# Exercise Examples InfoCAD Program System

The description of program functions within this documentation should not be considered a warranty of product features. All warranty and liability claims arising from the use of this documentation are excluded. InfoGraph® is a registered trademark of InfoGraph GmbH, Aachen, Germany. The manufacturer and product names mentioned below are trademarks of their respective owners. This documentation is copyright protected. Reproduction, duplication, translation or electronic storage, of this document or parts thereof, is subject to the written permission of InfoGraph GmbH. © 2010 InfoGraph GmbH, Aachen, Germany. All rights reserved.

Introduction Load Combination for Nonlinear Calculations Safety Factors in Nonlinear System Analysis
Calculation in the Ultimate Limit State

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Nonlinear 2D Frame According to DIN 1045-1 Nonlinear 3D Frame According to DIN 1045-1 Determining Maximum Reinforcement Construction Stages, Creep Redistribution
Construction Stages Creep Redistribution as a Result of a System Change

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Dynamic Train Crossing
Track and Train Definition Time Step Calculation Results

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Prestressed Roof Girder According to DIN 1045-1
Static System Entering a Tendon Group Loads Checks According to DIN 1045-1 Performing Calculations Results

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Prestressed Steel Design / Single Design

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InfoCAD Exercise Examples Introduction This documentation is designed to help experienced users with the advanced calculation and checking methods of the InfoCAD program system. Product news. July 2008 .infograph. refer to the user manual. Press the F1 key to open the help section on the command or dialog that you are currently using. user tips and updated versions of the program are available at www. 2 © InfoGraph GmbH. Basic program operation will not be explained as it is assumed the user is already familiar with the program. It is limited to describing the various procedures and essential work steps. For a detailed explanation of the program's theoretical foundations. calculation methods and results.de. The complete program documentation has been integrated into the help system. which means you can view it at any time on your computer.

20 Section 1 (Column) 5.00 80 60 1. 60 40 1. Load Load case 1: permanent loads γ = 25 kN/m³ Load case 2: traffic upside Load case 3: traffic area 1 Load case 4: traffic area 2 4 © InfoGraph GmbH.20 60 3.20 . requirement class F) will be calculated and checked in accordance with DIN 1045-1. BSt 500/550. a buckling safety check is then carried out with allowance for any stiffness changes in state II.00 4.00 9. July 2008 1. Using the calculated reinforcement.InfoCAD Exercise Examples Nonlinear 2D Frame According to DIN 1045-1 The reinforced concrete frame depicted below (C20/25.00 Section 2 (Waler) 1.20 4. Select five beam elements for each structural component and calculate the load cases shown below. 3 cm overlap.00 3.00 Static system and section polygons The beams must be adequately divided into groups for nonlinear calculation.

InfoCAD Exercise Examples Load case 5: wind from left Load case 6: wind from right Define the actions and design situations and carry out a reinforced concrete design in accordance with DIN 1045-1: Design according to DIN 1045-1 Upper and lower longitudinal reinforcement As [cm²] (maximum from robustness. bending with longitudinal force and crack width) © InfoGraph GmbH. July 2008 5 .

InfoCAD Exercise Examples Besides the node deformations and internal forces. July 2008 7 . The deformations are calculated as follows: System deformation [mm] in state II with consideration of concrete tensile strength © InfoGraph GmbH. the Stresses results folder (corresponding load case preceded by 'N') also contains the concrete edge stresses and the strains and curvatures for the system. System deformation [mm] in state II without consideration of concrete tensile strength Stress distribution on the upper and lower side of the section[MN/m²] To carry out a deformation analysis in the serviceability state. Now activate the concrete tensile strength in the nonlinear system analysis. The following figures show the analysis results of the buckling and ultimate limit state check. create a load group with 1x loads.

