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Training Grondverzet, Terreinen, Volumes

Peter Ingels
Prodesk

Chris Berends
Autodesk
Autodesk Presentation Title 1
2005 Autodesk

Training Grondverzet, Terreinen, Volumes

Peter Ingels
Prodesk

Chris Berends
Autodesk
Autodesk Presentation Title 2

Training Schedule

09.00 u. 09.10 u. Case Presentation 09.10 u. 09.30 u. Case study 09.30 u. 10.30 u. Theory

Surfaces

10.30 u. 11.00 u. Break 11.00 u. 11.45 u. Theory

Volumes Grading

11.45 u. 13.00 u. Theory

13.00 u. 13.30 u. Lunch 13.30 u. 14.30 u. Case Practice 14.30 u. 15.00 u. Q&A (case) 15.00 u. 16.00 u. Case Presentations

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Surfaces

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Surface Types

TIN Surface

Triangulated Irregular Network Arbitrary set of points Creation slower than GRID, files bigger

GRID Surface

Points on regular grid Faster and smaller than TIN

TIN Volume surface

composite surface created from a combination of points in a top (comparison) and (base) surface

GRID Volume surface

differential surface based on user-specified top and bottom surfaces with points on a user-specified grid.

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TIN Surfaces
TIN (Triangular Irregular Network) surfaces Formed by triangulating an arbitrary set of points Used for:

Highly variable surfaces Examining localized areas (large-scale maps)

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GRID Surfaces
Grid surfaces Generated by points that lie on a regular grid Used for:

More uniform surfaces Examining large study areas (small-scale maps)

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Volume Surfaces
Differences between two existing terrain surfaces

Calculating Surface Volumes

Composite Volumes

TIN Volume Surfaces Display cut and fill contours. Known as differential surface. Difference of base and comparison surfaces. Grid Volume Surface Provides more accurate model.

Accurate volume between two surfaces. Volume of an area defined by a polyline or polygon. Compared with z =0

Bounded Volumes

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Surface Creation

Import/export

TIN/DEM (Digital Elevation Model) files LandXML (settings:edit default file import settings, link naar XML file blijft bestaan)

Land Desktop

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Surface Creation

Surface Definition

Boundaries Breaklines (Next slide) Countours DEM Files (Digital Elevation Model) Drawing objects Point files (PENZ file needed) Point Groups

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Surface Breaklines
Breaklines can be defined from objects in the drawing or imported from a file.

Standard

3D Lines and 3D Polylines maintain the integrity of the original surface 3D Lines, 3D Polylines or points offset side for the entire breakline elevation difference for each vertex, or entire breakline

Proximity Wall

From File Non-destructive

non-destructive breaklines, which maintain the integrity of the original surface

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Surface Non-destructive breaklines


With Without

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Surface Triangulation

(Terrain Modeling concepts)

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Surface Edits

Add/Delete/modify/move Points Add/Delete Lines

Delete lines in surface creatse a hole in the surface

Swap Edge Raise/Lower Minimize Flat Surfaces Paste


-Workaround :Manual paste surface (procedure)

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Surface Smooting
Only for TIN surfaces !!!!!

NNI (Natural Neighbors Interpolation)


Interpolation, no extrapolation Elevation new point is based on the elevation of the surrounding points (in voronoi zone)

Kriging

Interpolation and extrapolation Complex (distance and variance) Less predictable result

Interpolation Location (newly created points)


Grid based (X, Y value, region, orientation) Centroids (region) Random points (number of points)
Region = Parcel, Polygon, Surface, Rectangle

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NNI Natural Neighbor Interpolation


Concept of Voronoi diagram Voronoi polygon of a point P in a set of points S = set of point that are closer to point P than any other point in the set of points S, in the xy-plane The Voronoi polygons are non-intersecting Delaunay Triangulation If every pair of points that share a Voronoi polygon edge are connected, the result is the Delaunay Triangulation The Natural Neighbors used for interpolation are all points that a point P is connected to trough the Delaunay triangulation. Estimating the z-value of a new point X. - The point X will be connected to some points P1, P2, Pn,. These points have Voronoi polygons POLY1, POLY2, POLYn - X when inserted in the surface, has its own Voronoi Diagram POLY - z-value is a weighted sum of the z-values of P1, P2, .., Pn weight assigned for point Pi is Area of polygon (POLY intersected with (POLYi)) -------------------------------------------------------------------area of POLY
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Surface analyses

Types

Contours Directions Elevations


Renders the surface triangles according to the elevation range they fall in

Slopes
Renders the surface triangles according to their slope angle

Slope arrows Watersheds


shows how water flows along and off the surface

User-defined contours

Combination of style and surface properties (3 or 4 steps)

Select surface style

Select analysis type

Display tabular and graphic results


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Add legend

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LandXML

Extensible Markup Language (XML) is used to create electronic documents that are easy to transmit and share across the World Wide Web. Data stored in LandXML format can be used by any program that uses LandXML standards, not just the software that created it. The LandXML import and export functionality is based on the LandXML 1.0 schema and respects OGC standards. For detailed information go to: www.landxml.org and www.opengis.org

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LandXML

LandXML is designed for civil engineering design and survey measurement data and serves as common data format to transfer data between civil applications, such as Trimble's Geomatics Office. Contains both, geometric and attribute information about Civil Engineering objects, such as alignments and COGO Points.

