EMPLOYEE HEATH AND SAFETY MEASURES

One of the main functionaries of human resource management in industrial organization is to concentrate on health measures to be under taken. The philosophy of health organization is to establish employee safety measures and to undertake health activities in his field to social changes and in turn social change gives opportunities for the workers to express their responsiveness to the health amenities all looked after by the human resource management. Definition “Any thing done for the comfort and improvement, intellectual and social, of the employees over and above the wages paid, which is not a necessity of the industry”. -Labor investigation committee of the government of India. BENEFITS OF LABOR HEALTH:  Workers efficiency is considerably enhanced.  Workers begin to feel interested in their work when they find that they one being well looked after by their employees. Thus, their morale is raised and industrial relations improve.  Labor health is commendable, because it shows faith in the basic human values of life.  From the social standpoint, Labor health ensures healthier and MOR enlightened citizens. SCOPE OF LABOR HEALTH:  Contribute to the productivity of Labor and efficiency of the enterprise.  Raise the standard of living of workers by indirectly reducing the burden.

 Compensation for accidents.  Good layout of the machinery and plant.  Washing and bathing facilities.  Provision of safety measures such as fencing and covering of machines. congenial surroundings conductive to good health and morale. CLASSIFICATION OF LABOR HEALTH: INTRAMURAL ACTIVITIES:  Health within the premises of the establishment.  Provision of crèches and canteens. activities relating to improving conditions of employment.  The aim is partly civic because it develops a sense of responsibilities and dignity among the workers and thus makes them worthy citizens of the nation. Be administratively viable and essentially development in outlook.  Fire extinguishers. AIMS OF LABOR HEALTH:  The Labor health work aims at providing such service facilities and amenities that would enable workers employed in industries to perform their work in healthy. .  It is economic because it improves the efficiency the worker increases its availability where its is scarce and keeps him contended.  Medical facilities.  It therefore minimizes the inducements to form or join unions and to resort to strikers.  Sufficient lighting.  Supply of drinking water. for it enables the workers to enjoy a fuller and richer life.  It is partly humanistic.

. recreation. Trade unions or the Govt. and arrangement for transport of employee to and from the work place to residence etc. Recruitment discipline and provision of provident fund. psychological. economic.  The purpose of providing health amenities is to bring about the development of the workers his social. a good citizen and a good member of the family.  Provision of libraries and reading rooms. cultural and intellectual development to make him a good worker.  Housing. EXTRA MURAL ACTIVITIES Health outside the premises of the establishment. adult education.  It ma be noted that not only intra-mural but also extra-mural. crèches.  Indoor and outdoor recreation facilities. Statutory as well as non-statutory activities. housing. moral. which is usually undertaken with in the premises or in the vicinity of the undertaking for the employees and the members of his family. undertaken by any of three agencies – the employers. amusement and sports.  Employee health is very broad tem covering social security and such other activities as medical aids.  Education facilities for adults and children. Basic features of employee health: On the basis of various definitions the basis characteristics of employee health: It is the work. canteens. pension and gratuity maternity and family benefits.

 Crèches. reading rooms). cultural activities.  Latrines and urinals  Arrangement for prevention of fatigue.Health within the precincts of the Establishment  Arrangements for drinking water.  Housing facilities  Maternity benefit  Recreation facilities (Including sports.  Medical facilities (including programs for physical fitness and efficiency. including occupational safety. pension. provident fund and rehabilitation).  Administrative arrangement with in a plant to look after health. family planning and child health)  Benevolent funds.  Uniform and protective clothing.  Rest shelters and canteens.  Education facilities.  Health services.  Washing and bathing facilities. library. .  Holiday homes and leave travel facilities. Health outside the Establishment:  Social insurance measures (Including gratuity.

To escape from the tiring conditions of tedious and tiresome job.e. Which is characterized by two basis facts? One the conditions under which are carried on is not congenial for the health. Workers co-operatives including consumers co-operative credit and thrift societies. Need for employee health: The need for the employee health arises from the very nature of industrial system. to improve the efficiency of the workers to increase its availability where it is scarce and to keep him contented as to minimize the inducement to form or join unions and resort to strikes. Partly economic i. to enable workers to enjoy a fuller and richer life. congested factories and areas. Objective of employee health activities: Partly humanitarian i. with no outdoor recreation facilities. he absents himself becomes irregular and often indiscipline. create problems of adjustment. when an employee joins an industry he has to work in an entire strange atmosphere. Another object of employee health is to fulfill the future need and aspirations of employee. Second. In view of above discussions it is clear that employee health measures are too inevitably undertaken by the employers to reduce absenteeism and employee turnover and to increase production. Hence the need for providing health services arises...e. When a workers.  Vocational training for dependants of workers. . who is in fact a retaliate comes to work in a factory has to work and live unhealthy.

