THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART
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The Metropolitan of Art Museum 1983 Bulletin/Spring
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SEVENTH TOTENTH CENTURY
Twobasictypes of decoratedceramic worldbewareswere in use inthe Islamic forethe ninth One grew out of the century. Romanterra earthensigillata ("molded and bearsmoldeddecorationdeware") rivedfromlateGreco-Roman models or morestylizedmotifsof Sasanianoriginthose derivedfromthe artof pre-lslamic and Persia.The otherhas Mesopotamia Eastern and bears stamped, prototypes incised,or applieddecoration.Bothtypes arefoundineitherglazed or unglazed versions. Theperiod-of adoptionand adaptation the earlycenturiesof Islamwas during followed,beginninginthe ninth century, in Excavations by one of innovation. foundedin836 inwhatis now Samarra, as the temporary Iraq capitalof the Abbasiddynasty,have providedample withnew proofof the experimentation pottery techniquesundertaken by Iraqi ceramists. Inan attempt to imitate Chinese porcelain, they rediscovereda combinationused muchearlier by the Egyptians: tinoxideand clearlead glaze, a mixture thatprovided a fineopaque surface fordecoration. Theyand otherIslamic ceramists continuedto use such a surface forvarious types of decorationand introduced itintoEurope. theyeventually Theproductsincorporating new techniquessuch as inglazeand lusterpainting (see figures4, 5) thatwere made in
Samarra as wellas inthe permanent Abbasid of Baghdadwereadmired capital the empire.Thusitis notsurthroughout to findvariations or imitations of prising themin manyof the provincial cities. By the end of the tenthcenturythe purely adoptiveand adaptivephases of Islamic were over and the pottery production creativephase was almosttwo hundred yearsold and givingriseto innovation, and copies in regional diversification, areas of the Islamic world. far-flung 1. Unglazedvessels were popular for centuriesbecause liquidsstoredinthem were keptcool by the evaporation that occurredthroughtheirporouswalls.This examplebears motifsdrawnfromor inEasternmotifs: a spiredby pre-lslamic long-horned quadrupedand a largetailedbirdon eitherside of a "treeof life." Thecharmof thisprimitive yet sophisticated design morethancompensates forthe lackof perfection of the ewer's proportions. Thedecorationused here is knownas a techniquein whichrolled barbotine, stripsand circlesof clay were appliedto the surface,flattened,and then incised withparallel lines.Sasanianvessels bear barbotine decorationas well,butthe inherent inthistechmanypossibilities niquewere onlyfullydeveloped on of the early glazed and unglazedpottery Islamic period.
Thistype of decorationplusthe additionalinciseddesigns and the vestiges of metalprototypes visibleon the handle and neck, as wellas the ribsat the base of the neck, indicatethatthe ewer was made duringthe firstcenturyof the Islamic period. 2. Thisfragmentary ewer illustrates a ceramictype thatwas very popularunder Romanruleand laterenjoyeda renaissance duringthe earlyIslamicperiod. Thisware,made in a carved ceramic mold,was availablein glazed and unglazed varietiesduringthis period.The shape of thisglazed vessel has Eastern in its original statethe ewer prototypes; musthave closely resembledan unglazed one inthe collectionof the L.A. Institute forIslamic Artin MayerMemorial Jerusalem thatbears an Arabicinscriptionin Kufic scriptstatingthatitwas made in Gurganin whatis now Iran. Unlike the unglazedpiece, the ewer had a panel in itscenterwith presumably an openworkdesign thatwouldhave been attachedto one halfof the body beforethe two halves werejoined.After the foot, handle,spout, and neck were apdecorationwas added to plied,further maskthe joinof the neck and thatof the handleto the body.The piece was then glazed and fired.The green glaze colorwas commonalso to otherpieces of the type.