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Transforming data to LandXML


Allows you to

Exchange data into other software applications. Transfer/archive data. Convert units. Translate/rotate coordinates

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LandXML Reporting utility

Procedure for extending the LandXML report forms - > http://www.civielontwerpen.net


Company layout Standard forms

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LandXML Reporting utility

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Grading

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Grading

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Grading

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Grading

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Grading Parts
Parts of a Grading A grading object normally consists of the base line, the target line, the projection lines, and the face. The face is the area bounded by the lines that define the grading:

The base line is any open or closed figure to which you can apply grading and from which you can project the grading outward.. The target for the grading can be a surface, a distance, an elevation, or a relative elevation.
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Grading Regions
You define grading regions where a grading object requires different criteria along different parts of the base line.

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grading settings
On the Toolspace Settings tab, right-click Grading Edit Feature Settings. In the Edit Feature Settings dialog box, expand the General collection. In the Save command changes to settings property, set the value to Yes. This setting saves command settings for reuse.

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grading settings
Expand the collections for Grading Grade Unit and Grading Slope Unit. Note the options for unit format and precision. The integer value for precision specifies the number of digits to the right of the decimal place.

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Grading Grade Unit


Precision Specifies the number of digits to display to the right of the decimal. Specifies how numbers are rounded: Round Normal: Numbers 5 or more are rounded up and numbers 4 or less are rounded down to the decimal place specified by Precision. Round Up: Numbers are always rounded up. Truncate: Numbers are truncated to the decimal place specified by Precision. Specifies how grading numbers are entered and displayed. Values are automatically converted Percent Decimal

Rounding

Format

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Grading Grade Unit

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Grading Slope Unit


Precision Specifies the number of digits to display to the right of the decimal. Rounding Specifies how numbers are rounded, as follows: Round Normal: Numbers 5 or more are rounded up and numbers 4 or less are rounded down to the decimal place specified by Precision. Round Up: Numbers are always rounded up. Truncate: Numbers are truncated to the decimal place specified by Precision. Format Specifies how grading ratios are entered and displayed. Values are automatically converted. Rise/Run Run/Rise

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Grading Slope Unit

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Grading Toolbar

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Grading Method (1)


Target Specifies the target method for the grading. Surface: Specifies the target surface. You are prompted to select a target surface when you create a grading that uses these criteria. Elevation: Specifies the elevation to which the projection lines of the grading object are extended. Enter a positive or negative number. Relative Elevation: Specifies the relative elevation above or below the base line to which the projection lines of the grading object are extended. Enter a positive or negative number. Distance: Specifies the horizontal distance to which the projection lines of the grading object are extended. Enter a positive number.
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Grading Method (2)


Projection Specifies the type of projection.
Cut/Fill Slope: Displays both cut and fill slopes for grading to a target that can occur both above and below the base line, such as a surface or elevation target. Cut Slope: Fill Slope: Displays positive slopes for grading up to a target. Displays negative slopes for grading down to a target.

Distance: Creates the grading with projection lines that extend a fixed distance from the base line. Slope: Creates the grading by projection to a specific (absolute) elevation using a specific slope value. Enter a positive or negative value. Elevation: Creates the grading by projection to a specific (absolute) elevation value. Relative Elevation: Creates the grading by projection to a specific elevation value that is measured relative to the elevation of the base line.
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CreateFeatureLines
Automatically Convert AutoCAD Objects Specifies whether you are prompted to convert selected objects to feature lines. By default you are prompted, change this value to True to convert objects without prompting. Erase Selected Objects Specifies whether creation commands erase selected objects when they are converted to feature lines. By default objects are erased. Change this value to False to have objects remain in the drawing. Use Selected Object Layers Specifies the layer where the converted feature lines are placed. By default, feature lines are placed on the layer specified in the Drawing Settings. Change this value to True to place feature lines on the same layer as the selected objects (Note that doing so may make it hard to select the feature lines if you also set Erase Selected Objects to False).
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To create grading by copying an existing grading


Click Grading menu Grading Layout Tools. In the Grading Layout Tools dialog box, click the arrow . Click Copy Create Grading. In the drawing, select the grading from which you want to copy the criteria and style. Select the base line in the drawing and select the side of the base line from which to grade. If you are grading from another gradings target line, you are not prompted for the grading side because only one side is available. Click in the drawing to indicate the side of the base line to which you want to apply the grading. Depending on the criteria definition, you may have to specify a distance and a slope value. Specify whether you want to apply the grading to the entire length of the line. To apply the grading only to a region, enter N and then specify the start and end points on the baseline that define the region.
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