on safety and working procedures should not form barriers. 0 0 Leaving out disconnector switches from a substation is not the only way of cost reduction. this option is not uncommon. a review of removing disconnector switches from HV substations. 1 CT & V T I I ‘igure 7: Singular ring shaped busbar without disconnectors A singular ring shaped busbar without disconnectors is shown in figure 7. 0 CONCLUSION Removing disconnector switches from a substation promises great cost reductions.45 a review of removing disconnector switches in a GIS substation. . The safety of such a substation without disconnectors seems to be comparable to a traditional substation. In that case it is possible to take action if maintenance is necessary. although the extra cost of the disconnecting mechanism more or less seem to counterbalance the cost reduction by omitting two disconnector switches. Which of these developments will finally prove most attractive will depend upon the situation. A substation without any disconnector switches has not been realised yet. 0 by on line monitoring the primary equipment preventive maintenance can be replaced by condition based maintenance. The optimal use of SMS also leads to cost reduction: 0 integration of secondary functions into SMS and leave out secondary equipment. under conditions that are outlined in this paper. 0 serial communication with protection equipment and leave out VT’s in feeder bays. a substation without line disconnector switches has been realised. The second option looks promising. protection concept needs still more attention. In meshed networks. for higher voltages. Several competing developments include: 0 skipping most of the circuit breakers and using disconnector switches instead (together with a control strategy to ensure a switching sequence in which the disconnector switch switches at zero current).
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