3. Pieces exhibiting similar decoration and thisflat-bottomed rimlessshape based on a metalprototype have been foundinSamarra, a locationindicating a date forthisdish inthe ninth century, laterthanthe ewer executed inthe same technique. Thedish shows an Islamic adaptation of an interlace design drawnfromGrecoRomantradition. Herethe variouselementsof the pattern bearabstract motifs-parallelslashes, circles,and dots -additions thatare illustrative of the Islamic penchantforalloverdecoration. Thedish also representsthe veryimportant rediscovery by Muslim pottersin the ninth device centuryof the Egyptian of addingtinoxideto clearlead glaze. An 6
earlyexampleof the use of thisopaque surfaceforcoloreddesigns can be seen inthe green stainpaintedinthe glaze on the fourinnermost knotsof the decoration as wellas on fourof the squares created by the interlace. 4. A further developmentof stainor inis seen on thisjarwith glaze painting fourlug handles:afterthe opaque glaze was applied,certainareas were stained green-as on the moldeddish-and then vegetal designs and swags were painted in blue on the rawglaze as well.Theeffect of the inglazepainting is muchlikeink on a blotter. Thistechniqueappearsto have been very popularin ninth-century Iraqand to
have been copied inthe provinces,espewhere manganese, ciallyKhorasan, whichproduces an auberginecolor,was used in place of cobalt.These imitations, wares, lackingthe finesse of the Iraqi were also producedin otherregions, such as those of present-day Spain,Tunithatlookedto Baghdad sia, and Algeria, as the cultural capitalof the period.As in the palettewas green and Khorasan, aubergine. Thisshape was decoratedin other techniquesduringthe ninthcentury,but examples of itare rarecomparedto the apparbowls,whose shape imitated Chinesewares imported entlyprestigious intoIraqat thistime.
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5. One of the mostimportant contributionsto the ceramicindustry inthe early Islamic of the periodwas the application Preluster-painting techniqueto pottery. viouslyused to decorateglass, luster as employedby ninth-century painting ceramistsin Baghdadlefta permanent on the ceramicindustry ingeneral, imprint and itsinfluence is still evidentinthe lusterpaintedwaremade inAmerica today. Forthisextremely difficult process, silverand copper oxides, each mixedwitha medium,were used to paintdesigns on a vessel alreadycovered withan opaque a second firing in glaze and fired.During a reducingkiln, oxygen was drawnout of the metallic oxides, leavingthe metal suspended on the surfaceto refract light and createa lustrous appearance.Shades of green were obtainedfromsilverand those of brownfromcopper. Thefieldof thisIraqi dish is filledwitha bush, and the flat highlystylizedflowering rimbearsa repeateddesign of the Arabic wordfor"sovereignty," in Kufic written of a script,whichmay be an abbreviation commoncalligraphic decorationstating Thispoly"Sovereignty belongs to God."
chromelustertechniqueis moreoften foundon bowlsimitating a Chinese thanon those of the metallic shape, rather shape thatthisunusually largedish imitates withitswideflatrimand broadfootless base. 6. The polychrome techluster-painting more short-lived; niquewas extremely certainof success was the monochrome since onlyone colorwas involved variety, inthe executionof a design. Itwas monochromelusterpainting thatspread from to Tunisia, Iraq Algeria,Egypt,Syria,Iran, and eventually to America. Spain,England, Thisbowlexhibitsmanyof the design characteristics of the monochromelusterthe paintedwaresof tenth-century Iraq: caricaturelike of the seated man quality holdinga beakerin one handand a floweringbranchinthe other;the plainborder himand the two birdsholdsurrounding ingfishintheirbeaks;the speckled backthe scalloped rimdesign; and the ground; exterior decorationof a series of three concentriccirclesevenlyspaced around the wallon a fieldof dashes and dots. The foot bearsthe Arabicwordfor "blessing"
in Kufic script. 7. Inthe second halfof the ninthcentury AhmadibnTulun, an Abbasidgovernor and latervirtually of independentruler Egypt,Palestine,and Syria,summoned craftsmen to Egyptto create works Iraqi of artsimilar to those he had knownin Samarra. Another influx of Iraqi craftsmen came to Egyptinthe tenthcenprobably in search of new patronage,when tury, Abbasidpolitical fortunesbegan to wane. Thusdid migrating craftsmenpresumalusterpaintingintoEgypt blyintroduce fromIraq. Thistenth-century bowlwithits motifsurroundedby a palmette-tree borderis a fine largeexampseudo-Kufic monochromeluster. ple of earlyEgyptian Onthe exterior itis decoratedwitha series of five petal-shapedareas, formed each bearinga lineof by half-palmettes, Theflatfoot gives the pseudo-Kufic. name of the artist (see figure11). Iraqi prototypesare knownand must have served as inspiration forthis bowlas wellas forimitations of luster-painted waremade inthe eastern Iranian province of Khorasan.
