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CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003


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From the Directors Desk
Institution and Management
Research and Development
Water Resources Development
Hydroelectric and Thermal Power Projects
Coastal and Offshore Engineering
Miscellaneous Projects
General Information
Budget and Finance
Vigilance and Disciplinary Cases
Hydrology Project
Computer Facilities
Papers Published
Participation in Seminars/Symposia/Conferences/Workshops
Lectures Delivered at other Institutes
Technical Reports
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Officers at CWPRS

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003


It gives me a great pleasure in presenting our Annual Report 2002-2003.

As an apex body in hydraulic research in the country, CWPRS continues to
provide R&D and consultancy support to a variety of projects dealing with
water resources development, river management, hydroelectric, thermal and
nuclear power projects, coastal and offshore engineering. In the recent past, CWPRS has been
entrusted a number of run-off-the-river hydroelectric projects in Siwalik ranges. Most of the sites,
being geologically weak, have very high concentration of the sediment. The model investigation
included studies for flushing of reservoirs, approach flow conditions, spillway crest profile, spillway
discharge capacity, alignment of power intake, desilting basin, flushing tunnel of the desilting basin
etc. The hangar facility constructed under the project Sediment Disposal Research Centre during
the 9
Plan helped in providing suitable solutions to these projects. Significant contributions were
made through model studies, e.g. for Tala project (1020 MW) in Bhutan, approach as well as flow
conditions over rear slope of spillway were improved by introducing curvature in the dam axis; for
Teesta Project (570 MW) in Sikkim, a unique spillway design was evolved for efficient operation of
energy dissipator as well as flushing of sediment; for Chamera Project (300 MW) in HP, transition
length of desilting basin was curtailed by 30 m without sacrificing efficiency thereby saving
considerable amount of construction cost. For the first time in the country, dynamic modulus of
elasticity for concrete cores from Koyna dam was determined for realistic estimation of earthquake

Considering the requirement of calibration for a large number of current meters procured by different
states under World Bank aided Hydrology Project, CWPRS has upgraded and modernized Current
Meter Rating Trolley, which can provide calibration conforming to ISO 3445. Recently purchased
state-of-art Integrated Bathymetry Survey equipment and application of remote sensing in reservoir
sedimentation would help in meeting long pending requirements of many reservoirs.

As an important mandate, CWPRS took initiative in disseminating knowledge and information by
publications, conducting and participating in courses, seminars/ symposia and participation in
technical committee meetings. A technical memorandum on Controlled Blasting for Rock Excavation
in Civil Engineering Projects has been brought out, which would serve as a comprehensive
reference to practicing engineers for optimizing the results of rock excavation. Courses on Coastal
Processes, Coastal Protection and Numerical Modeling, Recent Advancements in Seismic Hazards
Analysis and Flow Measurement & Techniques of Flow Meter Calibration were well received by
the readers. In house training course in the field of remote sensing and GIS and computer literacy
helped in updating the knowledge of the staff.

During the Tenth Five Year Plan, CWPRS has proposed for Upgradation and Modernization of
Research Facilities in various fields. This improved infrastructure would certainly help in providing
faster and better services to the clients and carry out basic research studies.

Use of Hindi as official language was promoted by the Research Station. Website of CWPRS now
includes considerable information in Hindi. Hindi fortnight was observed during September 2002
which included release of Jalwani, an in-house yearly publication. Hindi Workshop was also
organized during September 2002. Hindi Software Package was provided to various divisions. The
Research Station also observed the Vigilance Awareness week in November 2002.

V.M. Bendre (Mrs)

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003


The Central Water and Power Research
Station (CWPRS), Pune, as it is known
today, was established in 1916 by the
then Bombay Presidency as a "Special
Irrigation Cell" with a limited mandate to
modify irrigation practice to meet
agricultural requirements and alter the
agricultural methods to meet irrigation
limitations. Recognising its role in the
systematic study of various phases of
water flow including floods, the institution
was taken over by the Government of
India in 1936.

With the dawn of independence and
launching of planned development of the
Nation's water resources, CWPRS
became the principal central agency to
cater to the R&D needs of projects in the
fields of water and energy resources
development and water-borne transport.
Today, as a part of the Union Ministry of
Water Resources, CWPRS is increasingly
called upon to advise on projects in fields
as diverse as river training and flood
control, design and stable channels,
irrigation and hydroelectric structures,
harbours, waterways and coastal
protection, structural design, integrity of
structures, foundation engineering,
utilization of soils, concrete and other
construction materials, pumps and
turbines, ship hydrodynamics, hydraulic
design of bridges, earth sciences,
reservoir competency, cooling water
intakes, cooling pond efficiency, discharge
of industrial effluents, and hydraulic

The current mandate of the institution
encompasses undertaking specific
research studies supported by necessary
basic research. Comprehensive R&D
support is offered to a variety of projects
dealing with water resources, power and
water-borne transport. Consultancy and
advisory services are offered to the
government within the sphere of its
activities. Disseminating expertise and
research findings amongst hydraulic
research fraternity, and promoting
research activities at other institutions by
imparting training to their research
manpower, are also undertaken.

The solutions offered by the Research
Station are based on the investigations
from physical and mathematical models,
field investigations coupled with desk
studies or from a combination of these.
The Research Station also collects
prototype data on a variety of engineering,
hydraulic and environmental parameters.
The requirement of accurate and reliable
instrumentation, data acquisition and
control systems for physical model
studies, prototype measurements are also
met with by in-house developments.
CWPRS with an interdisciplinary approach
in all its activities thus represents unique
services available to the country and the
ESCAP region. The major clientele of
CWPRS include:

Central Government Departments / Agencies
State Government Departments/Agencies
State Research Institutes
Port Trusts/State Port Organisations
Public/private sector undertakings
Municipal Corporations

CWPRS campus, situated at downstream
of Khadakwasla dam, near Pune,
occupies an area of 180 Ha, where basic
services include water recirculation
system for Physical Models, Library,
Workshop, an Auditorium and housing
facilities. A full-fledged Computer Centre
provides necessary infrastructure for
mathematical modelling work.

The present work at CWPRS covers major
disciplines such as

Hydrology & Water Resources Analysis
River Engineering
Reservoir and Appurtenant Structures
Coastal and Offshore Engineering

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003



Water Resources Department, Government
of Bihar has proposed a barrage on River
Punpun near Hamidnagar in Aurangabad
District mainly to meet irrigation demand in
the lower basin east of Punpun. Model
studies for the barrage were conducted to
decide location, orientation and waterway of
barrage, alignment and design of river
training works such as guide bunds,
location and orientation of head regulator,
afflux, energy dissipation arrangements etc.

In the initial design, the waterway of
barrage was 100 m for the design discharge
of 4300 cumec for 100 year return period,
giving the looseness factor of 0.33 as
against the Lacey's waterway of 316 m.
Subsequently the design was revised and
waterway was increased from 100 to 178 m
and design discharge adopted was 3800
cumec for 50 year return period. This gave
the looseness factor of 0.60.

The river Punpun is an important right bank
tributary of river Ganga and joins Ganga
about 25 km downstream of Patna. It has
many important tributaries namely Morhar,
Dardha, Batane and Adri. All these rivers
are rainfed and floods in basin are flashy in
nature. The grain size distribution of bed
and bank material at barrage site indicated
D50 of about 0.20 mm and 0.10 mm

Statistical analysis of 20 year rainfall data
for Punpun basin indicated that estimated
24 hour maximum rainfall for 50 and 100
year return period were lower than the
corresponding values given in isopluvial
maps of India. However, the value of 24-
hour rainfall adopted for estimation of flood
hydrograph fall in the range indicated by
statistical analysis. The design discharge of
3800 cumec for 50-year return period was
therefore adopted for physical and
mathematical model studies.

Based on site inspection, hydraulics and
rehabilitation/resettlement considerations,
the barrage site was proposed in the
straight reach of the loop upstream of
Hamidnagar. A small nalla upstream of
loop, taking off from Punpun River outfalls
into the river downstream of the barrage.
There was apprehension that cut-off may
develop along the nalla which may result in
bypassing of the barrage. However, with the
existing arc to chord ratio, it was felt that
there is no imminent danger of cut-off.
Further, the nalla was recommended to be
plugged at the upstream end.

Studies were carried out on physical model
having a horizontal scale of 1:120 and
vertical scale of 1:40 reproducing a river
reach from 4 km upstream to 3 km
downstream of the proposed barrage site.
Gauge-discharge relationship was
developed using Manning's equation and
1-D mathematical model to make up for
inadequacies in the data.

Velocity distribution and flow conditions on
the physical model at the proposed barrage
axis were found to be satisfactory upto
CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

2000 cumec discharge. Beyond 2000
cumec discharge, the flow conditions are
complex due to flow from spill joining the
main flow in the deep channel almost
parallel to barrage axis. However, these
conditions would improve under post
barrage condition with suitable river training

The water levels predicted from 1-D
mathematical model indicate that there will
be afflux of 0.38 m and 0.43 m at barrage
site near Hamidnagar corresponding to
discharge of 3800 cumec and 4300 cumec
respectively. The estimated afflux of 0.38 m
for design discharge of 3800 cumec and
without afflux bunds compares well with
afflux of 0.3 m considered in the design by
the Project Authorities.

The studies conducted with barrage, guide
bunds and afflux bunds on both sides of the
riverbanks indicated that the flow was in
general approaching normal to the barrage
axis and was more or less uniform for
discharges ranging from 1000 cumec to
3800 cumec. Afflux with the provision of
afflux bunds on either side of the bunds
(jacketing of the river) was of the order of
0.75 m.


The Pancheshwar Multipurpose project, a
joint venture of Government of India and the
Government of Nepal, envisages the
construction of a 262 m high rock-fill dam
with a powerhouse having 1000 MW
capacity. The site is located on the river
Mahakali about 70 km upstream of
Tanakpur Barrage where the river forms the
international border between India and
Nepal. The dam site is located
approximately at latitude 29 25' 55" N and
longitude 80 15' 27" E in the highly seismic
Himalayan tectonic belt formed by the Main
Boundary Fault and the Main Central
Thrust. A comprehensive seismic hazard
analysis of the region of Pancheshwar
project was therefore carried out to estimate
reliable seismic ground motion for
earthquake resistant design of the dam and
the appurtenant structures.

To improve upon the preliminary estimate
provided by CWPRS in 1994, an updated
estimation of the design ground motion was
obtained using up-to-date database on past
earthquakes, currently available
microearthquake data in the project area
and the detailed information on the
geological and tectonic features close to the
dam site. Based on the seismotectonic
information, various possible seismogenic
sources were figured out in the region of the
Pancheshwar project along with the
earthquake generation potential of each of
them. Both, the deterministic approach
based on the specifications of a Maximum
Credible Earthquake (MCE) and the
Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis
(PSHA) approach based on the total
expected seismicity during a specified
period were used to compute the 5 %
damped response spectra for the
Pancheshwar project site. The mean plus
one standard deviation spectra (confidence
level 0.84) represent the MCE level of
ground motion and the mean spectra
(confidence level 0.50) represent the
Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) level of
ground motion. For this purpose, a suitable
attenuation relation based on the worldwide
strong-motion database was used.

After a critical comparison of the spectra
obtained from two independent approaches
and keeping the safety of Pancheshwar
project in view, the spectra obtained by
deterministic approach were used to
generate the design basis and maximum
credible accelerograms. The acceleration
response spectra for different damping
ratios, as obtained from the design
accelerograms were also evaluated. The
accelerograms for horizontal and vertical

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

components were generated independently
to get more accurate results.
Recommendations were also made to
obtain from the design spectra, the site-
specific design seismic coefficients needed
to perform the simplified stability analysis of
the dam as per the provisions in the codes.


The Rihand Hydro-power project comprises
a straight concrete gravity dam with a
maximum height of 91 m, total length of
about 935 m, and a surface power house
with installed capacity of 300 MW (6 x 50
MW). The project site is located at latitude
24 12' 17.84" N and longitude 83 0' 37.01"
E in the northeastern margin of the
Peninsular Shield of India, which is not
considered seismically very active.
However, the Son-Narmada-Tapi
(SONATA) fault system, which had
generated several low to moderate
magnitude earthquakes in the past, passes
very close to the project site. Therefore, to
review the safety of the dam and the power
house of the Rihand project against
possible earthquake forces, CWPRS
conducted study of estimating the site-
specific design ground motion for carrying
out dynamic analysis of these structures.
The evaluation of the design ground motion
was based on the deterministic approach,
using up-to-date data on past earthquakes
and the available information on geology
and tectonic features in the region of the
dam site.

The deterministic method is based on
finding the Maximum Credible Earthquake
(MCE) magnitudes for all the potential faults
and tectonic provinces within 300 km
distance from the project site. To estimate
the ground motion, the magnitude for each
seismic source is considered to occur at the
closest possible distance from the project
site. The magnitude and distance
combination resulting in the highest ground
motion is used for the purpose of the
structural response analysis. In the present
study, on the basis of the largest historical
earthquake, the magnitude of MCE was
taken as 6.5. This magnitude was assumed
to occur at a distance of 1.5 km from the
project site, which is the closest distance of
the Son-Narmada South fault. On the basis
of the knowledge of the focal depths of a
few largest magnitude earthquakes in the
region and the crustal structure of the area,
the focal depth of the MCE was assumed to
be 25 km. From the available information on
the geological set-up of the project area, the
local site-soil condition was taken as hard
rock type, whereas the regional geology
was considered to be in between the hard
rock and the deep sedimentary deposits.

Using the above parameters of MCE and
geological conditions of the project area,
design response spectra with confidence
levels of 0.50 and 0.84 were computed for
both horizontal and vertical components
with a damping ratio of 5% of critical. On
the basis of the similarity of the attenuation
of Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) with
distance, the attenuation relations for the
response spectral amplitudes at different
natural periods developed for the western
US were considered appropriate for this
purpose. The accelerograms compatible
with the 5% damped response spectra
provide the site-specific design ground
motion for the Maximum Credible
Earthquake (confidence level 0.84) and the
Design Basis Earthquake (confidence level
0.50) conditions. The acceleration response
spectra with damping ratios of 1, 2, 5, 10
and 15 % were computed from these
design accelerograms to obtain the site-
specific design seismic coefficients for the
conventional stability analysis of the Rihand
dam and other appurtenant structures.

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003


Pagladiya river, a southernly flowing
tributary of river Brahmaputra, is a flashy
type of river, which causes considerable
damage to the areas on its banks, when it
floods. Therefore, a horseshoe shaped
rolled earthfill dam with a maximum height
of 28.75 m and length of 24.3 km is planned
as the detention dam across this river. It is
a multipurpose project, proposed for flood
control, irrigation and power generation.
The main dam having a length of about 2
km is aligned almost E-W direction with its
left and right embankments of about 12.75
km and 9.5 km lengths, respectively. The
dam is located just downstream of the
confluence of Pagladiya river with river
Mutunga, near village Thalkuchi in the
Assam state, approximately at latitude 26
31' 30" N and longitude 91 31' 0" E. The
site lies in the northeast Indian region which
is seismically very active and has
experienced two great earthquakes (M >
8.0) in 1897 and 1950 respectively. The
northeast Indian region lies at the juncture
of Himalayan Arc to the north and Burmese
Arc to the east. The high level of seismic
activity in the region is related to the north-
northeastward movement of the Indian
plate. Hence, a comprehensive seismic
hazard analysis was carried out for the
northeast Indian region, to estimate reliable
site-specific ground motion for earthquake
resistant design of the Pagladiya dam

The estimation of design ground motion for
the proposed project was carried out using
up-to-date database on the past
earthquakes and the detailed information on
the geological and tectonic features in the
northeast Indian region. The 5 % damped
design response spectra were first
estimated for six possible seismotectonic
provinces in the region using the
deterministic approach, which is based on
the specifications of a Maximum Credible
Earthquake (MCE) for each province. The
controlling MCE was found to be a
magnitude 8.2 earthquake in the Shillong
Massif tectonic province at a closest
distance of about 40 km from the dam site.
The mean plus one standard deviation
spectra (confidence level 0.84) for this
earthquake represent the deterministic
MCE level of ground motion and the mean
spectra (confidence level 0.50) represent
the corresponding Design Basis Earthquake
(DBE) level of ground motion. For
estimation of these response spectra, an
appropriate attenuation relationship based
on the worldwide strong-motion database
was selected by using the instrumentally
recorded strong motion data in the
northeast Indian region.

The design response spectra were also
estimated using the Probabilistic Seismic
Hazard Analysis (PSHA) approach by
evaluating the total expected seismicity for
a life period of 200 years with its proper
spatial distribution in the project area. As
the probabilistic spectra were found to lie
below the deterministic spectra over most of

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

the significant frequency-range, the
deterministic spectra only were used to
synthesize the DBE and MCE levels of
accelerograms for dynamic response
analysis of the Pagladiya dam. Further, the
accelerograms for horizontal and vertical
components of ground motion were
generated independently to get more
realistic results. Recommendations were
also made to obtain the site-specific design
seismic coefficients needed to perform the
simplified stability analysis of the dam as
per the provisions in the code.


Seismological studies to monitor the local
microearthquakes at and around the
Harangi hydroelectric project, Karnataka, on
river Harangi, a tributary of Cauvery
were taken up by establishing one
seismological observatory near the project
site. Microearthquake data recorded during
the period J anuary 1997 to December 2001
were analysed to estimate the epicentral
distances from the recording station and the
magnitudes of the microearthquakes. From
the study, it was found that the activity close
to the dam site has been very infrequent
and at microearthquake level only. The
temporal distribution of seismicity showed a
random behaviour. The correlation of these
local events with the reservoir levels was
also studied. Daily variation of lake level
and energy released did not show any
definite correlation between the occurrence
of the events and the lake levels. The
larger magnitude earthquakes having
epicenteral distances beyond 200 km were
not considered as they were not very
significant from the safety point of view. To
find the locations of the epicenters and to
establish their association with the faults
and lineaments in the area, a network of
three stations was recommended.


A network of three analogue type of
microearthquake recording stations is in
operation around Almatti and Narayanpur
reservoirs in Karnataka state since J anuary
1995. These reservoirs are situated near
the marginal area of basaltic province in the
Peninsular shield of India, about 300 km
southeast of Koyna and Warna reservoirs in
Maharashtra state, which had exhibited
strong fluid-induced seismicity patterns. The
main purpose of the seismological network
around Almatti and Narayanpur reservoirs
is to study the effects of reservoir loading
on the local seismicity, because the tectonic
framework of the area of these reservoirs is
similar to that of the Koyna and Warna
dams. The seismological observations
were made for the period 1996-2000 at the
three microearthquake stations; viz., near
Almatti dam, at Rodalbanda Camp
downstream of Narayanpur dam, and at
Muddebihal site located in-between.

The magnitudes of the earthquakes
recorded by the network of
microearthquakes stations were found to
cover a very wide range from ultra-
microearthquakes with subzero magnitudes
to a maximum value of around 4.9.
Similarly, the epicentral distance range was
also very wide, where shocks occurring as

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

far as 500 km were detected by the
network. Most of the larger magnitude
earthquakes were recorded from distances
beyond 100 km, and no shock above
magnitude 3.0 was detected within 50 km of
the recording sites. The temporal
distribution of the local shocks recorded at
Almatti site indicated highest level of
seismicity during 1999 (159 shocks),
followed by 58 shocks in 2000. All these
shocks occurred in the pre-monsoon period,
when the reservoir levels were very low.
The Rodalbanda observatory close to
Narayanpur reservoir detected the
maximum level of local seismicity during the
post-monsoon period in 1996, thus
indicating possible correlation with the high
reservoir water levels maintained for quite
long. However, this needs to be confirmed
by simultaneous and continuous recording
at all the three microearthquakes stations
for some more time, and by studying the
actual correlation between the seismic
energy released and the lake level


The existing Tajewala weir complex is
situated about 211 km upstream of New
Delhi along the river Yamuna. Recently a
new barrage is constructed at Hathnikund,
3 km upstream of the existing old Tajewala
weir, to supply water to the existing
command area. The design parameters of
the new barrage such as location,
orientation, waterway position of abutments,
layout of guide bunds etc. with respect to
the hydraulic aspects were studied earlier
with design discharge 22,000 cumec.
Subsequently, after construction of the
barrage, as per request of Central Water
Commission (CWC), New Delhi studies
were conducted for gate regulation, on
physical model constructed to horizontal
scale of 1:150 and vertical scale of 1:50 and
covering a reach of about 4.6 km upstream
and 4.4 km downstream of the Hathnikund

Out of various gate regulation alternatives
given by the CWC, alternative with more
gate opening in center of the spillway and
decreasing gate openings gradually
towards the divide wall with maintenance
of pond level of 334.32 m in the Eastern
Yamuna Canal pocket is suggested. Model
studies also indicated that there were no
cross flow and vortex formation in the
vicinity of the barrage. Based on model
studies, hydraulic parameters viz. maximum
velocity of 6.51 m/s and maximum intensity
of 50.60 m
/s/m were observed
corresponding to river discharge of 6094
cumec for verification of existing protective
measures along the left protective
embankment below Hathnikund Barrage.


River Parvati is a tributary of river Beas. It
originates from Mantalai lake in Kullu district
of Himachal Pradesh. The Manikaran
village is located at 55 km from the origin of
the river. The village is located along both
banks of the river Parvati and is famous for
the hot springs. Thousands of people visit
the place every year, which has initiated lot
of construction activities.

The right bank of the river showed signs of
erosion in the year 1988-89. Bank
protection works in the form of wire-crated
embankment were carried out along right
bank in a length of about 270 m. It was
supplemented by 11 spurs having lengths
of 4.5 to 7.5 m and from Ch.170 to Ch.275
m along left bank. This work was carried out
in the years 1991-93 and was designed for
a maximum discharge of 1300 cumec.
However, in the month of J uly 1993, the
river experienced an unprecedented flood
of 1694 cumec, which had damaged the
protective works to the extent of 90 percent.
The erosion continued in subsequent years

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

in the reach from Ch.95 to Ch.195 m
endangering the Hotel Parvati of Tourism
Department of Himachal Pradesh.

The studies were referred to the CWPRS by
the Superintending Engineer, I&PH Circle,
Kullu, Himachal Pradesh, for formulating
proposals for protection of river Parvati.
Subsequently, a site inspection was carried

It was recommended to provide a 4.5 m
high plum concrete wall, with 0.75 m and
2.5 m as top and bottom widths, resting
over a 0.60 m thick leveling course of
concrete. The protection needed to be
provided continuously from Ch.45 m upto
the wall of Gurudwara on the right bank and
from Ch.115 to Ch.170 m along the left

During the excavation in the reach from
Ch.145 to 245 m it was observed by the
project engineers that no good foundation
was available with even after excavation
depth of 3 3.5 m below river bed level.
The studies were, therefore, required for
suggesting modifications in the protection
works. Accordingly, site was visited by
CWPRS officers. It was observed that the
strata met with was Manikaran quartzite
except in a stretch from Ch.145 to 245 m
wherein, the foundation trench strata
encountered were completely weathered
Quartz-mica-schist band appearing like
alluvium deposits. Sample examined for
various properties indicated safe bearing
capacity of 9 T/m
which is adequate for the
modified proposal, consisting of four layers
of 1.25 x 1.25 x 1.25 m size stone crates
with one in top layer increasing to four in
bottom layer laid over 6.20 m wide and 0.60
m thick foundation concrete. The modified
proposal was discussed with the engineers
at site and was acceptable on account of its
flexibility and economy in maintenance and
repairs, if required.

The Western Kosi Main Canal takes off
from Kosi river upstream of the Hanuman
Nagar Barrage and crosses the Kamla river
at about 12 km downstream of J ainagar
weir. It was proposed to construct a syphon
for canal crossing. The detailed model
studies were conducted in CWPRS in the
year 1983 for the location and alignment of
the syphon crossing, waterway, layout,
alignment and design of the guide bunds,
afflux etc. Studies were also done in the
year 1989 with waterway of 712 m and 457
m without guide bunds. The
recommendations were given on the basis
of river configuration prevailing at that time.

The major construction of the syphon was
started in the year 1997 with downstream
end of the barrel at a distance of 255 m
from the toe of the western flood
embankment as against 410 m suggested
by CWPRS. However, river course has
considerably changed over the years and
project authorities, therefore, requested for
studies for changed location of river course
for evolving suitable river training and
protection works.

Kamla river is known to meander between
its khadir width. Between the years 1987 to
2001 the river Kamla has shifted about 650
m towards the left at the syphon axis. In
order to confine the shifting of river Kamla
at syphon, a system of guide bunds was
suggested. For accelerating the process of
establishing the old course, a pilot cut could
be made giving due considerations to off
take and out fall locations of the cut. During
the inspection it was noticed that the
protection upstream and downstream of the
syphon for about 2/3
portion provided with
stones laid over a depth of about 1.5 m did
not have filter below this protection.
Considering the flashy nature of flood

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

experienced in river Kamla, it is felt that
protection in the remaining reach can be
reduced from 1.5 m to 0.75 m with the use
of synthetic filter. This would result in
considerable savings. Damaged spurs,
banks and toe protection provided upstream
and downstream of the syphon in river
Kamla need to be repaired and restored. It
was recommended to use porcupines
(permeable spurs) for river training and
bank protection works due to its advantages
such as ease in construction, use of locally
available material, relatively low cost and
saving in execution time.


National Highway Authority of India (NHAI)
and Northeastern Railway have proposed to
construct road and railway bridges side by
side at about 40 km downstream of Kosi
barrage near Nirmali town. A technical
committee under the chairmanship of
Member (Technical) of NHAI has been
constituted to examine the feasibility of this
proposal and to finalize various technical
parameters. As per recommendations of the
committee mathematical and physical
model studies were carried out to study
following aspects.

Location and alignment of the

Flow conditions at bridge sites with
and without bridge

Waterway of the bridge and
corresponding afflux

Design of guide bunds, approach
embankments and protection of existing
flood embankments

Satellite imageries for 1991, 1997 and 2001
were studied for deciding location and
alignment of the bridge. The bank to bank
width of river Kosi in this reach is about 8 to
10 kms. Using the mathematical model the
water surface profiles for different
discharges under existing conditions and
with bridge of different waterways were
studied. Afflux, backwater effects and
changes in flow conditions were also
studied on mathematical model. Analysis of
annual maximum flood discharge data at
Barakshetra for the period of 1947 to 1998
was carried out to estimate flood discharges
of different return periods.

The mathematical model CHARIMA was
used to simulate flow conditions in the Kosi
river reach from the existing barrage to
about 50 km downstream. It is a one-
dimensional model capable of handling
unsteady flows in river channel network.
The topographical and hydraulic data
required for the studies was collected by
WAPCOS on request of NHAI.

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

Mathematical model was validated for
observed flow conditions using Manning's
roughness coefficient of 0.022 and then
model was run for flood discharges of 8495
m/s, 14158 m/s, 19822 m/s and 26900
m/s to predict water surface profiles along
river reach without bridge. Further studies
were done with bridge waterways of 1200m,
2000 m, 2400 and 3200 m with design flood
discharge of 26900 m/s. The results
indicated that maximum afflux will be 2.85
m and 1.05 m for waterways of 1200 m and
3200 m respectively. The corresponding
backwater reach length will be 9.5 km and
6.4 km. Analysis indicated that bridge
waterway of about 2000 m may be
appropriate from considerations of afflux
and safety of existing flood embankments.

