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1C 2A 3C 4D 5D 17A 18B 19C 20B 31B 32B 33B 34A 45A 46A 47B 48C 59A 60C
6A 7C 8A 9C 21A 22C 23A 35D 36D 37C 49C 50A 51C
10D 11A 12D 13B 14D 15B 16B 24D 25B 26C 27C 28C 29A 30A 38D 39D 40C 41B 42B 43D 44A 52B 53A 54A 55A 56C 57B 58A
The assertion that the introduction of an alphabet changes cognitive habits is: A) true, on the basis of the low literacy rate in the U.S. The author makes no reference to the literacy rate in the U.S. or whether it is low or high, so no determination on whether this is true can be made here.
B) supported by objective data in the passage. This assertion is made in one sentence without elaboration or objective data. The main body of the passage is devoted to the impact of technology, in particular, television, on culture and does not further discuss the impact of introducing the alphabet.
C) perhaps true but not explicitly supported by passage information. This assertion is introduced in the context of the larger point being made in the paragraph about television’s revolutionary impact on society, which was as great, perhaps even greater than introduction of the alphabet. The assertion functions to set up a comparison, so the author’s assertion must be assumed to be perhaps true in order for the point made about television’s revolutionary impact to be convincing.
D) contradicted by the assertion that television watching is pervasive in the U.S. The assertion contrasts with, but is not contradicted by the passage assertion about the pervasiveness and cultural impact of television watching in the U.S. See rationale C.
79. Which of the following findings would most weaken the author’s argument about the extent to which U.S. society has fulfilled the Huxleyan prophecy? A) A high percentage of the U.S. adults who watch television regularly have a good understanding of the politics and validity of the media. The author makes a large point about how the television revolution occurred without resistance from a population that unthinkingly believes in technological progress as inevitable. The author
underscores this point about the unthinking acceptance of television by the people in the final paragraph: “Huxley believed that we are in a race between education and disaster, and he wrote continuously about the necessity of our understanding the politics and epistemology of media. . . . he was trying to tell us that what afflicted people in Brave New World was not that they were laughing instead of thinking but that they did not know what they were laughing about and why they had stopped thinking.” It stands to reason, then, that the existence of a U.S. television audience that was sophisticated and understood the politics and validity of the media would most challenge and weaken the passage argument.
B) A high percentage of the U.S. adults who watch television regularly failed to vote in the last presidential election. This would not necessarily weaken the argument since this could arguably underscore the author’s point about how television has enforced compliance from the people without discussion, opposition, or a vote. It would only follow that, if it were true that television-watching adults were be less inclined to vote, then this would be another instance in which television removed the critical discernment and motivation to engage actively in politics, or even create opposition.
C) More U.S. adults are able to name the judge on the television show “The People’s Court” than are able to name the U.S. chief justice. This would prove, not weaken, the author’s point about how pervasively television is able to mediate the reality of television-watching adults and remove them from participation in public life. See rationale A.
D) More U.S. adults have read 1984 than have read Brave New World. Even if this were true, this would have little effect on the author’s conclusions, especially since, unlike the author, U.S. readers would likely not see television culture in light of 1984 or Brave New World. In addition, nothing is said about how many people have read 1984 or Brave New World relative to how many watch television. If the number of readers of these books was much smaller than the number of television watchers, then, even if some of these readers reached the same conclusions as the author, this would have little influence on the culture as a whole.
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80. The passage suggests that if a news commentator presented an editorial agreeing with the Huxleyan warning, many viewers would: A) take whatever action was necessary to combat the danger. Solution This response would be more likely in the case of an Orwellian culture, which the author states is like “a prison” and “much easier to recognize, and oppose than a Huxleyan [world].”
B) listen carefully to the commentator and then explain the ideas to others. The passage suggests the opposite response: “Huxley believed that we are in a race between education and disaster, and he wrote continuously about the necessity of our understanding the politics and epistemology of media. . . . he was trying to tell us that what afflicted people in Brave New World was not that they were laughing instead of thinking but that they did not know what they were laughing about and why they had stopped thinking.” See rationale C.
C) charge that the commentator was irrational or needlessly alarming viewers. The passage suggests that the commentator would invite this charge: “Those who speak about this matter must often raise their voices to a near hysterical pitch, inviting the charge that they are everything from wimps to public nuisances to Jeremiahs.” The author goes on to explain that the reason television critics are compelled to go to such extremes is to call attention to how the Huxleyan world of television culture appears benign—this commentator might be “the antidote to a culture’s being drained by laughter.”
D) be receptive to learning more about the danger. The viewers would be unreceptive to learning about the danger, because, according to the author, this world would appear benign. See rationale C.
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81. One can justifiably infer from the author’s argument that if a presidential election campaign in the U.S. involved trivial candidates and discussion, the public would: A) vote for the candidates they found to be most trivial. Solution The public would not be drawn to the most trivial candidate because they would not even notice which one was the most trivial. See rationale D.
Guess B) vote for the candidates they found to be least trivial. According to the author, the public would not be able to discern which candidate was the least trivial. See rationale D.
C) I and II only Option I is incorrect. technology can cause negative social changes. This also can be inferred from the author’s discussion of Brave New World in relation to the Huxleyan world of television culture in the final paragraph: “…he was trying to tell us that what afflicted people in Brave New World was not that they were laughing instead of thinking but that they did not know what they were laughing about and why they had stopped thinking. See rationale A. the public would not even be discerning enough to denounce the campaign. D) II and III only .” “serious discourse [dissolving] into giggles. The most justifiable inference is that the public would not even notice based on the author’s discussion of how television culture took over without even a pretense of a debate. In a Huxleyan world. B) II only Option III is also correct. at best. The author sees the U.C) denounce the entire campaign.. See rationale D. trivializes them. 82. III. Guess A) I only References to “public business [becoming] a vaudeville act. which would be a greater likelihood in an Orwellian world.” and “a culture’s being drained by laughter” suggest that television either does not discuss vital matters or. D) not even notice the triviality. television is changing people’s way of thinking.S.. television discusses vital matters.” I missed this question because I. “consuming love affair” with television as relevant to Huxley’s warning because: Solution I. II.
See rationale A. but that they are simply not being heard: “Those who speak about this matter must often raise their voices to a near hysterical pitch. to maintain that technology is neutral. in the Huxleyan world. . public of the Huxleyan nightmare. by ours. Public consciousness has not yet assimilated the point that technology is ideology. culture death is a clear possibility. no discussion.. We watch him. The author suggests that. only compliance.” D) suggest that people believe in the inevitability of progress.” This is then reinforced by a reference to “technological distractions.S.” C) suggest that Orwell was right in saying that Big Brother is watching people. 83. A study concluding that political experts consider the U. inviting the charge that they are everything from wimps to public nuisances to Jeremiahs. .The author points out how Huxley warns of the negative social consequences of technology: “What Huxley teaches…is that in the age of advanced technology.. people become an audience and their public business a vaudeville act. What is the main idea of the passage? A) Those who create literature understand it more . 7.” The author later makes an even stronger statement concerning technology and negative social change: “To be unaware that technology comes equipped with a program for social change. Accepting the inevitability of progress has more to do with the author’s point about how acceptance of television technology happens almost unnoticed than with the author’s point of how public discourse has become entertainment. by his choice. and no opposition.” I missed this question because I. spiritual devastation is more likely to come from an enemy with a smiling face than from one whose countenance exudes suspicion and hate. then a nation finds itself at risk. a set of relations among people and ideas. it is the other way around: “Big Brother does not watch us.S. Solution The author states the seriousness of reducing public business to entertainment: “When .” The author also underscores the idea that technology is changing the way people think: “for it imposes a way of life. The author does point out that someone is warning of this.” Guess B) support the author’s point that no one is warning the U. to make the assumption that technology is always a friend to culture is…stupidity plain and simple. about which there has been no consensus. presidential election a personality contest rather than a clash of issues would: A) support the author’s point that public business has become another aspect of entertainment.