July 2008 . The following items are described: • • • • Definition of section and material properties and design specifications Action combinations with partial safety factors and combination coefficients Bending. BSt 500S Shaft section Dimensions: Support: ring diameter shaft height jointed Ring section 10 m 5m 8 © InfoGraph GmbH. The reinforcement determined by this calculation will then be used as the basis for the nonlinear system analysis. The program will increase the reinforcement by the requisite amount. The resulting stiffness decrease will be taken into account while an ultimate limit state or buckling safety check is performed with a corresponding reinforcement increase. shearing and torsional design Geometrically and physically nonlinear analysis of the entire system (nonlinear system analysis or buckling safety check) Structure properties Material: Sections: C 30/37. a linear-elastic internal forces calculation with a DIN 1045-1-compliant design will be performed for the system. At first.InfoCAD Exercise Examples Nonlinear 3D Frame According to DIN 1045-1 This example involves a 3D reinforced concrete frame in state II.

Due to the extremely high calculation complexity. Based on the partial safety factors and combination coefficients.23 1.68 365. a significantly higher reinforcement is calculated for the column. As an example.35 * LC 1 + 2 1. The reinforcement was greatly increased at several design points. The design of these combinations leads to the shown reinforcement distribution.10 1.8.7.InfoCAD Exercise Examples To design all possible combinations in comparison to the internal forces.01 As [cm²] at each location 5.50 * LC 12 Hence.9 cm² The design of all combinations will lead to the maximum reinforcement (5112 designs) given the following internal forces combination: Nx [kN] -1958.12 1. The permanent and temporary situation results in the following extremal internal forces and reinforcement (4 designs): NxNx+ MyMy+ : : : : Nx [kN] -3741. Two additional traffic loads will quadruple.15 -3212.05 * LC 6.9.45 My [kNm] 794.12 My [kNm] 801. July 2008 . when designing all possible combinations. 5112 possible combinations of internal forces are found for each check location. the number of possible combinations and thus the calculation time.0 cm² A detailed log records the load cases involved and their weightings: 1.15 3. this method should only be used in exceptional cases. at 2 locations on each side: 21. for instance.85 370.28 838. 12 © InfoGraph GmbH. the (basic) design of the extreme values will be disabled in the calculation settings and the DIN 1045-1 Design will be restarted. let's analyze the bearing point of the lower left column. at 2 locations on each side: 12.25 As max.62 As [cm²] at each location 3.10 As max.00 -1332.91 -1293.

Click New. the results of the preceding stage are copied and then processed so that they can be combined or superposed with the results from the current file. July 2008 13 . Creep Redistribution This section shows you how to create and process construction stages. elements and similar items when the subsequent stage is being processed.InfoCAD Exercise Examples Construction Stages. During this process. bridge(1). 7. Enter a file name ending in (1) and save it... When the internal force calculation begins. When calculating a construction stage. This information prevents the redundant use of load cases. For every construction stage a separate project file is created for which all calculation options are available. 6. © InfoGraph GmbH. function). you can create any number of additional construction stages.fem) is automatically generated and activated. Hence there is no need to bypass the system to add or delete construction stages.. the subsequent stage stores all the information about its predecessor.FEM (this activates the Construction Stage. Select the Construction Stage. 2. 3.. Using a simple example. You can switch between the individual construction stages by simply double-clicking them. 5.. command and click New. The program assigns an attribute to the project files to ensure their coherency. the results from the previous system will be copied and made available for load case combinations and superpositions. For example. Now perform the desired system modifications or additions. 4. the calculation of creep redistribution as a result of a system change is then explained with the help of construction stages. The second construction stage (here: Bridge(2)... First enter the original system for the first construction stage. Perform the necessary calculations and checks for this project. Construction Stages The system 'inherits' all the properties from one construction stage to the next. Procedure: 1.. Using this method. to attach or add a subsequent stage after the currently selected construction stage.

InfoCAD Exercise Examples Construction stage LC 1: Dead load Bridge (1).fem LC 5: Creep t=50-∞ d LC 6: Final state Internal forces My Deformations For comparison: Monolithic model © InfoGraph GmbH. July 2008 15 .fem LC 2: Creep t=1050 d LC 3: Additional load LC 4: LC 1+2+3 t=50 d Bridge (2).