Physical model studies for the same reach
of about 50 km were carried out on a model
having horizontal scale 1:350 and vertical
scale 1:70. Following are the important
conclusion of these studies.

The axis of the road bridge was aligned
at normal to the flow direction by
locating one of the axis on Eastern
embankment at 665m downstream of
cross section 38 and other end of the
axis on Western embankment (ring
bund) at 525m downstream of cross
section 37. The axis of the rail bridge
was aligned parallel to that of road
bridge at a distance of 60m
Flow was observed to concentrate in the
central portion of the river width. The
bridge openings were therefore located
across the deep channels in the central

For overall waterway of 1917m, the right
side abutment was located at a distance
of 4420m measured from Ring bund
whereas left side abutment was located
at a distance of 4345 m from Eastern

The performance of guide bunds was
found to be satisfactory.

The afflux was of the order of 1.35m.
The effect of backwater was felt over a
distance of 8.0 km.

The flow was well distributed in various
spans of these bridges except in the
spans 1 and 2 near the left abutment
where the flow was found to be slack.
Reduction in overall waterway from
1917m to 1853m by closing one left end
span may improve the discharge

Analysis of river bed and bank materials to
estimate silt factor which was also
necessary input for design of the bridge
foundation was carried out. The estimated
silt factor was 0.83.


River Tikra is a small tributary of river
Brahmani, meeting it at about 5 km
upstream of Samal barrage. Kaniha town is
located on river Tikra about 5 km upstream
of the confluence with river Brahmani. M/S
Power Grid Corporation of India
(POWERGRID) has undertaken
construction of 2000 MW East-South Inter-
connector II High Voltage Direct Current
(HVDC) transmission project on the bank of
river Tikra at Kaniha. The project site is

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

located about 4 km upstream of the
confluence with river Brahmani. Hydraulic
model studies for the construction of Samal
barrage were conducted by CWPRS during
the years 1983-87.

During 15th to 19th J uly of 2001, Orissa
state experienced unprecedented rains and
floods. A part of the HVDC project site was
submerged due to the floods of river Tikra
on 16th night and 19th daytime. The high
flood level observed at the plant site was
82.2 m against the design HFL of 79.5 m.
No serious damage occured as the project
was taken up very recently. However, the
boundary wall the project collapsed due to
intense flow of river Tikra. As immediate
measures, the HVDC project authorities
decided to raise the formation levels of
different zones of the project area and
undertake anti-erosion and training
measures for river Tikra at the project site.

Analysis of the data indicated that the
highest observed HFL on river Tikra at
Kaniha might have to be reviewed. An HFL
estimated with the combined effect of the
likely highest floods in river Brahmani and
river Tikra could give the design HFL at the
project site. A design HFL of 83.75 m i.e.
about 1.55 m higher than that observed in
J uly 2001, and corresponding velocity of 3.5
m/s to 4 m/s at the project boundary was

It was suggested to construct a flood
embankment with top level at 85 m around
the project site. The slope of the
embankment may be protected by stones of
weight 60-70 kg and aprons of stones in
crates of size 2 m X 1 m X 0.4 m.

Plantation of trees along the river Tikra in a
belt of 30 m width along the boundary wall
would keep the high velocity currents away
from the wall.

The Sardar Sarovar Project is an inter-state
multipurpose joint venture of four states
namely Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh,
Maharashtra and Rajasthan with a major
dam on the river Narmada located at
Navagam about 100 km south east of
Vadodara in Gujarat. This project envisages
the construction of two power houses, a
1200 MW river bed power house and the
other 250 MW canal head power house
(CHPH). The discharge from CHPH would
pass through a network of four ponds
named as Pond-1, Pond-2, Pond-3 and
Pond-4 which are linked by link channels,
reaching Narmada Main Canal Head
Regulator (HRNMC) situated at the fringe of
Pond-4. The ponds would help in regulating
diurnal variations in discharges of CHPH
and uniform withdrawals from HRNMC. The
requirement of balancing storage is
assessed at 1308 ha.m, which would be
available between RL 92.04 m and 95.09
m. However, the CHPH has a general
ground level at RL 98.00 m. It was
apprehended that during the design steady
state discharge of 708 cumec from CHPH
at FRL (95.10 m) and the simultaneous
occurrence of peak flood of 1076 cumec
into the Pond-3 from Panchmuli Nallah
might flood the general ground levels at
CHPH. Accordingly the studies were
referred to the CWPRS to assess the
maximum backwater levels at CHPH and in
the system taking into account the
operation of spillway at Pond-3.

The results obtained from the mathematical
model studies indicate that for the case of
CHPH discharging 708 cumec and a
constant withdrawal of the same from
HRNMC at the maximum backwater levels
at CHPH would be RL 95.31 m.
Considering the peak flood in the
Panchmuli Nallah during this steady design
discharge from CHPH and the withdrawal of
the same from HRNMC, the maximum
water levels at CHPH and HRNMC would
be 97.43 m and 95.51 m respectively. The

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

maximum water levels at the upstream and
downstream sides of the Pond-3 would be
97.37 m and 96.99 m respectively.


Sardar Sarovar is a multipurpose project
across river Narmada. The project
envisages a dam near Navagam in Bharuch
district, Gujarat, river bed power house with
a generating capacity of 1200 MW, canal
head power house with capacity of 250
MW, and irrigation canal network to cater
the requirements of about 18,75,000 ha in
Gujarat and Rajasthan states. The total
length of river Narmada upto dam site is
1164 km with catchment area of 88000 Narmada Main Canal (NMC) with
design discharge of 1133 cu.m/s the head
regulator, takes off at the tail end of pond
system on right bank of river. The canal
crosses numerous rivers in its length of
about 460 km in the Gujarat state which
include Mahi, Sabarmati, Meghana, Watrak,
Saraswati, Khari II, Banas etc. As per
request of Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam
Ltd. (SSNNL) CWPRS conducted studies
for estimation of design parameters for
syphon at crossing of Banas, Khari II and
Saraswati rivers with NMC. Studies for
estimation of water level, peak flood and
velocity generated for a specified waterway
during the passage of Probable Maximum
Flood (PMF) and Standard Project Flood
(SPF) through river Saraswati, Khari II and
Banas were carried out. Different
combinations of floods were considered
alongwith two scour scenarios considered
in each combination.

The rivers Banas, Khari II and Saraswati
rise in Aravalli hills and flow through the
states of Rajasthan and Gujarat and
dissipate into Little Rann of Kutchh. The
general topography of the rivers is very flat
and water enters flood plains even under
normal floods. The shifting of channels is
noticed in these rivers during the past
decades. No gauging site is located on any
of the river within the study area.

The studies for estimation of maximum
water level in rivers at NMC crossing and
corresponding velocity for a specified
waterway were carried in two phases using
the survey data and design flood
hydrographs supplied by SSNNL. In the
first phase sensitivity analysis of
parameters was carried out to decide the
values to be used in simulation studies. In
the second phase unsteady simulation was
carried out for different combinations of
SPF and PMF. The studies were carried
out with 1-D model based on St. Venants
equations of continuity and momentum.
Design flood hydrograph was used as
upstream boundary and normal flow
conditions were specified for downstream
boundary. The likely mixing of water
between two rivers was avoided by
providing afflux bunds. The river bed is
sandy in nature and would be scoured
during high floods. This situation was
reproduced by artificially lowering the bed.
The guide bunds on upstream and
downstream of NMC crossings were
considered in the simulation.

The other related aspects like submergence
of properties, compensation amount
including R/R cost, placement of syphon
barrels in relation to scour level were also
considered and necessary measures were


The I&PH Department, Govt. of Himachal
Pradesh has taken up a project of
construction of embankments on river
Swan. CWPRS had conducted
mathematical model studies for the project
to evaluate the likely afflux in river Swan
due to construction of embankments and

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

morphological model studies to evaluate the
effect of construction of embankments on
the river regime over a period of 20 years.
The results were intimated under CWPRS
technical report No 3347 of August 1996.
Based on the studies, the Ministry of Forest
and Environment, Govt. of India, gave their
final clearance to the project. Govt. of
Himachal Pradesh has now taken up the
first phase of the construction of
embankment from Zhalera bridge to
Santokhgarh bridge.

In this connection, the Ministry of Forest
and Environment has desired to study the
reach from Santokhgarh bridge to 1.5 km
downstream with flood zoning approach.
Accordingly the Superintending Engineer,
I&PH Department, Una referred the
problem to CWPRS for taking up the

Suggestions were made for further
improvements in the quality of construction
of embankments with protection measures
downstream of Zhalera bridge. Anti erosion
measures in the form of dredging of pilot
channel and construction of permeable
spurs for inducing siltation were suggested
for the eroding reach downstream of
Santokhgarh bridge.


During the monsoon of the year 1995, river
Ravi underwent a high flood causing
serious erosion along the right bank
upstream of the road bridge in Chamba
town. The Irrigation and Public Health (IPH)
Department prepared an anti - erosion
scheme for the protection of the bank at the
problem reach which was studied in order
to suggest modifications. Accordingly,
inspection of site was undertaken by
CWPRS officers to study the problem.

Desk studies were conducted to analyse
the available data. In light of the findings of
the analysis and the observations made
during the site inspection, anti-erosion
measures were evolved for bank protection
measures in the problem reach. A scheme
was prepared for stabilisation of the
channel and anti-erosion measures as a
long-term solution. The scheme consists of
spurs and revetment for the right bank
upstream of the road bridge at Chamba,
deflecting spurs on the left bank in the
vicinity of the road bridge on both the
upstream and the downstream sides.

In view of the likely changes in the channel
alignment in future, monitoring of the river
for channel changes up to 8 10 km
downstream of Chamba town was


The Public Works Department, Delhi, has
proposed to construct Kalindi bypass from
Kalindi Colony ring road to Kalindi Kunj
road No.13-A along river Yamuna at Delhi.
Model studies were carried out to examine
the technical feasibility of proposed Kalindi
bypass road in a mobile bed model of river
Yamuna at Delhi, constructed to a
horizontal scale of 1:300 and a vertical
scale of 1:60. Studies were carried out with
two discharges namely 9,910 cumec and
12,750 cumec. Studies indicated that due
to construction of the proposed bypass road
on the right side, the effect of rise in water
level and velocity would be negligible on the
left bank as well as on the existing hydraulic

Top level of the bund was recommended at
RL 205.64 m considering a free board of
1.5 m above the water level at RL 205.5 m
at Kalindi colony which can be tapered to
RL 205.33 m at the Okhla weir and RL
205.2 m at Kalindi Kunj.

A side slope of 1:2 was recommended for
the bund. A nominal protection for the

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

reach from Kalindi Colony to upstream
guide bund of Noida bridge was also
recommended. Apron of 1.2 m thick and 5
m wide was recommended on the river side
for the reach from Kalindi Colony to the
vicinity of downstream right guide bund of
Noida bridge, and where as apron of 1.7 m
thick and 18 m wide was recommended in
the reach between Noida bridge to Kalindi
Kunj. For sloping portion and apron on the
river side, stones of size 40 to 50 Kg for the
reach from Kalindi Colony to Kalindi Kunj
were recommended over the geofabric
filter. A 15 cm thick layer of coarse sand
was recommended over the geofabric filter
before placing of stone to avoid rupture of
geofabric material.


The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC),
New Delhi, has proposed to extend the
filled up area in the Yamuna river bed by
about 31.4 ha. for setting allied facilities and
commercial exploitation of the area for
raising of resources for part financing the
project adjoining Shahdra-Trinagar-Bawala
MRTS line.

Studies were carried out on the existing
model of river Yamuna at Delhi constructed
to a horizontal scale of 1:300 and a vertical
scale of 1:60 to examine the feasibility of
the proposal. The model bed between
Wazirabad barrage and 5km downstream
of Okhla barrage was moulded as per 2000
post flood survey. Studies were carried out
for two discharges namely 9,910 cumec
and 12,750 cumec. corresponding to the
design discharge, and check flood
suggested by the Central Water
Commission (CWC) under existing
condition and with extended filled area
adjoining MRTS bridge in position. Studies
indicated that the proposal to extend filled
up area in the Yamuna river bed adjoining
Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) was
hydraulically not satisfactory. Due to the
proposed mass filling up to the proposed
level of RL 209.50 m there would be
change in the river regime and would also
create adverse flow conditions on the
existing piers of old rail-cum-road bridge.
During the model studies it was also
observed that there was increase in
velocities and discharge intensities on the
right bank. Hence the site proposed was not
recommended for mass filling.

Another site behind the MRTS line does not
cause any undesirable flow condition in the
vicinity of the existing ISBT bridge and
MRTS bridge. Hence it was recommended
to be filled up to the proposed level of RL
209.50 m.


The Inland port of Pandu (Guwahati), on the
left bank of river Brahmaputra, is about
1539 km from Kolkata. This is one of the
important ports in the north-eastern region
catering to the Inland Water Transport
(IWT) traffic.

As a part of the overall development
programme of the North Eastern States,
North Eastern Council (NEC) formulated a
scheme to renovate the old Port of Pandu.
To cater to bulk, break-bulk and container
cargo traffic, construction of the jetty with
suitable cargo-handling facilities was
proposed. In the year 1985-86, hydraulic
model studies were conducted on the
physical model of river Brahmaputra at
Pandu. Necessary hydraulic design
parameters for the jetty were suggested in
technical report No 2373 of November

During high floods in J une 1991, during the
course of execution, the jetty was damaged
and some of the piles were washed away.
In May 2002, CPWD Consulting Services
Organisation, New Delhi, referred the
problem to CWPRS to conduct fresh

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

studies for the new jetty to be located about
250 m upstream of the old collapsed jetty.
The new jetty would be submersible jetty
having well foundations instead of piles.

Desk studies were conducted using the
results of the earlier studies and analysis of
the new data supplied by the project
authorities. A review of the relevant design
computations made by different agencies
for the old jetty and comments made on the
design calculations by the committee were
also kept in view.

The site of the proposed cargo-handling
jetty at Pandu port was inspected by
CWPRS officers. Various important points
like the criterion to evolve the hydraulic
design parameters, the data required for the
studies, etc were discussed.

Detailed analysis of the available data was
made and compared with the old data and
the results. Based on the analysis, the
hydraulic design parameters like design
discharge, corresponding HFL at the jetty,
velocity of flow, bed material size, silt factor,
scour factor, obliquity of flow, etc were


The eastern part of Maharashtra, called
Marathwada, falls under rain shadow region
of Sahyadri Mountain. Therefore, the rainfall
in Marathwada is scanty, varying between
400 mm to 600 mm / year. With increased
population and industrialisation, need for
water is ever growing. Excess withdrawal of
the ground water has lowered the water
table to alarming levels.

Govt. of Maharashtra has prepared a
scheme for construction of a percolation
canal at Sarola, near Latur, Maharashtra,
for collecting the storm water for percolation
in the ground. The scheme consists of a
percolation canal with its bed level at a
constant level, outlets at suitable locations
for discharging the excess water, if any.
The rainwater from a higher tableland would
be collected in the percolation and stored
for its percolation into the ground.

The project authorities desired to study the
scheme and suggest modifications, if
required, to the design of the proposed
canal. Accordingly, inspection of site was
conducted and the problem was discussed
with project authorities. It was found that the
proposed scheme is feasible from technical
point of view. The benefits of the scheme
could be accrued immediately from the next
monsoon season after construction.
Moreover, the scheme is unique of its kind.

Few suggestions like alteration of the side
slopes, design HFL, design discharge of
outlets, monitoring of the water inflow and
rate of percolation, etc were made to the
project authorities.


The Govt. of Himachal Pradesh has
decided to set up Mahaseer Fish Farm
project at Siddhapur, Tehsil Sarkaghat, Dist
Mandi. The proposed site of the Fish farm
is located on the left bank of river Beas
covering an area of about 6 hectares. The
Superintending Engineer, Irrigation and
P.H. Circle, Dist Mandi, desired to study the
scheme for river training measures and to
suggest modifications in the scheme for
river training measures. Accordingly,
inspection of site was undertaken to study
the problem.

The proposed site was not found
satisfactory from the river engineering point
of view. A review of the HFL, velocity, silt
factor, size of stones for revetment, etc was
found necessary. However, as desired by
the project authorities, modifications to the
existing scheme for the river training

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

measures were suggested. In view of the
high cost of river training measures
involved, two alternatives were also
suggested for locating the proposed project
in the same area.

If only the Phase-I of the scheme is
executed, the available land between the
hill and the existing dry channel can be
utilised. The high cost of filling the ground,
river training measures, etc would
drastically reduce.

Another project site on the opposite bank of
river Beas, appeared more suitable. The
cost of river training measures could be
much less even for the whole project
comprising Phase I to Phase III.


Palur canal is 17.5 km long, which
connects Chilika lagoon at the northern side
and Rushikulya river mouth on the southern
side. Palur canal was constructed in the
year 1866 for navigational purpose. In the
course of time, the canal got silted up,
which restricted the tidal exchange between
Chilika Lake and Rushikulya river mouth
during high waters only.

Chilika Development Authority referred the
problem to CWPRS for checking the
hydrodynamic impact on Chilika Lake due
to dredging of the canal and to estimate the
quantum of dredging to be carried out to
attain the design section.

A study was carried out using 1-D
mathematical model and it was found that
there would not be appreciable
hydrodynamic impact on the Chilika Lake
due to dredging the Palur canal. The
quantity of dredging would be of the order
of 0.86 million cum. The revival of Palur
canal would also help in improving the
biodiversity of the region.


Bhakra Nangal Hydro-electric Project is
commissioned across river Satluj. Bhakra
Dam is in the State of Himachal Pradesh
and Nangal Dam, about 12 km downstream
of Bhakra dam is situated in the State of
Punjab. Bhakra Beas Management Board
(BBMB) authority regulates the supply of
water in the river Satluj and the distribution
of power from Bhakra Nangal Project.
BBMB is considering the possibility of
generating additional power from a location
called Neilla about 5 km downstream of
Bhakra dam. The construction of a weir
downstream of Bhakra dam is likely to
increase the tail water level of Bhakra due
to backwater effect, which in turn may
reduce the head available at Bhakra for
power production.

Mathematical modelling study was therefore
conducted to find out the backwater profile
for different discharges from Bhakra with
and without weir at Neilla. Three different

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

locations for the proposed weir were
considered for optimum power potential
from proposed power plant with a minimum
power loss at Bhakra. The studies were
conducted for a steady state flow condition.

Hydrologic Engineering Centers River
Analysis System (HEC-RAS) model was
used for computation of backwater profiles,
which gives solution for one-dimensional
steady state flow equation based on energy
balance. The river reach between Bhakra
and Nangal was modeled with 27 cross
sections and known upstream and
downstream boundary conditions. The
model was calibrated for observed
discharges of low, medium and high orders
and corresponding water levels at selected
locations using different sets of roughness
coefficient as well as contraction and
expansion coefficients.

Based on the study, it was observed that
the effect of weir at Neilla on tail water level
of Bhakra is more only for lower discharge
due to ponding effect of weir. However for
higher discharges the influence of weir at
Neilla on tail water level of Bhakra is only
nominal. Out of the three locations
considered, the weir at a location of about
6.55 km upstream of Nangal dam is having
higher power potential and more net gain
after considering the corresponding power
loss at Bhakra due to tail water rise. The
location at about 6.71 km upstream of
Nangal dam as an alternate site could also
be considered even though the net power
gain is slightly less. The suitability of the
location can be decided based upon the
engineering judgement and other


The peletisation plant set up by Kudremukh
Iron Ore Company Ltd.(KIOCL) is the
largest of this kind in Asia. The company
uses state of art technology for
beneficiation process and is known for 100
% export orientation. The companys
products are exported to J apan, China,
Australia, Turkey and Iran. In the process
of refining large quantities of waste (tailings)
are generated. These are stored in a
reservoir behind dam constructed on
Lakhya hole. The raw water requirements
of company are also derived from the
reservoir. KIOCL requested CWPRS, to
take up inundation studies for Bhadra river
due to hypothetical breach of Lakhya dam.
A reach of river Bhadra extending to 50 km
downstream of Lakhya hole confluence was
considered in the studies. The assignment
includes suggesting protective measures
and addressing the issue of tailing

The task of inundation studies has been
accomplished in two stages. In the first
stage, dam breach parameters are set up
duly considering the breach experienced by
Lakhya dam during construction as well as
during raising of dam height and the

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

guidelines suggested by Fread. The breach
hydrographs for different tailing volumes in
reservoir are derived. The breach
hydrographs are routed along Bhadra river
in second stage. The parameters like water
level, velocity and discharge at the locations
of interest are saved during the unsteady
flow simulation, which is carried out using 1-
D St. Venant equations of continuity and
momentum. Discharge variations are used
for upstream end whereas normal flow
conditions defined by Mannings equation
are specified for the downstream boundary.
The maximum water level reached at the
important locations, identified by KIOCL,
are compared with the critical elevations to
decide necessity or otherwise of the
protective measure(s).

The survey data and other reservoir data
required for the studies were supplied by
KIOCL. Roughness coefficient for Bhadra
river stretch was decided by visual
observations of river channel.

Thus breach hydrographs from Lakhya
reservoir were estimated for tailing
deposition of 120, 144.2,
156.62, 164.62, and
172.62 The maximum flow rate
with deposition of 144.2 and
164.62 was 23377 cu.m/s and
23449 cu.m/s respectively. These
hydrographs were routed along Bhadra with
flow in river as 1274 cu.m/s and 4106
cu.m/s and maximum water level obtained
during the passage of hydrograph was
compared with the bank levels reported
during survey of river as well as with the
critical elevations of important structures
within lease area of KIOCL and top level of

It is noticed that except for one or two
locations along Bhadra maximum
waterlevel is higher than the bank levels
reported during survey, indicating that
protection would be required. However,
review of contour map indicated that
contours of elevation higher than the bank
elevation are seen in the close vicinity and
major towns are located at higher
elevations. The top level of bridges at
Horanadu and Haluvalli are lower than the
maximum water level obtained during the
studies. Raising top RL of the bridges is
proposed. The stability of piers and
approaches of bridges at Balehole and
Magundi is required to be ascertained. It is
proposed to maintain status-quo if stability
is ensured and disruption of traffic for
submergence period can be tolerated. The
duration of flood hydrograph is 6 hours, out
of which only 3 hours period is critical. In
light of this and the lead time of about an
hour obtained during the studies, it is
proposed to conduct survey of town
segments likely to be submerged. The
measures like evacuation and issue of
warnings are proposed based on economic
analysis of two alternatives.

Maximum depth of submergence within the
lease area is of the order of 5 m. Raising of
top levels alongwith approaches of
conveyor bridge and Bhadra bridge is
proposed. Economic evaluation of
measures viz., construction of embankment
and ring bunds, is to be carried out and
accordingly one of the measures can be
finalized. Studies have been conducted in
the past for assessing the flow field near
chute spillway. The results of these studies
may not be applicable under current flow
field due to closure of chute spillway while
raising top level of Lakhya dam to RL 890
m. The trend of movement of tailing under
low velocities obtained in earlier studies,
has to be ascertained during the high
velocity field indicated during current
studies. In light of this, detailed studies are
suggested for ensuring movement of
tailings with gushing water leaving Lakhya
breach section.

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003


Larji Surge tank is one of the important
structures in water-conducting system of
Larji hydroelectric project, Himachal
Pradesh. It consists of a restricted orifice
type 71.0 m high and 37.0 m internal
diameter vertical shaft and bottom chamber
entirely sunk in ground by excavating rock
mass. The shaft is closed at the bottom.
The horizontal headrace tunnel and the
three-penstock tunnels intersect this shaft
at bottom. The headrace tunnel is of 8.5 m
internal diameter and its shape changes
from circular to horseshoe in a length of
21.7 m at the intersection with the surge
shaft. The top of this transition is formed by
a 1.75 m thick slab having a circular orifice
of 3.25 m diameter and three rectangular
openings for the operation of gates. Three
penstocks are circular in shape; 3.72 m
diameter and each of these have transition
length of 4.95 m within which the diameter
changes to 4.50 m. Six piers for movement
of three gates are provided integrally with
the surge shaft wall. Maximum upsurge
level in surge shaft is 982.80 m, whereas
full reservoir level is 969.50 m. The top
level of bottom chamber is 939.0 m.

The surge tank with its wall subjected to
high hydrostatic pressure and the thick
base slab in particular with irregular shape
form complex structure which is not easily
amenable to theoretical analysis. In view of
the above, it was considered essential to
analyse the structure by using three
dimensional photoelasticity technique.
Photoelastic stress analysis of rectangular
surge tank (the shape earlier proposed by
the Project Authorities) carried out indicated
need for a change in shape. Stress analysis
was made for modified shape of the surge

The photoelastic analysis of the surge tank
indicated that it could easily be designed as
the cylindrical water tank with the bottom
restraint. The peak hoop stress (

) occurs
at a distance of 0.51R
from the top of slab
and is of the order of 16.11 P
along the
vertical line, away from the piers, where R
is the mean radius and P
is the internal
hydrostatic pressure at the base of the
surge tank wall. The effect of the base slab
is to restrain the shell deformation and
reduce hoop stresses in the tank wall
portion near base. The studies were based
on the assumption that the piers have the
adequate monolithicity with the tank wall.


This R & D scheme was implemented under
Hydrology Project to develop a
mathematical model for predicting water
quality in reservoir systems. Two reservoirs
Panshet and Ujjani in Bhima basin were
identified by Irrigation Department of
Government of Maharashtra. In-situ
observation of various water quality
parameters, analysis of water and sediment
samples in the laboratory for other
parameters including heavy metal
concentration, plankton density and
diversity and microbiological tests was the
scope of the study. The findings and
recommendations are as follows:

The growth of aquatic plants and
biodiversity of Ujjani was more
than Panshet reservoir. Its large size and
the serpentine shape with extensive shallow
littoral zone is a favourable condition for
generation and the growth of many
planktons, a good biomass and very

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003
extensive growth of aquatic plants and
macrophytes in Ujjani reservoir. This is an
early indication of tendency towards
eutrophication. Irrigation runoffs, domestic
wastewater and urban runoffs are
responsible for this situation. On the other
hand, the steep slope, more depth and
more linear shape of Panshet reservoir
result in a comparatively less productive

Due to less rainfall, Ujjani region is semi
arid, tropical dry one while surroundings of
Panshet experience good rain, more runoff
and less seepage. Due to this, organic
matter and minerals from the upper layer of
the soil diminishes by erosion. Planting
trees in this area may mitigate this.