I missed this question because I. . This is only a minor point the author makes in acknowledging that this may be so. assimilate it to a coherent scheme which must be rational if it is to be knowledge.” B) The methodologies of science and the study of literature have many features in common. perhaps even implying that more complete knowledge may come from the study than from the creation of literature: “…useful as the experience of literary creation is. but the author also proposes that the humanities can be resuscitated to a place of greater prominence.. but then goes on to say that this has not fulfilled expectations and that literary study “has its own valid methods” distinct from the natural sciences: “It should be simply recognized that there is a difference between the methods and aims of the natural sciences and the humanities. rather. if not precisely a science. The author makes this point prior to further developing the main idea. The author does not imply this. See rationale C. The student must translate the experience of literature into intellectual terms.” The author then elaborates on this distinction. the task of the student is completely distinct. points out that these are two separate activities: “One is creative. but. the other.” D) The achievements of the humanistic disciplines have been obscured by the achievements of the physical sciences.completely than do those who only study it. an art.. The author explains how some of the methodologies of science and literary study overlap. is a species of knowledge or of learning. C) There are valid methods for studying literature that differ from the methods of science.
III. synthesis.. analysis. D) I and II only Only Option I is correct. Solution The author does not advocate this for musicology or art history. separate the rational from the irrational elements in literary works. The author suggests that the transfer of scientific methodology to literary study “has not fulfilled the expectations with which it was made originally. See rationale A. . collection of facts. integrate the experience of literature as art and the analysis of literature as knowledge.” B) II only The author only acknowledges that literature contains irrational elements. discover ways to approach literature intellectually.8. According to the passage. the job of the student of literature is to: I. C) III only The author argues against the need to integrate what the author sees as two distinct activities. 9. which is no different than the task confronting the musicologist or art historian. The author suggests that both art history and musicology should be approached: A) with a strict scientific methodology. I missed this question because I.” The author goes on to describe some of the methods literary study shares with science such as causality. literature and literary study. The author implies that the student of literature only must find rational means of explaining literature.. assimilate it to a coherent scheme which must be rational if it is to be knowledge. and comparison. and quantitative methods.” By extension. II. the same would hold true for art history and musicology. Solution A) I only Guess The author defines the task of the literature student as a purely intellectual exercise: “The student must translate the experience of literature into intellectual terms. but not that the literature student must separate the rational from the irrational. and name the methods common to most disciplines such as “induction and deduction.
B) only by those who practice the art form. The passage opens with the author describing this approach as it applies to literature, then arguing against it. By extension, the author would make the same distinction between music and musicology and art and art history.
C) intellectually, despite their irrational components. The author discusses the need to approach the study of literature intellectually, despite irrational elements, which is no different than the task facing the art historian or musicologist.
D) with the understanding that they are essentially inaccessible to rational study. The author explains that it is possible to approach the study of literature rationally, even if literature contains irrational elements. The author extends this argument to musicology and art history.
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10. Assume that a scholar is planning an extensive study of the children’s story, Red Riding Hood. The author of the passage probably would say that the most important task to be performed is: A) examining the social context in which the story was written. Solution A discussion of the social context would likely focus on elements surrounding the story without getting inside it. Although useful, this approach would not be what the author advocates because such a study would not translate the experience of the story itself into terms that convey knowledge of the story’s literary elements in particular. Arguably, this would be a socio-historical study more than a literary study
B) comparing the occurrence of words indicating various concepts (family relationships, food, emotional states, etc.). While this approach would illustrate isolated literary elements in relation to isolated concepts, it would be too fragmented and not create the coherent knowledge the author is looking for. See rationale D.
C) tracing prior literary influences on the structure of the story and its influence on later works.
This would, arguably, be an example of the approach borrowed from evolutionary biology insofar as it would trace the evolution of literature. While the author would not reject that approach, finding it has some validity, the author would not find it entirely satisfactory either. Such a study would mimic science rather than include the valid methods of literary scholarship that are unique to literary study itself. This study would largely focus on matters extraneous to the story itself rather than the experience of the story, which is what the author advocates.
D) isolating the story elements that explain its enduring popularity. Isolating the story elements into a coherent argument to the end of explaining the story’s popularity would be an example of the kind of approach the author calls for, which is to “translate the experience of literature into intellectual terms, assimilate it to a coherent scheme which must be rational if it is to be knowledge.”
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11. The reader can infer from the passage that its author believes that the use of “induction and deduction, analysis, synthesis, and comparison” in the study of literature is: A) appropriate, because such methods are common to all intellectual disciplines. Solution The author is explicit on this point: “There is…a large field in which the methodologies of science and literary study contact or even overlap. Such fundamental methods as induction and deduction, analysis, synthesis, and comparison are common to all types of systematic knowledge.”
B) appropriate, because no certainty about a subject is possible unless information about it is obtained objectively and quantitatively. While the author acknowledges that literary study may include quantitative methods, such methodologies by themselves would not meet expectations and would exclude the valid methods unique to literary scholarship.
C) inappropriate, because literature, unlike science, includes irrational aspects that cannot be investigated systematically. The author argues that even irrational elements in literature can be investigated systematically, provided the student is able to translate these elements into intellectual terms and into rational, coherent knowledge.
D) inappropriate, because of the different purposes of the sciences and the humanities. The author does acknowledge that the methods of literary scholarship “are not always those of the natural sciences.” However, the author also states that the sciences and literary study share many methodologies in common. See rationale A.
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12. If the author of the passage wants to get the most convincing evidence for passage assertions, the author should: A) investigate the process of creating a literary work. Solution The author makes a clear distinction between the creation of a literary work and the study of literature and would not find this approach useful.
Guess B) use the scientific method to study irrational elements in a literary work. Because the scientific method focuses largely on objective, quantitative methods to the end of producing certainty, this method, arguably, may have difficulty in accounting for irrational elements in a way that the methods and intellectual terms unique to literary scholarship may not. Therefore, this would be at best a limited approach and at worst a failed approach, which would not provide the evidence the author needs in order to support the main argument of the passage.
C) apply a particular scientific technique to both a literary work and a problem in the natural sciences. This approach would exclude methods that are unique to literary scholarship, which would fail to support the author’s main point. See rationale D.
D) compare a literary analysis and a scientific analysis of a literary work. This approach would be most effective, because the author maintains that literary scholarship shares methods in common with scientific analysis but also uses methods unique to literary study itself.
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13. How could the author best clarify the statement that literature is “irrational, or at least contains strongly
since it says nothing about what is meant by unrational.. The author does not believe this and takes care to distinguish between literature as a creative endeavor and the study of literature: “…useful as the experience of literary creation is. the task of the student is completely distinct” (italics added). 14. Therefore. The passage suggests that the author believes the study of literature to be important because it: A) shows that the scientific method can be applied to a wide variety of disciplines. C) By discussing the irrationality of the creative process This would not explain the implied distinction in degree that the author makes between unrational and irrational.” This statement would not be relevant to the implied distinction the author is making. which is familiar to common usage.unrational elements”? A) By providing definitions of both irrational and unrational Solution Since unrational is not a part of common usage. I missed this question because I. and not found in standard dictionaries. D) By adding the explanation. the author would need to define it.. this word would be best served by a specific example. Guess B) By giving an example of an unrational element in a specific work of literature The word unrational does not represent common usage and the author is clearly coining a word here meant to be distinguished from irrational. The distinction would be better served by a specific instance of an unrational element in a specific literary work. See rationale B. “Human behavior is irrational. which would be at best a provisional definition and one lacking authority. . therefore stories depicting the truth of human behavior are likely to seem unrealistic. Guess B) helps the student to become more creative. Solution The author sees this as less important because the author points out how the scientific method by itself is insufficient for literary study.
This achievement of contemporary literary studies would provide demonstrable evidence that this was true. that this would be an instance in which transfer did fulfill expectations. It is consistent with the assertion that the transfer of the methods of the natural sciences to art has not fulfilled expectations. Assume that contemporary literary studies involving a systematic analysis of text have yielded evidence of underlying attitudes that traditional literary criticism had not detected. offers its own unique form of knowledge. and theology have worked out valid methods of knowing that can be modified to apply to the humanities. Guess III. the author is not simply saying that knowledge (or truth) can be discovered by nonscientific means but. D) offers a type of knowledge unavailable from other disciplines. I missed this question because I. Even if they were the same thing.. It constitutes evidence for the assertion that there is a field in which the methodologies of science and literary study overlap. of which literary study is a part. which are not always those of the natural sciences but are nevertheless intellectual methods. B) II only The author states that analysis is common to all types of systematic knowledge. II. 15. namely. including literary study. It is inconsistent with the assertion that philosophy. that literary study. history. A) I only The opposite would be true. in particular.” The author enlarges this discussion to include the unique contributions to knowledge produced by all of the humanities. The author makes a point about the unique knowledge produced by literary studies: “Literary scholarship has its own valid methods. which the author does not discuss. How does this assumption relate to assertions made in the passage? Solution I. C) I and III only .. are the same thing. more crucially. This implies that knowledge and truth.C) teaches that the truth can be discovered by nonscientific means.
