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An activity of the Centre for Education in Mathematics and Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario

Euclid eWorkshop # 3

Analytic Geometry

Euclid eWorkshop #3

A NALYTIC G EOMETRY

T OOLKIT

As well as the material on parabolas in the previous workshop, some useful formulae include: Description A 1. The standard form for a line with slope B C C and intercepts and A B 2. The equation of the line with slope m through (x0 ,y0 ) Formula

Ax + By + C = 0

(y y0 ) = m(x x0 ) x y + =1 a b x1 + x2 y1 + y2 , 2 2

3. The equation of the line with intercepts at (a, 0) and (0, b) 4. The formula for the midpoint M of A(x1 ,y1 ) and B (x2 ,y2 )

D=

(x1 x2 )2 + (y1 y2 )2

6. The distance D between the line Ax + By + C = 0 and the point (x0 ,y0 ) D= | Ax0 + By0 + C | A2 + B 2

7. The area of the triangle A(x1 ,y1 ), B (x2 ,y2 ), C (x3 ,y3 )

1 | x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1 x2 y1 x3 y2 x1 y3 | 2 (x h)2 + (y k )2 = r2

Euclid eWorkshop #3

A NALYTIC G EOMETRY

S AMPLE P ROBLEMS

1. If the line 2x 3y 6 = 0 is reected in the line y = x, nd the equation of the image line. Solution Recall that after reection in a line the image of any point is equally distant from the line but on the opposite side of the line. Thus the line segment joining any point to its image is perpendicular to the reecting line and has its midpoint on the reecting line. The line 2x 3y 6 = 0 has intercepts of (3,0) and (0,2). Since the image of a line after reection is another line we reect these two points and then nd the equation of the line through their image points. The image of the point (3,0) upon reection in the line y = x is (0,3). This result follows since the segment from (3,0) 3 3 , , which is on to (0,3) has slope 1, which makes the line perpendicular to y = x, and midpoint 2 2 y = x. Similarly the image of the point (0,2) reected in the line y = x is (2,0). Therefore the required x y line is + = 1 (using #3 from the toolkit) or 3x 2y 6 = 0. 2 3 2. If A(3,5) and B (11,11) are xed points, nd the point(s) P on the x-axis such that the area of the triangle ABP equals 30. Solution 1 3 The length AB = 82 + 62 = 10 and the equation of AB is (y 11) = (x 11) or 3x 4y + 11 = 0. Now 4 if we think of AB as the base of the triangle then the distance from P (a,0) to the line AB must be 6, the height of the triangle. Thus | 3a 4 0 + 11 | 32 + (4)2 =6

3a + 11 = 30 41 19 a= or 3 3

41 The points are ( 19 3 , 0) and ( 3 , 0).

Solution 2 Let P = (p, 0). Then using the area formula in the toolkit 1 | x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1 x2 y1 x3 y2 x1 y3 | 2 1 = | 33 + 0 + 5p 55 11p 0 | 2 | 22 6p | = 60 19 41 p= or 3 3 | ABP | =

41 The points are ( 19 3 , 0) and ( 3 , 0).

Euclid eWorkshop #3

A NALYTIC G EOMETRY

3. Given the circles x2 + y 2 = 4 and x2 + y 2 6x + 2 = 0, nd the length of their common chord. Solution The rst circle has centre (0,0) and radius 2. The equation for the second circle can be written as (x 3)2 + y 2 = 7 thus it has centre (3,0) and radius 7. Since the line joining the centres is horizontal, the common chord is vertical. We can nd the intersection points by solving x2 + y 2 4 = x2 + y 2 6x + 2 6x = 6 x=1 Substituting this value back into the equation for either circle gives intersection points (1, 3). Thus the length of the common chord is 2 3. 4. A line has slope 2 and is a distance of 2 units from the origin. What is the area of the triangle formed by this line and the axes? Solution Let the x intercept be k . Since the line has slope -2, the y intercept is 2k , and the equation of the line is 2x + y 2k = 0. Therefore the formula for the distance from a line to a point shows that the distance 2k from this line to (0,0) is , which must equal 2. So k = 5 and the area of the required triangle is 5 2 1 2 k 2k = k = ( 5) = 5. 2

Euclid eWorkshop #3

A NALYTIC G EOMETRY

P ROBLEM S ET

1. A vertical line divides the triangle with vertices O(0, 0), C (9, 0) and D(8, 4) into two regions of equal area. Find the equation of the line. 2. Find all values of c such that the line y = x + c is tangent to the circle x2 + y 2 = 8. 3. Find all values of k so that the circle with equation x2 + y 2 = k 2 will intersect the circle (x 5)2 +(y +12)2 = 49 in exactly one point. 4. A circle intersects the axes at A(0,10), O(0,0) and B (8,0). A line through P (2,3) cuts the circle in half. What is the y intercept of the line? 5. If triangle ABC has vertices A(0,0), B (3,3) and C (4,4), determine the equation of the bisector of CAB . 6. What are the length and the slope of the tangent(s) from the origin to the circle (x 3)2 + (y 4)2 = 4? 7. Find the equation of the set of points equidistant from C (0, 3) and D(6, 0). 8. In quadrilateral KW AD, K is at the origin, D is on the positive x-axis and A and W are in the rst quadrant. 1 The midpoints of KW and AD are M and N respectively. If M N = (AW + DK ) prove that W A is parallel 2 to KD. 9. The point A is on the line 4x + 3y 48 = 0 and the point B is on the line x + 3y + 10 = 0. If the midpoint of AB is (4,2), nd the co-ordinates of A and B .

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