1948. The ESI Act is applicable to the employees working in the covered establishments of the notified area. The main objective of ESI Act is to provide the certain benefits to the employees in case of sickness. maternity and employment injury.Various labor enactments: Employees are statutorily required to comply with the provision of various health amenities under different employee health legislations. health and health amenities of persons working minds. rest rooms and lunch rooms. first aid. crèches etc. and depended benefit subject to periodical payment by the injured employee. 1923. 1952. the Acaroids for provision of on facilities for washing. 1948. health and safety. The aim of this Act is to provide a consolidated law relating to the regulation and safety of labor in mines for safety. In so far as is concerned. it is the responsibility of the employer to provide the above statutory health facilities under this Act.  Employees State Insurance Act. Leave with pay of 12 weeks for miscarriage / abortion is required to be given by the employer to women employees.  The workmen’s compensation Act. .  Mines Act. The Act provides for sickness benefit. disablement benefit. under this Act. This object of the Act is providing the maternity benefit and certain other benefits to women employees working factories and other establishments. Important  Factories Act. canteens. shelters. The main focus of the Act is on employee‟s health. storing and drying clothing.

P Labor Health Fund Act. Employee pension and Deposit linked Insurance for employees working in Factories and other establishments.  Iron Ore Mines.  A. 1976.  The Equal Remuneration Act. The Equal Remuneration Act provides for payment of equal remuneration to men and women workers for it work o a similar nature and for the prevention of discrimination on grounds of sex. Contract Labor (R&A) Act.  Limestone. The act contemplates a contribution by the employer to wards PF. . Dolomite Health Fund Act. 1976. The object of this Act is to provide for the levy and collection of cuss on limestone and dolomite for financing of acuities to promote health of persons employed in these mines including improvement of health. 1987: This Act provides for the constitution of a fund for financing of activities to promote health of labor in the State of Andhra Pradesh and for the established of a board for conducting health related activities  Employee’s Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provision Act. 1952: The main object this Act is to provide for provident Fund. 1970. against women in the matter of employment. sanitation and medical facilities. 1972. The object of this Act is to provide for the financing of activities to promote the health persons employed in the iron ore. Manganese ore in a chrome ore mines. The main object of Act is to regulate the employment of the contract Labor in certain establishment and to provide for its abolition under certain circumstances on the advice of the advisory committee. Manganese Ore Mines & Chrome Ore Mines health fund Act.

The compensation in retrenchment cases amounts 15 days‟ average earnings for every completed year of service or part thereof. Principles of Employees Health: Health will help to minimize the misunderstanding Employees health is dependent on certain basic principle the following are to be kept in mind successful implementation of any health programs is organization. is the only Act which provides for workers‟ unemployment due to layoff. The Act stipulates that the organizations with less than 100 workers should pay the wage by seventh and the organizations with more than 100 employees should pay by tenth of next month.3. 1947: The Industrial Dispute Act. 1972: The Act provides of payment of gratuity to employees working in factories. 1000 per month. mines etc. This relief is given by way of compensation to the affected workers at certain specified rates. It presents the guidelines for the fixation of minimum wages which is just sufficient to meet the basic need of workers and to keep a man‟s „body and soul‟ together.  The Payment of Wages Act. 1948 seeks to protect the workers form underpayment of wages for their efforts.  The Minimum Wages Act. 11. . 1947. The Act enjoins upon the employees to pay gratuity at the rate of 15 days wages for every completed years of services with a ceiling of 20 months wages (overall ceiling Rs. The Act covers all the employees drawing the wages up to Rs. payment in kind under measurement of work. under payment.  The Industrial Dispute Act. Payment of Gratuity Act. delayed and irregular payment. 1936: To ensure proper payment of wages and avoiding all malpractices like nonpayment. 1948: The Minimum Wages Act.5 Lakhs) to employees who have put in minimum period of services.

 The publicizing theory.  The public relations theory.  Religious Theory   Honement Investment Aspects  The philanthropic theory.  The functional relations theory. Principle of adequacy of wages.  The trusteeship theory. Theories of Employees Health: Theories of constituting the conceptual framework of Employees health have so far been out-limited.  Principle of timeliness.  Principle of association.  The placating theory.  Principle of accountability. .  Principle of responsibility.  Principle of efficiency.  Principle of co-ordination and integration.  Principle of social responsibility of industry.  Principle of patronization.