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8. By the ninthcentury, designs created with molds and through the use of stamped, incised, and applied decoration gradually gave way to more original-and difficult-techniques of inglaze and overglaze painting. Duringthat century and the next, potters in Khorasan and in the region northeast of the Oxus River in CentralAsia, as well as in Iraq,eastern Arabia, Syria, and Egypt, employed a new technique to decorate ceramic surfaces. Like Iraqiinglaze-painted and overglaze luster-painted pottery,this ware had a plain opaque surface for decoration. The body was covered by a white or colored engobe, a thin wash of the body material.The design was then painted, and the piece was glazed and fired. One variety, known as "splashed sgraffito ware,"bears designs incised through the engobe to the red-clay body and then highlighted with differentcolors. When the designs were covered with a colorless transparent lead glaze, the colored dots and lines were likelyto run during the firing. This bowl-one of the most successful examples of "splashed sgraffito ware"-has a purely Islamic design of a palmette-filledarcade with spandrels of vegetal rinceaux.
The T'ang "three-color"ware that inspired this very popular group of pottery, and shared its color scheme of green, aubergine, and brown on a white ground, may have appeared in the Middle East as early as the eighth century. 9. The importantceramic centers of Nishapur and Samarkand in the provinces of Khorasan and Transoxiana, respectively, produced a number of different types of underglaze-painted ware in their attempts to attaintotal mastery over their medium. Perhaps one of the most spectacular proofs of their achievement can be seen in the clarityof the design painted on this unusually large and deep bowl. The ultimatesolution to the problems of underglaze painting in these two centers evolved through the discovery that almost complete control could be exercised over the design ifthe coloring agents were mixed with a clay slip, a more liquid version of the body itself. When the lead glaze was applied over the slip-painted design and the object fired, the design remained stable. The decoration on the interiorof this bowl consists of an Arabic inscriptionin
Kufic:"Planning before work protects you from regret. Prosperity and Peace." The elegance of the letters has been enhanced by fine incisions. The perfection of the design and potting in combination with the size of the bowl (itis eighteen inches in diameter) makes this a true tour de force of the potter's art. Some examples of this slip-painted ware have red in the palette; others reverse the color scheme so that the designs are silhouetted on a dark ground.
10. While the emerging middle classes and the patricians were buying locally produced glazed pottery as well as the coveted imported ceramic objects also available in the markets of the Middle East, unglazed wares were stillfulfilling vital needs of all the citizenry. Humble though they may have seemed at the time, these vessels with their simple elegance superbly illustratethe control of the potter over his medium. Withno glaze or applied or painted decoration to hide its flaws, this eggshell-thin cup, highlighted only by tooled punches on its shoulder, is a worthy testament to the level of the industry in the tenth century. 11
ELEVENTH TOMID-THIRTEENTH CENTURY
Thetechniqueof lusterpainting, which movedfromIraqwithmigrating ceramists and,to the best of ourknowledge,was neverto return, continuedinSpainas well as in Egyptduring thisperiod.Itis from the latter country-withthe disintegration of the Fatimid dynastyand the riseof artisticpatronageunderthe Kurdish Ayyubids and variousTurkic groups,including the GreatSeljuks-thatthe technique mostprobably moved againwithmigratto Syriaand Iran.Inaddition to ing artists ware,moldedslip-and inluster-painted warecontinuedto be glaze-painted inmade, alongwithobjectsexhibiting cised decoration. the most important innovation However, inthe fieldduring thisperiodwas the rediscoveryof faience,made inan attempt to imitate the appearanceof Sung porcelain.First employedby the Pharoanic thisis a man-mademixture of Egyptians, and whiteclay.Once repotash,quartz, discovered,the whitecompositebody was soon being used by Islamic ceramistsas a groundforpainteddesigns that exhibited greaterlinearand tonalvariety thancouldhave been achieved before.
