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International Journal on Computational Sciences & Applications (IJCSA) Vol.3, No.2, April 2013

Application of Taguchi Experiment Design for Decrease of Cogging Torque in Permanent Magnet motors

A.Noori Shirazi 1 , B. Yousefi 2 , S. Asghar Gholamian 3* and S. Rashidaee 3

1 Department of Engineering, Islamic Azad University-Nour Branch,Nour , Iran.

abdoreza.noori@gmail.com

2 Department of Engineering, Islamic Azad University-Nour Branch,Nour , Iran.

borzoyou@yahoo.com

3 Babol University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Babol, Iran * Corresponding author: S. Asghar Gholamian

ABSTRACT:

GENICHI TAGUCHI developed statistical methods for quality improvement of engineering products, marketing, etc. This method is called Taguchi method that more recently applied to engineering and applied science. The Taguchi experiment design method for optimal design to mitigate cogging torque of a surface permanent magnet (SPM) motor is used in this article. In this paper, an efficient algorithm to the solutions for shape of PM is proposed and applied to optimize the shape of PMs in a surface-mounted PM motor to reduce the cogging torque. Finally, Simulation results are presented that indicates the reduction of magnitude of cogging torque.

KEYWORD:

TAGUCHI METHOD, PM MOTOR, PERMANENT MAGNET POLE

LIST OF SYMBOLS

PM

Permanent Magnet

FEA

finite element analysis

MMF

magnetomotive force

SPM

Surface-mounted permanent magnet

A

the ratio of magnet pole arc to pole pitch

B

the distance from motor centre

C

the slot opening height

D

the slot opening width

E

the air gap length

DOE

design of experiments

ANOM

analysis of means

ANOVAanalysis of variance

f

converter frequency

p

machine pole pairs

DOI:10.5121/ijcsa.2013.3204

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International Journal on Comp utational Sciences & Applications (IJCSA) Vol.3, No.2,

1. INTRODUCTION

April 2013

Recently, because of high relia bility, high efficiency and improvement of the to rque density, surface permanent magnet motor s (SPM) are used in industrial applications. [1]-[4].

However, cogging torque probl em is one of the main restrictions in usage develo pment in this

type of motors. The interaction

of the stator teeth with magnets produced coggin g torque that

causes the increasing the noise, v ibration and ultimately reduces efficiency of SPM

motor.

The stator slots shape and perma nent magnet pole configuration in SPM motors is th he main cause

of a cogging magnet poles

configuration [8]-[11] and some of the other methods are to modify the shape of sta tor teeth [12],

[13].

of cogging torque production. torque in SPM motors. Some

Many methods have been proposed to reduction of these techniques are to modify the permanent

Surface permanent magnet moto r with four poles, due to reduced consumption of co pper and easy manufacturing process, now wid ely used in air conditioning compressors [5]. Some optimization techniques, such as genetic algo rithm [15], [16], rosenbrocks method [18], [19] an d [17] is used for improvement of cogging tor que in SPM motors. But, the Taguchi method has been proven useful in applied science especia lly in engineering process to improve best quality.

The Taguchi method does not re quire using additional programming algorithms asi de from finite element method analysis (FEM) . Hence, effects of many factors on cogging torque reduction can be investigated in this method [2 0].

2. SURFACE PM MOTO R MODEL

An important

problem in SPM motors is the c ogging torque and it affects the performance, produ ces noise and results in mechanical vibration, t herefore it is necessary and important to reduction o f the cogging torque in SPM motors.

Surface-mounted permanent ma gnet (SPM) motors are widely used in industry.