During summer thermal and DO
stratification was observed at several
locations in Ujjani reservoir. Such situation
in shallow waters is harmful for fish,
diatoms and the green algae. Discharge of
thermal effluent should not be allowed into
this reservoir in summer because this may
lead to further adverse condition for aquatic

Low conductivity of Panshet water indicates
less dissolved salts in it. Such waters are
suitable for domestic use and in laundries
and industries. The conductivity of Ujjani
water is almost ten times that of Panshet.
While using such water for irrigation, there
should be adequate preventive measures
water logging. Such water needs treatment
before its use in industries.

for saving the land from getting saline or
otal coliforms were more during winter in
t present, the water quality of Panshet
both the reservoirs. In Panshet, it was found
in near bank region and in Ujjani it was
present over an extensive area. Sewage
contamination appears to be the main
problem of Ujjani reservoir water quality.
Disinfection or the treatment for destruction
of pathogens is must before its use for
domestic purposes. Panshet water is
comparatively clean but chlorination before
its use for drinking is recommended.

reservoir is better than Ujjani for almost all
the beneficial uses.

hatghar pumped storage project is first of

its kind in Maharashtra State. The installed
capacity of two reversible pump
turbine/generator motors is of 250 MW in an
underground powerhouse complex with a
design head of 420 m. The project
envisages construction of two dams forming
two reservoirs. Upper reservoir on river
Pavana near village Ghatghar in
Ahmednagar district, the lower reservoir is
on Shahi Nalla near village Chonde Budruk
in Thane district. The water conductor
systems consisting of approach channel,

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003
intake structure and a pressure shaft will
lead water to the underground power house
to feed the discharge of 74.4 cumec to two
reversible units. The tailrace discharge
from the powerhouse is taken through the
common tailrace tunnel to the lower pond.
The length of the headrace system is 650
m and the tailrace system is 700 m. The
headrace system consists of circular tunnel
of 4.25 m diameter at the intake tapering to
2.0 m diameter at the turbine. The tailrace
tunnel is 6.0 m diameter circular in shape.
A single surge tank of 11 m diameter is
provided at RD 1734 for the protection of
tailrace tunnels downstream.

ransient Analysis
athematical model studies were
re-cooling of Ingredients of Roller
he construction of two dams involves
trict controlled on various parameters
he pre-cooling requirement of the coarse

conducted for assessing the transient
pressures arising due to load acceptance,
load rejection and various combinations of
both, as per the 8 conditions supplied by
the project. The mathematical model used
was the unsteady equation for motion and
continuity, which were solved by a finite
difference formulation. For the purpose of
modelling, the headrace and the tailrace
systems were studied for assessing the
pressures along the system and the water
level fluctuations in the surge tank. The
studies indicated that the maximum
pressure was of the order of 699 m for
condition 2 in the headrace system, which
was 42% above the static head. The
minimum transient pressure was of the
order of 440 m, which is positive and hence
acceptable. The oscillations in the surge
tank were of the order of 7-15 m. The
maximum water level in the surge tank
reached up to EL. 353.6 m, which is below
the top of the surge tank at EL. 400 m. The
minimum water level in the surge tank
reached EL. 338.32 m, which is much
above the bottom elevation of EL. 275.71
m. As such, there is no possibility of
entering air into the tailrace tunnel and
exposing the surge shaft to atmosphere.
Therefore, the performance of the surge
tank was considered to be acceptable.

Compacted Concrete (RCC)

6,30,260 m
of roller compacted concrete
(RCC). RCC being new material, first time
adopted in the country for massive
construction of hydraulic structures, pre-
construction studies involving strength and
thermal properties, permissible temperature
drop and estimation of placement
temperature were carried out.

would ensure distress free hardened mass
of RCC. Pre-cooling of the constituents of
RCC is one of the practical ways of
achieving the limiting values of the above
parameters. Of the 5 major constituents
involved in the RCC mix, only two
constituents viz. coarse aggregate and
water are amenable for pre-cooling. The
coarse aggregate can be cooled by
inundation method, which involves
immersing the coarse aggregate in tanks of
chilled water. Use of chilled water and ice
flakes in the mix instead of ordinary water
also would contribute to place the RCC mix
at desired placement temperature.

aggregate and water for RCC mix for
Ghatghar Project were indicated to serve as
a ready reckoner with reference to air
temperature at site.

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

Indira Sagar is a multipurpose river valley
project with an installed capacity of 1000
MW and annual irrigation capacity of 2.70
lakh hectare. The project is located 13 km
downstream of village Punasa in Khandwa
district of M.P. and comprises a concrete
gravity dam 653 m long and 92 m high
across the river Narmada, an open
trapezoidal approach channel emanating
from Narmada Sagar reservoir, eight intake
structures, eight penstocks connected with
eight number of Francis turbine units with
275 cumec discharge and design net head
of 60 m. Water from turbine units is led to
draft tubes, 150 m long tail pool, 763 m long
trapezoidal shaped tailrace channel, a
terminal weir which joins to the Narmada

A 1:35 scale geometrically similar model of
the tail pool and tailrace was constructed.
The model comprises part of the headrace
channel, penstock, tail pool and tailrace
channel including terminal weir. The
original design of tail pool and tailrace was
studied in the model. The results of these
studies indicated that there was return flow
in front of units 8 to 5. As such, it was
decided to move the left bank of tail pool on
the downstream so as to provide larger
straight reach for the discharge coming out
from the draft tubes. Accordingly the
modified layout of left bank of tail pool was
worked out.
Studies were conducted on the flow
visualisation and velocity distribution in the
modified tail pool indicated improvement in
the performance. However, return flows
and small stagnation zone in front of the
unit No. 8 still persisted, although its
intensity as compared to original design
was reduced. Due to topographical and
techno economical considerations, it is not
feasible to shift the left bank boundary
further downstream away from the draft
tube outlets.

Studies were subsequently conducted for
various combinations of operations of units
and it was observed that the overall
performance of tail pool and tail channel
was satisfactory from the consideration of
flow conditions and velocity pattern.


One of the advantages of hydro power is
instantaneous acceptance or rejection of
power generation. During these operations,
however, very high transient pressures are
generated in the water conductor system
including air-water column separation.
Proper design of surge tank helps to
mitigate this problem. In order to optimize
the diameter and to decide location of the
surge tank, transient analysis for various
conditions was carried out for Konal project.

Tilari is a west flowing river originating in
the Sahyadri ranges. The project envisages
construction of an earthen dam across river
Tilari for storage of 462.17 M m
of water. It
is also proposed to produce power from the
canal releases. The water conductor
system consists of 3895 (W) x 3895 (H) mm
size D-shaped headrace tunnel from
chainage 300 m to 1440 m, 3.5 m diameter
penstock from chainage 1440 m to
chainage 1670 m with a irrigation limb Y-

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003
piece at Ch: 1627 m and a tail channel. The
power house at Ch: 1670 m will
accommodate two turbines of 5 MW each to
operate under a design head of 38 m and
discharge of 16.4473 cumec.

The studies for the transient analysis of
headrace system of Konal HE Project,
Maharashtra was carried out by the
mathematical model `WH of Prof. M.H.
Chaudhry, based on the numerical solution
of the non-linear hyperbolic partial
differential equations namely equations of
motion and continuity by the method of

The studies were carried out for various
combinations of parameters for acceptance
and rejection of loads. The load rejection
time of 7, 14, 21,35,40,45 sec with 4m, 8m,
12m diameter surge tank and without surge
tank were analyzed. Full reservoir level of
117.52 m was considered for the studies.
As the data for the turbine operating
characteristics were not available, a valve
at 1670 m, at the end of penstock
immediately before its bifurcation to
turbines was considered to simulate the
load rejection and acceptance.

The studies conducted with 12 m dia surge
tank indicated that the maximum water level
in the gate well reached EL.120.61 m and
EL.120.57 m during load rejection time of 7
seconds and 10 seconds respectively for
reservoir water level EL.117.52 (MWL).
Similarly maximum water level in the surge
tank reached EL.125.16 m and EL.125.15
m during load rejection time of 7 seconds
and 10 seconds respectively for RWL EL.
117.52 m. The minimum water level in the
gate well reached EL.71.65 m and EL.71.67
m during the load rejection time of 7 and 10
seconds for reservoir water level EL.74.07
m (MDDL). The maximum water level
reached EL.71.68 and EL.67.88 m in the
gate well and surge tank respectively during
simultaneous load acceptance by both the
machines for the reservoir water level at
EL.74.07 m (MDDL). Minimum water level
in the surge tank and gate well in all these
transient conditions was far above roof of
the tunnel at the respective points.

The studies indicated that the surge tank of
diameter more than 8 m would be
necessary and 12 m diameter surge tank
would be over safe. As such, it was
suggested to provide a surge tank with
diameter between 10 to 12 m with due
consideration to optimization of geo
economical considerations.


Maharashtra Krishna Valley Development
Corporation has proposed to develop
three major irrigation schemes Tembhu,
Takari and Mhaishal on Krishna river. The
source of water for these schemes will be
Koyna reservoir and rivers Krishna, Koyna
and their tributaries. For these schemes
Koyna reservoir will supply water varying
from 27.70 cumec in J une to 124.36 cumec
in December. To meet the increased
demand of water, any release of water
through river sluice will result in
corresponding loss of power generation.
With the above in view the Pannel of
Experts suggested to release the additional
quantity of water after generating
electricity through a new power house with
installed capacity of 40 to 73 MW.

CWPRS has been associated with various
studies such as geophysical survey,
evaluation of dynamic modulus of elasticity
of concrete and rock samples, site specific
earthquake ground motion and analysis of

Geophysical Survey

Geophysical survey using underwater
seismic reflection and refraction techniques
was conducted on the left bank of existing
dam to evaluate reservoir bed levels and to
delineate the bedrock topography. Seismic
refraction survey was also carried out on

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003
land to determine the bedrock levels and to
infer its quality.
Single channel high resolution sub-bottom
profiler system with boomer source was
deployed for underwater reflection survey.
Atlas Deso-10 echo-sounder having 200
KHz frequency was used for measuring
water depths precisely. Seismic refraction
survey both on land and in shallow water
was carried out by employing a `state-of-art'
24-channel signal enhancement
seismograph. Explosives were used for
generation of seismic waves and the same
after critical refraction from the subsurface
layers were picked up by the geophones on
land and by the hydrophones in water.

In the area covered by underwater
reflection survey, two subsurface reflectors
were identified. The first reflector was
inferred to be reservoir-bed, while the
second represented bedrock of very good

The depths to bedrock evaluated by
refraction and reflection techniques
matched well with those inferred in the
boreholes drilled on land and in deep
waters respectively. The compressional
wave velocity of the bedrock varied
between 4700 m/sec and 5800 m/sec which
for basalt indicates very good quality of
rock. From the results of the reflection
survey reservoir-bed and bedrock level
contours were drawn at 2 m interval. The
reservoir-bed contours were found to be
dipping towards Northwest direction. The
bedrock contours in general, followed the
reservoir-bed contours. The average
thickness of sediments was found to be 6 m
except towards Southwest and Northwest
where the same varied from 8 m to 12 m.

Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity

As an aftermath of the Koyna main
earthquake of 11 December 1967, which
caused significant damage to the Koyna
dam, the non-overflow section of the dam
was strengthened for a horizontal seismic
coefficient of 0.5 g. In view of the Killari
earthquake of 30 September 1993, it has
been decided to strengthen the overflow
section of the dam also. To arrive at the
realistic strengthening requirement by
carrying out detailed dynamic response
analysis of the dam by using FEM method,
it was required to know the dynamic modulii
of elasticity for the rubble concrete of the
dam as well as of the foundation rock. A
total of sixteen concrete core samples (250
mm diameter and 500 mm length) and four
rock core samples (55 mm diameter and
110 mm length) were used for the purpose
of dynamic testing in the study. The
laboratory tests for evaluating the dynamic
modulus of elasticity were carried out
using 8500 series Instron Universal Testing
Machine of 1000 kN capacity, available at
the Institute of Engineering and Ocean
Technology (IEOT), Oil and Natural Gas
Company (ONGC), Panvel. Such large
scale experiments to find the dynamic
modulus of concrete were conducted for the
first time in the country.

The representative values of dynamic
modulus (E
) for NOF, OF and both the
sections taken together were found to be
43,163 MPa, 45,924 MPa and 44,880 MPa,
respectively. The value of (E
) for rock
samples was found to be 65,047 MPa.

The dynamic modulii for both concrete and
foundation rock cores were also
estimated by carrying out non-destructive
testing of the core samples using
ultrasonic pulse transmission technique.
For this purpose, a Portable Ultrasonic Non-

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003
destructive Digital Indicating Tester
(PUNDIT) was used with 54 kHz
piezoelectric transducers. The values of
) obtained using this method were found
to be 54,806 MPa, 56,971 MPa and 55,878
MPa, respectively for NOF, OF and both the
sections of the dam taken together. For
rock samples, the value of (E
) was found to
be 74,685 MPa. Based on these studies,
recommendations were made for the values
of dynamic modulus of concrete and
foundation rock to be adopted for the
seismic response analysis of the dam.

Evaluation of Site Specific Design
Earthquake Ground Motion

To carry out the seismic response analysis
of the Koyna dam using the dynamic
modulii of elasticity for the concrete and the
foundation rock of the dam, site specific
design acclerograms were evaluated by
carrying out a comprehensive analysis of
all the available data on geology, tectonic
features, seismicity of the region and
strong motion data recorded in the Koyna
project area. Both, the conventional
deterministic approach based on the
specifications of Maximum Credible
Earthquake (MCE) and the Probabilistic
Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA)
approach based on the total seismicity of
the region around the project site were used
for this purpose. The ground motion was
first estimated in the form of 5% damped
response spectra of horizontal and vertical
components of motion for confidence level
of 0.84 to define the maximum credible
ground motion. These design spectra were
arrived at by reviewing several frequency-
dependent attenuation relations and by
analysis of the accelerograms recorded in
the Koyna area. Compatible
accelerograms were generated from the
design response spectra using the phase
angles of the accelerogram recorded
during the Koyna main earthquake of 11
December 1967. The acceleration
response spectra for different damping
ratios were then obtained from the design

The design accelerogram and the response
spectra for the MCE level of ground motion
were recommended to be used only to test
the safety of the dam under extreme
earthquake loads. The design basis
accelerograms and response spectra,
recommended to be used for carrying out
the dynamic response analysis of the dam
to arrive at the strengthening requirement

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003
for the OF section, were taken to be one-
half of the corresponding MCE level of
ground motion.

Analysis of Instrumentation Data

For continuous monitoring of the structural
behaviour of Koyna dam, monoliths No. 22
and 25 of the dam were well instrumented
with coordimeter, thermometers etc..
Amongst other parameters, deflections of
the dam, being very important parameter,
has been continuously observed using
coordimeter as well as microscope installed
in monolith No. 22.

A mathematical model based on multiple
linear regression method was then
developed for forecasting the deflections
of Koyna dam by analysing the
instrumentation data for the period 1969 -
1976. Data on downstream face
temperature, reservoir levels and observed
deflections from the monolith No. 22 were
used as input in the analysis.

Mathematical model was developed based
on the observed weekly data for the period
1969-1989 containing variables such as
water levels, average down stream face
temperature, time elapsed as well as
fundamental and harmonic of seasonal
cyclic factor. The studies brought out that
the typical characteristics of the deflection
pattern at low reservoir levels exhibited
during the period 1969-1976 is no longer
seen for the period 1977-1989. The effect
of downstream face temperature on
deflection was also found to be reducing.
The studies also revealed that the
continuously increasing linear trend as
exhibited during 1969-1976 by irreversible
component is no longer preserved, showing
a stabilizing trend.

Studies of Hydraulic Transients in Head
Race Surge System

The mathematical model studies on
hydraulic transients in the HRT system of
Koyna Hydro-Electric Project, Stage IV-B
(KHEP IV-B) were conducted to find out the
water levels in the surge tank and the
additional expansion gallery for various
operating conditions.

The results of the studies mainly indicated
that the water levels in the surge tank and
the additional expansion gallery might
exceed the desired level during the mass-
oscillations for some of the suggested
operating conditions; and that the length of
the additional expansion gallery proposed
by the project authorities was insufficient in
limiting the downsurge level. The most
crucial minimum downsurge level of KRL
598.3 m (below the safe limit KRL 603.00
m) was reported to occur after 270.3
seconds, if all the four machines are
opened in 21seconds and allowed to run at
full load, keeping the reservoir level at
MDDL, KRL 618.88 m.

However, if only two turbines are opened in
21 seconds and continued to run for 260
seconds before opening of the other two,
the maximum downsurge level of KRL
603.30 m occurs at 458.8 seconds. In case
all the four running turbines are closed

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003
within 18.6 seconds, this no flow condition
in the turbines needs to be continued for
690 seconds before opening of the first two
of them which hereafter have to be kept
open for 900 seconds prior to opening of
the other two turbines. This sequence of
operations raises the downsurge to the safe
level of KRL 603.10 m. If all the four running
turbines are first closed and then only two
are opened, they should be kept running for
660 seconds before loading of the other
two, as for this operation sequence leads to
rise in the downsurge level of KRL 603.75
m. All these conditions are safe as the
corresponding downsurge levels are above
KRL 603.00 m.

But, when the Koyna reservoir level is kept
at FRL 659.91, the opening of all the four
machines in 21 seconds and a subsequent
continuation of flow for 720 seconds are
required for the safe operation, as in this
case upsurge level is limited to KRL 705.00
m which is below the safe upsurge level
KRL 706.00 m.


Dhauliganga H.E. project is located on river
Dhauliganga in Pithoragarh district of
Uttaranchal. The project envisages
construction of a 56 m high rockfill dam to
generate 280 MW of power. The original
design of spillway consisted of three spans
of 6.0 m (W) x 10.0 m(H) separated by 6.0
m thick piers with 3 m thick breast wall. The
spillway crest at EL. 1307 m was designed
to pass the maximum outflow flood of 3200
cumec at MWL EL. 1348.5 m. The chute
spillway was followed by a flip bucket with
radius of 33.8 m and a lip angle of 35
energy dissipation.

The studies were conducted for the original
design at CWPRS and the results were
communicated under Technical Report No.
3735 of October 2000. Subsequently, the
design of the chute spillway was modified
due to a landslide along the right bank due
to weak geological conditions and non-
availability of foundation. The chute
spillway had to be restricted to two spans
with the axis spillway is tilted towards right
by 1.591
. In addition, diversion tunnel of 9
m width was proposed as tunnel spillway
to surplus additional flood waters. This
tunnel spillway joins the 10 m diameter
horse shoe shaped diversion tunnel.

The existing 1:70 G.S. scale
comprehensive model was used to study
the approach flow conditions in the vicinity
of both chute and tunnel spillways.

For tunnel spillway detailed studies in
respect of discharging capacity and flow
conditions at the inlet to the tunnel and at
the outlet were conducted on a new 1:50
G.S. scale model. The original crest profile
consisting of a straight horizontal portion
followed by a curve with equation x
was found to be unsuitable to guide the flow
through the tunnel. A crest profile
=20.687y followed by a circular curve
of radius 48.381 m was suggested. This
profile was incorporated in the model.

The studies indicated that the approach
flow conditions were satisfactory for both
the chute and tunnel spillway for entire
range of discharges. Thus, location of
tunnel spillway was found to be suitable.
The performance of chute spillway was
satisfactory. The combined discharging
capacity of the chute and tunnel spillway
was 3715 cumec and 3205 cumec at MWL
EL. 1348.5 m and FRL EL. 1345 m
respectively as against the design outflow
flood of 3200 cumec at MWL EL. 1348.5 m.
Therefore, the combined discharging
capacity of chute and tunnel spillways was
found to be adequate.

The studies indicated that the flow
conditions on the crest up to the horizontal
bend C
were satisfactory. The flow
conditions in the bend C
and downstream
upto the exit portal was seen riding and
getting deflected in the tunnel due to
horizontal bends C
and C
. In order to

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003
avoid surging of water levels and slugs of
flow in the tunnel it is recommended that air
vents of dia. 2 to 2.5 m be provided in the
crown of bend C
and at 50 m upstream of
the exit portal. It is also recommended that
some form of energy dissipation
arrangement may be provided downstream
of exit portal of the tunnel.

Five alternative proposals for improving flow
conditions in the tunnel were considered.
The proposal of providing a weir at the
downstream end of the tunnel was found
suitable as it was able to create pressurized
flow through out the tunnel which eliminated
unsatisfactory flow conditions mentioned


Kurichu H.E. Project is located on river
Kurichu in Monggar district of Bhutan. The
proposed concrete gravity dam is 55 m high
and 285 m long with power house of
installed capacity 4 x 15 MW along the left
bank, a sluice spillway with 8 m thick breast
wall having 5 spans each of 10.5 m wide,
separated by 7.0 m 'thick piers. The sluices
have been provided with radial gates of size
10.5 m wide x 14.0m high. The spillway is
to cater for a maximum discharge of 12200
cumec. The full reservoir level is EL. 531.0
m and the maximum water level is EL.
534.0 m; A 104 m long stilling basin has
been provided for energy dissipation.

Extensive model studies for spillway and
energy dissipation were conducted and
reported since 1996. The last Technical
Report No.3737 of November 2000 covered
the studies for the Alternative V layout of
the left training wall of the power house tail
race channel. While executing this layout on
the site, the project engineers constructed
only five blocks of the training wall. A return
wall perpendicular to the fifth block was
constructed up to the natural ground
contours on the left side. This alternative
was termed as Alternative VI and was
referred for model studies to assess its
hydraulic predominance. The modified river
contours due to aggradation up to ch. 1028
m downstream were also supplied.

The studies indicated that the tail water
levels observed on the model were higher
than the ones supplied by the Project
Organisation earlier. The water level
fluctuations in the tail race channel were
less than those observed with Alternative V
layout. There were no return flows in the tail
race channel as the flow coming out of the
spillway was not hitting at the downstream
end of the wall as for the earlier layout. Due
to the curtailment 'of the end blocks of the
wall the blockage of the tail race channel
was eliminated and forward flow was
generated by the power house flow. This
also helped in reducing the deposition of silt
in front of the tail race channel. Thus, the
overall predominance of the Alternative VI
layout of the power house tail race channel
was satisfactory hydraulically and was
better than the Alternative layout V studied
earlier. It was suggested that periodical
dredging of the deposited silt, if any, may
be required to keep the tail race channel
free of silt.


The river Parbati originating from Mantalai
lake in Himachal Pradesh at an elevation of
EL. 6300 m is a left bank tributary of Beas
river. The catchment area is 1155
and observed maximum flood is 369

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003
cumec. About 84% of the catchment area
is snow covered and the river has a very
steep slope of 53 m/km.

Parbati H.E. Project, Stage II in Himachal
Pradesh envisages construction of a 85 m
high concrete gravity dam in Kullu district.
The spillway is designed to pass the
maximum outflow flood of 1850 cumec at
FRL/MWL EL. 2198 m. It would also be
used for flushing the sediment deposited in
the reservoir. Spillway consists of 3 spans,
6 m wide x 9 m high separated by 6 m thick
piers and equipped with radial gates and 26
m high breast walls are provided between
the piers. A ski-jump bucket with 30
angle is provided at the toe for energy
dissipation. The power intake is located on
the left bank of the river about 50 m
upstream of dam axis. It has three D-
shaped tunnels and will carry a design
discharge of 144.9 cumec. The intake
tunnels are followed by desilting chambers,
31.23 km long headrace tunnel, surge shaft
and pressure shafts. The surface
powerhouse is located on the right bank of
river Sainj. The powerhouse having
installed capacity of 800 MW will be
equipped with four Pelton turbines each of
200 MW rated capacity (gross head 862 m).

Spillway, Power Intake and energy

The hydraulic model studies were
conducted on the 1:50 geometrically similar
scale comprehensive model incorporating
original design of spillway, power intake and
river reach extending up to 500 m upstream
and 500 m downstream of dam. The
studies indicated that the approach flow
conditions were satisfactory as there was
no visible adverse effect on discharging
capacity or functioning of spillway due to
obliquity of approach channel. The
discharging capacity of the spillway with all
the three spans operating and only two
spans operating was 3100 cumec and 2000
cumec respectively for reservoir water level
at FRL EL. 2198 m. Thus, the discharging
capacity of spillway was found to be
adequate. The jets along the end spans
were overtopping the training walls from ch.
45 m to 65 m downstream of dam axis with
RWL at FRL for various discharges. Height
of the training walls was required to be
raised in this portion based on the water
surface profile observed and taking into
account bulking of jet in the prototype. The
spillway profile was adequate vis--vis
piezometric pressures as the flow
cavitations index corresponding to minimum
pressures of 0.8 m was of the order of
0.316, indicating no possibility of cavitation.
Performance of ski-jump bucket was
satisfactory as there was clear ski-action for
entire range of discharges and reservoir
water levels. However, location of the
plunge pool had to be shifted further
downstream as throw distance of the ski-
jump jet while operating at FRL was longer
than the present location of plunge pool.
Flow conditions near the power intake were
satisfactory while passing design discharge
of 144.9 cumec for reservoir water level of

Desilting Basin

The water conductor system consists of 3
intake tunnels, 31.35 m long inlet transition,
3 units of 200 m (L) x 15 m (W) x 16 m (H)
desilting basin 62.7 m long outlet transition,
HRT, surface power house and 4 tail race
channels. Design discharge at the intake is

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003
48.33 cumec/unit inclusive of flushing
discharge of 9.67 cumec and is expected to
carry high sediment concentration of 5000
ppm and above, containing 23.75% coarse,
24.2% medium and 52.05% fine sediments.

A 1:25 geometrically similar scale model
was constructed in fully transparent
polycarbonet sheets reproducing part intake
tunnel, inlet transition desilting basin with
flushing tunnels, outlet transition and part
HRT. Model was run with MDDL EL. 2185
m and a discharge of 48.33 cumec inclusive
of flushing discharge of 9.67 cumec. Low
specific gravity crushed and sieved walnut
shell powder was used for simulation of
suspended sediment.

The original proposal was of 31.35 m long
inlet transition having bed slope of 1 V : 3
H. With experience of earlier studies for
similar basin it was recommended to reduce
the length of 23.567 m giving a steeper bed
slope of 1 V : 2.25 H. A flatter slope of 1V :
1.55 H provided for hopper bottom was
modified to 1 V : 1.22 H. 1.6 m wide
settling trench was proposed to be provided
at the bottom of the basin to accommodate
the dunes of sediment settling. The size of
flushing tunnel proposed was 1 m (W) x 1 m
(H) at the beginning gradually varying to 1.6
m (W) x 2.0 m (H) at the end. It was
modified as 1 m (W) x 1 m (H) at the
beginning gradually varying to 1.6 m (W) x
1.5 m (H) at the end of the basin. Length of
the outlet transition was also reduced from
62.7 m as proposed to a length of 10 m
only. The sizes and spacing of the openings
connecting desilting basin with the flushing
tunnel were suggested.
Model studies conducted with modified
design with sediment concentration of 5000
and 6200 ppm indicated that the overall
performance of the inlet transition in respect
of flow diffusion and transport of sediment
was satisfactory. The settling efficiency of
the desilting basin was estimated to be 97%
for 0.2 m dia. particle and was found to be
in close agreement with that computed on
the basis of model experiment. The overall
size and shape of the basin was thus
adequate for 90% settlement of sediment
coarser than 0.2 mm dia. Performance of
the outlet transition was satisfactory and
the size of the flushing tunnel below
desilting basin was adequate for transport
of settled sediment. In view of higher
settling efficiency there is scope of
reduction in the proposed 200 m length of
the desilting basin.