. that literary study is an intellectual discipline.” This states the author’s main point that. The author would say. C) unlike sociology. rather. 16. See rationales B and C. politics. instead. while literary study shares methodologies with other disciplines. The author states: “Literary scholarship has its own valid methods…. or philosophy. D) the methodologies of science and literary study often overlap.This would only show that systematic analysis can create new knowledge about literature. It does not logically follow that this added knowledge and methodology would contradict the idea that methods unique only to literary studies have been worked out—these methods would still be unique. while there is this overlap. the author says that “literature is no substitute for sociology or politics. even with the addition of one of the scientific methods to the field of literary study. According to the passage. 17. See rationale A. social.” This statement agrees most closely with the passage assertion that: A) literary works are sometimes studied in relation to economic. Elsewhere. The author takes care to point out that. the application of the concept of natural selection to extraterrestrials could be . Guess B) literary study has its own unique justifications and aims.” nor is it “substitute philosophy. where it intersects with other disciplines.. not an artistic endeavor. but. literature is an artistic pursuit. D) II and III only Only Option II is correct. literary study offers methods unique unto itself. Solution This does not assert the uniqueness of literary study. it also produces its own unique knowledge. and political conditions. I missed this question because I.
territorial. .” B) not all selection pressures favor predation. C) extraterrestrials are intellectually superior to humans. D) extraterrestrials may exhibit many recognizable human traits. much less viewed as a disquieting notion.disquieting in its suggestion that: A) the most intelligent beings may also be the most aggressive. and quick to reach for the sword. The author cites James Trefil’s caution that “if evolution functions approximately the same way on other worlds that it has functioned here…advanced extraterrestrials might still be aggressive. The most disquieting aspect of natural selection…is that it channels intellect to predators. less disquieting speculation offered in the passage. Although it is implied that humans might have something to learn from intelligent extraterrestrials. This is an alternative. the actual intellectual superiority of aliens to humans is a speculation never raised in the passage.
speculation about the nature of extraterrestrials would be most crucial to humans in a situation in which: A) extraterrestrials landed unannounced on Earth.. The decision could turn on speculation about what the other beings were like. desire for companionship. Solution The author suggests that humans would not have a choice in this case.” Speculation about the nature of the aliens would be even more crucial prior to contacting them.The author suggests that this would be a comforting rather than disquieting notion. 18. and respect for the sanctity of life. love of laughter. This point is made explicitly in the passage: “…if alien contact occurred by radio.. humanity would face the momentous choice of whether to reply.” I missed this question because I. . pleasure in art and culture. since the option would still exist to avoid them altogether if humans became uncomfortable in their speculations— the wrong decision in this case could have potentially horrible consequences. According to the passage. Guess B) humans had the choice of whether to reply to an extraterrestrial contact. “for it would imply that ‘human’ nature was something deeper even than we know. C) extraterrestrials were hostile to humans. Aliens might exhibit many recognizable traits: curiosity.
C) the researcher quoted in the second paragraph. which the author assumes is likely. the author apparently intends to counter the views of: A) James Trefil. 19. This would only be a crucial question only if aliens had actually been contacted and the circumstances merited it. The passage indicates that science fiction writers tend to depict aliens as warlike.. See rationale B. Solution James Trefil suggests that the same evolutionary process that made humans aggressive might make aliens aggressive. since that would be obvious. that the aliens had actually acquired nuclear knowledge and found nondestructive uses for it. namely. the most crucial situation would be one in which humans had to choose whether or not to contact them. Guess B) science-fiction writers. I missed this question because I. then it logically follows that there would be no need to speculate about their nature.If the aliens were openly hostile. D) humans could acquire nuclear knowledge without risking self-destruction. The researcher’s optimistic outlook on aliens as “no longer menacing” is based on the assumption that they have acquired “the wisdom to control . a view that is countered by some researchers. In stating that alien civilizations might avoid self-destruction through “abhorrent” means. However..
this leads to aliens being selected for their aggressive traits. According to the author. this outlook overlooks the possibility that self-destruction may have been avoided through “means abhorrent” as the author suggests might be a possibility. desire for companionship. 20. especially if. The view of military tacticians in regard to aliens is not represented in the passage. one comforting aspect of the concept of natural selection in reference to extraterrestrials is the possibility that any extraterrestrials that contacted Earth would: Solution A) represent the fittest of their species. and respect for the sanctity of life.” C) counter the stereotypes of extraterrestrials promoted by science fiction. Guess B) exhibit recognizably “human” traits.war. pleasure in art and culture. as the author suggests in citing James Trefil.” However. I missed this question because I. love of laughter.. The only reference to military tacticians is an analogy between their view of pacifists and how aliens might view mutually assured destruction. This could be disquieting rather than comforting. Such a view is represented as “comforting” in the passage because aliens would also exhibit “human” traits other than aggression: “Aliens might exhibit many recognizable traits: curiosity. D) military tacticians.. .
although in comical ways. See rationale A. See rationale A. one would expect the nature of an alien civilization that contacted Earth to be: A) either warlike or pacifistic. Guess B) warlike by definition. . the author is also disquieted by the possibility that such aliens might avoid self-destruction by “means abhorrent. C) pacifistic by definition. D) explain to us their means of avoiding nuclear destruction. See rationale A. Given the information in the passage. The author finds the possibility that they may be aggressive disquieting.” I missed this question because I.. In this case. 21..The passage suggests that the stereotypes of aliens in science fiction reflect aggressive traits. The passage argues for the equal possibility that they may be warlike. The author suggests that aliens could be just as easily pacific as warlike. Solution The passage devotes nearly equal time to both possibilities—speculation that aliens may be pacific and speculation that they may be warlike.
.. The passage author does not know if they would be pacific or warlike. Assume that the first extraterrestrials to contact Earth are a formerly warlike species that became pacifistic after suffering the consequences of a horrible war. characteristics that are either on par with human behavior or in advance of it. since speculation centers on what human characteristics they will exhibit. Guess James Trefil suggests that evolution would have selected for aggressive aliens much like it selected for aggressive humans on Earth—he cautions that “if evolution functions approximately the same way on other worlds that it has functioned here…advanced extraterrestrials might still be aggressive. I missed this question because I. The researchers suggest that aliens might have experienced war sometime in their history since they would have acquired “the wisdom to control war” long before traveling in space so that by the time they contacted . 22. which is why.” B) the author of the passage. C) the researchers mentioned in the second paragraph. The issue of whether they are ethologically backward does not come up in the passage. the more important question to ask aliens would be about their philosophy rather than their technology. and quick to reach for the sword.D) ethologically backward. This scenario most strongly supports the characterization of Solution extraterrestrials favored by: A) James Trefil. for the author. territorial.
” B) the presence of toxicity in seawater is likely to remain undetected. .” D) science-fiction writers. 23. Spread over large areas the phenomenon can be both visually spectacular and catastrophic. or heavy grazing by tiny zooplankton that consume the algae. The author describes how toxic algae blooms occur: “Barring a shortage of nutrients or light. the population’s size can increase rapidly…. though in a comical way. The author implies that the reason red tides are difficult to control is that: A) phytoplankton can multiply rapidly. The stereotypical aliens presented by science fiction writers are depicted in the passage as tending toward warlike. C) the toxins increase to dangerous levels within the bodies of small fish. The author points out that the science has matured in this area and toxins are therefore more readily discovered.humans they would be “no longer menacing. covering extensive areas.
. The members would probably recommend that: Solution A) fisheries release their products only in areas that are free of algae.The author indicates that this is not a control issue and may even be advantageous: “From the human health standpoint. it is fortunate that herring. and other commercial fish are sensitive to these toxins and. that pollution monitoring has expanded: “…the global expansion in aquaculture means that more areas are monitored closely…” and that studies are showing a relationship between red tides and humancaused pollution. especially since algae can increase rapidly and algal cells are widespread—“In some cases a milliliter of seawater can Guess . even if the location of algae-free area could be determined.. 24. I missed this question because I. Assume that a committee of environmentalists who are aware of the information in the passage is appointed to advise Congress on ways to reduce the problem of red tides. passage information indicates that could change. unlike shellfish. salmon. Passage information suggests otherwise.” D) human pollution of seawater is not adequately monitored. cod. die before toxins reach dangerous levels in their flesh. This would be a less reasonable course of action because.