Thedecorativepossibilities open to the Muslim potterwere now limitless. These composite-bodied objectsseem to have been almostexclusivelycovered withalkaline glazes, to the exclusionof lead glazes, intwelfthto fourteenthand late fourteenthto early centurySyria Iran.However, and eighteenth-century to widelyaccepted opinion, contrary these alkaline glazes were used onlyspobetween the eleventhand the radically middleof the fourteenth centuryin Iran, wherelead glazes were stillthe preferred ware. coveringforcomposite-bodied Itis during thisperiodthat,underMusliminfluence, the firstlead glaze opacified withtinwas used in Europe-in Pavia, at the end of the eleventhcentury. Italy, Thusthe ceramicindustry of the Islamic worldlaidthe groundforItalian majolica and the manyotherEuropean waresthat were decoratedwithdesigns paintedon an opaque whitesurface. 11. Stylistic and iconographic changes took place inthe decorationof lusterafterthistechniquewas paintedpottery fromIraq to Egypt.As in broughtby artists most Fatimid art,therewas an increasein
the use of humanand animalmotifsthat appear morealivethantheirpredecessors. The heraldiceagle on thisoutstanding objectlacksthe caricaturelike quality of the seated man on the tenth-century bowl(figure heriIraqi 6). ItsHellenistic tage is obvious:in composition-profile head and outstretched wings and legs -it descends fromthe insigniaof the Romanlegions. Beneaththe bird'sright talonand again on the footof the bowlis the artist's signaActivearoundthe year ture,"Muslim." 1000, he is the only Egyptian potterof this periodwho has been placed in a firmhistoricalcontext. Theceramistin Egyptat thistimemust have been held in rather highesteem, for notonlydid manyartistssuch as Muslim sign theirnames on the back orthe front of theirobjects, butsome also countersigned those signed by others,thus indiatelierswhose master catingimportant craftsmen's signatureswere coveted. In the earlyIslamicperiod,pieces bearing the potter's unsignaturewere notentirely knownbutthe practicewas notwidespread. 13
12. Inthe middleof the twelfth centuryand apparently coincidingwiththe fallof the Fatimid dynasty-the luster-painting techniqueseems to have disappeared and fromthe Egyptian potters'repertoire time. appearedinSyriaforthe first of earlySyrianluster-painted Typical wareare some of the featuresof this basin:copper-colored luster, appliedto a thanopaque, glaze rather transparent, and largeunthathas a crackledquality; the design. Signifidecoratedareas within cant also arethe scallopeddecorationon the rimand the wide plainbandforming the upperborderof the principal design. Examplesof thiswarewithmotifsincised the lusteralso exist. through withregardto Rather unimaginative lustercopper-colored shapes, thisSyrian in the basin occurred ware mainly painted formshown here (an unusually largeexample)or in bowlswithverysharplyflartype were set ing walls.Bowlsof the latter intothe campanilesorfacades of Romanas decorationduresque churchesin Italy Because the buildings ing construction. are veryoftendated,these bacini,as they are called,can be dated as well. 14
13. Thetechniqueof incisingceramicsurfaces, as seen on thisfooted Iranian bowl, is a carry-over fromthe earlyIslamic period;and the purelyIslamic arabesque wallsis a continuadesign on itsstraight tionof a motif thatwas verypopularin Samarra. the perHowever, ninth-century iod of itsmanufacture was notonlyone of at a pointas yet notclearly continuation; defined,Chineseporcelaininspireda new chapterin Islamic potterymaking. Notcontentwithimitating onlythe whiteness of the porcelain,Iranian potterswent a step further and made deep incisionsin the wallsof the vessels, sometimespiercing them.Whenthese deep incisions were covered withtransparent glaze, the wallsappearedas translucent as those of the much-covetedChineseware. 14. Thispanel,one of a groupof six tilesbearinga bold moldedcalliSyrian graphicdesign, exhibitsa decorative times. techniquepracticedin earlyIslamic Itis representative of a type of warewith moldeddesigns verycommoninthe centralIslamic landsduringthe latetwelfth and earlythirteenth centuries.These ob-
jects-including dishes, vases, lanterns, and lowtablesforfood and drink-were mostoftencovered witha clearcolorless, or aubergineglaze. turquoise, Ceramicarchitectural decorationhad a long pre-lslamic inthe Middle history East.TheearliestIslamic examples are fromninth-century Iraq,whence the traditionpassed to othercountriesinthe Muslimworld.Ceramicarchitectural elements fromSyria,in any technique,datingfrom the timeof this panel are rare. 15. Thereis verylittle evidence of the use of glazed ceramicarchitectural decorationinthe extremeeastern reaches of the Muslim worldduringthis periodexcept fora few tilefragmentsfromNishapur and a largegroupof tilesfromGhazni,in what is nowAfghanistan, foundin a palace destroyedby the Mongolsin 1221. Among the Ghaznigroupwas thissquare red wall tilewithmoldeddecoration.Itsmotifof affrontedlarge-tailed birdshas earlyIslamic as do the motifson manyother parallels, Ghaznitiles.The colors used on the group,notablygreen and yellow,as well as the rarered seen here, are also more characteristic of earlierpottery.