The Chamera H.E. project, Stage-II, in
Himachal Pradesh envisages construction
of a 39 m high concrete gravity dam across
the river Ravi to generate 300 MW of
power. The spillway consists of 4 spans
each 15 m wide separated by 6 m thick
piers and is equipped with 21.797 m high
radial gates to pass a standard project flood
of 9000 cumec. The Full Reservoir level is
at EL. 1162 m. The crest of the spillway is
barely 3 m above the average bed level of
the river to enable flushing of the silt
deposited in the reservoir. The energy
dissipater is in the form of hydraulic jump
stilling basin. In addition to radial gates a
set of stoplogs are provided for the
emergency operation. The set of stoplog
consists of eight elements each of 15 m (W)
x 2.7 m (H) and would be lowered in the
gate grooves upstream of spillway crest.
The stoplogs are proposed to be designed
for operation under unbalanced condition
i.e. under flowing water. These stoplog units

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003
are proposed to be operated by a gantry
crane of 100 tonnes capacity.

Studies for spillway stoplog units

The stoplog units while lowering under
unbalanced condition would be subjected to
under and over flow and would experience
hydrodynamic forces. These forces are
required to be assessed and accounted for
in deciding optimum self weight of the
stoplog elements and in turn the capacity of
the gantry crane for their operation. The
studies on the 1:25 geometrically similar
model were conducted to assess
hydrodynamic force acting on the stoplog
and lifting beam system during its
operation, under unbalanced condition. The
studies were carried out for the reservoir
level of FRL EL. 1162 m, EL. 1157m and
MDDL EL. 1152 m. The maximum down
pull force of the order of 90 tonnes and
maximum uplift force of the order of 80
tonnes were observed during the traverse
of 1
(bottom) stoplog unit along with the
lifting beam. In view of the results, the self
weight of the stoplog unit was required to
be increased. Experiments were also
conducted to assess hydrodynamic forces
on system of two stoplog units combined
together along with lifting beam. Results of
studies on two stoplog units combined
together for reservoir water level
corresponding to EL. 1162 m indicated that,
maximum net hydrodynamic down pull force
on stoplogs was of the order of 122 tonnes
and net uplift force was about 115 tonnes,
when radial gate was in fully open
condition. Hydrodynamic net down pull
force on combined stoplogs, for similar test
conditions with radial gate at part gate
openings and corresponding reservoir water
levels was found to be marginally lower,
compared to that on a single stoplog unit.

Studies for partial gate operation of spillway

Studies were conducted for full gate as well
as partial gate operation of spillway ranging
from 1 to 10 m for various reservoir water
levels up to FRL EL. 1162 m. A discharge
of 6800 cumec could be passed at FRL EL.
1162 m with 10 m gate opening. For gate
openings higher than 10 m, the flow
conditions upstream of spillway were
turbulent with considerable variation in
water level across the width of the river.
Therefore, it is suggested that discharges
higher than 6800 cumec may be passed
with all the four spans fully open.


The Tala hydroelectric project, Bhutan is a
run-of-river scheme on the river Wangchu.
The project envisages construction of a 91
m high and 128.5 m long concrete gravity
dam and an underground power house near
Tala with a power generating capacity of
1020 (6x170) MW, with six pelton turbines.
The sluice spillway and overflow spillway
are provided in the central portion of the
dam. The sluice spillway comprises five
sluices of size 6.5 m wide 19.014 high (at
entrance) at EL. 1320 m. A single bay
overflow spillway is provided, with crest at
El. 1360 m and gates with size of 4 m (W)
and 3 m (H). The sluice spillway is designed
to pass a standard project flood of 10500
cumec and are provided with radial gate of
size 6.5 m x 13.15 m on the downstream of
sluice for control of sluice discharge. In
addition, a set of stoplogs would be
provided for closing sluice flow during
emergency operation. A set of stoplog
consists of 5 units. Bottom 4 units would be
of 4.30 m height and each would have
lower and upper part. Top unit would be of
1.93 m height. Stoplogs would be lowered
in the gate grooves provided in the piers on
the upstream face of the dam. These
stoplogs are proposed to be designed for
lowering operation under unbalanced
condition and will be operated by a gantry
crane of suitable capacity.

The concentration of suspended sediment
in Wangchu River is high during floods and
is expected to go up to 2000 ppm. It
contains about 17.4 % of coarse, 19 % of
medium and 63.6 % of fine sediment. Three

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003
units of desilting basins are proposed for
the removal of 90 % sediment which is
coarser than 0.2 mm. Each unit is 250 m
long, 18.5 m high and 13.92 m wide. Three
numbers of flushing conduits of size 0.75 m
(W) x 1.2 m (H) are provided below each
desilting unit. These flushing conduits will
discharge in a separate D shaped branch
tunnel downstream of desilting unit. The
flow through these flushing conduits is
controlled by the vertical slide gates.

Studies for Sluice Spillway Stoplog Units

The stoplog units while lowering under
unbalanced condition would be subjected to
under and over flow and in turn would
experience hydrodynamic uplift or down pull
force. The hydrodynamic forces are
required to be assessed and accounted for
in deciding optimum self weight of the
stoplog elements and in turn the capacity of
the gantry crane for their operation. The
studies on the 1:25 geometrically similar
model were conducted on bottom stoplog
unit to assess hydrodynamic force acting on
the stoplog and lifting beam system, during
its operation, under unbalanced condition.

The studies for the bottom stoplog unit
(consisting of lower and upper part) with
upstream skin plate in position were carried
out for the reservoir water level at FRL EL.
1363 m, and MDDL EL. 1352 m and radial
gate fully open condition. The studies
indicated that the maximum net down pull
force of the order of 315 tonnes and
maximum net uplift force of the order of 180
tonnes were observed during the traverse
of 1
(bottom) stoplog unit along with the
lifting beam. The model studies were also
conducted on bottom stoplog unit to check
the effect of removal of upstream skin plate
on hydrodynamic forces. The studies on
bottom stoplog unit for the reservoir water
level at FRL EL. 1363 m and radial gate in
fully open condition indicated maximum net
uplift force of about 220 tonnes on stoplog
unit. Since stoplog unit with upstream skin
plate experiences less net uplift force,
further studies were continued on bottom
stoplog unit with upstream skin plate for
different reservoir water levels with radial
gate at part gate openings.

Studies for Silt Flushing Tunnel and Gate

Studies were conducted on 1:12 G.S. scale
model to estimate hydraulic down pull /
uplift forces on the control gate. Part of
three flushing conduits coming out of a
desilting chamber up to the control gate
was reproduced in transparent perspex.
About 70 m long D shaped tunnel beyond
the control gate section was also
reproduced in transparent perspex. The
studies for assessing the hydrodynamic
forces indicated that the slide gate would
experience maximum net down pull force of
19 and 33 tonnes for water level
corresponding to EL. 1345 m and EL. 1363
m (FRL) in cunnette respectively. The
maximum net uplift force of about 3 tonnes
would act on the gate when it is about to

Studies were also conducted to check the
efficacy of bottom gate lip by piezometric
pressure measurements. It was seen that

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003
the 45-degree gate lip is hydraulically

Studies for Desilting Basin

The studies on the 1:30 G.S. model of
desilting basin indicated that after
modification of slope and length of the inlet
transition, incoming sediment diffused
adequately in the inlet transition and slides
down the slope. The overall shape and size
of the basin are adequate for 90 %
settlement of sediment coarser than 0.2 mm
for design discharge. The overall settling
efficiency with 10 % extra design discharge
was found to be 88 % for removal of
sediment particles coarser than 0.2 mm and
is considered to be adequate.

Flushing Tunnel Beyond Desilting Basin

A separate 1:30 G.S. scale model was
constructed to assess the performance of
the flushing tunnel beyond desilting basin.
The desilting basin of length 150 m along
with flushing conduits, manifold
arrangement and 600 m long common
tunnel were reproduced. The tunnel up to
control gates was fabricated in transparent
perspex. The model was run for various
discharges, upto the maximum design
discharge of 28.5 cumec. Flow depths were
observed in the combined flushing tunnel
and Mannings roughness coefficient n
was estimated to be 0.01. The sediment
transport capacity for model parameters is
estimated analytically using Engelund-
Hansen formula to be 900 ppm by volume
and is confirmed by injecting the sediment
in the model. Similar analysis for prototype
parameters indicated the sediment
transport capacity of the flushing tunnel
beyond desilting basin to be 13750 ppm by
volume. This is much more than the
expected concentration of 3100 ppm in
flushing tunnel. Hence, it was concluded
that the transport capacity of the flushing
tunnel beyond desilting basin would be
adequate, provided the Mannings
roughness coefficient of 0.016 assumed by
CWC could be achieved on the field. The
trajectories of the flow observed in the
model indicated the necessity of 7 m high
dome in the prototype.


The river Teesta originates in the glaciers of
North Sikkim and flows through gorges and
rapids in its initial reaches. It has
tremendous potential for the development
of hydropower as it descends from an
elevation of about 3600 m at its origin to
about 300 m near Sikkim - West Bengal
border at Melli in the distance of about 175
km. It has been estimated that a firm power
of about 700 MW can be generated, with an
installed capacity of about 3735 MW under
a cascade development programme
consisting of 6 stages within the state of
Sikkim. The Teesta Hydroelectric
project(Stage V) is a run of the river
scheme with a concrete gravity dam across
river Teesta about 2km downstream of
Dikchu confluence and an under ground
power house near village Sirwani. A
spillway has been provided within the dam
for the release of floods and also for the
flushing of sediments deposited in the
reservoir upstream. It consists of five sluice
bays, 9 m wide x 12 m high each, equipped
with radial gates for regulating release of
water. Ski-jump bucket has been provided
for energy dissipation. The spillway has
been designed to pass a flood of 9500
cumec at maximum reservoir level of EL.

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003
580.72. The power intake is located just
upstream of the spillway in the left abutment
at 100
with the dam axis. It has three
openings having invert at EL. 554 m and
will carry a designed discharge of 350.84
cumec. The flow from the intake will be
carried through a 17.7 km long pressure
tunnel to an underground power station
along the left bank of river Teesta. The
power station having installed capacity of
510 MW will be equipped with three Francis
turbines each of 170 MW rated capacity.

Spillway and Power Intake

The National Hydrorlectric Power
Corporation Ltd. has referred various
studies for this project for spillway power
intake and energy dissipator. Hydraulic
model studies were conducted on a 1:50
geometrically similar scale comprehensive
model incorporating spillway, power intakes
and river reach up to 650m upstream and
300m downstream of the dam. The studies
indicated that the flow conditions upstream
of the spillway were satisfactory for the
entire range of discharges and reservoir
water levels. The discharging capacity of
the spillway was found to be adequate.
Studies for 10% of the gates (i.e. 1 gate) in
operative for surplussing maximum design
discharge indicated 8% deficiency, which
was considered acceptable. The height of
the trunnion axis of the radial gates and the
height of both the training walls were found
to be adequate. The divide walls from
chainage 32.5 m upto 52.5 m downstream
of the dam axis were required to be raised
to EL. 550 m to have sufficient freeboard.
Negative pressures of the order of 7 m
were observed on the breast wall bottom
profile upstream of the air vent for the
discharges of 7125 cumec (75%) and 9500
cumec (100%) under free flow condition.
On the other hand for all discharges with
gate in operation the pressures on the
breast wall were positive. In order to avoid
negative pressures and possibility of
cavitation damage it was found necessary
that the discharges above 5000 cumec
should be passed with partial gate
operation, maintaining the reservoir at FRL.
In order to resist abrasive action of the
sediment trapped in the hydraulic jump
formed in the bucket for low discharges
under free flow conditions, the surface of
the spillway should be constructed with high
strength concrete. About 70 m length of the
right bank downstream of the bucket lip
should be suitably protected to avoid
erosion because of impingement of the ski-
jump jet. The flow conditions near the
intake were satisfactory for all the reservoir
levels. However, it was recommended to
dress the hill slope on the left side of the
intake to avoid sharp corner.

Reservoir Flushing

Due to high silt load (ppm) frequent flushing
of reservoir through spillway is necessary.
These studies were conducted on 1:100
scale geometrical similar model covering a
reach of Teesta river about 5 km upstream
and 0.3 km downstream of dam. Layout of
the spillway having five openings of sizes 9
m (w) x 12 m (h) each and other
appurtenant works were reproduced in the
model. Prior to taking of the flushing
studies the profile of the probable siltation in
the reservoir were reproduced in the model
as per data given by NHPC.

Based on the past experience as well as
from various literature and discussions with
project engineers, it was decided to use the

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003
bed material having a mean diameter of
about 0.3 mm, to represent the prototype
material equivalent to 25 mm.

The studies indicated that the effect of
flushing reach up to the upstream 2.5 km
of the reservoir. The studies also showed
that quantity flushed out with 1000 cumec
discharge during 12 to 36 hours run were
0.78 to 1.68 M.cum, whereas quantity
flushed out for flushing discharges 1200;
1500; 2000 cumec were 0.8 to 1.74 M.cum,
0.85 to 1.82 M.cum and 1.08 to 2.265
M.cum respectively. Therefore, it was felt
that the present layout of the spillway would
be able to flush out most of the incoming
sediment. As a result, the reservoir
capacity could be restored to a large extent
without any difficulty. However, it was
found that the flushing with higher
discharges for short duration would be
preferable than with low flushing discharge
for longer duration, as the former would be
more economical.

Desilting Basin

The water conductor system consists of 3
intake tunnels, 3 units of 300 m (L) x 20 m
(W) x 24.5 m (H) desilting basin, 17.7 km
long and 9.5 m dia. headrace tunnel , 95 m
high surge shaft, 175 m deep vertical
pressure shaft, an underground power
house and 135 m long tail race tunnels.
Design discharge for the intake is 350.85
cumec and is expected to carry very high
concentration of sediment even exceeding
15000 ppm, and containing 19% coarse,
30% medium and 51% fine sediment.
Hydraulic model studies for estimation of
settling efficiency and efficacy of the
desilting basin were carried out. A 1:30
geometrically similar scale model in fully
transparent polycarbonite sheets was
constructed reproducing part intake tunnel,
inlet transition, desilting basin with flushing
tunnel up to control gate, outlet transition
and part HRT. Model was run with 116.95
cumec inlet discharge (97.46 cumec HRT
discharge +19.49 cumec flushing
discharge) maintaining upstream water
level at MDDL. Low specific gravity crushed
and sieved shell powder was used for
simulation of suspended sediment.

The original proposal of desilting basin
envisaged a 41 m long inlet transition with 1
V : 2.76 H bed slope. With the experience
of earlier studies for similar basin it was
recommended to reduce the length to
34.316 m with bed slopes of 1 V : 2.3 H.
Flushing tunnel below the desilting basin of
size 3 m (W) x 0.6 m (H) at the beginning
gradually varying to 3 m (W) x 2 m (H) at
the end was proposed. This was changed
to 0.5 m (W) x 2 m (H) at the beginning
gradually varying to 3 m (W) x 2m (H) at the
end. The openings connecting the basin
with the flushing tunnel were also modified.
Similarly, some improvement in size and
spacing of opening connecting the basin
with the flushing tunnel were also

The overall settling efficiency obtained from
model studies for modified design was
found to be 85% which was in very close
agreement with analytical estimation of 83%
using Camps criteria. It was also seen that
the settling efficiency of the basin was
observed to be 96.05% for 0.2 mm dia. size
particles. The model studies helped in
reducing the length, transition of the
desilting basin, thereby resulting
considerable cost saving.

Flushing Tunnel Beyond Desilting Basin

The studies for flushing tunnel were
conducted on 1:20 geometrically similar
scale model reproducing 150 m length of
basin unit, flushing tunnels coming out,
manifold arrangement and full length of
combined flushing tunnel with open top up
to its outfall into river. All branch tunnels
from desilting basin and to control gates
were fabricated in transparent perspex
sheets. Studies were conducted with
simulation of flow of 19.39 cumec/tunnel. It
was observed that supercritical flow prevails

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003
under all operating conditions and
maximum depth of flow was 1.85 m and
corresponding velocity 7 m/s.

As the flow was supercritical, a flatter slope
of 1:235 was assumed to create subcritical
flow with Froude number of 0.9 and flow
velocity of 4.7 m/s. Under this condition,
the sediment transport capacity was worked
out to be 50000 ppm for prototype and 950
ppm for model parameters. In the model
with the slope of 1:186, supercritical flow
prevails giving sediment transport capacity
of the 2575 ppm against 950 ppm, hence it
is expected that in prototype the sediment
carrying capacity will be much more.

Model experiment indicated that there was
no deposition in individual or combined
flushing tunnels. However, modification in
the curvature is required at junctions of
tunnel No. 2 and 3 with the combined
tunnel as the high velocity flow was hitting
the opposite bank. Sizes and shape of the
tunnels were adequate. Suitable strong
lining would be required for the tunnels
beyond control gate to withstand high
velocity flow.


The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd
(NPCIL), Mumbai has proposed to construct
two additional units, with 220 MW capacity
each, for the Rajasthan Atomic Power
Project (RAPP), near Kota. These units are
sited close to the existing four units (1 to 4)
with several structures having sensitive
electrical and electronic installations. The
construction of the additional two units
(5&6) involves excavation of about 4,63,800
of hard rock by drilling and blasting
method. The rock formation at the site is
predominantly hard and compact quartzite
sandstone. To ensure the safety of various
important structures in the vicinity, CWPRS
was requested to suggest safe charge
weights and safe blasting patterns for the
proposed excavation.

To describe the propagation characteristics
of blast-induced ground vibration with
distance, site-specific attenuation relation
was developed for RAPP Units 5&6 by
using 132 blast vibration data obtained from
the site. To use this relation for estimating
the safe charges, a peak particle velocity
(PPV) of 3 mm/s was estimated to be safe
for buildings with electrical and electronic
equipments and a velocity of 10 mm/s for
other civil structures. The safe charge
weights for different distances were then
estimated by using the safe vibration level
in the site-specific attenuation relation.
These charges were used to design the
safe blasting patterns. Based on the
observations from a single trial blast, a
preliminary blasting pattern was also
recommended to get the smooth finished
surfaces along the final line of excavation,
using the technique of pre-splitting.


Detailed seismic hazard analysis was
carried out to estimate the site-specific
ground motion for earthquake resistant
design of the proposed Stage-III (2 x 500
MW) of Vindhyachal Super Thermal Power
Project (VSTPP), located close to the
existing two units of Stage-II of the project.
The project site is located in the
northeastern margin of the Peninsular
Shield of India at about 24 05' 46'' N and
82 40' 20'' E in the Sidhi District of Madhya
Pradesh state. The design ground motion
parameters estimated earlier by CWPRS for
Stage-II in 1989 were updated in the
present study using more recent and good

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003
quality of data on the seismicity, more
accurate and detailed information on
tectonic features, improved information on
the regional crustal model and the local site
conditions of the project site.

Both, the deterministic and the probabilistic
seismic hazard analysis approaches were
used to evaluate the updated design ground
motion for two levels of earthquakes,
termed as Design Basis Earthquakes (DBE)
and the Maximum Credible Earthquake
(MCE). In the deterministic approach, a
comprehensive statistical analysis was
carried out to obtain the magnitudes of DBE
and MCE as 6.3 and 6.8, respectively.
These earthquakes were assumed to occur
at a distance of 13 km from the project site,
which is the closest distance of the Son-
Narmada South fault, the nearest active
tectonic feature to the project site. From a
knowledge of the focal depths of major
earthquakes along the Son-Narmada fault
zone, the focal depths of DBE and MCE
were taken as 20 km and 25 km,
respectively. Also, to evaluate the site-
specific design ground motion, the local soil
and geological conditions were taken to be
of hard-rock type. Using these
specifications, deterministic estimates of
DBE and MCE levels of response spectra
with a damping ratio of 5 % were obtained
for both horizontal and vertical components
of motion, by using the frequency
dependent attenuation relations for the
spectral amplitudes for Western United
States due to Lee (1989). These
attenuation relations were considered
suitable for the area of Vindhyachal Project
on the basis of the similarity of Modified
Mercalli Intensity in northern India and the
Western United States. Using the above
response spectra, compatible
accelerograms were synthesized by
generating the phase characteristic from the
theoretically computed surface wave group-
velocity dispersion curves for the crustal
model for the project area.

In the probabilistic approach, the results
were obtained by considering the total
expected seismicity during a life period of
100 years with its suitable spatial
distribution in the project area. The total
seismicity to obtain the DBE level of ground
motion was defined by the Gutenberg-
Richter's magnitude-frequency relationship
in such a way that one earthquake of
magnitude 6.3 (DBE) is produced every 100
years. In addition, one earthquake of
magnitude 8.0 was added deterministically
at a distance of 350 km to consider the
effect of large magnitudes at very long
distances. To get the MCE level of ground
motion, the magnitude 6.8 (MCE) was also
added to this total seismicity as a
characteristic event. The probabilistic
response spectra have the property that for
a specified confidence level it will not be
exceeded due to any of the earthquakes
expected to occur anywhere in the area of
the project. The probabilistic spectra in the
present analysis were found to be slightly
higher than the corresponding deterministic
spectra in the intermediate and long-period
ranges. Therefore, in view of the safety of
the VSTPP, Stage-III, the design
accelerograms corresponding to the

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003
envelop of both the spectra were
recommended to be used.


Kalpakkam (Lat.12
33 N and Long. 80
11E) is located about 70 km south of
Chennai, in Tamil Nadu. The Nuclear
Power Corporation India Limited (NPCIL)
has established a nuclear power station at
Kalpakkam named Madras Atomic Power
Station (MAPS) in 1983-85 having two
units of 170MWe generating capacity. The
cooling water required for the power station
is drawn from the sea. The cooling water
drawn through the intake-well is conveyed
to the on-shore pump house through a
horseshoe shaped tunnel cut through a
hard rock layer below. The warm water from
the condensers is discharged back to the
sea through a triangular shaped outfall
structure located at the root of the approach
jetty. Net littoral drift along the coast near
Kalpakkam is of the order of 0.5 million
cum. per year moving in the northerly
direction. Due to the warm water discharge,
there is a barrier for the littoral drift process.
This has resulted in formation of a sand-spit
at the point of outfall, near the root of the
approach jetty. The length of the sand-spit
increased with time and has stabilized upto
the mouth of the Edaiyur creek, which is
about 2km. north of the approach jetty of
MAPS. During the growth of the sand-spit,
erosion of the coast was experienced. The
point of erosion shifted with time, as the
length of the sand-spit increased or
decreased. The sand-spit caused partial
closure of the Edaiyur creek mouth resulting
in de-linking of the backwater system from
the sea.

The Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic
Research (IGCAR) has proposed to
establish a Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor,
(PFBR)of 500MWe capacity at a location
500m south of MAPS. While finalising the
location and type of the intake and outfall
structures for the PFBR units, it is essential
to ensure that:

No hot water recirculation takes
place through the intake structures
of MAPS as well as PFBR.

The environmental stipulations laid
down by the Environment Protection
Act, 1986 for the power projects
operating on once-through cooling
water system are satisfied.

In order to select a suitable location and
type of intake and outfall structures of
PFBR, studies were undertaken. As a first
stage, field data collection, to provide the
input data for the model calibration, was
carried out. Sophisticated field equipments
like self-recording tide gauge, current
meters, water samplers etc. were used for
this purpose.

Based on the analysis of the data, it is
observed that:

The seabed slopes are steep (1:20)
in the near shore region and flat
(1:100) in the region beyond.

Tides are semi-diurnal in nature and
have low amplitude (Spring 1.22m,
neap 0.25m).

Tidal currents are quite weak (Avg.
3cm/sec) and do not exhibit any
correlation with the tide. The
currents are more influenced by the

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003
bay circulations generated by
southwest and northeast monsoons.

The seabed material is find sand
values varying from 0.2mm to

Salinity of seawater varies between
35.2 and 38.9 ppt. The specific
gravity of the water samples varied
between 1.02485 and 1.02577.

Due to weak tidal currents,
longitudinal dispersion coefficient
varied from 3 sqm/hr to 110 sqm/hr,
lateral dispersion coefficient varied
from 1sqm/hr to 14 sqm/hr.

The process of formation of sand-
spit has to be taken into account
while determining the location of
outfall for PFBR unit. Moreover its
effect on the shoreline evolution
need to be studied in detail.

The depths in the existing warm
water channel varied from 0.3m to
2.3m. The warm water temperature
when discharged in the channel was
about 36.7
C which reduced to
about 33.5
C while flowing through
the 2000m long channel. The
temperature of warm water drops
down to about 32.5
C after mixing
with seawater.

The thermal mapping indicated that
the influence of the warm water was
over a considerably large area as
the dispersion process was slow.
This fact needs to be considered
while determining the location and
type of intake and outfall structure
for PFBR unit and to determine the
effect of combined warm water
discharges of both, MAPS and
PFBR on the receiving water body.


M/s Bombay Suburban Electrical Supply
Company (BSES) Ltd., Mumbai has
proposed to establish a 495MW Combined
Cycle Power Project (CCPP) at Saphale,
near Palghar. The site is adjacent to the
northern bank of Vaitarna River. It is
proposed to draw water from the Vaitarna
warm discharge is also to be let out back
into the river.

river for cooling the condensers and the
he feasibility studies for locating intake T
and outfall structures of CW system for the
proposed project were carried out. M/s
BSES through M/s J ishnu Ocean
Technologies, Mumbai collected the site-
specific data required for the studies. The
data was analysed and based on the results
of the analysis, it was observed that tidal
propagation in Vaitarna River at the
proposed site was quite good. Considerable
discharges also flow in the river Vaitarna.
As such, it is possible to draw required
cooling water from the Vaitarna River. Two
alternative locations of intake (one near the

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003
rail bridge the other on the eastern end of
the island near Rail Bridge) and two
alternative locations of outfall (one on the
seaward boundary of the project site the
other on the Sarvar Creek) were selected
for further investigations. The final selection
of locations of intake and outfall would be
made after detail model studies to ensure
that no warm water recirculation takes place
through the intake structure, and the
temperature stipulations laid down by the
Environmental Protection Act, 1986 are

uclear Power Corporation of India Ltd
WPRS has been associated with various
ross-Hole Survey
he potential effect of vibratory motion
he major rock type encountered at the site

he cross-hole seismic studies to evaluate
rom the studies it was inferred that the
lectrical Resistivity Survey


(NPCIL) is setting up two additional units of
generating capacity 220 MW each at Kaiga
Atomic Power Project, Karnataka. The
proposed site for Reactor Buildings RB-3
and 4 is situated adjacent to Kaiga 1 & 2
units and about 12 km upstream of Kadra
dam. The site is surrounded by hills on
three sides.

studies such as cross-hole, electrical
resistivity of the strata, safe charge
evaluation and multiple dam break analysis.


caused by `design-basis-earthquake' has to
be taken into account while designing the
foundation of various civil structures of the
nuclear power plant. The transmission of
vibratory motion due to an earthquake is
governed by the dynamic elastic moduli of
the subsurface strata, which with depth, are
best evaluated from the Compressional (P-)
and Shear (S-) wave velocities.

is granite gneiss, the nature and quality of
which varies laterally as well as with depth.
24-channel signal enhancement seismo-
graph was deployed for recording of P-
and S- waves. A borehole hammer and two
triaxial and two vertical downhole
geophones were used for generation and
detection of the waves in boreholes.

inhomogeneities (fissures, cracks) have no
preferential direction of orientation. The P-
and S- wave velocities before and after
excavation at the same depth were similar,
indicating that the blast energy was
contained and the excavation has not
affected the rock quality.

in situ P- and S- wave velocities with depth
were carried out at two reactor building
boreholes in four mutually perpendicular
directions spaced 3m apart in each
direction were rotary drilled up to 20 m
depth from the excavated foundation level
(EL 84.1 m) of RB-3 and RB-4 sites. The
studies were conducted at 1.5m depth
interval in North, South, East and West

sites. For these studies, nine NX size

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003
Electrical resistivity survey was carried out
r deciding the level of earthing system at
e survey
at the second layer showing high
Safe Charges
itional units
volves excavation of large quantities of
arious published safety
riteria, analysing the frequency contents
the vibration data collected from
xperimental blasts conducted at the site, a
amBreak Studies
; viz., Supa,
ommanahalli, Kodasalli and terminal dam
completed in three stages
sing the models developed at National
switchyard and nuclear reactor building
sites. The resistivity profiling using Wenner
Configuration was carried out along grid
lines with electrode separation of 6 m and
10 m at 5 m station intervals. A total of 48
vertical electrical soundings with 70 m
current electrode separation using
Schlumberger configuration were carried
out both in N-S and E-W directions at 24
locations. The interpretation of vertical
electrical soundings data revealed five
subsurface layers with higher resistivity for
the second layer. The electrical profiling
contours for 6m electrode separation
revealed that the resistivity varies from 100
to 650 ohm-m with higher values in S-W
direction. The 10 m contours follow the
same trend and range except for lower
resistivity values on Northern side.