This can be done using area elements and beams with polygon sections: The only requirement is that the track runs within the section dimensions of the elements. Eccentricities of the beam axes are automatically taken into account. Open a new load case. 16 © InfoGraph GmbH. the following steps are required: • • • • • Define the track Specify the train properties Set the specifications for the time step calculation Perform the calculation Display and process the results Track and Train Definition The track is defined by entering a continuous line on the structure. choose the Train crossing load type and enter the track of the train. To use this feature.InfoCAD Exercise Examples Dynamic Train Crossing The 'FEM Dynamics' program module offers an easy way to analyze the dynamic stress on any beam and shell structure based on predefined trains such as the ICE or Thalys or user-defined trains. July 2008 .

InfoCAD Exercise Examples After having defined the continuous line. July 2008 17 . Select the number and duration of the time steps to produce the desired analysis period and the tracks of the train. Dynamic train loads are specified on the Dynamics tab in the FEM analysis Settings dialog. speeds. © InfoGraph GmbH. to simulate a train meeting). the train is treated as a group of individual loads traveling along the track. If you want to analyze multiple trains or tracks simultaneously (e.g.. You can also paste data into this tab from the clipboard. eigenmodes and all time steps will be calculated as part of the FEM analysis. The resonant frequencies. use the start time to control the time offset. If you want to use a customized train. The axle loads always act along the global z axis. Time Step Calculation Dynamic train loads are only taken into consideration for dynamic calculations. In the calculation. accelerations and system internal forces for each time step will also be determined and then stored. The duration should be less than 1/10 of the period of oscillation of the determinant resonant frequency. the Train crossing dialog will appear: Select a train and the speed you want to have analyzed. edit the axle distance and load on the Train tab. For modal time step integration. You have now completed the definition of a track. the number of eigenvalues to be considered for the system must be defined additionally. The train crossing can be analyzed using direct or modal time step integration. The deformations. The duration assigned to the selected time steps mainly depends on the vibration behavior of the structure.

The load case combination can be used to determine the 'envelopes' of all time steps for the deformations and internal forces and. As the individual time steps mutually exclude one another. meaning they might be missing in the superposition. if necessary. add the time step calculation to the load case combination as an exclusive action. July 2008 . The representation area is split into two panes for this purpose. Extremal internal forces My of a main girder 18 © InfoGraph GmbH. they can be superposed with static load cases. select the nodes for which you want to generate a results curve.InfoCAD Exercise Examples Results The results of the train crossing can be plotted over the analysis period for each node. You can also access individual system deformations for each time step. In the left pane. Note that no soil reactions are available for the time step calculation.

© InfoGraph GmbH. open the file with Systemviewer and start the calculated time step integration from within the Results folder. To do so. July 2008 19 .InfoCAD Exercise Examples You can use the InfoGraph Systemviewer to animate the deformations of the train crossing.

20 © InfoGraph GmbH. axis distance from edge 5 cm Tendon groups Four bundled tendons are arranged in this example. The depicted tendon group ordinates zv of the spline points refer to the upper edge of the section. The lateral direction is not analyzed. The figure below shows the system in longitudinal and lateral section view.InfoCAD Exercise Examples Prestressed Roof Girder According to DIN 1045-1 This example involves a wide-spanned roof construction that is represented as a continuous girder over two spans with a double-sided cantilever. Prestressing with subsequent bond is applied to the roof construction in the longitudinal direction. The tendon group guide is shown in the next figure. A T-beam is selected as the section. To edit this system. July 2008 . perform the following work steps: • • • • • Enter a static system Enter a tendon group Enter the loads Carry out the calculations and checks Display the results Static system and dimensions Material Concrete: Reinforcing steel: Section C45/55 BSt 500/550.

