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W Jt W one Early W XiL portant _ have ed t of bay Sidamara The S male the Christian originated cophagi, oflate sons of figure an them, seated arcade. type Roman ofwith (Asta of Constantine in after found author-philosopher style between columnated It Asia .7\4znor), belongs the in of Minor the earliest Sidamara, the arcades, Great, columns to about and sculpture, a known group type, and postEze believed at within most 11 of Ambardressed as middle -i * sarthe the im| to y_w
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9 Thisfragment of a sarcophagus shows a beardin chitonandhimation andholding a scroll (ro-



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of thesss century A.D. Marble, 28M2 x I2
Rogers Fund, I8. I08



0 Theimperial diadem identifies thissculpture as the headof a Roman emperor. It is a portrait _ siblyConstans. The identification is based on a certain similarity of thisheadto representations of the youthful emperor foundon coins; lackof r' authentic, unidealized portraits of Constans and his brothers doesnot allowforpositive identifisoftened by influences fromthe Near East, is characteristic of thenewlyrising Byzantine style andsuitswellthe dating of the piece.It is said
Xbozxt340 A .D Marble, hezghtl oM2inahes. Rogers Fund,67.I07

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ThesetzZo plates, withscenes fromthestoryof David,arepart ofa treasure found near Kyrenia, onCyprus. Thesilver stamps on the undersides of the plates areof thereign ofEmperor Heraclius (6I3-629/630). Although the plates maynot be by the samehandandnot all of thefivesilver stamps on oneplateareexactlythe same asthose on theother,thetechnique of theworkmanship is thesame. Thepresence of thefiveimperial stamps, as wellas the highquality of the design andof the execution,pointsto a workshop in the capital of Byzantium, Constantinople.
Constantinoplc, vll century. Diameters soM, 5H inches. Giftof J. Pierpont Morgan,Z7.sg0.3g7,394

12 13 14


2 This cup, possibly a chalice,is decorated with representations of fourfemalefigures. Thesearesymbolicpersonifications of imperialcities and metropolitan sees of Byzantium,whichderivefromthe pagancity goddesses, Tyches.The inscription in Greekunderthe rimidentifies themas the citiesof Constantinople, Cyprus,Rome,and Alexandria. Therewasno "city of Cyprus" - the capital of the island then being Constantia(earliercalled Salamis)-and it has been suggestedthat the presenceof Cypruson thiscup maysupplya clueforits dating.After the Councilof Ephesusin 43I, the Metropolitan See of Cyprusdeclared its independence from the city of Antioch, and the nameof Cypruswas probablyused here to emphasize its importance. It also suggeststhat the cup was made on Cyprus,and before647, when the Arabs invaded the islandand destroyedConstantia.The cup was found with several other gold and silver objects nearDurazzo,Albania. About43Z-647.Gold,height6S inches.Giftof J. Pierpont Morgan,Z7.I90.I7so

tablets- the depression on the backwas filled with wax and a stylus used to write upon this surface - but consulardiptychs were testimonialgifts and not meant to serveany other purpose. Constantinople. Heightss3H inches.Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan,s7.sg0.52,53

4 This representation of the Mother of God of the Hodegetriatype derivesits composition and namefrom the greatly veneratedimagekept, up to the thirteenth century,in the churchof the Most Holy Motherof God, Hodegetria(in translation, "She who points the way"), locatednear the ImperialPalacein Constantinople. Severe majesty and quietude are combinedin this ivory
carving. XI century. Height 9H inches. GiftofJ. Pierpont Morgan, I7.Igo.Io3

3 The consuls,at the time of their investiturewith this importantand highly honorablerank, were to arrange,at theirown expense,gamesandspectacles for the people,and to distribute largesses andgifts. Amongthese were ivory diptychs.The two ivory plaquesshownhere are the leaves of such a consulardiptych, which is inscribedwith the nameof [Flavius] PetrusSabbatius Justinianus,and dates from 52I, the first consulship of the futureemperorJustinian (527-565). Becauseof the high cost of consulship to the consuland the gradual deteriorationof its importance, the oEce of ConsulOrdinarius was abolished after 54I, the emperoraddingthe title of Consulto that of Emperor. Diptychswereusuallymadeto be employedaswriting

5 These medallions were originallypart of a groupof twelve from the frameof the silver repousse icon of the Archangel Gabriel,formerlyin the monasteryof Djumati, Georgia (in the Caucasus).They form a Deesis group: the Mother of God and St. John the Baptist interceding beforeChristfor humanityat the Last Judgment. The techniqueof cloisonneenamelon gold used for these medallions consistsof outliningthe design by cloisons,thin metal strips secured to the gold plaque, formingcells for the enamels.This techniquewas preferred in Byzantium but it was known earlier,and is also related to the stone and glass inlay decorationof the Barbarians. Eithermadein Constantinople for Georgia or, possibly, madein Georgia by a master trained in Byzantium, lateXI century. Diameters about3H inches.Gift ofJ. Pierpont Morgan,s7.sg0.675, 678 677 203

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