It was inferred from the results of th
resistivity values is suitable for design of
earth system.

Evaluation of

The construction of the add
rock by drilling and blasting, which is
commonly associated with several
unwanted effects like ground vibration,
airblast and flyrock having enough potential
to cause damage to nearby structures
and the installations inside them. To
ensure the safety of the existing two units
of Kaiga nuclear power plant buildings with
various sensitive and safety related
installations, safe charge evaluation studies
were carried out for recommending the
procedure for controlled blasting during
the construction.

Reviewing the v
of ground vibration observed during
experimental studies, and considering the
importance of various structures around
the blasting-site, peak particle velocities of
10 mm/s and 5 mm/s were adopted as safe
vibration levels for ordinary structures and
structures with sensitive installation,
respectively. The safe vibration levels for
different ages of green concrete were found
to vary from 10 mm/s to 45 mm/s for the
freshly poured concrete of upto 4 hours of
age and the fully cured concrete of 28

site-specific attenuation equation was
established. To have higher confidence in
the prediction of safe charge weights,
attenuation equation with 95% confidence
level was also obtained. Using the safe
vibration levels in the site-specific
attenuation relation, safe charge weight per
delay for various distances were estimated.
For optimum utilization of explosive energy
and minimization of unwanted effects, the
safe charge weight for different distances
were used in a proper blasting pattern.
Various parameters of blasting pattern such
as depth of hole, charge per hole,
stemming length, burden and spacing
were optimized by carrying out several test

Multiple D

A series of dams
at Kadra are located upstream of the Kaiga
site on river Kalinadi, which originates in the
western ghats at an elevtion of 900 m and
after flowing for 160 km, outfalls in Arabian
sea near Karwar. To ensure that the power
house does not get submerged, NPCIL
requested CWPRS to estimate the
maximum water level at Kaiga site under
the failure of upstream dams to assess the
safety or otherwise of grade level of nuclear
power station.

This task was
Weather Service, USA. In the first stage,
dambreak hydrograph was derived under
different inflow scenarios. In the second
stage, model based on solution of

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003
St.Venants one-dimensional equations of
continuity and momentum was calibrated to
derive roughness parameters. The results
of calibration with August 1994 flood data
indicated that maximum water level at
Kodasalli matches well with the observed
value, and the Mannings n value obtained
in calibration could be used for routing
breach hydrograph along Kalinadi. In third
stage the dambreak hydrographs were
routed along Kalinadi using calibrated
roughness parameters.

Total stretch of Kalinadi from Supa to Kadra
as divided into three reaches separated
get maximum water level at
aiga, the breach outflow from Kodasalli
s extended upto
arwar to assess the tidal influence on
by dams. For each reach dambreach
hydrograph from upper dam formed the
upstream boundary and spillway rating
curve for lower dam formed the
downstream boundary. The dambreak
hydrographs derived without inflow and with
PMF as inflow to the reservoir were routed
along Kalinadi river. It was noted that the
maximum water levels at Kaiga with PMF
as inflow were higher than that without
inflow case.

In order to
was routed under various initial water levels
at Kaiga and Kadra. The highest water
level obtained at Kaiga was 39.07 m. An
alternative method was considered in which
runoff from intervening catchment between
two reservoirs was estimated and added to
the routed dambreach hydrograph. With
inreach addition the highest water level of
39.48 m was obtained.

The model reach wa
water levels. Additional run was taken
under the condition of constant highest high
water as the downstream boundary. The
results do not indicate any change in
maximum water level at Kaiga. Further run
with Kadra dam failure indicated lowering of
maximum water level at Kaiga from 39.48 m
to 38.97 m.
(TPS) of
TPC is located on the Right Bank of river
ydraulic, topographic data, observations

The Tanda Thermal Power Station
Ghagra (locally known as river Saryu) near
Tanda in Uttar Pradesh, about 180 km east
of Lucknow. The installed capacity of the
power station is 440 MW (4 X 110 MW). It
is proposed to augment the installed
capacity by addition of 2 units of 660 MW
for which total raw water requirement will be
pumping station close to Tanda TPS is on
the right bank of river Ghagra. In the year
2001, it was found that the discharge in the
Ghagra river channel along the right bank
considerably reduced from the month of
J anuary. In the month of March, only one
out of five pumps of Mahirpur pump-house
could be operated that too not continuously.
As an emergency measure, NTPC
authorities dredged about 465 m long
channel from main channel close to right
bank just about 800 m downstream of
Mahirpur pumping station. In order to
provide uninterrupted supply of raw water to
the power station NTPC authorities decided
to study various alternatives including
relocation of the intake, creation of reservoir
and other appropriate measures.

Based on the available h
about 2.69 cu.m/s. The present requirement
of 1.27 cu.m/s is met from the Mahirpur
during site inspection and analysis of old
toposheets (1916, 1975) and satellite
imageries of 1991,1996 and 2001 the desk
studies were carried out. Alternative

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003
locations and design of intake was

Following were the conclusions of these
e deep channel of river Ghagra
carrying major flow (during low flow

intake was shifting of deep channel

discharge data analysis indicated

Propos n of existing intake
and creation of reservoir across Ghagra

period) keeps on shifting from left
bank to right bank between nodal
points at Salona Ghat on upstream
and at Mahirpur Ghat of about 1 km
downstream of Mahirpur intake.
Main reason for starving of Mahi
from right bank to left bank which is
part of river channel migration
process between nodal points.
Study of 30 year Ghagra
that minimum flow of 70 to 100
cumec. was available in the river
during the period of low flows
(J anuary to April). The ultimate
requirement of 2.69 cumec of Tanda
TPS is much smaller than this
minimum flow.
ed augmentatio
river does not appear to be trouble free
long-term solutions. Relocation of intake at
Salona Ghat nodal point will be the most
ideal measure for assured raw water

, 242 mm, 338 mm and 399 mm
The study showed the mean annual rainfall mm

Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited
(NPCIL) is setting up a power station at
Kudankulam in the Tirunelveli-
Kattabomman district of Tamil Nadu. As a
part of technical and engineering analysis
for the project, CWPRS undertook a
detailed analysis of the recorded rainfall for
the specified objective of estimation of
design storm for different return periods.
The historical evaporation data were also
analysed to assess the evaporation
characteristics in the Kudankulam region.

The geographical location of Kudankulam is
latitude 8
10 06 N and longitude
41 45 E. Kudankulam, being situated
in the tropical region, has a generally humid
climate all through the year. From the
Kudankulam project site, Kanyakumari is
situated about 25 km southwest,
Thiruvananthapuram 89 km northwest and
Tuticorin 82 km northeast. Kanyakumari
being the IMD observatory closest to
Kudankulam, the Self-Recording Rain
Gauge (SRRG) data in respect of the site
was considered most appropriate; and
hence used for analysis. However, SRRG
data in respect of Tuticorin and
Thiruvananthapuram sites were also
analysed and results compared. In addition
to the SRRG data, recorded short-duration
rainfall data for 15-minute (min) and 30-min
for the above-mentioned sites were also
analysed. As regards evaporation data in
the region, the availability is restricted to
Thiruvananthapuram site, for the period
1969 to 1996; and the same was used for
evaporation data analysis.Statistical
methods were used for estimation of design
storm for different return periods.

of Kanyakumari to be 663.4 mm. From the
recorded data, the average monthly rainfall
at Kanyakumari is noted to vary from 31
mm to 81 mm. The 1,000-year return period
design storms for 15-min, 30-min, 1-day, 2-
day and 3-day periods for the Kanyakumari
region were estimated to be 58 mm, 78
respectively. Analysis of recorded rainfall at
Tuticorin and Thiruvananthapuram showed
the mean annual rainfall in respect of these
sites to be 606 mm and 1,576 mm
respectively. The average monthly rainfall
varies from 25 mm to 86 mm at Tuticorin
and 94 mm to 182 mm at

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003
Thiruvananthapuram. Estimates of the
1,000-year return period design storms for
15-min, 30-min, 1-day, 2-day and 3-day
periods for Tuticorin were obtained to be 55
mm, 80 mm, 306 mm, 348 mm and 400 mm
respectively. For Thiruvananthapuram, the
1,000-year return period design storms for
15-min, 30-min, 1-day, 2-day and 3-day
were estimated to be 49 mm, 78 mm,
318 mm, 451 mm and 544 mm respectively.
As noted above, Kanyakumari is the IMD
observatory that is nearest to Kudankulam,
and situated in the east coast; unlike
Thiruvanathapuram, which is located on the
west coast. As such, the 15-min, 30-min, 1-
day, 2-day and 3-day design storm
estimates obtained for Kanyakumari are
considered most appropriate for the
Kudankulam region.
Based on the evaporation analysis of
recorded data for the period 1969-96, the
mean annual daily evaporation at
Thiruvananthapuram is computed to be 4
mm/day. The study shows that, on about
32 percent of the days of the above-
mentioned period, daily evaporation was of
the order of 3 mm to 4 mm per day. On 88
percent of the days, the evaporation rate
was in the range of 2 mm to 6 mm per day.
For about 95 percent of the days, the
evaporation rate was less than 6 mm/day.
The modal evaporation rate is 4 mm/day;
with the maximum evaporation rate
recorded in 28 years of historical record
being 10.7 mm/day.

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003


Car Nicobar is the northern-most island of
the Nicobar group of Islands at a distance
of about 240 km from Port Blair. In view of
the difficulties of berthing and embarkation /
disembarkation using the RCC J etty
constructed at Malacca, it was felt
necessary to construct a permanent all
weather berthing facility. Andaman
Lakshadweep Harbour Works considered
three potential sites namely Mus, Teetop
and Malacca. In view of the proximity of
good depths, the Mus site was found to be
the most suitable site. Based on the
investigations at the site, a tentative layout
of the breakwater was evolved by the
Project Authorities.

Wave flume studies were conducted for
evolving the design of the breakwater. For
the trunk portion, sections were evolved at
0.0m, -1.0m, -2.0m, -3.0m, -7.0m and -10m
bed levels and for the roundhead of
breakwater at -11.0m bed level. These
sections were designed to withstand waves
of 5m height allowing zero order damage
and 6m waves allowing first order damage.
8t Tetrapods were used in the armour layer
on the seaside and 4 t Tetrapods were used
on the lee side of the trunk portion. 16 t
Tetrapods were used for the roundhead at -
11.0m bed level. The trunk portions were
tested under the normal attack of waves
and the roundhead of the breakwater was
tested in the hammerhead of the wave
flume simulating angular attack of waves
corresponding to Northwest direction.


The Karwar Port, situated along the West
coast of India, has natural protection from
the Karwar head. In order to provide
adequate protection from the westerly and
northwesterly waves, a breakwater of about
488m length was proposed on the northeast
side of the Karwar head. The Project
Authorities decided to construct a 250 m
length breakwater in the first stage. The
Director of Ports and IWT, Karwar
requested CWPRS to evolve the design of
the breakwater. Since the breakwater was
to be founded on clayey soil with poor
strength properties, it was necessary to
provide wider berms on the seaside as well
as on the lee side to ensure the stability of
the breakwater. Stones of 12 t weight were
considered in the armour layer of the

Initially, based on the then existing bed
levels, the design of the two trunk sections,
one from 0.0m to -4.0m and another from
-4.0m to -7.0m contour was evolved. The
roundhead was designed for the -7.0m
contour. Subsequently, during the visit of
the J oint Secretary, PWD, Government of
Karnataka and the Port Engineer, the
design conditions were marginally modified.
The sections were evolved for trunk and
roundhead of the breakwater under the
modified design conditions and the crest
level of the breakwater was reduced to
+6.5m from +7.5m.


INS Hamla is located along Aksa-Marve
coast at the mouth of Manori creek, Malad
at Mumbai facing the Arabian Sea.
Considerable erosion on the southern side
of the Manori creek at INS Hamla was
reported. The CWPRS officers visited the
site and it was noted that about 250m
length of the coast on the southern side of
Manori creek at INS Hamla had suffered
severe erosion. The erosion was near the
CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

High Water Line (+ 5.2m HWL) and the
seawater was reaching up to the shacks,
located at about 10m behind the HWL. The
Low Water Line (LWL) is at a distance of
about 100m from the HWL and it was
understood that HWL has been shifted by
about 25m towards the shacks during the
last two decades. As an immediate and
temporary protection to the shacks, a sand
bund was constructed at the HWL. The
beach slope between HWL and LWL varies
from 1:15 to 1:20. Though this bund has
provided adequate protection to the shacks
during the monsoon of 2002, it was
necessary to construct permanent shore
protection works. Studies for evolving the
design of shore protection works were

The conditions of zero order damage (up to
1%) for the breaking waves at +5.2m Water
Level and no overtopping of the section
under the attack of 1.0m high waves at
+5.4m (HHWL) were considered for the
design of the shore protection works.

Two alternative seawall sections namely,
section with 'Stones' and section with
'P.V.C. coated G.I. wire Gabions' were
evolved through wave flume studies. The
section with stones consisted of 0.4 to 0.6 t
stones both in the armour and in the toe on
1:2 slope. A 3m wide toe was provided by
excavating a trench up to el. +2.5m. The
top of the toe was at el. +4.5m and the crest
of the seawall was at +7.5m. The section
with gabions consisted of 1m x 1m x 3m
Gabions filled with stones as armour on 1:2
slope. A 2m wide toe was provided by
excavating a trench up to el. +2.7m and
gabions of 1m x 1m x 2m size were kept at
el. +4.5m in the toe. The crest of the
seawall was at el.+7.5m.


Village Kosamba is located about 6 km
north of Valsad on the southern coast of
Gujarat and has a population of large
number of fishermen. The Swaminarayan
Temple is located in village Kosamba. For
the last 15 years, the beach in front of the
village has been suffering gradual erosion.
Severe erosion was noticed during the
monsoon of year 2000 resulting in shifting
of the shoreline at about 25m from the
Temple. The erosion was of vertical cliff
type and it was feared by the trustees of the
Temple that if such erosion continues for
the next monsoon, it may cause damage to
the Temple. The trustees of the temple
requested the Government of Gujarat to
provide protective measures to prevent the
erosion in front of the temple. Damanganga
Project Circle, Valsad, requested CWPRS
to suggest appropriate measures for
protecting the Temple.

The design of seawall supplied by the
Damanganga Project Circle, Government of
Gujarat was suitably modified by
considering various site constraints such as
non-availability of heavier stones (about 50
or 100 kg), construction machinery like
CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

crane and time span in which the work is to
be completed in view of the impending
erosion. The modified design consisted of a
seawall with flexible Gabions filled with 20-
40 kg stones. These gabions are easy to
handle at the site and the section can be
constructed speedily, minimizing the use of
sophisticated machinery and heavy stones.

A 330m long seawall with Gabions was
constructed in front of the temple within 4
months and the same has provided
protection to the eroding coast successfully
during the monsoons.


The Government of Karnataka had
proposed to develop the Old Mangalore
Port for providing Cargo Handling facilities
and ensuring safe navigation to the fishing
vessels. The Port is situated at the inlet
where Gurpur and Netravati rivers meet the
Arabian Sea. It was proposed to provide
protection against wave action to the
vessels entering the port, by constructing
two breakwaters along the approach
channel. These breakwaters would help to
channelize the river discharge and tidal flow
and help in stabilizing the inlet in addition to
providing tranquil conditions to the fishing
vessels entering the Port. Earlier, the
design of both the Breakwaters - South and
North - was evolved at CWPRS in 1990.
These designs were evolved considering
the bathymetry existing at the site at that
time. The North (375 m) and South (584 m)
breakwaters were reported to be completed
in 1994. However, these suffered damage
in the next monsoon and were required to
be repaired.

Considering the existing site conditions,
which had indicated deepening of the bed
levels along the alignment of the
breakwaters, the design of the breakwaters,
was modified. The designs were evolved to
withstand 4m waves for the trunk portion
and 4.5m waves for the roundhead of the
breakwaters. The sizes of armour stones in
the trunk portions on the seaside were
increased from 2 - 3 t to 4 - 5 t. The berm
width was increased to 6m. In the
roundhead, the armour stones of 6 to 8 t
were suggested instead of 5 to 7 t. Berm
width was increased to 8m from 6m for the


Beyt Dwarka is an important pilgrimage
centre situated near Port of Okha in the
Gulf of Kachchh on the west coast of India.
Every year nearly 15 lakh pilgrims visit Beyt
Dwarka. For crossing the Gulf of Kachchh,
a ferry service facility is deployed. Landing
facilities are provided both at Port Okha and
Beyt Dwarka. These berthing facilities were
constructed during 1970s. With passage of
time the jetty structures have been
deteriorated and the pilgrims experience
difficulties to embark and disembark from
the ferry. These difficulties are particularly
severe during low tides and windy weather.
Hence it was considered necessary to
provide alternative facilities. Gujarat
Maritime Board referred the studies to
CWPRS for finalising the location and
alignment of the landing jetties on either
side of the Gulf at Port Okha and Beyt

The available prototype data in respect of
hydrographic surveys, float observations,
CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

current-meter observations were analysed.
It was seen that the average range of
semidiurnal tide at Okha is 2.2m and the
average velocities were of the order of 0.8
m/sec. It was seen that during the period of
eight years from April 1993 to November
2001, the loss of depth in the vicinity of the
jetties is of the order of 1m. Based on the
analysis of the prototype data in respect of
velocities, forces exerted on the ships
berthed at jetties aligned at various
directions were estimated and a most
favourable alignment was arrived at. It was
found that the berthing faces on Beyt
Dwarka side and Okha side could be
aligned in 145
N and 163.5
direction respectively.


The Mormugao port is one of the six major
ports on west coast of India, situated at the
entrance of Zuari estuary on its south bank.
For developing Mormugao port as turn-
around port for passenger traffic particularly
for foreign ships, there is a proposal for
construction of a suitable berth for cruise
vessels. The length of the passenger cruise
vessels would be about 230m with draft
requirement of 9.0m below chart datum. For
development of cruise berth, two alternative
sites were suggested by Mormugao Port
Trust (MPT). The cruise vessels would be
operative mostly during non-monsoon
period (October to May) and the wave
tranquility limit at berth was considered as
0.5m to facilitate disembarking of
passengers suitably. The proposed berth
for passenger cruise vessels would also be
used for containerized / general cargo traffic
and some more berths may also be planned
in future in the same area for operation
throughout the year.

The wave tranquility studies were
undertaken in existing physical wave model
of Mormugao port (G.S. 1:100) with random
wave generation facility for the Alternative -
I site i.e. west of the existing breakwater.
The site is exposed to direct incident waves
from northwest direction during non-
monsoon period and from west direction
during southwest monsoon season. The
Mormugao headland on the south offers
substantial protection against southwesterly
waves during southwest monsoon. The
layout of parallel breakwater on the west
side of the existing breakwater, as
suggested by MPT, involved total
breakwater length of 970m to provide
adequate tranquility near the proposed
berths. The limitation of the above layout
was the non-availability of suitable area of
maneuvering, turning circle and for future
development. With a view to increase
maneuvering area and for further curtailing
breakwater length, a site at about 1000m
further west of existing breakwater was
studied. After studying different alternatives,
a layout, consisting of a breakwater of
825m length to provide adequate tranquility
at two berths was recommended. This
proposal would involve capital dredging of
about 0.60 million cubic metre for basin
area of size 600m X 450m dredged to -

Wave tranquility studies were conducted by
using mathematical model MIKE-21 BW for
Alternative - II site in the Baina bay on the
south of Mormugao head, considering
critical incident waves from West and SW
directions. The layout as recommended
consists of breakwater of 825m length for
providing adequate tranquility to at least two
berths throughout the year. For this
CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

proposal, the capital dredging would be
about 1.8 million cum for basin area of
625m X 625m and approach channel of
width 250m and length 1.5 km dredged to -
11.0m. The borehole data in the Baina bay
indicated presence of layer of sand to silty-
sand upto a thickness of about 10m and
further beneath moderately jointed,
fractured basaltic rock.


The Kandla Port, an all weather natural port
on the west coast, has grown as one of the
modern major ports in India. The port is
contemplating to enhance the facilities to
cater to IV and V generation vessels. The
Kandla creek is maintained naturally for
depths of more than 10m for the port area,
whereas the approach channel is
maintained by continuous dredging.
CWPRS has been involved in the
development of the port from the day of its

Effect of Sunken Mooring Dolphin

Kandla region is not prone to cyclones, but
on 9th J une 1998 a devastating cyclone
occurred in the region. The epicenter of the
cyclone passing over the Kandla Creek
caused damage not only to human life but
also to the port structures. One of the
drifted vessels during the cyclone collided
with southern mooring dolphin of IFFCO
jetty and the whole structure collapsed on to
the bed. Efforts made in removing the
structure did not yield the required results.
Hydraulic model studies were carried out at
CWPRS to assess the effect of sunken
mooring structure on the flow conditions at
Kandla Port. The studies were carried out in
the flow channel (scale 1:150 G.S) by
appropriately reproducing the sunken
structure. The velocities and the flow paths
around the structure were observed with
quasi steady state condition representing
near average and low water level
conditions. For better visualization of flow
paths, the deck slab of the mooring dolphin
was reproduced to 1:50 and 1:30 scales.
Scouring due to the mooring structure was
also studied in a separate mobile bed
model. The hydraulic model studies both in
the flow channel and the mobile bed
indicated that, the effect is localized within
20m around the structure without affecting
the flow and morphological conditions near
the berthing face of the IFFCO jetty in
particular and the Kandla Creek in general.

Behaviour of Sogal Channel

The dynamic behaviour of the Sogal
channel was studied by analysing prototype
data for the period from J anuary 1995 to
September 2002. The studies indicated that
the behaviour of Sogal channel is sensitive
to the dredging efforts. In the event of non-
dredging period, the siltation takes place
mainly from western edge of the channel
and extend towards east, particularly in
Zone III. The channel showed deterioration
of the prevalent navigation tract with
development of deeper channels along
eastern bank. Continuous dredging and
zone-wise monitoring have benefited the
port to declare enhanced navigational
depths from 4.3m to 5.2m. The studies also
showed that there was no impact of the
devastating cyclone of J une 1998 in the
Sogal channel. However, it was found that
navigational track had improved after the
earthquake of J anuary 2001 when more
dredging efforts were done. Kandla Port is
concentrating its dredging efforts to the tune
of 70% of the total dredging in Zone III
alone. Studies further indicated that rate of
siltation in Zone III is about 54% followed by
Zone I which is about 18%. Advantage of
existing deeper patch in Zone III alone
could be taken by KPT to declare more
navigation depth by shifting its navigation
track by 150m eastward. There is a need
for assessment of solids in the hoppers,
measurement of suspended sediment
concentrations in the dredged areas and
surrounding areas for more elaborate
CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

analysis about effectiveness of dredging for
its optimization.

Hydrodynamics in Kandla Creek Approaches

The enhancement of the navigational
depths at Kandla port from 10.2m to 13.5m
has been a special area of focus for Kandla
Port Trust in the context of further
development of the port for handling
container traffic on a large scale. Over the
last three decades or more, quite a number
of studies have been carried out by
CWPRS using physical models for Kandla
port. The optimization of the maintenance
dredging in the Sogal channel is important
due to the dynamic and shallow nature of
the approach area. 1D and 2D
mathematical models were developed in
addition to the existing physical models for
this purpose. The 2D model covers the area
in the Kandla creek and its approaches up
to Outer Tuna Buoy (OTB). The studies for
spring tide have enabled comprehensive
simulation of the flow in the approach area
and the Kandla creek. Comparison of the
results of the spring tide with those for the
average tide carried out earlier highlighted
the effect of the tidal range, frictional effects
due to shallow bathymetry and the inter-
tidal flats. The model simulations have also
revealed the relative strength of the flow in
the Sogal channel and the Inshore channel
and also the relatively weak flow in the
critical portion of the Sogal channel where
continuous maintenance dredging is
required. The model simulations for the
shoaling of the Inshore channel for the
assumed spread of the disposed dredged
material of 3 million cum and 6 million cum
have shown that this will have beneficial
effect on the flow conditions in the Sogal
channel in addition to reduction in the flow
in the Inshore channel. The simulations also
showed that the shoaling of the Inshore
channel would not have any effect on the
flow entering the Kandla creek.


Paradip Port is a major port, situated on the
east coast of India. The existing approach
channel of the port can cater up to 65000
DWT vessels and has a width of 190m and
a depth of 12.9m. The proposed expansion
of the port includes deepening of the
channel to a depth of 17m and widening to
240 m, so as to cater for large vessels of
1,25,000 DWT. The channel length would
be extended upto 8 km. Dredging in the
inner harbour in front of the new oil jetty for
more work area, turning circle at 17m depth
and rest of the harbour area at 15m depth is
also proposed. The port has taken up the
restoration of the south breakwater, which
got damaged during the super cyclone in
October 1999. The south breakwater is to
be extended by about 100m and is to be re-
oriented parallel to the approach channel.

Mathematical model studies for wave
tranquility to examine the effects of
restoration of the south breakwater,
dredging in front of oil jetty and pitching of
the slope at the northern side of the
approach channel were carried out.
CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

Offshore wave data reported by the Indian
Meteorological Department for the year
from 1968 to 2001 were utilized for these
studies. For computation of wave
transformation from deep to shallow waters,
OUTRAY model was used. These studies
indicated that Predominant directions of
wave approach in 20m depth are East,
ESE, SE, SSE, South, SSW and SW. The
maximum significant wave height is of the
order of 5m.

For computation of wave transformation
along the approach channel STWAVE
model was used. The model was run for
the predominant wave directions obtained
in 20m depth, from the results of OUTRAY.
It was seen that there is 30% and 36%
reduction in wave height when waves reach
the harbour entrance for waves incident
from ESE and East direction respectively.
For waves coming from SE, SSE, SSW and
SW directions 20 to 25% reduction in wave
height was observed as the waves reach
the harbour entrance. However it was seen
that for waves incident from South direction
only 5% reduction in the wave height takes
place. Wave height and wave direction
obtained along the approach channel were
used as input wave conditions for ship
navigation studies.