The spline points are defined graphically. release and slippage. Specify the supports based on a fork support of the system. Click Define and then specify the desired tendon group properties in the resulting dialog. a distinction is made between beam and area/solid prestressing. Use the Prestressing function to enter and edit tendon groups. The spline function is the curve that runs through all specified spline points with the least amount of curvature. first divide the structure into beams with a length of 4 meters. To include prestressing in the FEM analysis. The tendon curve on which the calculation approach is based is represented by a 3D cubical spline function. Entering a Tendon Group The definition of the tendon groups does not depend on the elements. July 2008 . The assignment and force introduction onto the structure occur while the Prestressing load case is being calculated.InfoCAD Exercise Examples Static System To accurately measure the prestressing and the creep and shrinkage behavior. 22 © InfoGraph GmbH. you need to define a load case with the Prestress load type. To avoid any conflicts. The basis for the prestressing analysis is provided by a tendon group force curve that allows for strain increase.

July 2008 23 . then the factor for the first over-stressing refers to the maximum permitted force P0. click OK. © InfoGraph GmbH. The tendon group no.InfoCAD Exercise Examples The Prestressing System tab contains all the properties that are assigned to the tendon groups. Using the factor specified for the release. When you are done. midspans) at the nodes of the beam array. Exit the dialog and enter the spline points of the tendon group (start. the maximum prestressing force remaining in the tendon group is defined with respect to Vzul. 1 is now positioned along the centroidal axis of the beam array. A factor of '0' means no release. supports. If the allowance value κ is used.max as specified in DAfStb Book 525. They apply to each individual tendon of the group.

Click the View option again and add tendon group 1 to the Visible tendon groups list. use the Zero point option to move the position of the reference system from the centroid to the upper edge of the section and then in the Base points option select Spline points. The tendon group is now displayed in the selected section. select the entire beam series with the View/Beam option and define the view plane from the first node to the last node in the global z direction. 24 © InfoGraph GmbH.InfoCAD Exercise Examples Additional editing should take place in a section view. July 2008 . Next. To access a section view.

you can reposition it by first clicking the existing spline point and then the Spline points option. July 2008 25 . The Insert option allows you to add additional spline points behind the active spline point. the coordinates always refer to the reference system.InfoCAD Exercise Examples If the tendon group is selected. In the tendon group view. Use this method to assign the desired geometry to the tendon group. Only change the respective Zv position. Click the Representation option to activate the resulting prestressing force curve in the tendon group view: © InfoGraph GmbH.

July 2008 .InfoCAD Exercise Examples Results A number of different calculation results are shown below: Internal forces Bending moment My from the third permanent and temporary design situation Normal force Nx from the first permanent and temporary design situation Reinforcement 28 © InfoGraph GmbH.

.00 0.38 B -6442.70 B -7385.00 0. 16 1 1 Reinforcement Nx Lay.98* 0. .09 -275.40 -10888. compression reinforcement is marked with "*". .97 0.38 B -6442.91 59. (R) Nominal or required reinforecement for crack width limitation. . req.00 0.96 -4315.96 -4315.00 0. .00 Design of longitudinal reinforcement (M) Nominal reinforcement to guarantee robustness (Charact. .96 -4315.91 59.91 21.74 -17292.00 128. . Se.74 -17292.00 0.40 -10888.As [cm²] 44.00 44. .00 0.00 0.36 R -5909.36 R -5909.00 0.91 21.91 59.00 0.39 1 M 122.39 2 M -80.00 0.00 0.64 My [kNm] -3907. Beam No.40 -10888. July 2008 29 . .00 0. Increase of reinforcement due to crack width check is marked by "!".00 0. .00 0.09 -275.InfoCAD Exercise Examples Shear reinforcement Excerpt from the 'DIN 1045-1 Design' log (short version) Beam 16 16.36 R -5909.36 R -5909.).00 16.91 59. .00 8. .00 0.87 0. .64 2 M 122.97 R -5798.95 Mz [kNm] 0. .00 0.00 0.95 -12038.00 0. Type [kN] 1 M -80.70 B -7385.00 0.97 R -5798.00 0.09 -275.97 R -5798.95 -12038. .64 4 M 122.00 0.00 0.00 0.97 44.00 8.25 -3907.70 B -7385. In case of dominant bending.00 0.00 44.00 48.00 0.00 0.00 0. .25 -3907.39 3 M -80. C.96 -4315.87 0. .70 B -7385. .00 0.95 -12038. .25 -3907.74 -17292.98* 16 1 2 © InfoGraph GmbH.00 0.38 B -6442.00 Xi1*Ap [cm²] .25 -12038. .39 4 M -80. .40 -10888.00 48.38 B -6442.64 3 M 122.00 0. .74 -17292.00 0.97 R -5798. Lo. (B) Design of reinforement at ultimate limit state.09 -275. .

