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What is its Fourier Transform? Dirac comb is nothing but a periodic impulse train in which the impulses are spaced by a time interval of Ts seconds. The equation for the function is given by

Fourier Transform is,

2.Give the interpolation formula for the reconstruction of the original signal g(t) from the sequence of sample values {g(n/2W)}.

where 2W is the bandwidth, n is the number of samples. 3. State sampling theorem. If a finite energy signal g(t) contains no frequencies higher than W hertz, it is completely determined by specifying its co-ordinates at a sequence of points spaced 1/2W seconds apart. If a finite energy signal g(t) contains no frequencies higher than Whertz, it may be completely recovered from its co-ordinates at a sequence of points spaced 1/2W seconds apart. 4. Define quadrature sampling. Quadrature sampling is used for uniform sampling of band pass signals. Consider The in-phase component gI(t) and the quadrature component gQ(t) may be obtained by multiplying the signal by cos(2Πfct) and sin(2Πfct) respectively and then suppressing the sum-frequency components by means of appropriate low pass filter. Under the assumption that fc>W,we find that gI(t)&gQ(t) are both low-pass signals limited to -W<f<W. Accordingly each component may be sampled at the rate of 2W samples per second. This type of sampling is called quadrature sampling. 5. What is aliasing?How to avoid it? The phenomenon of a high-frequency in the spectrum of the original signal g(t) seemingly taking on the identity of a lower frequency in the spectrum of the sampled signal g(t) is called aliasing or foldover. To avoid aliasing, the sampling rate must exceed the Nyquist rate: fc> fN Where fc- sampling frequency, fN- Nyquist frequency (Nyquist frequency, which is the frequency equal to half the sampling rate of a sampling system)

6.Give the expression for aliasing error and the bound for aliasing error.

symmetric device with L number of representation levels. 9. In this case it is difficult to accommodate the input with wide varying power levels. 1. Non-uniform quantization is process of passing baseband signal through compressor and applying compressed signal to a uniform quantizer. SNR decreases as the power level goes beyond the overload point. What is a quantizer? It is memory less. Non-uniform quantization the step size is variable ie the step size increases as the separation form origin of input – output amplitude is increased. What is the disadvantage of uniform quantization over the non-uniform quantization? In uniform quantization the step size is constant ie the representation levels are uniformly spaced. The peak-to-peak range of input sample values subdivided into a finite set of decision levels or decision thresholds 2. It represents signal discrete in both amplitude and time. The output is assigned a discrete value selected from a finite set of representation levels are reconstruction values that are aligned with the treads of the staircase. SNR is constant for wide range of input power level. 11. What are the two fold effects of quantizing process. What you mean by uniform and non-uniform quantization? In uniform quantization the step size is constant ie the representation levels are uniformly spaced. The conversion of analog sample of the signal into digital form is called quantizing process. What is meant by idle channel noise? Idle channel noise is the coding noise measured at the receiver output with zero transmitter input. m-input signal. the amplitude of each sample is rounded off to the nearest one of a finite set of discrete levels and encoded so that both time and amplitude are represented in discrete form. Define quantizing process.output signal 10. 14. 12. What is meant by prediction error? . 8.7. Y. What is meant by PCM? Pulse code modulation (PCM) is a method of signal coding in which the message signal is sampled. Non-uniform quantization the step size is variable ie the step size increases as the separation form origin of input – output amplitude is increased. 13. This allows the message to be transmitted by means of a digital waveform. Y=Q(m) Where Q-stair case function. Large step size can accommodate large infrequently occurring amplitudes and small step size can offers weak passage protection ..

Stepsize= 2 mmax/ L where L. In mid-riser quantizer Origin of the signal lies in the middle of a riser of the staircase mid.output signal . Define delta modulation. What you mean by non-uniform quantization? Step size is not uniform. Using one bit quantization the future values are predicted from the single past sample. mmax). the step is reduced.mmax . Non-uniform quantization is otherwise called as robust quantization 22. 16. What is the Stepsize in a uniform quantizer for the data range of (. Y. Define quantization error? Quantization error is the difference between the output and input values of quantizer. Mid tread type quantizer. Non-uniform quantizer is characterized by a step size that increases as the separation from the origin of the transfer characteristics is increased.during a steep segment of the input signal the step size is increased. In particular. 15.The difference between the actual sample of the process at the time of interest and the predictor output is called a prediction error.tread quantizer mid-riser quantizer 19.quantiztion error 20. q .varying form. 2. Name the types of uniform quantizer? 1.output signal then yk=m+q m .It occurs due to the rounding off of sample values of analog baseband signal to the nearest permissible representation levels of quantizer Y=Q(m) where Q-stair case function. when the input signal is varying slowly. m-input signal. Draw the quantization error for the mid tread and mid-rise type of quantizer? . yk . Conversely. the step size is adapting to the level of the signal.input signal. The performance of a delta modulator can be improved significantly by making the step size of the modulator assume a time. 17. 18. Delta modulation is the one-bit version of differential pulse code modulation. The resulting method is called adaptive delta modulation (ADM). Define adaptive delta modulation. Mid riser type quantizer. In this way.number of amplitude levels 21. Define mid tread quantizer? In mid tread quantizer Origin of the signal lies in the middle of a tread of the staircase.