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16. One variety of slip painting under a transparent lead glaze employed in early Islamic Iranis found during the early medieval period on the so-called silhouette ware, here represented by a cup with a band of gazelles striding across its belly. Modificationsto the earliertechnique were necessary because of the new body type: in this ware the design was executed with a thinner version of the composite-body material(known as "frit") instead of being painted with a clay slip.
The vessel was then covered with a transparent clear or turquoise glaze. In some examples of this type, the whole object was covered with a thick layer of frit; when dry, the fritwas incised through to the body, creating a design, or it was carved away, leaving the design in relief. The most common shapes among silhouette ware are drinkingvessels, although bowls are known as well. The stripes on the lower section of this cup and on its short neck are a popular device
on these objects. 17. The decoration on this bowl was created in the same manner as that on the cup (figure 16), the only difference being that the body is earthenware and the design is carved in a coat of white engobe, not frit.This ware, known as "Garrus," the name of the districtwhere the type was firstfound, is very probably a provincial imitationof the silhouette ware made in the frit-paintedtechnique.
to painta design that 18. Theability wouldnot runin,on, with,or undera a masteryof the medium glaze required thatwas attainedonlythroughmuchtrial Atthe dawnof the twelfth cenand error. the problemhad not been comtury, pletelysolved, butceramistscontinuedto the investigatenew methods,including noveltechniqueused on thissmalldish. It is an exampleof laqabi("painted") ware, which,because of itsshort-lived appearance inthe Islamic world,musthave been in pottery an experiment painting. is carved Here,the entirebackground Thisdeaway,leavingthe design in relief. sign, inturn,is incised,creatingwhatcan onlybe calleddikesor cloisonsto prevent coloredglazes fromrunning the different Thistechnique,because of its together.
effectthat cloisons, has a built-in stylizing is verysuccessful in depictingthiscolorfulperkybird,whichformsthe principal design. Theshape of the dish-with itslow wallsand wideflatrim slightly flaring (bearinga pseudo-Kufic design)-places itmoreinthe Syrian thaninthe Persian sphere, althoughthistype of warewas also made in Iran. to increasethe number 19. Inan attempt of colorsintheirpalettes,twelfth-century Iranian pottersdeveloped a technique in now knownas mina'i("enameled"), in whichstablecolorswere stain-painted a lead glaze opacifiedwithtinand, aftera first less stablecolorswere applied firing, at a lowertemand the objectwas refired
Thistechniqueenabled the artperature. istto paintina greatervarietyof colors withcompletecontrol,lendinga miniaturelike to the designs notfound quality on otherpottery forpractitypes. Whether cal or aestheticreasons,this methodwas short-lived. relatively Figural designs as opposed to stylized vegetal ones seem to have been preferredby mina'ipainters: some of the vessels withfiguresbear scenes fromthe Iranian national epic, the Shah-nameh (TheBookof Kings),written by the poet Ferdowsibetween975 and 1010. The styleof these figuresechoes thatof those inthe few Persianpaintingson paper extantfromthis period,and thus mina'i wareserves to increaseour knowledgeof of the earlymedievalperiod. painting
the second halfof the twelfth 20. Until ceramistsin different areas of the century, worldhad notcompletelymasIslamic teredthe techniqueof decoratingglazed objectswithwhatwere oftenquiteelaboratedesigns of a calligraphic, vegetal, nature.Twelfthgeometric,orfigural centurypotters,however,began to stainontothe compositebody.As paintdirectly is wellillustrated by the lowersection of thismethodof underglaze thisSyrian jar,
painting provideda veryclearimage.