In this paper, the 2D view of SP M motor shown in Figure1 and the main parameters are shown in Table1. This kind of stator and rotor configuration cannot produce symmetrical m agnetomotive force or flux density under the P M rotor poles, and harmonics exist in the air gap b etween stator and rotor, which will increase th e ripple and noise in torque. Calculation of The tor rque (cogging torque) with variations in stator and PM shapes has been computed using finite ele ment method analysis (FEM), in this paper.

stator and PM shapes has been computed using finite ele ment method analysis (FEM), in this

Figure1. SPM motor

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International Journal on Computational Sciences & Applications (IJCSA) Vol.3, No.2, April 2013 Table1. Main parameters of the SPM motor

Rated power

30

Hp

Stator outer diameter

120 mm

Stator inner diameter

60

mm

Lamination length

70

mm

PM thickness

1.7

mm

Air gap length

0.5

mm

Stator and rotor core material

DW360-50

PM material

NdFeB 30SH

2. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT

Experimental design or design of experiments (DOE) is the design of any information where variation is present, whether under the full control or not. DOE often used in evaluating applied physic, engineering and material science.

The Taguchi method extremely reduced the number of experiments by using orthogonal array tables. This array is selected the special features among the total number of experiments [6],[7].

In this paper, the design factors and their respective levels are given in Table2.

Where,

A is the ratio of PM Pole arc to pole pitch

B is the distance from motor centre used as the centre of circle for PM (mm)

C is the slot opening height (mm)

D is the slot opening width (mm)

E is the air gap length (mm)

Table2. Design Factors

Factors

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4

A

0.78

0.82

0.86

0.9

B [mm]

0

0.15

0.3

0.45

C [mm]

0.8

0.9

1

1.1

D [mm]

1.7

1.8

1.9

2

E [mm]

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

The orthogonal array L-16 selected for the matrix experiments based on standard Taguchi is shown in table 3. As shown in Table3, there are 16 experiments required to determine the optimum combination of the levels of these factors.

If there are 5 variable each at 4 levels, full factorial approach needs 4 5 or 1024 experiments. To

2D FEM analysis is conducted to obtain the average values of torque and cogging torque for each case.

Table4 shows the results of simulation results.

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International Journal on Computational Sciences & Applications (IJCSA) Vol.3, No.2, April 2013 Table3. L-16 Orthogonal Array

Experiment

   

B C

A D

 

E

1

   

1 1

1 1

 

1

2

   

2 2

1 2

 

2

3

   

3 3

1 3

 

3

4

   

4 4

1 4

 

4

5

2

 

1 2

3

4

6

2

2 1

 

4

3

7

2

 

3 4

1

2

8

2

 

4 3

2

1

9

3

 

1 3

4

2

10

3

 

2 4

3

1

11

3

 

3 1

2

4

12

3

 

4 2

1

3

13

4

 

1 4

2

3

14

4

 

2 3

1

4

15

4

 

3 2

4

1

16

4

4 1

 

3

2

Table4. Motor Simulation Results

Experiment

T c (N.m)

T

avg

(N.m)

 

1 0.7962

4.0747

 

2 0.7319

3.9830

 

3 0.6747

3.8827

 

4 0.6224

3.7778

 

5 0.6575

3.7331

 

6 0.7259

3.7976

 

7 0.6583

3.8723

 

8 0.7259

3.9454

 

9 0.8352

3.9486

 

10 0.8336

4.0242

 

11 0.5350

3.7297

 

12 0.5203

3.7985

 

13 0.6698

4.0220

 

14 0.5225

3.9133

 

15 0.8063

4.1448

 

16 0.6443

4.0304

3. ANALYSIS OF SIMULATION RESULTS

After obtaining all the simulation results from the matrix experiment and, ANOM (analysis of means) and ANOVA (analysis of variance) are carried out to estimation of the four design parameters and determination of the relative importance of each design variable [21]. The means of all simulation results can be calculated by Equation1.

m

=

1

1 6

1 6

i = 1

T

i

(1)

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International Journal on Computational Sciences & Applications (IJCSA) Vol.3, No.2, April 2013

Table5 tabulates the results.