Type B Type P Bending reinf.76 . a cracked concrete section is assumed. (QC) Quasi-continuous combination (t.Asl. layer number. to Pic.06 Check of concrete compressive stress For the check.20 0.77 per.Pnt. Asb.2.00 Sigma.00 1150.InfoCAD Exercise Examples Shear reinforcement from ultimate limit state design The percentage of nominal reinforcement acc.45 1. [mm] 0.z Asl Q/VRd+ Angle[cm²/m] [cm²] Mx/TRd 2. Beam Qy/ No.s [MN/m²] -4. x Period Final Final Final Final Situation CC.00 2 0. to 13.03 per. Lay.00 per. -8123. . Loc. Quasi-continuous combination (QC) and Characteristic (rare) combination (CC) As [cm²] 59.00 0.98 wk [mm] 0.. from lateral force and torsion. 896.90 -4.49 Asb. Lo. below of centre Beam min Sigma.00 400.00 0.00 0. 16 1 1 B 1 B 2 B 3 B 4 P 1 P 1 16 1 2 B 1 B 2 B 3 B 4 P 1 P 1 (QC) (CC) (QC) (CC) 30 © InfoGraph GmbH. 8 8 8 8 Side t b .x No. (rare). x .3 (5) is considered.38 -9473. .93 53.00 400.74 2 (I) -16.82 .00 0. VRd. acc.25 Se.91 8. [kN] [kNm] 16 1 TC 1 .12 1007.00 72. Mz [kNm] 0. (CC) Charact. C. cm²] .93 -782.00 0.00 Asb. Lo.00 400. stirrup reinf.55 Check of steel stress For the check. Tendon number.91 924.T.90 . For tendon groups without bond and/or for situations before grouting.1 CC.91 -48.00 1150. Asb.69 53.00 400. (TC) Frequent.00 0.33 3.14 2 1 -5798.87 0.00 400.3 QC. x .00 59.98 72. VRd 16 1 0.00 72. torsional long. . Asl. Loc. 32 for req. Se.50 1275.21 1032. comb. (49).25 -27. July 2008 . (QC) Quasi-continuous combination Beam Rei. Se.69 -48. Otherwise. exceeds the value of fctm.T [cm²/m.35 9. [MN/m²] 16 1 1 (I) -7. Check of crack widths The check calculates the crack width directly. the prestressing steel stress is checked acc.91 59.76 19. reinf. . TRd Angle Asb.05 (I) -13.00 400.T Asl Resisting lateral force and torsional moment Angle cot Theta between the compressive strut and the beam axis Req.00 -20. longitudinal reinf. a cracked concrete section (II) is assumed if the tensile stress from the char.00 72. Sigma.17 (I) -5.b) Position of the edge point: above.87 59. If the strain is not treatable on cracked section.3 QC. . [MN/m²] 400. Characteristic (rare) combination (CC) Prestressing steel.00 Sigma. Type No. to Eq.1 Beam Steel No. Req. a non-cracked section (I) is used. Se.y Qz/ Angle[cm²/m] VRd 3.98 8.x [MN/m²] -2. 1.00 400.20 (CC) Characteristic (rare) combination.50 1275. Nx My No. (I*) is marked. . x .00 -20.x [MN/m²] -27.00 0.