C) herbicides be used to destroy all toxic species of algae. and if the trends mentioned continue.contain tens or hundreds of thousands of algal cells. and domestic waste. agricultural. 25.” I missed this question because I. benefit. If the author’s information is correct. affecting human health if the herbicides did not kill the fish before reaching humans. the herbicides would cause toxic pollution that could harm marine wildlife and concentrate in the flesh of commercial fish. much like a toxic red tide. frequently rich in plant nutrients. D) plant nutrients be removed from wastewater before it is released into waterways.. . It is reasonable to assume that this measure could be actually counterproductive. given the data from pollution monitoring of coastal areas: “Coastal waters receiving industrial. in turn. but we notice the enrichment of toxic ones more. toxic and nontoxic. This would not be a very practicable course of action since it would require vast resources and much effort to drive these animals out. Passage information suggests that removing nutrients would be the most reasonable course of action.” B) whales and other important marine life be driven away from affected areas. All phytoplankton species. There exists the additional possibility that more animals could enter the area once these were driven out and these efforts process would need to begin all over again. since.. should experience a general increase in algal growth.
Passage information indicates that red tides are increasing as revealed by long-term studies. especially with the increase in red tides. D) The number of shellfish in coastal waters will decrease. According to the passage. since most commercial fish die before the toxins concentrate to dangerous levels in their flesh. C) The relative number of algal species that are harmless will decrease. Solution This is not necessarily true. especially severe among people in countries with a seacoast. Assume that a worldwide epidemic. I missed this question because I. which indicates the likelihood of increased fish die-offs. including nontoxic as well as toxic algae.which of the following changes can be expected? A) The consumption of fish will become increasingly dangerous to humans. more die-offs are likely: “Algal toxins cause mortalities as they move though the marine food web. Guess B) The prevalence of large-scale die-offs of fish will increase.. is traced to poisoning by red-tide toxins. See rationale B.” Commercial fish are especially sensitive to these toxins and die even before the toxins reach dangerous levels in their flesh. 26. Unlike commercial fish. What is the most reasonable explanation of this phenomenon? Solution A) Public anxiety in countries bordering oceans has increased their demand . As a result. shellfish tend to concentrate toxins in their flesh rather than die.. a general increase in algae occurs.
so humans do not ingest the toxins by eating these fish. This would be the most likely reason for the epidemic. . In other words. Passage information indicates that red-tide poisoning is caused by ingestion. not simply by swimming. D) Whales and other marine mammals are avoiding the toxic algae. Guess It logically follows that an increase in anxiety could be attributable to a greater prevalence of red-tide poisoning. C) Food fish have developed increased resistance to the toxins.. The reason humans have been safe so far is because toxins do not concentrate to dangerous levels in the flesh of commercial fish before they die.for medical attention. even if the number of people seeking medical attention grew disproportionately. The whales swimming in the infested waters had also been feeding. I missed this question because I. the anxiety could be a natural outcome of the presence of an epidemic.. This is a nonsequitur—it would not matter whether or not these animals were avoiding the algae if humans were not. B) Contamination has spread to coastal areas in which people swim. but would not explain it. since what protected human health before was the tendency of commercial fish to be especially sensitive to toxins and die off before the toxins could concentrate to dangerous levels in their flesh. putting these animals at higher risk. Toxins also concentrate in the livers and other organs of fish that are eaten by other animals.
but not all of them. but would not show the author’s wider claims to be exaggerated. The primary purpose of the passage is to: . This would only show that in this one incident the cause of death was not red tide. because it would counter the author’s points that red tides are increasing. More red tides would keep occurring requiring more application of the antidote. are not easily identified. Guess B) Chemical spills in the vicinity of the dead whales had caused an extreme level of contamination. This antidote would allay some of the concern about the red tides. This would only show that these chemicals were responsible for the death of the whales in this particular incident but would not counter the wider claims of the author. and they could still do some damage before the antidote could be applied. Since red tides occur more frequently than before. This information would show the author’s claims are exaggerated and even go so far as to refute them. are easily identified. it is also reasonable to assume that these qualities could still prove some obstacle to effective application of the antidote. which would remain intact unless more broadly refuted. See rationale C. and that red tides spread quickly. Which of the following findings would suggest that the author’s concern about the danger of red tides is exaggerated? A) The whales that died in 1987 succumbed to dramatic fluctuations in water Solution temperature.27. and expand rapidly. are not easily identified. and grow slowly. D) A readily available substance is an effective antidote to red-tide poisoning. 28. See rationale C. C) Red tides occur rarely. since nontoxic algae also change the color of the ocean while toxic ones can produce no discoloration.
See rationale C.A) identify the differences between two critical accounts of the growth of the novel in the U. The author first recounts the “two stories” literary historians tell about the novel in the U. B) trace the growth and influence of the magazine industry in the U. prior to the Civil War. This is not the main point but is a key point that supports the main idea by showing that fiction had a wide readership in the U. The author then goes on to refute this “powerful critical myth” by showing that a great number of novels were being read in America. prior to the Civil War. C) question the idea that the social and intellectual atmosphere in nineteenth-century America was hostile to fiction. especially during 1840 to 1860 when the . both of which cite a time period hostile to fiction.S.S.S. before the Civil War. the prevalence of novels and readers of novels in the U. These differences are identified only in the opening paragraph and then refuted in the second paragraph before the author moves on to the main point.S. from 1840 to 1860.S.
prior to the Civil War. that an atmosphere hostile to fiction existed in the U. if true. could .S. I missed this question because I. it only follows that the number of American novels being read would be even more impressive. about half of them of American origin.S. The passage does not primarily offer contrary evidence to this particular idea alone. given that publishers in the U.. and publish them at a higher profit. Assume that nineteenth-century American publishers could acquire European novels as easily as American novels.S..S. authors. in order to show the great public interest in novels by U. namely. Would this information.number of periodicals expanded and published “more than two thousand reviews of eight hundred separate novels. it would make more impressive the fact that one-half of the periodical reviews from 1840 to 1860 were of American novels. around half of them of U. more generally.” D) offer contrary evidence to the argument that the Puritan tradition affected the growth of the romance in America. 29. Guess The author makes a key point about the expansion of the number of journals during this period and how these journals ran two thousand reviews of eight hundred novels. Therefore. origin. further the passage author’s argument? Solution A) Yes. to the idea from which this idea concerning the development of the romance derives. but.
D) No. reading public as in making a profit. this would show that publishers were interested in responding to the public’s interest in novels. See rationales A and C. public was interested in reading them.S. B) Yes. See rationale A. it would reinforce the passage author’s view that literary nationalism was not a viable force during this period. Otherwise. C) No.S.. The author does not raise the issue of literary nationalism or hold this view.. as well as Europe and that the U. The statistic that half the novels were American only serves to show that many novels were being written in the U.S. On the contrary. This only reinforces the author’s point that the U. they would be more inclined to promote European novels over American. it would shed no light on the preferences of the American reading public for novels. . since they could make more profit on European novels.profit more by publishing European novels. It is not presented as evidence concerning literary nationalism or whether or not it was a viable force. especially American novels. It would more logically follow in this case that publishers were as interested if not more interested in responding to the interest of the U.S. “was a nation of novel readers” rather than showing publishers were only interested in a profit. it would merely demonstrate that American publishers made profit a top priority. I missed this question because I.
American novels were well-received by reviewers to the point that staff members of magazines were concerned that reviewers were too quick to praise.” However. have trouble supporting themselves as novelists. Guess B) Many novels were being written and read in the U. The author supports this by citing the actual number of reviews of novels and the number of novels reviewed during this period. from the 1840s through the 1860s. The author provides ample statistics to support this point: “There were fewer than 125 American magazines in 1825. the author does not present the evidence and leaves this as a simple assertion.30. evidently. . C) American novels were well received by the major American periodicals of the mid-nineteenth century. two thousand and eight hundred respectively. by 1850 there were about 600….000 subscribers. The author states: “The small number of American fiction writers who are now called major did.000 subscribers and Horace Greeley’s Tribune with over 200. Which of the following assertions is NOT clearly supported by historical research provided by the passage author? A) Nineteenth-century American writers now considered major had difficulty Solution supporting themselves by writing.S. from perusing reviews during this period. The author points out how.” This included a number of journals that had over 100. D) The periodical press in the United States grew in size and influence during the 1840s.