Table5. Analysis of Means

 

Tc

Tavg

(N.m)

(N.m)

m

0.6850

3.9174

3.1. Average Effect

The average torque of variable A at level 3 is calculated by Equation2.

mA

3

(

T

avg

)

=

1

4

(

T

avg

(9)

+ T

avg

(10)

+ T

avg

(11)

+ T

avg

(12))

(2)

As shown in table3, the factor A is set to in experiments 9, 10, 11, 12 at level 3. Similar way can be used for computing of Average torque of all variables.

Table 6 shows the results. A plot of main factors effects is illustrated in Figure2 It is seen that the factor-level combination (A4, B1, C4, D2, and E1) contributes to maximization of average torque.

Table6. Average torque for all levels of all factors

i

Ai

Bi

Ci

Di

Ei

1

3.9296

3.9496

3.9081

3.9147

4.0473

2

3.8371

3.929

3.9148

3.9200

3.9586

3

3.8753

3.9074

3.92

3.9176

3.8752

4

4.0276

3.8880

3.9241

3.9172

3.780

4.05 4.02 3.99 3.96 3.93 3.9 3.87 3.84 3.81 3.78 3.75 T avg (N.m)
4.05
4.02
3.99
3.96
3.93
3.9
3.87
3.84
3.81
3.78
3.75
T avg (N.m)

A1 A2 A3 A4

B1 B2 B3 B4

C1 C2 C3 C4

setting of factors

D1 D2 D3 D4

E1 E2 E3 E4

Figure2. Main factor effects on average torque

The peak to peak value of cogging torque for all levels of factors is shown in Table7. Main factor effect on the peak to peak value of cogging torque is shown in Figure3

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International Journal on Computational Sciences & Applications (IJCSA) Vol.3, No.2, April 2013 Table7. Peak to peak value of cogging torque for all levels of all factors

i

Ai

Bi

Ci

Di

Ei

1

0.1794

0.1874

0.1724

0.1590

0.1953

2

0.1803

0.1789

0.1728

0.1694

0.1813

3

0.1747

0.1704

0.1757

0.1792

0.1671

4

0.1636

0.1614

0.1771

0.1905

0.1544

0.198 0.194 0.19 0.186 0.182 0.178 0.174 0.17 0.166 0.162 0.158 0.154 0.15 T c
0.198
0.194
0.19
0.186
0.182
0.178
0.174
0.17
0.166
0.162
0.158
0.154
0.15
T c (N.m)

A1 A2 A3 A4

B1 B2 B3 B4

C1 C2 C3 C4

D1 D2 D3 D4

setting of factors

E1 E2 E3 E4

Figure3. Main factor effects on peak to peak value of cogging torque

3.2. Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA)

To conduct Analysis Of Variance is calculated the sum of squares. It is measure of the deviation of simulation data from the mean value of the data. The sum of squares (SSF A ) due to various factors can be calculated as:

SSFA

=

4

4

i = 1

(

m

A

i

m

)

2

(3)

SSF B , SSF C , SSF D and SSF E can be obtained in the same way. Table8 is shown the data of the machine among the initial, Taguchi parameter designs and simulation results.

It can be seen that average torque increases from the initial design of 3.8276 Nm to Taguchi parameter design of 4.1118 Nm, and to simulation result of 4.10 Nm. The cogging torque value decreases from 0.7315 Nm to 0.6390 Nm in Taguchi parameter design, and to 0.6400 Nm in simulation result.

Table 8. Comparison Results

 

Tavg. (N.m)

Tc (N.m)

Initial

3.8276

0.7315

Taguchi results

4.1118

0.6390

Simulation results

4.10

0.640

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International Journal on Computational Sciences & Applications (IJCSA) Vol.3, No.2, April 2013

4. CONCLUSION

The Taguchi method applied to design optimization of SPM motor for the reduction of cogging torque value. The peak to peak value of cogging torque decreases before and after optimization by Taguchi method.

The peak to peak value of cogging torque decreases from 0.7315 Nm to 0.6390 Nm in Taguchi parameter design, and to 0.6400 Nm in simulation result.

Proposed method for solving this problem is significantly reduced the peak to peak value of cogging torque of SPM motor.

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