MIKE-21 BW model was used for studying
wave disturbance in the harbour area.
Wave tranquility studies were carried out to
study the effects of deepening of the
approach channel to 17m depth, pitching of
the slope at the northern side of the
approach channel, dredging in front of oil
jetty, restoration of south breakwater on
wave condition near the new oil jetty. The
studies indicated that there would not be
significant change in the wave heights near
the proposed oil jetty due to deepening of
the approach channel. Wave heights near
the jetty would remain below 1.0m for
almost entire year. Wave heights in the
turning circle and dock area will remain
below 0.6m for entire year.

Mathematical model studies were also
carried out to examine the adequacy of the
width of the channel by simulating the
maneuvering behaviour of the vessels using
software NAVIGA for various approach
vessel speeds and combinations of winds,
waves and currents. The width requirement
for the channel is dependent on the
environmental conditions, the maneuvering
speed and the safety margin on either side
of the channel. From the studies, a base
width of 280m was recommended for the

Mathematical model studies were also
carried out to assess the effect of
deepening of the channel on the
hydrodynamic conditions and morphological
changes. In these studies the tidal
hydrodynamics were simulated for different
tidal conditions before and after the
proposed development. The hydrodynamic
simulations showed that there would be no
significant changes in the tidal flow pattern
in the harbour approaches as well as inside
the harbour due to the proposed
developments. The tidal currents in the sea
are unidirectional and change in direction

The results of the hydrodynamic studies
were used as basic input for the sediment
transport studies. With both tide and wave
induced currents. From these studies
probable zone of siltation and zone of
erosion were predicted. Deepening of the
channel did not show significant changes in
the siltation pattern.


The mega city of Mumbai is facing deep
crisis as regards its commuted transport
system, as its land base infrastructure of
roads and suburban railway has been
loaded beyond limits. As an alternative
commuting system, the Maharashtra State
Road Development Corporation (MSRDC)
have a proposal for development of
Passenger Water Transport Terminals at
CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

five locations on the west coast of Mumbai
namely, at Nariman point, Bandra, Versova,
Marve and Borivali in Manori creek. The
proposal consists of providing jetties and
other terminal facilities at these locations for
berthing of Catamarans and Hovercrafts
requiring maximum draught of 2.5m.

The studies involved (a) Analysis of
available bathymetric data and other field
data; (b) Field investigations at Versova and
inside the Manori Creek; (c) Mathematical
model studies for examining wave
tranquility and protection from external
waves; (d) Physical model studies for
optimizing alignment of berths and other
terminal facilities; (e) Storm wave
hindcasting studies for determining design
wave conditions for breakwaters; and (f)
Wave flume studies for design of

The analysis of bathymetric charts and the
field data has shown that the tidal currents
on the west coast of Mumbai at the
proposed locations are relatively small
except in the Manori creek. As the west
coast is directly exposed to ocean waves,
the terminal sites at Nariman Point, Bandra
and Versova would require protection from
waves in the form of breakwaters. The
terminals at Marve and Borivali are located
about 2.7 km and 8 km respectively, inside
the Manori Creek and hence are protected
from waves, but need to be properly aligned
with strong tidal currents prevailing in the
creek. For wave tranquility studies, the ship
observed wave data off the coast of
Mumbai published by IMD were used in the
mathematical models OUTRAY and MIKE
21-BW. Considering permissible wave
height of 0.3m for safe operation of
Catamarans, optimum lengths of the
breakwaters were determined. The
terminal at Nariman Point requires two
breakwaters of 250m and 300m length on
south and north sides of Back Bay entrance
for protection from external waves. At
Bandra terminal, the existing breakwater on
its west side is required to be extended by
200m. At Versova, the terminal requires
protection from waves in the form of an
offshore breakwater. The proposed jetty at
zero meter contour will require breakwater
of 680m length while that at -2m contour will
require 780m long breakwater.

The alignment of jetties, breakwaters and
other terminal facilities with respect to tidal
flow/currents prevailing at all the five
locations were finalised on the existing
physical model of Mumbai Harbour having
scales of 1:400 H and 1:80 V. The location
of breakwaters at Nariman Point, Bandra
and Versova obtained from the
mathematical model were checked and
were found to be well aligned with respect
to the tidal flow/currents. The jetties at
Versova, Marve & Borivali Terminals were
also aligned parallel to the tidal flow.

In order to determine the design wave
conditions for the proposed breakwaters
under extreme wave climate during the
storms/cyclones, wave hindcasting was
carried out by using Sverdrup-Munk-
Bretschneider (SMB) method using 100
years (1901 to 2000) storm data. The
estimates of extreme wave heights for
different return periods were obtained using
Gumbel, Weibull and normal distributions.
CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

The 100-year return period significant wave
height was found to be 5.4m.

The hydraulic stability of the breakwaters at
Nariman point, Bandra and Versova was
determined by conducting wave flume
studies in the Random Sea Wave
Generating (RSWG) facility under the
design wave conditions. Two alternative
sections with Tetrapod and Accropode were
evolved for the breakwaters at Nariman
point and Versova. For the trunk portion of
the breakwaters, 8.0 t Tetrapods in double
layer on 1:2 slope in armour or 5.2 t
Accropodes (single layer) on 1:1.5 slope
were found to be stable for the design wave
conditions. The roundheads of the
breakwaters were provided with 10 t
Tetrapods (double layer) on 1:2 slope or 7 t
Accropodes (single layer) on 1:1.5 slope.
For the extension of breakwater at Bandra,
3-4 t stones in the trunk and 4 to 5t stones
on 1:2 slope in the roundhead were found
to be stable.

The estimation of capital dredging and
maintenance dredging at all the five
locations of the proposed terminals was
also determined considering the
bathymetry, flow conditions and silt charge
at these locations.


Tuticorin Port is a major port located at the
southeastern coast of India. It is an artificial
deep-sea harbour with north and south
breakwaters of lengths 4086m and 3876m
respectively. Currently the Port is
functioning with six general cargo berths,
one container berth, a shallow water berth
and a finger jetty, all located alongside the
southern breakwater and one oil jetty and
two coal jetties located off the north

Tuticorin Port Trust has proposed to add a
ninth berth of 340m length for handling
containers in the same alignment as that of
eighth berth and as an extension of it. It is
also proposed to construct a new berth,
designated as North Cargo Berth (NCB), off
the North Breakwater, opposite to the ninth
berth and west of existing first coal jetty.
The size of the berth will be 300m x 30m
and is designed to handle bulk carriers of
250m LOA x 40m Beam x 10.7m Draught.
A strip of land of 60m width all along the
north breakwater is to be reclaimed for
convenient approach and transportation
from this berth. For this purpose, a
rubblemound bund will be provided from the
root of north breakwater upto NCB and the
inside area will be reclaimed by dredged

Tuticorin Port Trust referred the studies to
CWPRS to examine the wave tranquility
conditions inside the harbour basin with the
proposed expansion. Mathematical model
studies were carried out for existing depth
of -12.5m in approach channel & -11.9m in
harbour area and also for the proposed
dredging of -14.6m in approach channel
and -14.0m in harbour area.

Offshore wave data reported by the India
Meteorological Department for the years
from 1968 to 2001 were utilized for the
studies. For computation of wave
transformation from deep to shallow waters,
OUTRAY model was used. These studies
indicated that predominant directions of
wave approach in 10.5m depth are ENE,
East, ESE, SE and SSE. The maximum
significant wave height is of the order of

MIKE-21 BW model was used for studying
wave disturbance in the harbour area.
Wave tranquility studies were carried out to
examine the effect of NCB alignments and
also effect of deepening of approach
channel and harbour area. The studies
indicated that the wave disturbance at the
proposed location of the ninth berth and at
the NCB for both the alignments would be
CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

well within the permissible limits almost
around the year.

Studies were also carried out to examine
the moored ship motions and mooring rope
tensions at the NCB (two alignments) and
ninth berth using MORMOT mathematical
model. Studies for moored ship aspects at
the ninth berth indicated that the mooring
rope tensions, fender deflections and ship
motions are well within the safe limits with a
good factor of safety. With the alignment of
the NCB parallel to the ninth berth, the
studies indicated that the ship motions,
consequent rope tensions and fender
deflections are also well within the safe
limits ensuring almost no downtime. The
studies with the oblique alignment of NCB
indicated that the ship motions, consequent
mooring rope tensions and fender
deflections are within the permissible limits
of operation for bulk cargo; however,
compared to the parallel alignment these
are large. Therefore, the alignment of NCB
parallel to the ninth berth was considered
better than the oblique alignment from the
consideration of ship motions at berth.


In order to develop an alternate growth
center and to reduce congestion in south
Mumbai, Government of Maharashtra
through Mumbai Metropolitan Region
Development Authority (MMRDA) carried
out systematic development in Bandra
Kurla Complex (BKC) area. In order to
ascertain effects of reclamation in the flood
levels in BKC area, CWPRS had
undertaken hydraulic model studies and
had recommended channelization of Mithi
River and Vakola nalla with the maximum
reclamation of 220 ha. MMRDA has
successfully completed channelization of
Mithi River and Vakola nalla except
provision of sluice gate across Mahim
causeway. Subsequently, MMRDA
collected field data in respect of water
levels, velocities to ascertain flood levels
along Mithi River, during monsoon periods,
concurrent with the spring tides. The data
collected during the year 2000-01 were
analyzed. It is seen from the analysis, that
normally water levels in Mithi River and
Vakola nalla are influenced by the freshet
discharges during monsoon period. The
effluxes were found to be higher than
influxes in the Mithi River. The longitudinal
profiles of water levels show silling effect
near Dharavi Bridge. The data needs to be
corroborated with the discharge data. The
water quality has been improved in the
lower reaches of Mithi River due to
channelization. Freshet discharges
computed from the rainfall data were found
to be insignificant during the water level
observations. Thus, the water levels
observed in Mithi River were tide dominated
only. It was recommended that water level
observations need to be collected in the
events of high intensities of rainfall in
addition to the days of spring tide.


A raw water reservoir of 65000 cum
capacity is proposed to be created at
Kudankulam (KK) Nuclear Power Project
site by constructing about 500 m long
earthen bund having maximum height of
eight meters. The reservoir is located on a
sloping ground. Thus one side of the
reservoir is the natural hillock while
remaining three sides are to be provided
with the earthen bund.

The seismic analysis of the bund was taken
up by CWPRS, adopting the procedure
suggested by Makdisi and Seed, which is
based on the concept of Newmark's rigid
body plastic deformation. The Ultimate
Design Basis Earthquake (UDBE) data was
supplied by NPCIL.

Soil samples were collected from three
borrow areas, viz. from reservoir, stock pile
CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

In addition to Newmark's approach, seismic
analysis was carried out using procedure
suggested by Seed. In this method, stability
of the bund was assessed by comparing
cyclic shear stresses induced due to UDBE,
obtained from the response analysis, with
the cyclic shear strength required to cause
strain level of 2% evaluated from dynamic
triaxial test data. The results indicated that
the bund is safe against excessive strains in
the event of UDBE.
area and labourer's colony as identified by
NPCIL authorities. The static and dynamic
properties of the soil samples were
determined in the CWPRS laboratory. The
soil from the labourers' colony was found to
be of dispersive nature and hence not
recommended for the bund construction.

The upstream and downstream slopes of
the bund were designed for static stability
by Bishop's modified method of slip circle
analysis. The slope of 1:2.5 gave factor of
safety 1.543, satisfying ASCE stipulation
and hence adopted for further dynamic

In view of high SPT values in the foundation
strata and also no water table was
encountered in the 4.5 m deep borehole,
susceptibility of liquefaction of foundation is
not warranted.

The displacement of potential sliding mass
of the bund was then evaluated by
Newmark's approach using (i) Makdisi and
Seed's curves and (ii) response analysis
output. The response of the bund to the
UDBE was evaluated using finite element
program QUAD-4. The first method did not
warrant any displacement of potential
sliding mass, while the second one gave
the displacement of 2.3 cm.
The 'poorly graded' as well as 'well graded'
sands available at reservoir and stock pile
borrow areas respectively, are not suitable
for homogeneous type of dam as per the
general guidelines for embankment
sections given in IS:12169-1987. As such
zoned section of bund with provision of
impervious core and cut-off was

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003



The Hindustan Zinc Limited is operating an
open cast mine, known as Rampura-
Agucha mine, situated at about 15 km SE of
Gulabpura town in Bhilwara district of
Rajasthan State. The ores containing Zinc,
Lead and Silver are being extracted
regularly since 1991 by using drilling and
blasting methods. There are three important
structures close to the mining site; viz., the
Agucha Irrigation Tank (about 510 to 1860
m), the Tailing Dam (at a distance of about
500 to 1600 m), and the Arwar Dam (at a
distance of about 6.9 km). Apprehensions
were expressed by the project authorities
that the vibrations caused by the mining
activities may endanger the safety of these
dams. Accordingly, a study to find out the
effects of ground vibrations on these
structures and to predict the safe quantity of
charge weights to be used at different
distances from the mine site was
To monitor the vibrations due to open cast
mining, three field visits were made by
CWPRS officers. The ground vibration data
collected by the project authorities during
the period from September 1998 to October
2002 were also used in this study to
establish the site-specific attenuation
relation. By reviewing various published
safety criteria for different types of
structures, analysing the frequency content
of blast vibrations observed during past four
years and considering the possibility of
increase in residual pore water pressure in
the earthen dams, a resultant peak particle
velocity (PPV) of 15 mm/s was assessed to
be an absolutely safe vibration level for the
stability of all the three dams. It was
estimated that the maximum charge weight
of 680 kg per delay used in the past would
not generate a PPV of more than 6.5 mm/s,
even at the minimum distance (500 m) of
the Agucha Irrigation Tank and the Tailing
Dam. Further, the blast vibrations recorded
on the top of the Arwar Dam at a distance
of about 6.9 km were found to be less than
the ambient vibration level (0.40 mm/s).
Thus, the safety and stability of the Arwar
Dam was considered to be unaffected by
the ongoing mining activities at Rampura
Agucha mine. Therefore, the ground
vibrations generated from the presently
used charge weight (60 to 680 kg) per delay
for mining activities at Rampura Agucha
mine were expected to be very low to cause
any kind of stability problem to all the three


Uttar Pradesh Irrigation Department
(UPID), Lucknow, requested CWPRS to
undertake hydraulic performance and
overload test on submersible pump sets of
two different ratings i.e. 18 m head, 150
cum/hr discharge and 36 m head, 150
cum/hr discharge.

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

Ten pump sets from different manufacturers
viz. M/s. SU Motors, M/s. KSB, M/s. Aturia
Continental, M/s. Lubi Submersible Ltd.,
and M/s. WPIL, were tested for their

Performance data on each of these pumps

Hydraulic performance characteri-
stics viz. variation of head, power
input and overall efficiency against
discharge covering a minimum
range of +10 % to 25% of rated
head from guaranteed duty point for
the 18 m head and 36 m head pump

Over voltage and under voltage
performance at 456 volts and 353
volts respectively.

Temperature rise of the submersible
motors, when the pump is
overloaded to 32% of its rated

Performance against guaranteed

All the tests were carried out in accordance
with IS 9137 but uncertainty level in the
measurements carried out during the tests
was much better than IS stipulations,
especially for the flow rate and pressure

It was recommended that:

The submersible pump set having
highest efficiency and lowest
temperature rise should be preferred as
this would ultimately result in energy
efficient operation and long-term
reliability of the pump set.

While selecting the pump sets on
technical merits, preference be given to
the submersible pump unit having
highest guarantee factor, reason for this
being the higher the guarantee factor,
closer it would operate to the
guaranteed duty requirement.

It would be worthwhile to randomly
select pump sets from the actual batch
of supply and get these tested at
CWPRS for ensuring better quality of
performance of the actually supplied
pump set.


M/s. Kirloskar Brothers Ltd., Dewas,
Madhya Pradesh requested CWPRS to
undertake hydraulic performance and
overload tests on submersible pump set
manufactured by them.

The studies were carried out for
performance of the pump type CH 8A
3004 with reference to:

Hydraulic performance characteristics
viz. variation of head, power input and
overall efficiency against discharge
covering a minimum range of +10 % to
25% of rated head from guaranteed
duty point for the 70 m head and 75
cum/hr capacity pump set

Over voltage and under voltage
performance at 456 volts and 353 volts

Overload test on submersible motor was
conducted by coupling the motor with
overload pump, which can overload the
same up to 1.32 times rated power.

All the tests were carried out in accordance
with IS 9137, IS 4029 and IS 325 but
uncertainty level in the measurements
CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

carried out during the tests was much better
than IS stipulations.

It was recommended that :

The submersible pump set having
highest efficiency is always preferred as
this would ultimately result in energy
efficient operation and long term
reliability of the pump set

While designing the pump set attention
be given to maintain highest guarantee
factor, reason for this being the higher
the guarantee factor, closer it would
operate to the guaranteed duty

It is suggested to critically review the
pump motor design considering the
present results since there is ample
scope for further improvement in its
performance. CWPRS would extend its
services towards achieving this goal.

The submersible pump set having lower
temperature rise is always preferred as
this would ultimately result in energy
efficient operation and long term
reliability of the pump set

Although the temperature rise indicated
by the test is 32/33
C, which is less
than IS specified limit of 35
C, it is
preferred to increase the capacity of
motor to bring down the temperature
rise within 25
C limit, considering
sustained overloading on these motors
in the field.


A full-bore Electro Magnetic (EM) flow
meter of 500 mm NB was proposed to be
installed by Kalyan-Dombivali Municipal
Corporation (KDMC) on one of the water
supply pipelines at Dombivali. The meter
manufactured by M/s. Mikamachi, Pune,
was supplied to KDMC by M/s. Gleg
Engineering Pvt. Ltd. The contractual terms
for accepting the flow meter by KDMC
made it mandatory for M/s. Gleg to assess
the performance of the meter in respect of
correctness of flow measurement in any
standard laboratory. Calibration of flow
meter against primary gravimetric standard
at CWPRS was therefore, arranged by M/s.
Gleg Engineering Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai.

The EM flow meter to be calibrated was
installed in one of the test lines of the high
precision gravimetric calibration system
installed at CWPRS, by providing sufficient
straight length upstream and downstream of
the meter. The flow with constant velocity,
after passing through the meter under test,
was diverted for known interval of time into
a weigh tank installed on a pre-calibrated
weighing system. Percentage deviation of
the flow measured by flow meter under test
was calculated with respect to flow
measured gravimetrically. Calibration curve
was established by repeating this procedure
for different values of flow rates. It was
observed that the value of flow rate sensed
by the flow meter (500 mm NB EM flow
meter) under calibration was within +0.29 to
-0.96 % of the flow measured by the
reference standard, which was within the
claimed value of uncertainty.


M/s Projects and Development India Ltd.
(PDIL) is a Government of India
Undertaking. The unit was set up in 1978
as a division of erstwhile Fertilizer
Corporation of India Ltd. PDIL are
diversifying their activities to include sectors
of oil, gas, water treatment, pollution control
etc. Recently they have received a job of
setting up 5000 MTPA bottling plant at
Kimin, Arunachal Pradesh from M/s Indian
Oil Corporation Ltd. (IOCL), Digboi, Assam.
The plant site is located at 8 km post on
Kimin-Ziro road. River Ranganadi
CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

surrounds the plant on three sides. A
massive landslide and erosion was noticed
by PDIL engineers during 2002 monsoon.
These phenomena are likely to imperil the
plant site. PDIL requested CWPRS to
inspect site and suggest remedial

River Ranganadi is one of the major north
bank tributary of Brahmaputra river. The
total basin area is about 3579 upto
confluence with Brahmaputra river. River
originates at an elevation of 3440 m, flows
initially in hilly regions of Arunachal Pradesh
and continues through plains in Assam.
Part of the basin is snowfed while remaining
major part receives input from monsoon
rains during J une to September. The
average annual rainfall is 2339 mm.

The plant site was inspected with the
representatives of PDIL and PWD,
Arunachal Pradesh. It was noticed during
the inspection that it is necessary to confirm
the instability of slope near apex of U bend
on Ranganadi. Visual observation during
the subsequent monsoon seasons is
suggested. The flow of river is hugging left
bank at a location further downstream. The
steep sloped rock outcrop at this location
appeared to be stable and the channel
continues to flow along left bank for past
few years. This was confirmed by local
enquiry from PWD representative. The
slope of filling near truck parking area is
likely to be under direct attack of high
velocities during monsoon. The possible
zone of attack is estimated and protection in
the form of stone in crates is suggested for
slope as well as bed of river. Since this
measure involves continuous vigil and
maintenance during the planning horizon,
shifting of parking area towards hill on west
is suggested as an alternative.


Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Ltd.,
(KIOCL), Karnataka produces high quality
iron ore concentrate and iron oxide pellets.
The beneficiation process for iron ore
generates tailings as waste material, which
needs proper disposal. Since
commissioning of plant in 1980, tailings are
being disposed in a valley space created by
104 m high Lakya earth dam. The average
rate of tailings discharge is 7.5 million
tonnes per year. In March 2000, the level of
tailings deposit was 16 m below the top of
the dam. Thus about 80% capacity of the
valley was utilized in past 20 years. With
the expected rate of 17 million tonnes/year
due to accelerated mining processes, the
balance capacity of valley would be
consumed in next 4-5 years. Hence, to
meet future need, storage capacity of the
valley is proposed to be increased by
raising the height of the existing dam by 15
m. This will be achieved by constructing a
tailings dyke on existing tailings deposit by
upstream method of construction.

Seepage Analysis for Existing and Proposed
Raised Section

As a part of dam safety studies, seepage
analysis was carried out for existing earth
dam section as well as proposed raised
section using finite element method.
Seepage through the dam was computed
considering it as a water rentention dam.
The seepage discharge for existing earth
section and proposed raised section
worked out to 347 lit/min and 301 lit/min.

The actual seepage quantity reported by
the Project Authorities varies from 1600
lit/min to 4600 lit/min depending upon the
water level in the reservoir. These
quantities are very large as compared to the
seepage discharge arrived at by finite
element analysis. As such, monitoring of
phreatic surface, hydrodynamic pressures
and pore pressure development in the body
of the dam is warranted in connection with
the stability of the dam.
CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

Determination of Geotechnical Characteristics of
Tailings and Dynamic Analysis of Proposed
Tailings Plateau

In order to increase the storage capacity of
the lake, M/s. Roche Mining (Australia),
consultant of KIOCL, has proposed a
scheme of tailings stacking. It includes jet
stacking the coarse tailings to form three
bunds and divide the reservoir area into
three clean water storage lakes. This would
be followed by settling of silt and clay fines
within the areas enclosed by the bunds. In
the final stage of the tailings stacking
project, highest elevation of the tailings
deposit would be 70 m higher than the crest
level of the existing Lakya dam and the
present dam system would be converted
into the Kudremukh National Park.

In order to assess the stability of the bunds,
KIOCL requested CWPRS to take up field
and laboratory investigations and dynamic
analysis of the bunds. Accordingly, four
boreholes were taken upto 20 m depth in
the reservoir area earmarked for
construction of the bunds and Standard
Penetration Tests (SPT) were conducted in
these boreholes. Dynamic Cone
Penetration Tests (DCPT) were conducted
at four locations near the boreholes. The
SPT and DCPT data indicated that the
shear strength of existing tailings deposit
improved with depth.

Laboratory tests were conducted on tailings
samples collected from the boreholes and
mechanical properties viz. insitu dry
density, natural moisture content, specific
gravity, gradation and Atterberg limits were
determined. Tailings are classified as silty
sand (SM).

The underflow and overflow tailings
received form the classifier were also tested
to determine the mechanical properties.
The underflow tailings are classified as
poorly graded sand (SP) and overflow
tailings as silty sand (SM) as per BIS 1498

The dynamic analysis involved
determination of dynamic properties of
tailings and assessment of seismic stability
of the bunds against Design Basis
Earthquake by Finite Element Method. The
analysis indicated that the bunds are safe
against liquefaction and strains in the bund
portion below and above water level would
not exceed 5% and 2% respectively.

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003


Non-Plan and Plan Funds

The Government of India funds CWPRS
through the Ministry of Water Resources
(MOWR). The fund-requirement for
CWPRS under the heads of Plan and Non-
Plan is included in the Demands for Grants
of the Ministry. On approval of the
Demands for Grants by the Parliament,
CWPRS is allocated funds in accordance
with the approved outlays and established
norms. The institution operates on
principles applicable to Government
Departments, whereby all funds come from
the Government, and all earnings are
credited to the Government. Non-Plan
funds support such items of expenditure as
salaries, travelling expenses, office
expenses, minor works, publications,
machinery and equipment, etc. Plan funds
are primarily used for infrastructure
development. Generally, at the beginning of
the respective Five-Year Plan period, plan
projects are approved.

The Plan Schemes implemented by
CWPRS during the period of this report
include: Sediment Disposal Research
Centre, Augmentation of Water and Power
Supply, Staff Colony Phase III, Upgradation
of Coastal and Offshore Data Collection
Capabilities, Development and Application
of Remote Sensing Techniques for
Hydraulics and Coastal Engineering,
Modernisation of Earth Sciences
Laboratory, Information Technology
Development, Upgradation and
Modernisation of Research Facilities and
Improvement of Canal Control through
Modern Techniques and Technology. The
externally aided scheme currently under
operation is the Hydrology Project, which is
aided by the World Bank.

The expenditure in respect of Plan and
Non-Plan for 2002-03 and the
corresponding projected figures for 2003-04
are shown below.

(Rs. Lakh)

Plan Non-Plan
Financial Year Revenue Capital Total Gross Recoveries Net
2002-03 92 348 440 1851 763 1088
485 485 1879 770 1109

External Cash Flow

CWPRS carries out a large number of
studies that are sponsored by various
clients. The clients are charged for the
expenditure incurred towards the manpower
and facilities extended for the studies as
well as the direct expenditure on purchases
and overhead charges. The institution
receives payments in advance from the
clients, and treats the works as Deposit
Works. The cost estimates for the works
are framed on no-loss no-profit principle.

Recoveries made from client-sponsored
works are shown/credited to the respective
heads of accounts. During the year 2002-
03, client-sponsored research studies
generated an external cash flow of Rs 941
lakh against an expenditure of Rs 853 lakh.