D) It suggests that Scottish common sense philosophy was hostile to fiction.I missed this question because I. In citing one of the critical myths of literary history. when considering its context . The previous sentence in part reads: “…much of what Americans wrote and said about novels was derived from sources in the British Isles. The author never specifically makes the point that hostility to the novel originated abroad.. only that it joined with Puritanism to create an atmosphere hostile to fiction.” In the context of the passage argument. 31. the sentence in question is therefore a logical extension of this statement. In addition. only that “expressed hostility to fiction was no less strong in England than in America. The statement is designed to counter one the critical myths referred to in the opening paragraph. the passage does not suggest that Scottish common sense philosophy itself was openly hostile to fiction.” implying that this could have just as easily been a simultaneous development and that some Americans were simply influenced by what was said and wrote about regarding the novel in England. a fine distinction. C) It reminds the reader that hostility to the novel originated abroad. elaborating on this point by means of specific reference to the origin of Scottish common sense philosophy in the U.S. What role does the sentence “Scottish common sense philosophy should not be described as an American phenomenon” play in the passage? A) It introduces a point that will be developed in detail later in the passage.. Solution Guess At no point later in the passage is this statement developed further. B) It offers additional support for the points made in the preceding sentence.
32. there is no basis for seeing the similarity between that myth and the reasons cited for the death of the novel in the 1950s. See rationale B. giving tacit approval to the form and. stating that the romance was “a literary form better suited to American imaginative space: the romance.. Since the 1950s.” C) The research findings on nineteenth-century book reviews of American novels The reviews. defiance. Therefore.within the passage. and apology that left its traces in the work. far from proclaiming the death of the novel. if anything. alienation. some literary critics and historians have proclaimed the “death” of the conventional novel in America. . I missed this question because I. were largely enthusiastic.. created in an ambience of isolation. This “death-of-the-novel” theory would be logically consistent with which aspect of the passage? A) The myth that the Puritan tradition made Americans hostile to the novel form Guess The author never explains specifically why the Puritan tradition was hostile to the novel. B) The myth that the literary romance was compatible with the nineteenthcentury American milieu The breakdown of social cohesiveness and individual isolation are two reasons given for why the romance was prevalent. the sentence in question functions not to support this idea but to additionally support the preceding sentence. attributing its demise to a widespread breakdown of social cohesiveness and an increase in individual Solution isolation. giving it new life.
the author does not explain the actual reasons behind this hostility.” B) An editorial decrying Americans’ hostility to their own indigenous fiction The author has pointed out that this hostility. one of the critical myths posited by literary historians. Therefore.. and a great many more were being read.” Therefore. 33. especially since half the novels being read by the reading public in the U. including specifically why Scottish common sense philosophy would contribute to this atmosphere. I missed this question because I. If the information in the passage is accurate. were American. which of the following would one LEAST expect to find in a randomly selected American magazine published between 1840 and 1860? Solution A) An article lamenting the abundant reviews of novels by nineteenth-century American novelists Guess This would be consistent with the passage argument. there is no basis for comparing this to the death of the novel theory. which pointed out that novels were being favorably reviewed and that some magazine staff members were concerned about “indiscriminate puffery among reviewers. C) A favorable review of a new American novel copied from a British . such an editorial would be unlikely. largely did not exist: “…a great many novels were written and published in America at this time of supposed hostility to fiction.S.D) The research findings on nineteenth-century attitudes toward the novel in England Beyond implying that Scottish common sense philosophy may have influenced this hostility..
34.” . this presumably could include favorable as well as unfavorable opinions about novels.periodical This would be consistent with the observation in the passage that “much of what Americans wrote and said about novels was derived from sources written in the British Isles. Another reason such an essay could very well appear would be if reviewers were aware of the influence of this philosophy on opinions concerning the novel and wanted to correct this opinion and offer guidance to readers.. Solution Guess The author points out that “American novels were received warmly by reviewers. The author treats the ideas of “those on magazine staffs who set themselves up as guardians of critical integrity” as: A) credible evidence of prevailing attitudes.” So the views on the part of magazine staff represent credible evidence of yet another prevailing attitude at the time as reported by the author. especially given a general atmosphere favorably inclined toward novels in which “American novels were received warmly by reviewers. which. Therefore.” D) An essay reflecting the influence of Scottish common sense philosophy Such an essay could very well appear.S. it would not be far-fetched to find a favorable review of an American novel copied from a British periodical in an American periodical. especially since the author points out that this philosophy had some influence upon life and thought in the U.” Given the passage argument.. I missed this question because I.. was one of the roles assumed by reviewers during this period. who observes that these staff “complained about indiscriminate puffery among reviewers. as the author points out.
Passage information suggests that the “conventional” novel was: A) a well-established literary form by the early nineteenth century. although the author does point out how reviewers were sensitive to the reading public and offered them guidance. The author does not pass this judgment on these staff members. The author does not pass this judgment but only sees these staff members as being concerned about the lack of standards among reviewers.” Guess B) more common in England than in America. C) amusing examples of wrongheaded thinking. given the large number of favorable reviews. and not entirely without cause. I missed this question because I. 35. The author presents these staff members as evidence of a prevailing attitude rather than as simply “questionable. D) dangerously misinformed opinions. Solution Passage information suggests that the novel was not well-established: “…the ‘conventional’ novel at that time was only in the process of becoming conventional.” and as actual rather than as simply “intriguing possibilities.B) questionable but intriguing possibilities. who simply reflect an attitude at the time.. Passage information does not state one way or the other whether the novel ..” See rationale A.
given passage information that American periodicals ran two thousand reviews of eight hundred separate novels. draws attention to the view of some literary historians that “the sparseness of American social life made conventional novels difficult. to write.. The author. Which of the following pieces of information derived from such lists would be useful in evaluating the accuracy of the passage author’s conclusions? Solution I. Guess II. Suppose lists of best-selling books had existed during the period under study. I missed this question because I.. However. 36. even impossible. this would imply that the conventional novel was based on direct observation of social customs.” By extension. in discussing one of the critical myths. Passage information draws a distinct contrast between the social nature of the novel and the antisocial nature of the American romance.. III.S. C) similar in style and subject matter to the romance.was more common in England than in the U. The degree to which reviewers’ conclusions about the relative popularity of different novels were accurate The extent to which the length of the reviews a book received correlated with its popularity The relative popularity of conventional novels and romances among American readers A) I only .S. it was likely nearly as common in the U. half of which were American. D) based on direct observation of social customs.
. Wuthering Heights. that these lists would need to reflect the relative popularity of romances and novels in order to evaluate the accuracy of the passage argument regarding the popularity of novels. then. 37. The author also argues that novels were highly popular during this period and many were being written. See rationale D. See rationale D. based on perusing reviews at the time. written by Englishwoman Emily Brontë in 1847. I missed this question because I. B) III only Option I is also correct. It follows. thus dispelling the critical myth that would-be novelists were writing romances.Option III is also correct. D) I and III only The author.S. the reviewers had a fairly precise idea of public preferences and what guidance and correction to this public they were offering. C) I and II only The author makes no correlation between the length of the reviews the books received and their popularity.. even while acknowledging that reviewers and even groups of reviewers were expressing their own opinions in reviewing novels. is . simply stating that reviews were of varying length with many of them highly favorable toward the novels they reviewed. nonetheless points out that. which were more suited to conditions in the U. at the time.
What is the relation between this fact and the main argument of the passage? A) It supports the passage argument by showing that the romance was not a uniquely American form. See rationale C. Moreover. the point about Wuthering Heights as evidence of .S. C) It has little effect on the passage argument because the question of whether the romance is a distinctly American form is not crucial to the author’s point. the main point of the passage is not to demonstrate that literary scholars are mistaken in their conclusions. Guess B) It strengthens the passage argument by demonstrating that literary scholars are often mistaken in their conclusions. This would have little effect on the passage argument because the author focuses on the prevalence of novels being written and read during this period. Therefore. during this period and not to argue that the romance is a form unique to the U. See rationale C. much less support it. it would not matter if an English novel was widely regarded to be a romance.S. during this period were not arguing that the romance was a form unique to the U.S. The main idea of the passage is to argue for the prevalence of the novels being written and read in the U.Solution considered by most literary scholars to be a romance. this represents another reason why the observation regarding Wuthering Heights is irrelevant to the passage argument. Therefore. D) It undermines the passage argument because it suggests that an atmosphere of alienation had spread to England from America. The literary historians who argued that the romance was better suited to the U.S. therefore. and not on whether the romance was a distinctly American literary form in this period as some literary historians claim. this observation about Wuthering Heights would not be relevant to the passage argument. Since the passage argument is not about the relationship between alienation and romances.