1.80 10817.14 10817. determ.62 0. .062. 0.My+ PC.0 4500.0 0.80 4067. you need to add the prestressed steel to the single design as an additional steel layer. 1 Tendon groups with supplemental bond Steel 1.1.0 106. Permanent and temporary comb. Mz0=0.5 2500.1.No.53 Situation PC. detailed calculation log: Section 1.50 0.8 Design according to DIN technical report.53 89. .00 4640.0 0.0 -637.1 Nx [kN] 0.14 Mz max Sx [kNm] [MN/m²] 0.As [cm²] 28. Polygon .00 Inclin.00 4640.80 4 B -955.00 . CSR[%] No.14 10817.74* 28.My+ © InfoGraph GmbH.InfoCAD Exercise Examples Prestressed Steel Design / Single Design This example shows how the result of a prestressed steel design according to DIN technical report with a single design according to DIN 1045-1 is derived.00 .00 NxNx+ MyMy+ MzMz+ : : : : : : Design of longitudinal reinforcement Reinforcement Nx Lay.80 2864.817. 1 10. . (PC.250 z [m] 1.80 kN.1.00 Bond section Nx[kN] My[kNm] 0.No.1): G1+P+CSR1+QK.2 -955.00 Prestress [kN] 1062. Final state grouted Loss of prestress by CSR in tendon groups No.74* 89. [°] 0. My0=-573.00 0.00 0. 1 E-Modul [MN/m²] 195000 fp0.00 4640.00 0.350 Ap [cm²] 10.My+ PC.00 kNm Concrete section Nx[kN] My[kNm] -955. CSR[%] -. kc . Q P CSR Permanent and temporary design situation My [kNm] 937.1k [MN/m²] 1570 fpk [MN/m²] 1770 y [m] 0. Internal forces at the check location: Action G1 G2 max.00 0.63 Mz[kNm] 0. .00 1.7 10.48. part (P+CSR): Nx0=-955.63 0.14 -955.- Stat.00 0. Xi1*Ap [cm²] .15 -955.0 -1.14 10817.00 0.C45/55.00 0. 0.80 3 B -955.63 0.80 4067. .00 -.00 0.00 0. CSR[%] No.80 2 B -955. 0.My+ PC.63 0. automatically considers the prestressed steel as a resistance. CSR[%] No.02 -955.-. Since the checking program.CSR[%] -.00 . .2 63.00 4640.80 4067. req.80 4067.15 -955. in accordance with the DIN technical report. CSR[%] -.00 3437. Type [kN] 1 B -955.15 Mz[kNm] 0.15 -955. Design mode: Standard (B) fck=45 Tendon groups with bond No.80 My [kNm] 10817.00 0. July 2008 31 .00 11390.00 .

9 * 1062. The internal forces acting on the composite section are designed.390.6 kNm To take the statically determined effect from P + CSR into account on the resistance side. This information can be obtained from the log.5 * Q = 11. the internal forces from the external load plus the statically undetermined share from P + CSR (statically determined system.9 * P = 0. This yields the internal forces on the composite section (statically undetermined share from P + CSR and the internal forces from the external load). Single design according to DIN 1045-1 For the single design. Internal forces at the composite section: Action My: 1. In the design.InfoCAD Exercise Examples Calculation process in the checking program: 1. The statically determined share from the prestressing and creep & shrinkage ((P + CSR) * cos α * distance from center of mass) is derived from the internal forces on the concrete section. the prestressed steel layer in the section is defined (layer 5): Zv0 = P + CSR = 0. 3. P + CSR is applied to the resistance side as a prestressed steel layer.35 * (G1+G2) +1.0 = 955.8 kN Specifications for the section: 32 © InfoGraph GmbH. 2. July 2008 . hence = 0) are required.

InfoCAD Exercise Examples Result of the single design: © InfoGraph GmbH. July 2008 33 .

de http://www.241 .889980 Fax +49 .infograph. +49 .InfoGraph GmbH Kackertstrasse 10 52072 Aachen.8899888 E-Mail: info@infograph.241 .de . Germany Tel.