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003


The vigilance/ disciplinary cases and
complaints concerning officers and staff of
Central Water and Power Research Station
received proper and prompt attention. Six
disciplinary cases were added during the
year. Five disciplinary cases continued
from the previous year. Out of eleven
disciplinary cases, final decisions were
taken in respect of four cases. In respect
of one case, inquiry was concluded and the
inquiry report was sent to SPS for
submission of representation, if any. As
such Seven cases are pending for decision.
The break-up of the vigilance and
disciplinary cases in respect of different
categories of officers and staff are given in
the tables below :

Vigilance Cases
Particulars Categories of officers/staff
Group `A Group `B Group `C Group `D

01 Number of cases pending in the
beginning of the year
One * Nil Nil Nil
02 Number of cases added during the
Nil Nil Nil Nil
03 Number of cases disposed off
during the year
Nil Nil Nil Nil
04 Number of cases pending at the
end of the year
Nil Nil Nil Nil

*Prosecution case

Disciplinary Cases

Particulars Categories of officers/staff
Group `A Group `B Group `C Group `D

01 Number of cases pending in the
beginning of the year
Nil Nil 5 Nil
02 Number of cases added during the
Nil 1 5 Nil
03 Number of cases disposed off
during the year
N.A. Nil 4 Nil
04 Number of cases pending at the
end of the year
N.A. 1 7 Nil

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003


The Hydrology Project (HP) is currently
under implementation by the Government of
India with the World Bank. The primary
objective of the project is improvement of
the countrys institutional and technical
capabilities to measure, collate, analyse
and disseminate quantity and quality data
concerning all aspects of surface water and
ground water resources, including the
related climatic data. The project basically
assists the implementing agencies in
improving the organisational arrangements,
institutional and technical capabilities as
also physical facilities for measurement,
scrutiny, validation, analysis, transfer and
dissemination of hydro-meteorological and
water quality data, including those relating
to reservoir storage, sedimentation and

Within the overall framework of HP,
CWPRS performs the role of facilitator in
research and development (R&D), training
and activities involving special studies and
technical support. Specific tasks undertaken
by CWPRS under the project include:
upgradation of rating tank facilities,
procurement of advanced hydrometric and
bathymetric equipment, R&D studies and
Training of Trainers (TOT).

Institutional Strengthening (Technical)

Hydrometric equipment

Under provisions of institutional
strengthening (technical), CWPRS has
procured various advanced hydrometric
equipment such as digital water level
recorders, current meters, integrated
bathymetric system for reservoir
sedimentation survey (IBSRSS), etc.
IBSRSS provides a state-of-the-art modern
technology system for reservoir
sedimentation survey in the country. With
the equipment available readily, CWPRS is
participating in a nation-wide reservoir
sedimentation survey programme initiated
by MOWR for assessing sedimentation in
20 reservoirs.

Hydrometric Instrumentation Services

A large number of imported Digital Water
Level Recorders (DWLR) exceeding
6000-have been procured and installed by
the participating agencies of HP. These
equipments are sophisticated, with
advanced electronics and integrated data
processors. Most of the states do not have
adequate instrumentation expertise needed
for upkeep of these equipments. The World
Bank consultants after observing the strong
instrumentation background identified
CWPRS for setting up of a laboratory/facility
for providing Hydrometric Instrumentation
Services to the participating states.
Probable reasons for failure of these
DWLRs under field conditions have been
identified and remedial measures
suggested. A database to this effect for the
states of Maharashtra and Tamilnadu has
been created. Interaction with the staff of
these states involved in installation of
DWLR has proved to be useful.

In order to advise the users of DWLR a
piezometer standpipe has been designed
and installed at CWPRS for testing and
calibration purpose. In addition, an
accurate pressure calibrator facility has
been added.

Refurbishing of Current Meter Rating

Under HP, the following activities have
been undertaken by CWPRS with the
objective to enhance current meter
calibration range, achieve better accuracies
of measurements and to provide most
efficient and professional services to the

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

Refurbishing of rating tank building

Upgradation of existing current meter
rating trolley (CMRT)

The rating tank building has now been
refurbished to maintain a very good, clean
and attractive scientific environment fit for a
laboratory of international calibre.

The work of upgradation of existing CMRT
is in the final stage of completion. The
upgraded CMRT is equipped with
equipment/instruments of latest technology
for operating the trolley in the speed range
of 0.01m/s to 6 m/s, and for achieving high
precision of calibration conforming to the
International Standards.

R&D activities

Within the purview of HP, CWPRS
undertook three R&D studies. Brief
particulars of the studies are given below.

Reservoir Sedimentation of Survey of
Gangapur Reservoir

The pilot study on Differential Global
Positioning System (DGPS) based reservoir
sedimentation survey of Gangapur dam
near Nasik was carried out in association
with the Government of Maharashtra.
Based on the project, a manual on DGPS-
based reservoir sedimentation survey was

With the experience already gained from
conducting hydrographic surveys in the
past, CWPRS has assisted the state
government agencies of Maharashtra and
Gujarat in inspecting and testing of their
system and also extended on-site hands-on
training on use of the system. Officials of
the Government of Andhra Pradesh,
Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and
Tamilnadu have also approached CWPRS
for similar support, besides extending on-
site training.
Estimation of Irrigation Return Flow in
Kukadi Canal Command Area

The study was aimed at developing a
mathematical model for estimation of
irrigation return flows using field data
collected on various parameters from a pilot
project over an area of 1,340 ha in the
command area of Kukadi project left bank
canal near Nighoj village in Ahmednagar
District, Maharashtra. This was the joint
R&D study by the Maharashtra State and
CWPRS. As a co-investigating agency,
CWPRS advised in selection of study area,
data collection locations, data observation
procedures and conducting specific
investigations/ field experiments required
for the study. Command area data,
Hydrometeorological data and Agriculture
data for 11 irrigation rotation cycles were
provided to CWPRS.

A semi-distributed approach was adopted
by segmenting study area into different soil
types, within which different types of crops
were considered in groups. Model code
consisting main program and 12
subroutines were written in FORTRAN and
has been tested for data on 7 rotations. The
model results are noted to be reasonable
after a critical analysis of the flows recorded
at different locations, cropping pattern,
cultivated area and crop growth stages
during irrigation rotations.

Field Investigations and Development of
Mathematical Model for Predicting Water
Quality in Reservoir Systems: Panshet
and Ujjani Reservoirs

Under the study, seasonal field studies and
laboratory analyses of water, sediment and
bank samples from the two reservoirs, viz.
Panshet and Ujjani, were carried out. The
data thus generated delineated the water
quality of the two reservoirs. Comparison of
observed data with standards for best-
designated uses were useful to determine
the suitability of water for different beneficial

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

purposes. Computation of water quality
indices, nutrient budget and eutrophication
levels were useful to assess the trend of
seasonal variation in water quality. The
water quality indices are also useful to
compare the water quality of upstream and
downstream reservoirs. The work helped to
know the possible effects of human-caused
activities on water and sediment quality with
reference to heavy metal pollution.

Based on the data, a two-layered
mathematical model for obtaining the flow
circulation in reservoirs was obtained. This
model would enable simulation of the gross
features of reservoir hydrodynamics. The
mathematical model for reservoir
hydrodynamics is under further
development to incorporate water quality

Training of Trainers

HP is oriented to improve the facilities and
staff capabilities of participating agencies,
involved in surface and ground water
hydrology for collection and management of
water and related data. Data collected by
different agencies - by employing uniform
standards, procedures and methods - would
be used for evaluation of water resources
for diverse needs such as irrigation,
industrial and domestic purposes and
recreational use; with special attention to
water quality. Human side of this objective
requires development of qualified staff for
hydrology-related activities. Requirement of
professionally qualified staff is required at
different levels such as field observers, data
processors, data management experts, and
specialists with wide understanding of
hydrological data evaluation. Different
training courses within the purview of the
project are designed with the above
objective as the backdrop. Under ToT
scheme of the project, trainers who get
training would be organizing similar courses
in their parent organisation on their return
from training.
To aid the hydrological data processing
activities, the data processing software
Hymos, developed by Delft Hydraulics, has
been installed under the provisions of
Hydrology Project; and is being used for
varied pre-processing needs. Hymos, a
database management and data processing
software, is designed to arrange water data
in a conveniently structured database. The
software provides extensive tools for data
entry, validation, compilation, analysis,
retrieval and reporting. The software is
menu-driven, and includes tabular and
graphical options that facilitate quick data
analysis and efficient reporting. Three
officers from CWPRS have been trained on
Hymos software under the relevant training
of trainers course; and are functioning as
trainers under the project.

CWPRS organised four rounds of five-day
ToT course on `Analogue/Digital Water
Level Recorders (A/DWLR), Bank Operated
Cable Ways (BOCW) and Sediment
Sampling. Seventy-three trainers from the
participating agencies of CWC, Andhra
Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala,
Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa and
Tamil Nadu were trained through the
course. In association with Engineering
Staff College (ESC), Nasik, CWPRS also
organised five rounds of 10-day training
course on `Surface water quantity for
Supervisors and junior staff of water
resources department, Government of
Maharashtra, at ESC, Nasik. Moreover,
officers from CWPRS are regularly
contributing to training courses organised
under the project by other participating
agencies such as National Water Academy
by way of delivering lectures and holding
demonstration sessions on varied topics
such as river gauging, operation and
maintenance of hydrometric equipment,
flood studies, etc.

Intense training programme was organised
on IBSRSS during 2002-2003. Theory and
practical training for CWPRS officials on
operation, use and routine maintenance the

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

IBSRSS was held during May 2002. Trial
surveys were conducted at Gangapur dam,
Nasik, during October 2002, and training on
post-processing on the data collected at
Gangapur dam conducted during October
November 2002.

CWPRS officials also participated in two
technical workshops as resource agency for
delivering lectures and sharing experience
in the use and maintenance of the
bathymetric equipment during J uly 2002
and December 2002.

On-site third party inspection was also
carried out for the bathymetric equipments
received by other states.

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003


Silicon Graphics Workstation Network

The high performance Silicon Graphics
(SG) Server/ Client /X-Terminal Workstation
Network is currently in use since J une
1995. The SG Workstation Network
consists of five Servers with high number
crunching and high performance graphics
capabilities and fifteen X-Terminals. These
are interconnected via switches on a UTP
Network. Several peripheral devices like
heavy duty line printers, a high resolution
colour printer, a laser printer are available
on the Network. Storage/back-up devices
like magtape drive, CD drives etc. also form
integral part of the Network.

Remote Sensing Application Facilities

In order to provide viable and economical
solutions to various problems in the fields of
water resources, river and coastal
engineering, reservoirs and appurtenant
structures, it was decided to use the
advanced technologies such as remote
sensing techniques and Geographical
Information System (GIS). Realizing the
importance and usefulness of the powerful
tool of remote sensing in acquiring
data/information for development and
management of hydraulics and coastal
engineering, the remote sensing laboratory
has been developed. The lab comprise
Silicon Graphics SGI OCTANE and SGI O2
servers under IRIX Operating System with
the state-of-art facilities such as latest
colour printers, scanner, digitizer, LCD
projector, digital camera and multimedia.

The SG Network and Remote Sensing
Network are used for mathematical
modeling, scientific visualization, image
processing and remote sensing and GIS
applications. Following software packages
are available on the SG and RS
Workstation Networks:

MIKE 21 : Computation of tidal
hydrodynamics, wave propagation, water
quality, morphology and estuarine

LITPACK : Littoral drift distribution and
shoreline evolution.

TELEMAC 2D : Hydraulic design of port
facilities and navigational channels.

EASI/PACE : Digital Image Processing
software for Remote Sensing applications.

SPANS :GIS software.

TIDEWAY-2D : Tidal flow simulation and
associated transport processes of
sediment, heat and pollution.

SANDFLOW / MUDFLOW :Transport of sand
and mud under the action of tides.

SEAFLOW : 2-D simulation of flow field in
estuaries and coastal areas.

OILTRAN : Simulation of oil spill movement
in coastal waters, creeks and harbours.

MORMOT : Motion of moored ships at berth.

VERMO : Vertical motion of a ship in
navigation channel.

NAVIGA : Navigation of a ship in approach
channel under the action of wave, wind and

OUTRAY : Wave transformation from deep
to shallow coastal waters.

PORTRAY : Wave disturbance in harbours.

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

REFDIF : Computation of refraction and
defraction of waves in coastal areas.

RMA2 : 2-D finite element model for flow in
estuaries and streams.

SOLVIA : Dynamic analysis of dams

EAGD4 : Earthquake analysis of gravity

CHARIMA : 1-D hydrodynamic and sediment
transport model.

SEDIM : 2-D simulation of sediment
transport in ports and harbours.

CORMIX : Near field and far field mixing and
dilution in open channel flows.

SEDTRANS : Sediment transport in open

DREDCHAN : Sedimentation in dredged

NETWORK : Unsteady flow in river network.

FLOP : Flood routing and reservoir

STRAT 2D : Stratified flow.

WATER HAMMER : Computation of transient
flows in pipelines, surge shaft etc. of
hydroelectric power plants.

IMAGE PROCESSING : Developed in-house
for processing and analysis of field images
collected using remote sensing satellites.

Several in-house software packages have
been developed for visualization of data
generated from mathematical models.
These include:

2D flow-field simulation

Simulation of Oil-sleek in harbours/ sea

3D simulation of dam-break

Concentration of effluent discharges in

Presentation of different stresses, time
histories, frequency curves in case of
FEM for dams

Computation of siltation and dredging
quantities including graphical

MIS-LAN Network/Camus-wide Network

A Local Area Network (LAN) is in use for
Information Management at CWPRS. The
Network uses Novell Netware Operating
System and fifty distributed nodes within
two buildings linked by a optical fibre cable.

The MIS-LAN system is serving the needs
by computerization of various sections viz.
Administration, Bills, Accounts,
Procurement and Services, Pay and
Accounts Office, Executive Engineer
(Civil)s Office, Technical Co-ordination etc.
There are over 150 User accounts on the
MIS file server.

A 230-node campus-wide Network is under
installation in CWPRS under the Plan
Scheme of IT Development at CWPRS.
The LAN will be used for sharing and
exchanging information/data generated
within the Research Station. A Gigabit
optical fibre cable running through-out
CWPRS campus will serve as backbone.
The PCs/Nodes in various divisions/
sections/offices will physically get
connected to LAN Servers via Layer 3
switches through the Network of optical
fibre and Cat-6 UTP cables. With this
arrangement, the IT infrastructure would be
available as an invaluable facility for the
user community for several years. The
Internet and email facility, through leased
line connection from VSNL, will also be
extended to various offices/divisions
through this Network.

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003







Ramteke R S
Venugopal K
Krishnaiah C
Ghosh N
Panvalkar G A &
Shirke J M

Reservoir competency assessment by
integrated geophysical investigations : A
case study

J ournal of Geophysics,
Vol. 23, No. 2 Apr 2002,
pp 51-58


Chavan A R
Kondayya R K &
Kulkarni B S

Energy conservation techniques for
pump application

International Seminar on
Fluid Power,
Instrumentation and
Control, Pumps and
Valves, Mumbai, May


Kondayya R K
Bhambure S R
Abdul Rahiman PM &
Ansari S A

Submersible pumps for minor irrigation :
Methodology for comparative evaluation
and selection


Kshirsagar M M
Vijayagopal P
Kannan S &
Bapat A D

Flood warning system for a thermal
power project in flood plain area


Mathew F T &
Vivekanandan N

Extreme value analysis of rainfall of
Tutikorin region

Conference on
Developments in
Hydrology - The Current
Status alongwith a
Colloquium on Water
Management, Kolkata,
Oct 2002


Wadhwa R S
Ghosh N
Chaudhary M S
Subba Rao C &
Mukhopadhyay R

Pre and post-excavation cross-hole
seismic and geotomographic studies for
a nuclear power project

Annual Convention
and Meeting on
Sustainability Science
and Environmental
Geophysics, Nagpur,
Oct 2002


Chavan A R
Kulkarni B S &
J ames A S

Relevance of flow measurement for
effecting energy conservation in pumping


Kondayya R K &
Kulkarni B S

Energy management of pumping system
in multistoried buildings


Kashid M B
Chavan A R &
Tripathi V K

Energy conservation a rational approach:
Some aspects

Seminar on Emerging
Trends in Energy
Management of
Pumping System, Pune,
Oct 2002


Abdul Rahiman PM
Kashid M B
Bhambure S R &
Chavan A R

Renewable energy : Its role for future
energy needs

First International
Conference on
Renewable Energy, New
Delhi, Oct 2002

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003






Ghosh N
Wadhawa R S
Chaudhary M S
Subba Rao C
Bhowmik S C &
Mukhopadhyay R

Seismic tomography to assess the
health of a masonry dam

Convention and
Seminar on Exploratrion
Geophysics, New Delhi,
Nov 2002


Venugopal K
Akut P V
Panvalkar G A
Ramteke R S &
Ghosh N

Assesment of yield of radial collector
well in Banas river bed, Rajasthan

Annual Convention
and National Seminar
on Hydrology with
Special Reference to
Semi-Arid Regions,
Bijapur, Nov 2002


Prabhakar V M
Hansda S
Vaidya S &
Basu A K

Phytoplankton dynamics in Panshet and
Ujjani reservoirs, located upstream and
downstream of Pune city

Conference on Water
and Waste Water:
Perspectives of
Developing Countries,
New Delhi, Dec 2002


Bhave V G
Vhatkar S R &
Shitole M S

Storm water drainage network for Super
Thermal Power Project


Vivekanandnan N

Streamflow forecasting using cascade
correlation neural network : A case

Conference on Water
Related Disasters
Kolkata, Dec 2002


Bhave V G &
Shitole M S

Design of sluice in case of Himalayan


Dhilipkumar R
Swain K K
Vaidya S &
Basu A K

In-situ water quality analysis : Seasonal
varioations at Panshet and Ujjani

Conference on
Hydrology and
Hyderabad, Dec 2002




Sinha J
Manivanan R
Kanetkar C N &
Ghosh L K

Vijayagopal P
Krishna Kumar C S
Kannan S &
Bapat A D

Singh M N
Wakalkar V M
Appukuttan V K
& Shitole M S

Water quality modeling of the
reservoir for Himalayan region

Hydrological studies for flood mitigation
in a thermal power project area

Model study for locating a bridge across
river Yamuna at New Delhi : A case

National Conference on
Hydraulics, Water
Resources and Ocean
Engineering, Mumbai,
Dec 2002

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003






Singh M N
Appukuttan V K
& Shitole M S

Recent material for river training
measures for Delhi : Noida road bridge
at New Delhi


Oak R A
Appukuttan V K
& Shitole M S

Morphological study of river
Brahmaputra using remote sensing


Patil B M
Atkekar N D &
Kanetkar C N

Determination of harbour layout by
mathematical modeling


Purandare U V &
Prabhat Chandra

Improvement of Munambam inter-
evaluation of post construction


Prabhat Chandra;
Ranganath L R
Agrawal J D
Chavan S S &
Purandare U V

Optimization of layout for passenger
cruise vessel berth at Mormugao port,


Selvabalan M &
Raja M

Analysis of various architectures of
artificial neural networks and


Gangal A C
Ganguly S &
Atkekar N D

Instrumentation for multi-parameter data
sensing and analysis using personal
computer for hydraulic model studies


Kudale M D
Poonawala I Z
Purohit A A &
Das S K

Cyclones and their impact on design of
coastal structures


Vaze V V
Kale A G &
Manjunatha S G

Model studies for selection of location
for intake and outfall for a power plant


Kulkarni B S &
Ansari S A

Elimination of swirling flow in pump
suction manifold of a city water pumping
system - A case study


Phadke S V

16 channel wave height system for
scaled hydraulic models



Bhosekar V V
Sridevi M I &
Deolalikar P B

Kamble R K
Vaidya S D &
Ghosh N

Hydraulic design of spillway for run-off-
river scheme

Geophysical borehole logging for
locating leakage through the foundation
of dam - A case study

National Conference on
Hydraulics, Water
Resources and Ocean
Engineering, Mumbai,
Dec 2002

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003






J adhav R C
Mehendale P B &
Shitole M S

Problems associated in orientation and
alignment of barrages : A case study


Shitole M S &
Isaac Neena

Model studies for hydraulic design of
Naraj barrage


Shitole M S
Mehendale P B &
Shah C M

Hydraulic design of desilting basin for
Kayamkulam combined cycle thermal
power project


Mehendale P B
Kshirsagar M M &
Shitole M S

Quantification of runoff from a hilltop
area : A case study


Shitole M S
Mehendale P B &
Shirke J M

Stabilisation of Parvati river banks at
Manikaran, Kullu, Himachal Pradesh


Dhayalan S
Singh J K &
Naidu Y R V

Digital water level tracker


Goel P K
Bhonde K G
Chavan Y M &
Chavan A R

Development of suspended sediment
sampling instruments

National Conference on
Hydraulics, Water
Resources and Ocean
Engineering, Mumbai,
Dec 2002


Khare P K
Mahalingaiah A V
Patil B M
Kanetkar C N &
Poonawala I Z

Role of hydraulic model studies for
development of passenger water
transport terminals on the west coast of

Seminar on Sea Water
Transportation for
Mumbai, Mumbai,
Dec 2002


Hayatnagarkar C K
Desai A T
Godse S M
Kulkarni A S &
Pokale U B

Role of Indian network for research in
irrigation and drainage in promoting
exchange of information

Conference on
Hydrology and
Hyderabad, Dec 2002


Bhambure S R
Kashid M B
Abdul Rahiman PM
Ansari S A &
Chavan A R

Importance of hydraulic model study of a
pump sump for a large lift irrigation
scheme : A case study

Second International
Conference on Fluid
Mechanics and Fluid
Power, Roorkee, Dec

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003






Gupta I D

Should normalized spectral shapes be
used for estimating site-specific design
ground motion?


Varshikar N B
Pandit V K &
Gupta I D

Seismic qualification studies for fire
alarm panel and central alarm panel for
Kaiga Atomic Power Project

Symposium on
Earthquake Engineering,
Roorkee, Dec 2002


Kshirsagar M M &
Ramana Murthy K V

Estimation of model parameters for two
sub-catchments of Narmada river basin

International Conference
on Hydrology and
Hyderabad, Dec 2002


Bhajantri M R
Eldho T I &
Deolalikar P B

Experimental and numerial investigation
of flowover spillway

International R & D
Conference on Water
and Energy for 21

Century, Aurangabad,
J an 2003


Bhosekar V V
Sridevi M I &
Deolalikar P B

Environmental issues pertaining to
development of hydro- power projects
49. Shukla V P &
Kannan S
Mathematical model analysis of hydraulic
transients in head race surge system for
Koyna Hydroelectric Project, Stage IV,

National Conference on
Advances in Civil
Engineering :
Perspectives of
Developing Countries,
Kanpur, Feb 2003


Poonawala I Z &
Kudale M D

Artificial concrete armour units in rubble
mound breakwater in India

National Seminar on
Harbour Structures,
Chennai, Feb 2003

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003






S Balkrishna
A Kumar
S Paswan

Training Course on Application of FEM/FEA in Designing
Water Resource Structures, April 9-19, 2002, National Water
Academy, Pune

4. R K Kamble Workshop on Dissemination of Information on Use of
Isotopes in Dam Safety and Dam Sustainability, April 15-19,
2002, Korea

P M Abdul Rahiman
U C Roman
Seminar on Lift Irrigation Schemes, April 24-26, 2002,


L K Ghosh
N Ghosh
Workshop on Effective Performance Appraisal, April 26-27,
2002, New Delhi

9.. B S Kulkarni International Seminar on Fluid Power, Instrumentation and
Control, Pumps and Valves, May 9-11, 2002, Mumbai

10. T Nagendra Regional RCA/IAEA Workshop on Application of
Radioisotopes for Sediment Transport Studies, May 20-25,
2002, Mumbai

A C Gangal
B P Shah
M D Kudale
A D Bapat
V V Bhosekar (Mrs)

Training of Trainer on Teaching and Communication Skills,
J une 3-4, 2002, National Water Academy, Pune


M Selva Balan Technical Workshop on Integrated Bathymetric Survey, J une
11-13, 2002, Chennai

17. M Phanikumar Research and Development Workshop on Global Ballast
Water Management, J une 13-14, 2002, National Institute of
Oceanography, Goa

18. P Vijaygopal Workshop on Participatory Irrigation Management, J une 25-
27, 2002, Central Water and Power Research Station, Pune

19. V M Bendre (Mrs) Fifth International Conference on Hydroinformatics, J uly 1-5,
2002, Cardiff Wales, U.K.

20. I Z Poonawala Awareness Course on Geoinformatics for Environmental
Assessment and Disaster Management, J uly 1-12, 2002,

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003





A M Hibare
R S Mate

Training Programme on Disbursement Related Issues and
Classification of Expenditure, J uly 11-12, 2002, National
Water Academy, Pune

23. K B Surwade Workshop-cum-Training Programme on Application of
Artificial Neural Network in Civil Engineering with Emphasis
on Water Resources Development, August 27 September
4, 2002, National Water Academy, Pune


B S Sundarlal
K C Sahu
P D Patil
N Ali
A Meshram

Short Term Training Course on Mini and Micro Hydel
Projects, September 11-18, 2002, National Water Academy,

29. J B Mane Training Programme on Handling of CAT Cases, Institute of
Secretariat Training and Management, October 1-4, 2002,
New Delhi

30. R Manivanan Short Term Training Course on Effective Management,
October 7-11, 2002, National Water Academy, Pune

31. C Subba Rao Thirty ninth Annual Convention and Meeting of Indian
Geophysical Union on Sustainability Science and
Environmental Geophysics, October 4-6, 2002, Nagpur

B S Kulkarni
A S J ames
V K Tripathi
V S Ramarao
P B Deolalikar

Seminar on Emerging Trends in Energy Management of
Pumping System, October 12, 2002, Institution of Engineers
(India), Pune


F T Mathew
P Vijaygopal
Conference on Development in Hydrology The Current
Status alongwith a Colloquium on Water Resources
Management, October 25, 2002, Kolkata

39. J B Mane Training Programme on Noting and Drafting, Institute of
Secretariat Training on Management, October 24-25, 2002,
New Delhi

P S Kapileshwar
Prabhat Chandra
All India Level Scientific Hindi Seminar, November 15, 2002,
New Delhi

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003





N Ghosh

Workshop on International Association of Hydrological
Sciences Decade of Prediction on Ungauged Basin,
November 20-22, 2002, Brazil

43. M S Chaudhari

Twenty seventh Annual Convention and Seminar of
Association of Exploration Geoscientists on Exploration
Geophysics, November 14-16, 2002, New Delhi

44. J M Shirke Indian Rock Conference, November 28-29, 2002, New Delhi

45. K Venugopal Twenty first Annual Convention and National Seminar on
Hydrology with Special Reference to Semi-Arid Regions,
November 29-30, 2002, Bijapur

A V S Ram Sharma
P S Kunjir
GIS Course in Coastal Zone Management, J uly 15
November 15, 2002, Dehradun

48. N Vivekanandan International Conference on Water Related Disasters,
December 5-6, 2002, Kolkata

49. V M Prabhakar International Conference on Water and Waste Water
Perspective of Developing Countries, December 10-13,
2002, New Delhi

L K Ghosh
M S Shitole
A R Chavan
B S Kulkarni
S V Phadke (Mrs)
R K Kamble
C B Singh
R A Oak
M D Kudale
V V Bhosekar
Prabhat Chandra
B M Patil
M R Bhajantri
M N Singh
P B Mehendale
Neena Issac (Mrs)
C M Shah
J Sinha
R Manjunath
M Raja

Conference on Hydraulic Water Resources and Ocean
Engineering, December 16-17, 2002, Mumbai

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003





P M Abdul Rahiman

International Conference on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid
Power, December 12-14, 2002, Roorkee

I D Gupta
N B Varshikar
Twelveth Symposium on Earthquake Engineering,
December 16-18, 2002, Roorkee

V G Bhave
R D Dhilipkumar
M M Kshirsagar
International Conference on Hydrology and Watershed
Management, December 18-20, 2002, Hyderabad