Granular noise occurs when the slope of the input signal is lesser than the slope of the output.What are slope overload error and granular noise? Slope overload occurs when the slope of the input signal is greater than the slope of the output. This is called as companding. Mention the types of companding. bandwidth is at premium. Using differential quantization the future values are predicted from the past samples.For wide bandwidth data the channel bandwidth required is very high. µ law companding 2. 25. In DPCM redundant information are removed by efficient coding. This type of quantization is called as robust quantization. As it uses Compression technique the channel bandwidth required is low for wide bandwidth data 28.While encoding these samples lot of redundant information are seen. The combination of a compressor and expander is called a compander. Slope overload can be avoided by increasing the step size or the sampling frequency. What is the need for speech coding at low bit rates? The use of PCM at the standard rate of 64 Kbps demands a high channel bandwidth for its transmission . 27. Slope overload can be avoided by decreasing the step size or the sampling .Compare DPCM and PCM. A law companding 26. in which case there is a definite need for speech coding at low bit rates. 1. It is too difficult for the stair case approximation to follow the steep segment of input signal.so for certain applications. 24. Here successive difference between the samples alone is sent. What do you mean by companding? Define compander. In PCM signal is sampled at a rate higher than nyquist rate. The signal is compressed at the transmitter and expanded at the receiver.For mid tread type: For mid riser type: 23. It is too difficult for the stair case approximation to hunt for the flat segment of input signal. What is the disadvantage of uniform quantization over the non-uniform quantization? SNR decreases with decrease in input power level at the uniform quantizer but non-uniform quantization maintains a constant SNR for wide range of input power levels. while maintaining acceptable fidelity or quality of reproduction. The adjacent output samples are highly correlated (ie signal does not change form one sample from the other).

To protect small signals in PCM from quantization distortion. PWM 42. What is aperture effect? How can you reduce it? Lengthening of samples due to amplitude and delay distortions is called as aperture effect in flat top sampling. The equilizers decreases the in. The non uniform quantization leads to a. Companding is used a. It can be reduced by using equilizer along with the reconstruction filters. Quantizing Noise occur in a.Compander 36. To allow amplitude limiting in the receiver c. 30. 39.frequency. 2KHz d. Prior to sampling a ____________ is used to attenuate the high frequency components of the signal that lie outside the band of interest. d. slope overload distortion 31.What are the limitation of delta modulation system? 1.300 d. 8KHz c. 40. 35.400 c. 250 37. 41.Increase in SNR for low level signals d. Granular noise 2.band loss. but are physically taking turns on the channel.16KHz 38. Reduction in transmission BW b. The sampled wave in practical system consists of __________ and ____________ rather than impulses. To overcome impulse noise. 2. one for each sub-channel.The Nyquist rate of sampling for the signal x(t) = sinc(200t) +sinc2(200t) is a. 34. In delta modulation. 200 b. TDM b. To overcome quantizing noise in PCM b. Here transmission is over the AT&T networks . The time domain is divided into several recurrent timeslots of fixed length. It is analogous to quantization error. PCM d.Equalizer d. Thus variable data rate is converted into asingle data rate and transmitted over the common channel 32. It constitutes the digital hierarchy where the low bit rate streams are multiplexed into low bit rate streams. Here transmission is over the PSTN and it requires MODEMS.FDM c. Multiplexers for high bit data stream. 4KHz a. Predictor b. Multiplexers for low bit data stream. 33. Digital multiplexing (TDM) is multiplexing of digital signals by bit by bit interleaving procedure.Types of digital multiplexing 1. The Nyquist Sampling rate for a signal band limited to 4KHz is a..Simplification of quantization .The aperture effect in flat top pulses is reduced by using an a.Integrator c. Here the digital data may have different bit rate. Increase in maximum SNR c. State the condition to avoid slope-overload error. the slope overload distortion can be reduced by increasing the step size or the sampling frequency.Distinguish between TDM and digital multiplexing? Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a analog multiplexing in which two or more signals are transferred apparently simultaneously as sub-channels in one communication channel.

2. Write short notes on: a) Aliasing b) Natural samplling Explain the quantization process with PCM block diagram.43. 8.7dB d. Derive the SNR for a companded PCM. 9. 48dB b. Explain time division multiplexing. 3.Describe a DPCM system and provide a comparison with PCM. The ______________ noise occurs when the step size is too large relative to the local slope characteristics of the input waveform. SNR of a PCM system using 8-bit words the analog signal that does not exceed its quantization boundary is a. And give the digital hierarchy principle. 8 45. The conversion of an analog sample of the signal into digital form is called the_____________________ process. State & prove sampling theorem. Explain PAM. 64dB 44. (8) Compare DM with ADM and explain linear prediction filter. For uniform quantization with 32 levels. 4 d. 46. 54dB c. 7. . 6. Compare various line codes NRZ unipolar NRZ polar format NRZ bipolar format manchester format binary 0 no pulse positive pulse no pulse The first half bit duration negative pulse and the second half Bit duration positive pulse binary 1 positive pulse Negative pulse. 5. 52.6 c. 5 b. 47. the quantized output can be represented by n binary digit where n is a. 4. Explain the distortion occurring during sampling. alternative positive and negative pulse first half bit duration positive pulse and the second half Bit duration negative pulse PART_B 1. .

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