Which of the following statements is inconsistent with information in the passage? A) Most people believe that the U.the spread of alienation to England. if true. causing a switch to oil consumption by utility companies. oil production.S. B) Environmentalism has caused fundamental changes in the U. energy supply is nearly depleted. The author indicates further widespread public awareness by referring to the increasing number of individuals and communities taking the “soft-path” renewable energy approach.S. energy policy. See rationale C. in recent years. The author notes that “limits on the energy base in the United States began to surface” in the late 1960s and early 1970s when oil production peaked and then began to decline. C) The use of domestic oil has been declining in the U. .S. which then tripled between 1968 and 1973. 38. is irrelevant to the argument.S. The author refers directly to the decline of U. The author discusses the major impact environmentalism had on the burning of coal.
D) Since the 1970s.. 39. This is unlikely.. are shifting to the soft path. The author states the opposite: “An increasing number of individuals and communities in the U. since copper is a key part of solar heating and cooling systems. and staggering electric bills. government has consistently supported the soft-energy approach. large corporations spent a share of their public relations budget playing down the solar ‘messiahs. the U. they began buying up solar technology companies. utilities. The author implies that this is part of this larger attempt to dominate the solar power industry and control energy production: “Worried that every rooftop could become its own power plant and sensing that the cry for solar energy was a revolt against huge companies.S.” B) increased utilization of low-sulfur oil by utility companies. See . since the author indicates support for solar energy. The author of the passage probably most strongly supports: A) the acquisition of solar technology companies by large corporations.” I missed this question because I. A more rapid spread of this approach is being hindered by government (taxpayer) subsidies of the hard-path approach….S.’ At the same time. Solution Guess The author conveys concern about this because of how the energy companies began acquiring copper mines.
D) substantial federal subsidies for solar energy research.” This criticism of subsidies for the hard-path approach and of inadequate capitalization of solar energy indicates that the author would likely support subsidies for solar power.S. Solution The author describes how U. utility companies are unresponsive to public environmental concerns. Since nuclear power is part of the hard-path approach. The author indicates that taxpayer-supported government subsides of the hard-path approach are hindering the development of the soft-path approach. The author of the passage seems to hold the opinion that: A) U.. Guess B) the U. The author brings up the environmental movement mainly to show the number of ways it has influenced public policy. companies responded to environmental concerns by switching from coal to imported low-sulfur oil.rationale D. This includes “inadequate access to capital for the development of solar energy resources. environmental movement has not fully confronted the energy problem. 40.. the author would likely not support this. including in the area of pollution control.S. C) a switch to nuclear reactors as the primary energy source. See rationale D. since the author is already critical of subsidization of hard-path energy sectors.S. I missed this question because I. which has influenced the switch from coal to low-sulfur .
III. See rationale B. . II.to hard-energy sources by a specified amount within ten years Cash incentives to homeowners who convert their heating systems from oil to natural gas A) I only Option II is also correct. Nothing indicates that the author thinks the government is committed to reforming energy policy. Congress is committed to reforming the country’s energy policy. only that the author is critical of the government for subsidizing hard-path approaches such as oil and gas. Beyond that. the author does not discuss how the environmental movement has or has not confronted the energy problem. corporations act primarily according to the profit motive. C) large U..oil.S. By discussing the attempts by energy companies to dominate solar power through acquisitions while at the same time disparaging solar power. 41. Which of the following forms of legislation would an advocate of the softenergy path probably support? Solution I. D) the U. I missed this question because I.S. Guess Tax credits for corporations that install solar panels in office buildings A mandate to increase the ratio of soft. the author is suggesting that large corporations are acting mainly through the profit motive in this attempt to remove an energy competitor that would allow individual buildings and homes to create their own power source rather than be dependent on the power the companies provide..
5% of that used in the U.B) I and II only The author is critical of the lack of capitalization for solar energy development and government subsidies of hard-path approaches to the energy problem such as oil and gas Therefore. 42.S.S. See rationale C.” Guess B) The burning of imported oil pollutes the air less than does the burning of coal.to hard-energy sources with in ten years.. See rationale B. Which of the following inferences is justified by information in the passage? A) The U.. D) II and III only Option III is incorrect. . I missed this question because I. it can be inferred from this that the author would likely advocate tax credits to install solar panels in office buildings and also support an effort to mandate an increase in the ratio of soft. came from renewable solar energy resources. leads the world in the use of solar energy. C) I and III only These cash incentives would represent a hard-energy approach which the author does not favor. Solution Passage information suggests otherwise: “In 1984…about 18% of all primary energy used in the world and 8.
See rationale D. this proposed expansion is not the same as actual expansion and the author does not indicate anywhere in the passage whether natural gas consumption has actually increased or declined since the 1970s. Assume that the soft-energy path is fully implemented in the U.The author points out: “Concern about air pollution led to fuel switching. especially by electric utilities. However. since wind is considered a soft-energy resource. Which of the following phenomena will be considered most outdated at that time? Solution A) Rows of windmills along the seacoasts These will be encouraged. C) Oil companies have a global monopoly on copper production. D) The consumption of natural gas has declined in the U. away from domestically produced coal to low sulfur oil….” This implies that low-sulfur oil is less polluting.S.S. Guess B) Houses designed and insulated to conserve energy .. I missed this question because I.S. 43.. Passage information indicates that the hard-path approach proposes rapid expansion of oil and gas resources in addition to nuclear fission and coal. Passage information shows that oil companies monopolize “almost 60% of domestic copper production in the U. since the 1970s.. by the year 2025.” but does not indicate one way or the other that these companies similarly dominate world copper production.
C) Automobiles powered by liquid fuel distilled from corn This would be an example of a soft-path approach using vegetable matter as an energy source. 44. The passage suggests which of the following scenarios as most Solution probable? A) Utility companies attempt to purchase the patent on the battery.” so it follows that the soft-path approach favored by the author would include houses designed and insulated to conserve energy. D) Antipollution devices on the smokestacks of factories It follows that these devices will not be needed. since soft energy consists of renewable energy from sun. Guess The author describes how oil companies acquired copper mines and solar technology companies in an attempt to diversify into this new technology. B) The government provides business grants to encourage mass production of the battery. or oil. and vegetable matter. homeowners to convert rapidly and inexpensively from traditional electricity to solar power. gas. . Given this information. Suppose that an inventor has perfected a solar battery that would allow U. I missed this question because I.. See rationale D.S..The author is critical of “outdated building codes that discourage energy conservation. wind. which does not require the burning of polluting fuels such as coal. a similar attempt on the part of utility companies to purchase this battery is a most probable scenario.
As in the case of solar energy cited in the passage.This is a far less probable scenario since the author criticizes the government for subsidizing hard-path approaches rather than soft-path technologies such as solar. according to passage information. the government is already willing to subsidize hard-path approaches to energy. would likely not need to do this since. the battery would similarly decentralize energy production into individual homes and buildings.S. 45. Information in the passage suggests that which of the following changes would be most likely to accelerate U.. D) The nuclear power industry lobbies for reduced taxes for customers who do not convert to solar power. which are nondepletable and “emphasize diversification and dispersal of energy Guess . progress along the soft-energy path? A) The price per barrel of imported oil rises from $25 to $50 within a few Solution months. this would accelerate a conversion toward soft-path energy technologies. Since a sharp rise in prices also implies a decrease in supply. C) Hard-path energy corporations publicly praise the invention. It is probable that these corporations would respond the same way to this solar battery. The nuclear power industry. which the companies would view as a threat.. I missed this question because I. This is unlikely since the author points out that hard-path corporations disparaged solar power even as they were purchasing solar technology companies. a hard-path industry. It follows that the government would follow basically the same pattern by not offering business grants to encourage mass production of the battery.
this was likely a factor in the shift toward soft-path energy technologies on the part of the “increasing number of individuals and communities in the U. D) Domestic oil production increases to the point that the U.” Although the author does not say so directly. oil production reached its peak and then began to decline.S. then. The author makes several statements that emphasize this point: “The institutions of the .. C) Coal-burning plants install furnaces that eliminate the emission of air pollutants. 46. This would likely slow progress toward soft-path energy.S.sources so as to avoid in the future the sort of dependence we now have on fossil fuels. The primary message of the passage is that one should: A) understand the profound importance of sports. since it would reduce concerns about nuclear power plant safety and the overall viability of this hard-path energy technology. that an end to dependence on imported oil would favor hardpath energy over soft-path.S. The author point out: “The turning point [in the consumption of oil] came in 1970. This would slow progress toward soft-path energy since the elimination of air pollutants would eliminate a major environmental concern about coalfired plants that is not a concern with soft-path energy such as wind and solar. is no longer dependent on imported oil. when U.” B) An improved design for nuclear power plants makes radioactive leakage virtually impossible.” It follows.