P K Khare
A V Mahalingaiah
Seminar on Seawater Transportation for Mumbai, December
30, 2002, Mumbai


V S Purohit Training Programme on Reservation in Services
for Scheduled Castes, Schedules Tribes and OBCs,
December 30, 2002-J anuary 1, 2003, Institute Secretariat
Training and Management, New Delhi

79. R K Sinharay Twenty second Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica,
J anuary 2, 2003, Antarctica

U V Purandare,
R R Shirke
G R Tripathy
National Seminar cum Workshop on Application of Advanced
Blasting Techniques for Rock Dredging, J anuary 10-11,
2003, Madurai


S D Ranade
N D Atkekar
Short Term Course on Image Processing, J anuary 8-11,
2003, College of Engineering, Pune

85. M R Bhajantri Fourth International Research and Development Conference
on Water and Energy for 21
Century, J aunary 28-31, 2003,
WALMI, Aurangabad

86. U M J adiye
S Natu (Mrs)
Training Programme on Tax Deduction at Source, J aunary
16, 2003, Pune

C K Rani (Mrs)
S D Vaidya
Workshop on Role of Isotope Hydrology in Water Resources
Development, J anuary 27, 2003, Central Water Commission,
New Delhi

89. K C Biradar Seminar on Standby Batteries, Selection, Operation and
Maintenance, February 17-18, 2003, Mumbai

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003





I D Gupta
S S Gaikwad
M Abraham (Mrs)

Orientation Course on Vigilance Administration, February 10-
15, 2003, National Water Academy, Pune

93. V M Bendre (Mrs) Seminar on Kaizen to Improve Performance Quality
Productivity, February 13, 2003, Institute of Engineers (India)

I Z Poonawala
M D Kudale

National Seminar on Harbour Structures (NASHAR-2003),
February 20-22, 2003, Chennai
N Ghosh
A K Basu
Management Development Programme for Central Water
Engineering Services Officers, February 18-20, 2003,
National Water Academy, Pune

Neena Isaac (Mrs)
N Vivekanandan
Training Programme on Flood Management and Flood
Forecasting, March 3-7, 2003, National Water Academy,


P D Patil
U S Vaskale
Training Programme on Economic Analysis of Irrigation
Projects, March 21-31, 2003, National Water Academy,

102. M M Kshirsagar International Workshop on River Basin Planning and
Management, March 28-29, 2003, Hyderabad

103. S Paswan Workshop on Civil FEM 7.0 for ANSYS, March 28, 2003,

R R Kekare (Mrs)
U Bandyopadhyay
Training Programme on Reservation in Services
for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and OBCs (RIS-2),
March 12-14, 2003, Institute Secretariat Training and
Management, New Delhi

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003


Name Topic Course Details





V P Shukla

L R Pattanur (Ms)

C B Singh

K R Dhawan

Matrix Algebra

Case Studies on Dam Analysis Using FEM

Case Study on Hydraulics Using FEM

Case Study on Analysis of Underground
Cavities Using FEM

Training Course on
Application of
Designing Water
Resources Structures
at National Water
Academy, Pune.
Apr 9-19, 2002





C K Hayatnagarkar

S D Kulkarni

P D Kamalasekaran

C Ramesh

Collection, Retrieval, Organization and
Transfer of Data from Digital Water Level

Bank Operated Cableway System Operation
and Maintenance

Bank Operated Cableway Design Procedures
and Maintenance

Bathymetry System - Apparatus, Instruments

O&M of Meteorological Stations Including
Routine Maintenance

Second Refresher
Course on ToT in
Hydrometry under
Hydrology Project at
National Water
Academy, Pune.
Apr 10-19, 2002






P K Goel

C K Hayatnagarkar

P D Kamalasekaran

S D Kulkarni

C Ramesh

DWLRS Installation Procedures and
Operationalisation, O&M Procedures,
Demonstration of the Equipment

DWLRS Collection, Retrieval, Organisation
and Transfer of Data

Bathymetry System Apparatus and

Bank Operated Cableway System for
Measurement of Flow in Open Channel

O&M of Meteorological Stations Including
Routine Maintenance

Third Refresher
Course on ToT in
Hydrometry under
Hydrology Project at
National Water
Academy, Pune.
May 1-10, 2002




C K Hayatnagarkar

P K Goel

C Ramesh

Operation and Maintenance Procedures of
Digital Water Level Recorders and Data

Installation Procedures and Demonstration of
Digital Water Level Recorder

O&M of Meteorological Stations Including
Routine Maintenance

Fourth Refresher
Course on ToT in
Hydrometry under
Hydrology Project at
National Water
Academy, Pune.
J un 4-13, 2002

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

Name Topic Course Details


R A Oak

Scour and Protection Measures for Bridges

Senior Professional
Course (Bridges &
General) for SG and
J AG Officers of Indian
Railways at Indian
Railway Institute of
Civil Engineering,
J un 13, 2002


M M Kshirsagar

Basic Surface Water Data Processing

HYMOS Course at
National Water
Academy, Pune.
J un 11-13, 2002


R A Oak

Scour Phenomena

Senior Professional
Course (Bridges &
General) for SG and
J AG Officers of Indian
Railways at Indian
Railway Institute of
Civil Engineering,
Aug 2, 2002


A D Bapat

Applications of Management Rules

Workshop on
Effectiveness in HIS
Management, CWC,
Aug 6-8, 2002



S G Chaphalkar

C K Hayatnagarkar

Role of CWPRS in Water Resources

Library and Information System of CWPRS

Induction Training
Course for newly
recruited Assistant
Directors of CWC at
National Water
Academy, Pune.
Aug 29, 2002




Selva Balan

N Vivekanandan

J D Agrawal

Introduction to Artificial Neural Network

Classification of Anns and its Application in
Hydrology & Water Resources

ANN in Wave Forecasting and Parameters

Workshop cum
Training Programme
on Application of
Artificial Neural
Networks in Civil
Engineering with
Emphasis on Water
Development at
National Water
Academy, Pune.
Aug 27 Sep 4, 2002

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

Name Topic Course Details



F,T Mathew

N Vivekanandan

Parameter Estimation, Confidence Limits,
Hands on exercise with HYMOS

Hypothesis Testing, Goodness of Fit Test,
Hands on exercise with HYMOS

Advanced HYMOS
Course at National
Water Academy,
Sep 26-27, 2002





A R Chavan

M B Kashid

R M Sinnarkar

M M Kshirsagar

Cost Optimization in the Use of Pumps as
Turbine in Mini and Micro Hydel Projects

Selection of Electromechanical Equipment for
Mini and Micro Hydel Projects

Selection and Design of Gates and Valves for
Mini and Micro Hydel Projects

Advanced SW Data Processing (HYMOS 4)

Short Term Training
Course on Mini &
Micro Hydel Projects
at National Water
Academy, Pune.
Sep 12-13, 2002









B P Shah

M S Shitole

P B Mehendale

C M Shah

Neena Issac (Mrs)

S D Kulkarni

R A Oak

A D Bapat

River Training Works

Sediment Transport and Its Mechanism

Sediment Measurement Techniques and

Design of Desilting Basin and Flushing Tunnel
Beyond Desilting Basin

Design of Barrages and Weirs

Estimation of Transmission Losses in Canal

River Morphology Studies Applying RS-GIS
Techniques River Morphology Behaviour of

Canal Automation

Induction Training
Course for newly
recruited Assistant
Directors of CWC at
National Water
Academy, Pune.
Oct 1-25, 2002




R A Oak

C B Singh

I D Gupta

Prediction of Bank Erosion Using Remote
Sensing Technique

Concept of Computer Modelling of Water
Movement and Waste Disposal

The Present Knowledge on Reservoir Induced

Training Programme
on Effective
Management for River
Valley Projects at
National Water
Academy, Pune.
Oct 8-10, 2002

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

Name Topic Course Details





Attitudes, Skills and Habits of an Effective

Practice of Harvad Approach and its
Applications in HIS Context

Third Workshop on
Effectiveness in HIS
Management at
National Water
Academy, Pune.
Oct 29-30, 2002



Attitudes, Skills and Habits of an Effective
Manager and Practice of Harvad Approach
and its Applications in HIS Context

Third Workshop on
Effectiveness in HIS
Management at
National Water
Academy, Pune.
Nov 20-21, 2002








R.G.J oshi (Mrs.)

Geophysical Investigations and Data Needs
for Planning and Formulation of Hydropower

Seismological Studies for Hydropower

Design of Desilting Chambers for Hydropower

Dynamic Analysis of Concrete Dams

First International
Course on
Development at
National Water
Academy, Pune .
J an 22-27, 2003



Scour Phenomena

Senior Professional
Course (Bridges &
General) for SG &
J AG Officers of Indian
Railways at Indian
Railway Institute of
Civil Engineering,
Feb 25, 2003





Physical Modeling of River Training Works
An Overview

Mathematical Modeling of River Training

Flood Management
and Flood
Forecasting at
National Water
Academy, Pune.
Mar 3-7, 2003

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003


3868 Hydraulic model studies for flushing
tunnel beyond desilting basin - Tala
Hydroelectric project, Bhutan - Rep

3869 Underwater seismic reflection
survey in the main harbour and
approach channel of J awaharlal
Nehru Port, Nhava

3870 Hydraulic model studies for flushing
of sediment from Teesta reservoir,
Teesta H E Project stage V, Sikkim

3871 An updated estimation of design
seismic ground motion for
Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project,

3872 Wave tranquility studies for
passenger cruise vessel berth at
Marmugao Port, Goa

3873 Report on the monitoring of blast
vibration during excavation of rock
for Rajasthan Atomic Power
Project (RAPP) Units 5 & 6,

3874 Report on cross hole seismic
studies at additional waste
treatment and spent fuel storage
sites, BARC, Tarapur, Maharashtra

3875 Hydraulic model studies for
desilting basin of Teesta Hydro-
electric project, Stage V, Sikkim -
Rep. No. 1.

3876 Mathematical model studies for
transient analysis of head race and
tail race system of Ghatghar H E
Project, Maharashtra

3877 Hydraulic model studies for
alternative_VI of left training wall of
power house tail race channel,
Kurichu H.E. Project, Bhutan

3878 Mathematical model studies for
wave transformation for obtaining
wave conditions in the area of
proposed development at
J awaharlal Nehru Port,

3879 Report on cross-hole, seismic
studies at additional waste
treatment and rump facility sites,
BARC, Trombay, Maharashtra

3880 Seepage analysis for existing and
proposed raised section of Lakya
dam, Kudremukh Iron Ore Co. Ltd,

3881 Estimation of design storm and
determination of evaporation
characteristics in the Kudankulam
region, Tamil Nadu

3882 Hydraulic model studies for spillway
stoplog gates, Chamera H E
Project stage II, Himachal Pradesh

3883 Wave flume studies for the design
of breakwater at Mus, (Car Nicobar

3884 Inspection of site to suggest
training measures to river Tikra for
HVDC Project at Kaniha, Orissa

3885 Estimation of water levels in river
Banas, Khari-II and Saraswati at
Narmada main canal crossing,

3886 Modifications of the protection
works for river Parvati at Minikaran,
Kullu, Himachal Pradesh

3887 Mathematical model studies for flow
modelling and siltation for the
proposed development at
J awaharlal Nehru Port, Mumbai,

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

3888 Feasibility studies for locating
intake and outfall structures of CW
system for proposed Palghar Power
Station (BSES ), Maharashtra

3889 Report on the seismological studies
for Tala H E Project, Bhutan for the
period J anuary 1998 to December

3890 2-D Mathematical model studies to
investigate hydrodynamics and
water quality of the Tehri reservoir,
Tehri Uttaranchal

3891 Seismic analysis of proposed
earthen bund to form reservoir at
Kudankulam site, TamilNadu

3892 Mathematical model studies for
littoral drift distribution and
shoreline changes at New
Mangalore Port, Karnataka

3893 Deciding the scope of studies for
flood plane zoning of river Swan
downstream of Santokhgarh bridge,
Himachal Pradesh

3894 Report on underwater seismic
reflection survey for development of
naval harbour, south of
Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh

3895 Report on seismic reflection and
refraction surveys at left bank of
Koyna dam, Maharashtra

3896 Desk studies for suggesting anti-
erosion measures to river Ravi at
Chamba , Himachal Pradesh

3897 Hydraulic model studies for
desilting basin of Teesta Hydro-
electric project, Stage V, Sikkim
Rep. No.2

3898 Report (Part II) on underwater
seismic reflection survey in the
main harbour and approachchannel
of J awaharlal Nehru Port, Nhava
Sheva, Maharashtr

3899 Microearthquake studies for
investigation on induced siesmicity
in Itezhitezhi reservoir area, Zambia
during the period May 1987 to
March 1993

3900 Hydraulic model studies to examine
the effect of sunken mooring
dolphin of IFFCO J etty at Kandla
Port, Gujarat

3901 Report of the microearthquake
studies around Almatti and
Narayanpur reservoirs, Karnataka
(Period 1.1.96 to 31.12.2000)

3902 Report on cross-hole seismic
studies at reactor buildings 3&4,
Kaiga Atomic Power Project,
3903 Field data collection and analysis
for condenser cooling sea water
system of 500 MWe Prototype Fast
Breeder Reactor (PFBR)

3904 Model studies for proposed barrage
on river Punpun. Bihar

3905 Restricted

3906 Restricted

3907 Pre-cooling of ingredients of roller
compacted concrete, Ghatghar
pumped storage scheme,

3908 Prediction of receding low tide line
at Pirpau using remote sensing
data, Mumbai, Maharashtra

3909 Final report on electrical resistivity
survey at Kaiga Project, Karnataka

3910 Restricted

3911 Estimation of dynamic of elasticity
for the concrete and the foundation
rock of Koyna dam, Maharashtra

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

3912 Report on evaluation of safe
charges for excavation of rock at
the site of units 3 & 4 of Kaiga
Atomic Power Project, Karnataka

3913 Restricted

3914 Restricted

3915 Report on submersible pumpsets
tested for hydraulic performance
and overload tests (for TE/465 and
TE/466/2001-2002 UPID-2002)
capacity 150 cum/hr, 18 m head &
36 m head

3916 Development of mathematical
model to predict hydrodynamics
and water quality in the reservoir
systems : Panshet & Ujjani,

3917 Mathematical model studies for
transient analysis of the water
conductor system, Konal H.E.
Project, Maharashtra

3918 Hydraulic model studies for spillway
stoplog gates, Chamera H.E
Project Stage-II, Himachal Pradesh

3919 Field investigations and laboratory
studies for assessment of water
quality of Panshet and Ujjani
reservoir, Maharashtra

3920 Restricted

3921 Study of shoreline behaviour using
remote sensing data for port at
Hazira, Gujarat

3922 Restricted

3923 Hydraulic model studies for Parbati
dam spillway, Stage-II, Himachal

3924 Report on submersible pumpset
tested for hydraulic performance for
M/s Kirloskar Brothers Ltd, Dewas,
Madhya Pradesh

3925 Report on the microearthquake
studies at and around Harangi
Project site, Karnataka

3926 Mathematical model studies for
proposed bridge on Kosi river at
NH-57 Crossing, Bihar

3927 Hydraulic model studies for Teesta
dam spillway, Stage-V, Sikkim

3928 Mathematical model studies of
hydraulic transients in head race
surge system of Koyna
hydroelectric Project stage-IV-B,

3929 Report on the methodology of
controlled blasting for removal of
rock pinnacles in the Indira Dock
approach Channel, Mumbai Port
Trust, Mumbai, Maharashtra

3930 Hydraulic model studies for
desilting basin of Parbati
hydroelectric project, stage-II,
Himachal Pradesh Rep. No.1

3931 Estimation of site-specific design
seismic parameters for dynamic
analysis of Rihand dam, Uttar

3932 Studies for western Kosi main canal
syphon across river Kamla,
J ainagar, Bihar

3933 Report on seismic surveillance
studies at Borda project site,

3934 Hydraulic model studies for
Chamera dam spillway, Stage II,
Himachal Pradesh

3935 Final report on cross-hole seismic
studies at additional waste
treatment and rump facility sites,
BARC, Trombay, Maharashtra

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

3936 Hydraulic model studies for the
proposed Kalindi bypass from
Kalindi colony ring road to Kalindi
Kunj road No.13-A along the river
Yamuna at Delhi

3937 Desk and wave flume studies to
evolve the design of seawall at
Tithal, Gujarat

3938 Report on submersible motor tested
for temperature rise performance
for M/s Kirloskar Brothers Ltd.,
Dewas, Madhya Pradesh

3939 Final report on cross-hole seismic
studies at reactor buildings - 3 & 4,
Kaiga Atomic Power Project,

3940 Mathematical model study for
reviving of Palur canal at Chilika
Lake, Orissa

3941 Remedial measures for the repairs
to north & south breakwaters at old
Mangalore Port, Karnataka

3942 Desk studies for determining the
alignment of J etties at Okha and
Beyt Dwarka, Gujarat

3943 Hydraulic model studies for flushing
tunnel beyond desilting basin of
Teesta hydro-electric project, Stage
V, Sikkim

3944 Design of breakwater for Karwar
port, Karnataka

3945 Hydraulic model studies for chute
and tunnel spillway, Dhauliganga H
E Project, Uttaranchal

3946 Final report on cross-hole seismic
studies at additional waste
treatment and spent fuel storage
sites, BARC, Tarapur, Maharashtra

3947 Mathematical model studies for
wave transformation for the
proposed development of Paradip
Port, Orissa
3948 Collection and analysis of bed
material samples of Kosi river at
proposed NH 57 Bridge, Nirmali,

3949 Evaluation of site-specific design
earthquake ground motion for the
dynamic analysis of Koyna dam,

3950 Dynamic properties of rock core
samples from Rajasthan Atomic
Power Project, Units 5 and 6 ,

3951 Mathematical model studies for
examining wave tranquility and
optimising layouts for passenger
water transport terminals in
Mumbai, Maharashtra

3952 Desk studies for raw water intake of
Tanda Thermal Power Station,
Tanda, Uttar Pradesh

3953 Final report on seismic reflection
and refraction surveys at left bank
of Koyna dam, Maharashtra

3954 Desk studies for evolving hydraulic
design parameters for proposed
cargo handling jetty on river
Brahmaputra at Pandu, Assam

3955 Field and model studies for the
development of passenger water
transport terminals for MSRDC at
west coast of Mumbai, Maharashtra

3956 Multiple dam break studies for
estimation of maximum water level
at Kaiga, Karnataka

3957 Mathematical model studies for
tidal hydrodynamics and sediment
transport for development of
Paradip port, Orissa

3958 Storm wave hindcasting studies for
the proposed passenger water
transport terminals for MSRDC on
west coast of Mumbai,

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

3959 The stability of Agucha Irrigation
Tank, Tailing Dam and Arwar Dam
during blasting activities at
Rampura Agucha mine, Rajasthan

3960 Wave flume studies for design of
breakwaters for the proposed
passenger water transport
terminals for MSRDC on west coast
of Mumbai, Maharashtra

3961 Estimation of design seismic
ground motion for Vidhyachal
Super Thermal Power Project,
Stage-III, Madhya Pradesh

3962 Hydraulic analysis of prototype data
collected in Mithi River in Bandra
Kurla Complex during 2000-2001by
MMRDA, Mumbai, Maharashtra

3963 Behavior of Sogal Channel at
Kandla Port during 1995 to 2002,

3964 Hydraulic model studies for
assessing the effect of extension of
filled up area adjoining MRTS
bridge on the river Yamuna at Delhi

3965 Inundation studies for Bhadra river
downstream of Lakhya hole
confluence, Bangalore

3966 Hydraulic model studies for gate
regulation of the Hathnikund
Barrage on river Yamuna,Haryana
3967 Mathematical model studies to
investigate wave tranquillity
conditions in the harbour
consequent to construction of north
cargo berth at Tuticorin Port, Tamil

3968 Desk studies to improve the
performance of proposed
percolation canal at Sarola near
Latur, Maharashtra

3969 Analysis of instrumentation data for
forecasting the deflection of Koyna
dam, Maharashtra

3970 Desk studies for suggesting flood
protection measures for proposed
Mahaseer fish farm at Siddhapur,
Dist. Mandi, Himachal Pradesh

3971 Mathematical model studies for the
assessment of backwater levels in
the balancing storage ponds,
Sardar Sarovar project, Gujarat

3972 Estimation of site specific ground
motion for earthquake resistant
design of Pagladiya dam project,

3973 Measurement of in-situ stresses
and deformability of rock mass at
various locations of power house
complex of Ghatghar pumped
storage hydroelectric project,
Thane, Maharashtra

3974 Determination of geo-technical
characteristics of tailings and
dynamic analysis of proposed
tailings plateau in Lakya reservoir
of Kudremukh Iron Ore Company
Ltd., Karnataka
3975 Three dimensional photoelastic
studies for surge tank, Larji H.E.
project, Himachal Pradesh (Surge
tank under full load condition)

3976 Protection measures for Indian Oil
Corporation Ltd. Plant at Kimin,
Arunachal Pradesh

3977 River model studies for Ujh level
crossing, J ammu & Kashmir

3978 Mathematical model studies for
backwater computations of Neilla
Dam, Punjab

3979 Mathematical model studies to
investigate the behaviour of moored
vessels at the proposed ninth
berth and north coal berth at
Tuticorin Port, Tamilnadu.

3980 Hydraulic model studies for Tailpool
and tailrace channel, Indira Sagar
Project, Madhya Pradesh

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

3984 Wave flume studies for the design
of coastal protection works at INS
Hamla, Mumbai, Maharashtra

3981 Gravimetric calibration of 500 mm
NB Electromagnetic flowmeter of
M/s Gleg Engineering Works,
Mumbai, Maharashtra
3985 Hydraulic model studies for stoplog
units, sluice spillway, Tala HE
project, Bhutan

3982 Model studies for proposed road
and rail bridge on Kosi river,
Nirmali, Bihar
3986 Hydraulic model studies for silt
flushing tunnel and gate, Tala HE
project, Bhutan

3983 Mathematical model studies for
manoeuvering of 1,25,000 DWT
Ship at Paradip Port, Orissa

3987 Mathematical model studies for
hydrodynamics in the approaches
to Kandla Creek, Gujarat

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

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CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

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CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003


CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

(As on 31/3/2003)


V M Bendre, Mrs


L K Ghosh (Dr) N Ghosh (Dr)


A C Gangal
A K Basu (Dr)
I Azaraiah (Dr)
N Somayaji (Dr)
U V Purandare
I Z Poonawala
I D Gupta (Dr)
A R Chavan
R K Kondayya
S Govindan
C N Kanetkar
M S Shitole
C K Hayatnagarkar
P B Deolalikar
F T Mathew

S V Phadke, Mrs
S R Bhambure
B S Kulkarni
P K Khare
M M Kale
J M Shirke (Dr)
V B J oshi
S G Patnaik
V P Shukla (Dr)
R S Ramteke
M B Kashid
P G Markande
B Vijay kumar
P K Goel
S Dhayalan
R S Wadhwa
S L Patil
R K Kamble
M D Kudale
C B Singh (Dr)
V V Vaze
P S Kapileshwar
R M Sinnarkar
S G Chaphalkar
S Balakrishna (Dr)
A D Bapat
S K Roy (Dr)
B P Shah
P C Pethe
N Prasad
K Venugopal
J D Prayag
R S Patil
R A Oak
V M Bapaye
R D Kulkarni
A P Dange
V G Bhave
D N Deshmukh


P G Bendre (Dr) S A Harshe, Mrs (Dr)


M P Bhore
C G Deshpande
A A Moholkar, Mrs
A S Barve, Mrs
S D Kulkarni
M N Singh
V J Shende, Mrs
B K Saha
A K Hebbar
R C J adhav
D M Shinde
A K Agrawal
K R Dhawan
C K Rani, Mrs (Dr)
P B Mehendale
V V Bhosekar, Mrs
A K Ghosh
T Nagendra
B M Patil (Dr)
Y N Srivastava
A M Vaidya, Mrs
V C Deshpande
R P Gupta
R G J oshi, Mrs (Dr)

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003

A Dey
S V Wadwankar
K N Narayankar
R B Deogade, Mrs
M K Pawar
N P Khaparde
Prabhat Chandra
M R Bhajantri
A T Desai
A K Sathe
S D Ranade
N Issac, Mrs
U Ramesh
S P Vaidya, Mrs (Dr)
R G Patil
C Krishnaiah (Dr)
H Lal
S Ganguly
S G Hardikar, Mrs
P M A Rahiman
S S Ragte
K J Kamble
P V Awate
B George
S Kulkarni, Mrs
N D Atkekar
H Prakash
A B Pardeshi, Mrs
D K G Naik
A A Purohit
P D Kamalasekaran
S D Vaidya
K B Surwade


K V Shivakumar


J D Agrawal (Dr)


A S J ames


B Someshwar Rao
S R Vhatkar
J S J ohnson (Dr)
S A Tongaonkar
M G Surve
M Selva Balan
H B J agadeesh
M V Chhatre, Mrs
R Ali
U C Roman
S G Manjunatha
B S Chavan
L R Ranganath
G V Ramana Rao
N Ramesh
A V Mahalingaiah
J Sinha
S Sinha
V K Pandit, Mrs
C M Shah
M M Kshirsagar (Dr)
P B Tongaonkar
D R J oshi
V K Tripathi
P R Khatarkar
B M Simpiger
Y M Chavan
P V Akut
V T Desai
R V Rao
R R Shirke
B Murlidhar
M S Choudhary
M Arora
V Bhavanarayana (Dr)
D R Bobade
L R Pattanur, Miss (Dr)
V Thangaraju
P V Berde

V.D. Macal


M M Rao (Dr)

CWPRS Annual Report 2002-2003


S P Kulkarni
N V Deshpande
G R Tripathy (Dr)
T V S Ramkrishna
K K Gupta
C Ramesh
S R Swami
V Rambabu
A V Patil
P Vijayagopal
N B Varshikar
S Tiwari
S B Salunke
M I Sridevi, Mrs
C V R Murthy
M R Kulkarni (Dr)
S A Ansari
R D Phatak
C S Rajan
B M J agtap
C Subba Rao
R Kumar
J K Singh
V A Gadgil
V Chandrashekhar
D S J ori
B K Gautam
C S Krishnakumar
M Phanikumar
B S Sunderlal
S D Damodare
D K Awasthi
K H Barve
S Das
V B Sharma
S J atwa, Miss
S K Hansda, Miss
S D Bhosale
R Dagur
K G Bhonde, Mrs
V K Shukla
K C Biradar
S J Pillai
M S Hanumanthappa
S B Deokule
A Kumar
V Prabhakar (Dr)
S V Oke
A Saha
R Dhilipkumar
S Bhowmik
K K Swain
G A Panvalkar
Y R V Naidu
Y R Bhagat
M Rajiah, Mrs
C V Rajesh
V N Katte
V S Ramarao
M K Verma
H R Khandagale, Mrs
A Rajagopalan, Mrs


D T Gaikwad


S S Gaikwad


U M J adiye


S K Kubal

Central Water and Power Research Station
Khadakwasla, Pune 411 024, India

Tel. : 020 2438 0511, 2438 0825, 2438 1801
Fax : 020 2438 1004
Email :
Web :

Published by
Director, Central Water and Power Research Station, Pune - 411 024