Ventilation. Washbasins. Health measures outside the work place.. gardens and roads.  Workmen‟s safety measures.  Supply of necessary beverage and pill and tastes i. full meals and mobile canteen. Elimination of dust. soda. The social relations theory. Types of Health Activities:   Health measures inside the work place. Temperature. salt taste. Lighting. resting rooms and library. bathrooms. A)   Factory sanitation and cleanliness: Urinals and Lavatories.e. Sanitation and cleanliness. Meal times and breaks.  Management of workers clock rooms.washing and repair of building and workshop. humidity etc. Health measures inside the work place: Conditions of the work environment Workshop sanitation and cleanliness  Workshop.  Canteen services. white. milk.  Convenience and comfort during the work. .  Provision of drinking water. c) Provision cleanliness.  Distribution of work hours and provisions for rest hours.

parks and playgrounds.  Workmen recreation facility. festival celebrations. lectures. family planning child care. debating study circles.  Education – Reading rooms. women‟s education.  Workmen and child health anti-natal and maternity aid. art circles. gymnasium and workmen recreation. accidents etc.  Transport (work spot to work place) . home handicrafts. health education. primary schools.  Cultural activities – musical evening and circles. outdoor life. health research  Factory dispensary and clinic for general treatment and individual diseases. workers children education. folk songs. libraries. histrionics. visual education. folk dancing. general education on hygiene. infant health and crèches and women general education. pictorial education. circulating library.Workers health services: Factory health center-playgrounds. athletics. fatigue. Health measures outside the work place:  Housing  Water  Sanitation and waste disposal  Roads  Lighting  Recreational clubs. domestic economy. nursery schools.Playground. medical examination for workers.

Statutory:  The health norm to be fulfilled compulsory by the employees as prescribed by Legal Norm and legislation:  Sanitary and hygiene facilities  Rest rooms  Medical Facilities  Crèches  Housing  Family Planning  Drinking water  Canteens  Dining hall  Equipment 2. telephone and internet)  Recreation facilities  Child. and workers club etc. Communication (post. telegraph. Classification of Health Activities 1. youth. Non.Statutory: The health measures provided by employees in order to maintain good human touch or pressure by units or due to his concern to workers or to avoid takes for due to many more reasons there voluntary in the aspect of employees .

 Reimbursement in fees of higher studies. Washing Facilities:  Adequate and suitable for washing shell be provided and maintains for the use of the workers there in  Separate and adequate facilities shall be provided for the use of male and female workers  Such facilities shall be conveniently accessible and shall be kept clean. Facilities for Sitting: In every factory suitable arrangement for sitting shell be provide and maintained for all workers obliged to work in a standing position in order that they may take advantage of any opportunities for rest which may acquire in the course of their work? First – Aid Appliance: There shall in every factory be provided and maintained so as to be readily accessible during all working hours first-aid boxes or cup boards. equipped with the prescribed contents. Transport  Recreation and cultural activities  Education facilities  Saving facilities  Co-operative and credit societies  Distress relief and cash benefits  Scheme for grant of merit scholarship to the employees. and the number of such boxes are cup board to be provided and . Statutory health programs: A.

when workers can eat meals brought by them. Health Officer: One of the important landmarks in the development of labor health programmers in India was the passing of the factories Act. Each fist-aid box or cupboard shall be kept in the charge in the separate responsible person. In any firm may shall be 500 and above. The appointment of the labor health officer is statutory requirement the others are not. Rest Rooms and Lunch Rooms: In every factory where in more than 150 workers are ordinarily employed. The act also provides for the appointment of additional or assistant health officer in case of bigger establishment. shall be provided and maintained for the use of workers. under the age of 6 years of such rooms. Canteen: The state government makes rule requiring that in any specified factory. Health Officer shall be appointed. 1948.maintained shall not less than one for every one hundred and fifty workers ordinarily employed in the factory. adequate and suitable shelters or rest rooms and a suitable lunchrooms with provision for drinking water. Position of the labor health officer is very much different from the “labor officer” or the “personnel officer”. Shelters. which made it obligatory on the part of employees to appoint health officer in all factories. Crèches: In every factory where in more than [30 women workers] are ordinarily employed there shall be provided and maintained a suitable room or rooms for the use of children. Where more than 250 workers are ordinarily employed a canteen or canteens be provided and maintained by the occupier for the use of the workers. .

Non-statutory health activities are undertaken. Educational Facilities: The government has provided education for both workers and their employee in township. are known as non-statutory health measures. usually. a number of recreational facilities are provided either by employees or by social health agencies. which are provided in full filament of the requirement of the law.Non-Statutory health programmers: All labor health activities other than those. medical facilities in varying degrees are provided by many undertakings through their own hospital or by arrangement with well-established medical institutions. outside the work place. Generally Non-statutory health activities are grouped in to four categories:  Medical facilities  Educational facilities  Recreational facilities  Housing facilities  Consumer co-operative stores  Sports and cultural activities Medical Facilities: The statutory medical facilities are provided in establishment under the employee‟s state insurance Act 1948. . Recreational Facilities: In India. Besides.

In this category some important health facilities provided by the employees are:  Transport  Consumer co-operative societies & fair price shops.  Non. .statutory health facilities provided to the workers over a wide range depends basically upon the attitude of employees towards the workers well being.Other Activities: There are certain Non-statutory health measures. which are organized by some of the employees.  Distress relief and cash benefits etc.

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