” B) appreciate the religious history of sports. and symbols. See rationale A.” The author then cites the example of the ancient and modern Olympics and the Super Bowl. which to varying degrees honor the gods and the state and “are constructed around high ceremonies. rituals. C) recognize the patriotic impulses in sports. and a longing for perfection. so do the institutions of sport. The patriotic impulses in sports to which the author refers do not represent the main point of the . a zest for symbolic meaning.” The author elaborates on this theme in a way that underscores this profound importance of sports in public life: “…sports flow outward into action from a deep natural impulse that is radically religious: an impulse of freedom. respect for ritual limits. While the religious history of sports plays into the passage argument in the way the author discusses the ancient Olympics. this religious history does not represent the main point but only supports it.” The author later reinforces this point: “Sports…are organized and dramatized in a religious way.state generate a civil religion.
passage but only support it. implies that the ceremony and the excitement and drama of sports represent one part of the whole: “Sports…are organized and dramatized in a religious way. pointing out: “I don’t mean that participation in sports. image. These impulses are but one dimension in the larger significance that sports takes on in public life. Solution Guess The author takes care to distinguish ‘godward’ from the narrower sense of a divine presence.” I missed this question because I. and also enjoy sports. experience. They honor their country.” D) distinguish between the ceremony and the excitement of sports.. as athlete or fan. All parts of their lives meld together. 47. in particular. makes one a believer in ‘God.. A probable reason for the use of the word “godward” is the author’s: A) faith in a divine presence that is apparent in daily life. go to a place of worship.’ under whatever concept. The author does not make this distinction but. as the author points out: “Most men and women don’t separate the sections of their mind.” . instead. or drive to which one attaches the name.
I missed this question because I.” D) opinion that attendance at sporting events will lead to a religious revival. makes one a believer in ‘God. only that contemporary sports incorporate the qualities of religious observances.. The author uses this word in the more generic sense of explaining the religious impulses in sports: “Among the godward signs in contemporary life. The reference to “the classical position” of sports suggests that the author: A) respects the devoutness and patriotism of athletes. and tremor of anticipation involved in sports events are like those of religions. I don’t mean that participation in sports. whatever their views on religion.B) wish to use language that includes all persons. pointing out how “the rituals. as athlete or fan. Solution The author does not suggest that athletes are necessarily devout or . are not even discussed in the passage. experience. sports may be the single most powerful manifestation. 48.. Rather. See rationale C.’ under whatever concept. sports drive one in some dark and generic sense ‘godward. Popular spiritual movements. The author never implies that interest in sports will lead to a religious revival. The author does discuss some of the ways sports takes on the qualities of conventional religion. for example. vestments. or their relationship to conventional religions.’” C) awareness of the similarity of popular spiritual movements to conventional religions. image. or drive to which one attaches the name.
See rationale C. The author simply uses it more objectively in order to show how the relationship between sports. The author neither rejects nor accepts the domination of athletics by religion and politics by using this terminology. C) understands the historical function of athletics. The author traces the contemporary phenomenon of sports as a kind of civil religion back to the ancient Greeks. D) accepts the domination of athletics by religion and politics.” B) admires the skill of the athletes of ancient Greece. .. culture? A) People would rather attend religious ceremonies than sporting events.. and religion is a long-standing historical fact that extends into the present. natural religions. the author uses this terminology in the sense of recognizing this on-going function of sports in public life: “The ancient Olympic games used to be both festivals in honor of the gods and festivals in honor of the state—and that has been the classical position of sports ever since” (italics added).S. I missed this question because I. politics. even suggesting otherwise: “The athlete may of course be pagan. nor even allude to their skills anywhere in the passage.Guess patriotic. The author does not use the term “classical position” in reference to the skills of ancient Greek athletes. Which of the following findings would most weaken the author’s assertions about the value of sports in the U. Therefore. but sports are. See rationale C. as it were. 49.
. If it were true that only the conventionally religious tended to enjoy the spiritual dimension of sports. in a sense. which. C) Only the conventionally religious experience the spiritual dimension of sports. D) Players on a team have stronger feelings about the sport than do fans of the team. The author makes the point that sports take on a religious character. as the author contends. Just because sports fans fail to recognize it does not necessarily mean it is not there—and perhaps they would recognize their religious impulse once the author brought it to their attention.Solution Guess Even if this were true. driving one “godward” no matter what one’s belief in God may be. This would not be relevant to the argument. since the feelings of athletes in relation to the feelings of fans in a sport is a matter separate from the matter of the religious dimension of sports. the author would need to substantially revise this analysis.. B) Sports fans fail to recognize the religious impulse in their enthusiasm. take on a religious character without expressing a particular religious faith.. because one explanation for why more people would attend religious ceremonies could be that the conventionally religious would find their particular God in the religious ceremonies that they attend rather than in sporting events. This would even. support the argument. I missed this question because I. this would only make a statement about people’s preferences and would have no significant impact on the author’s argument that sporting events take on religious qualities.
this inference would be external to the passage argument. to lose is a kind of death. one accepts that one may not only lose. in a sense. Symbolically.” B) importance of honoring losers as well as winners. Solution Guess The author makes this statement in the context of discussing the extent of the emotional investment in sports: “In the language of Paul Tillich. one submits oneself to great bodily dangers. The statement “to lose is a kind of death” is an example of the author’s emphasis on the: A) extent of the emotional investment in sports. a point made earlier in the passage when the author refers to how sports express a larger order of things that includes fate.50. sports are manifestations of concern.” In other words. D) consequences of an exaggerated concern with sports. place humans . The author. even to the danger of death. by implying that losing. much less in reference to this particular point. In fidelity to that concern. While the inference could be made that the religious dimension of sports represents evidence of an exaggerated concern with sports. makes a case for the acceptability of losing here. and “a sense of participation in the rhythms and tides of nature itself. that concern for sports is not exaggerated but represents a deeply human experience: “They feed a deep human hunger. like death. Honoring losers as well as winners does not enter into the passage discussion at all. since the author nowhere states or implies an exaggerated concern with sports. destiny. The author suggests otherwise. is part of the order of things.” The author implies that one who participates in sports submits oneself to losing the way one submits “to great bodily dangers. C) unacceptability of losing a sporting competition. of will and intellect and passion. even to the danger of death. too. but die trying.
which “holds that every type of mental experience. your perception of the umbrella in the corner.” B) They provide no reason for the existence of pain or other mental states. The passage suggests that behaviorism and type-type identity theory share which of the following weaknesses? A) They oversimplify mental states by reducing them to physiological states.” The author criticizes this view as being limited to a belief taken in isolation and failing to provide a context: “Whether you are disposed to take your umbrella with you depends not just on your belief that it will rain but also your desire not to get wet.” 51. your further belief that umbrellas are good for keeping . Behavioralism explains mental states as being created by external events. “the belief that it is going to rain consists of dispositions to act as if it was going to rain. This is only true of type-type identity theory. Type-type identity theory explains pain as the firing of Cfibers. is identical to a corresponding type of physical event. such as pain. for example. such as the firing of Cfibers. and provide an experience of at least a pagan sense of godliness.in touch with certain dimly perceived features of human life within this cosmos.
the beliefs associated with not wanting to give the impression of being in pain. The type-type identity theory holds that mental experiences have corresponding physical events. D) They assume that all mental events are determined by external physical events. .” C) They ignore the context provided by associated beliefs and feelings. The passage indicates that behavioralism does not take into account other factors: “You may have a pain in your toe without having a disposition to complain or move your toe because you may be a super Spartan who does not want to give any sign of what you are feeling.” which ignores the different contexts for the mental life of different creatures. The passage notes that this theory is controversial “because of its implication that the physical basis for any type of mental experience must be the same in different creatures. and so on. namely. This is only true of behavioralism.” This statement reflects the author’s view that behavior in relation to the toe is governed by its context.rain off.
someone who argues on the basis of this evidence that earthworms may be capable of feeling pain is most Solution likely to be a: A) behaviorist. C) functionalist.. Guess A behavioralist would look for behavior in earthworms that acts in ways to remove themselves from the pain. the assumption can be made that. opioid peptides. B) type-type identity theorist. then earthworms must feel pain in order to need the pain relief provided by opioid peptides. including their “whole system of interdependent functions” as earthworms.I missed this question because I. which suggests that opioid peptides may occur in earthworms for quite different reasons than they occur in humans D) nonscientist. 52.. A functionalist would look for a greater context for why opioid peptides occur in earthworms. were found in earthworms. According to passage information. This assumes that a nonscientist will have the expertise to isolate opioid peptides in humans and earthworms. if opioid peptides relieve pain in humans.” Therefore. . know how they function and why. The passage points out that one implication of type-type identity theory is “that the physical basis for any type of mental experience must be the same in different creatures. In 1979. which produce pain relief in humans.
” B) should be replaced by type-type identity theory. The author would not make this point and. which is variable. 53. since the author uses one example of behavioralism based on response to pain and another example of behavioralism based on . and notes that type-type identity theory has a similar problem to behavioralism—it is too reductive in its outlook.and be interested in looking into the occurrence of these in humans and earthworms. C) can explain only actions that are predictable. The author apparently believes that “crude behaviorism”: A) does not take internal context sufficiently into account. D) assumes that beliefs and feelings do not exist. Earlier in the passage the author implicitly acknowledges that behavioralism assumes the existence of beliefs and feelings. I missed this question because I. The author does not make this assumption. The author does not believe this. none of which is likely.. Solution Guess The author reflects concern that “crude behavioralism” does not take context into account: “A particular belief taken by itself cannot be identified with particular behavioral dispositions because the relevant behavioral dispositions are determined by various beliefs taken together plus various desires and other mental states. but is governed by context. would not believe any action is predictable. arguably. See rationale A..
I missed this question because I. your further belief that umbrellas are good for keeping rain off.. The author would likely accept this conclusion. based on how it takes into account the way “beliefs function in relation to desires. The author rejects this type of conclusion in the example of the umbrella: “Whether you are disposed to take your umbrella with you depends not just on your belief that it will rain but also your desire not to get wet. emotions and inference. with which of the following conclusions about this acceptance would the Solution author be LEAST apt to agree? A) It constitutes evidence of a belief in the weakness of the original rope. your perception of the umbrella in the corner.” B) It is one of many possible results of a belief in the weakness of the original rope. Guess The author would disagree with this conclusion because it is too reductive. intentions. 54.response to a belief. and so on. The author would be more likely to agree with this conclusion since it takes into account other beliefs that may not result in such obvious external outcomes. Suppose that a mountain climber is offered a replacement for the rope by which the climber is suspended. which according to critics. representing the type of conclusion a behavioralist would reach. perceptions. behavioralism fails to account for. .” C) It is probably influenced by beliefs other than a belief in the weakness of the original rope. If the climber accepts the replacement rope..
because implicit beliefs are underlying physical events rather than dispositions to behave Implicit beliefs are mental events. Such beliefs are apparently constructed from relevant general knowledge rather than stored as explicit information. whatever they are. that function in a relevant way. Type-type identity theory. and feelings Functionalism sees beliefs as relevant: “…to understand the way beliefs function. B) Yes. because implicit beliefs come into existence when there is a need for them Guess The author explains: “Functionalism holds that mental events of a certain sort are to be identified as those underlying events. See rationale A. C) No. If asked. not physical events. most adults would affirm that giraffes do not wear hats in the wild. you have to understand the way beliefs function in relation to . The author would be more likely to agree with this conclusion. Is the conclusion that certain beliefs Solution are only implicit consistent with functionalism as the author explains it? A) Yes. perceptions. since it reflects a view that several associated brain processes are at work here.. would hold that they are physical events. not functionalism.D) It indicates the operation of brain processes associated with changing ropes while climbing. because implicit beliefs are irrelevant to desires.” The affirmation that giraffes do not wear hats in the wild is an example of a mental event based on the underlying event of general knowledge functioning in a relevant way.. 55. I missed this question because I. intentions.
” D) No. .” The only situation in which learned rules would be useful to “underusers” is when they are taking a grammar test— see rationale C.” Monitor theory holds that acquired rather than learned rules are more useful to secondlanguage students. learned rules are most useful when a student of a second language is: A) showing the habits of an underuser. While “underusers” may have low levels of learned competence. particularly in the beginning stages. intentions. learned rules are not useful to them. 56. According to the author’s description of the monitor theory. See rationale C. since “underusers” could “still achieve very high levels of communicative accuracy through acquisition. The author points out that learned rules are “not very helpful in normal communicative situations. emotions and inference.desires. perceptions. B) beginning to study the language. because implicit beliefs have no function Functionalism holds that beliefs are one of the functional processes.
I missed this question because I.. The author points out that most people cannot monitor learned rules in normal communication and that learned rules can actually interfere with oral communication.” Therefore. According to the author. Krashen would classify people who frequently correct their own grammar while speaking as: A) superusers. D) attempting to engage in conversation.. 57. In explaining the monitor theory.C) taking a grammar test. Solution Guess “Superusers” do not fall so precisely into this category—they “are consciously able to apply learned rules quickly and efficiently so that a listener would not notice the monitoring at all. the author notes: “Krashen’s monitor theory thus explains that oral proficiency in communication is not necessarily related to the ability to achieve high scores on standard grammar tests…. it follows that learned rules would be most useful when students are taking a grammar test.” The proficiency of “superusers” is what distinguishes them from “overusers” who reduce language proficiency by overemphasizing correctness. .
Which of the following findings about the value of grammar tests would be most troublesome for the monitor theory? A) The scores of beginning language students are good predictors of their oral Solution proficiency. this finding would represent a strong challenge to monitor theory.B) overusers.” C) optimal users. D) underusers..” I missed this question because I. “Optimal users” find a proper balance by monitoring their speech only enough to improve their grammar but not so much that it interferes with their ability to communicate smoothly. Guess . Monitor theory asserts that there is little relationship between good performances on grammar tests and oral proficiency.. The author points out how “overusers” put too much emphasis on this: “‘Overusers’ spend so much time and effort on correctness that it often seriously interferes with communication. “Underusers” “rarely use their learned competence [but] might still achieve very high levels of communicative accuracy through acquisition. Therefore. 58.
This would prove far less troublesome to monitor theory since this exception is explained by the fact that many language instructors tend to be “superusers” who are able to use knowledge of grammar rules to improve oral proficiency.” See rationales A and C. I missed this question because I. 59. adults or children. the author notes: “Krashen’s monitor theory thus explains that oral proficiency in communication is not necessarily related to the ability to achieve high scores on standard grammar tests…. The author states that underusers might “achieve very high levels of communicative accuracy entirely through acquisition”. it follows that learned rules would be most useful when students are taking a grammar test.” Therefore.” Given this. This would still be consistent with monitor theory in the case of those language instructors who are not “superusers. In explaining the monitor theory.B) The scores of beginning language students are poor predictors of their oral proficiency. acquire it in natural situations... C) The scores of language instructors are good predictors of their oral proficiency. . D) The scores of language instructors are poor predictors of their oral proficiency. Which of the following items of information provided elsewhere in the passage most helps Solution to clarify this statement? A) Children develop their ability to speak in informal situations. Guess The author cites overwhelming evidence “that students who wish to communicate must acquire this ability in much the same way that speakers.
I missed this question because I. Since this kind of modification can only happen through learned competence. namely. which monitor theory suggests would be of limited use.” this does not clarify how “underusers” acquire oral proficiency. The passage suggests that an effective way for second-language learners to improve their fluency would be to: A) drill themselves repeatedly on everyday vocabulary. “superusers” are so different from “underusers” in how they acquire language proficiency that their example does not clarify why “underusers” achieve fluency.” C) Some people can apply learned rules so efficiently that their monitoring is not noticeable.“underusers” most resemble children in how they acquire oral proficiency.. and is only relevant to the extent that learned rules have especially limited usefulness for “underusers. . 60. This does not clarify why “underusers” achieve language proficiency. B) Learned rules of grammar have limited usefulness for language students. These people. Solution Guess This would only allow second-language students to increase their vocabulary. especially if they could not put this vocabulary to use in actual situations. D) Modifications of utterances are usually initiated by prior knowledge. which is low in “underusers..
which requires practice in natural situations. Monitor theory would view this as having very limited use for improving fluency. C) use the second language to request information.See rationale C.based knowledge such as learning about correct grammar and syntax. not memorization. according to monitor theory. D) perform mental exercises to increase their memory. See rationale B . Assuming that this method is effective. allows language learners to improve their fluency. which require memorization. Using the second language to request information would be an example of the kind of natural situation that. This would only be effective for cognitive. it would only be effective for learning grammar and would not be effective in normal communicative situations. B) use audiotapes to learn grammar while sleeping.
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