withfigures,animals,or birds. Theabstractdecorationon thisjaris 21. Inaddition to underglaze-painted unusualforthe type, as itreflectsthe influwaredecoratedin blackundera clearor ence of contemporary metalwork inthe turquoise glaze (figure 20), Syriaprolayoutof itsdesign and inthe motifs(speduced underglazepolychromepainted the horizontal bands interrupted cifically wareduring the second halfof the twelfth by largeroundels). As we have seen and firsthalfof the thirteenth costliermetalobjectsoftenserved earlier, century. These pieces are closely relatedto those as the inspiration forobjects in less made incontemporary Egyptand Turkey, expensive media. allof whichare customarily decorated
was also highlydeveloped in Iran. mostof the twelfth and the first 22. During This the central halfof the thirteenth bowl,producedduringthe earlythircentury, teenthcentury, exhibitsgreatlinearand was ruledby a branchof partof Anatolia tonalvariety. the Turkic fromtheircapitalat Superimposeddesign netSeljuks worksare a commonfeatureon Islamic thatstandto thisday as Konya.Structures wellas those revealedduringexcavations objectsin manymediaproducedat many different attestto the Seljuk fondness forcovering Islamic times;characteristically motifsinclude the splitpalmetteswith the wallsof theirbuildings withtilesarwhichthe bluesix-part rangedin geometricpatterns. design terminates. Whenthe Mongolsbegan theirsweep The exterior decorationand shape of across Asiaduringthe firstquarter thisvessel, withits highfootand flaring of the craftsmen fromthe thirteenth wallsthatbreakquitesharplyintheir century, countriesintheirpathmigrated to safer, lowersection,are typicalof ceramicsasstableareas to work.That morefinancially sociated withKashan. tileswere producedwiththe the building or migrant craftsmen is help of imported 24. Thisewer witha reticulated outerwall evidenced by thishexagonalgrouping, thatvirtually masksthe innermost plain whichprobably came fromthe palace of one is also associated withthe Iranian 'Ala'al-Din Kay-Qubadh (ruled1219-37) ceramiccenterof Kashanand belongs the technicaland at Konya.Itexhibits to a veryraregroupof double-walled influenceof Syrian objects iconographical seems to have objectswhose prototype inthe star-shapedunderglaze-painted tile been Iraqi. withthe sphinxand the technicalinfluCharacteristic of Kashanproduction ence of Persianmina'iwareon bothtypes arethe willow above the footand pattern tiles. of the four-sided thatinsidethe neck. The principal decora23. Thetechniqueof underglaze-painting tionis a veritable junglescene incorporat-
ing sphinxes(some of whichstronglyresemble the one on the tilegroupingfrom Konya[figure 22]), harpies,and quadrupeds of severalvarieties,allset againsta dense vegetal background.The decorationalso includesthe date:A.H. 612
25. InIran and Turkey the tradition of decoraglazed ceramicarchitectural tion-a tradition thatbegan duringthe earlymedievalperiodand extended into the nexttwo periods-was developed to one of its highestlevels within the history of pottery. ThisTurkish bosse appears to have been created in muchthe same manneras the decorationon the outer wallof the ewer (figure24). The hollow hemisphereconsists of a cut-outgeometricdesign thatcontainsvegetal motifsin some of itssections. bosses used forarchitectural Although decoration were morecommonlyexecuted in stone, ceramicpieces similar to thisone are stillin situon buildingsin Konya,accentingthe spandrelsof arches.
26. Inthe latetwelfth and firsthalfof the thirteenth centuryinSyria,the lustertechniquewas combinedwith painting as itwas also inconunderglazepainting, and laterceramicproduction temporary in Iran and Spain.Thishandleddrinking vessel witha taperingneck was a popular ware,of shape forSyrianluster-painted whichsome of the characteristic features are a chocolate-brown lustercombined withunderglaze-painted blue,and a of coiled background tightly spiralsreminiscentof engravedor chased scrollson metalwork. Thearrangecontemporary mentof the variouscalligraphic, geometric,and vegetal designs intoa series of concentricbands interrupted by medal-
lionsalso has abundantmetalprototypes. 27. Ataboutthe timeof the collapse of the Fatimid dynastyin 1171, lusterpaintedwarewas being producedin Iran as wellas Syria.Whileitseems quitecertainthatmigrating Egyptian potterswere the techniqueto responsibleforbringing Syria,theirroleinthe appearanceof warein Iranis less clear. luster-painted Certain featurescommonto bothwares supporta connectionbetween Egyptian and Iranian thatassociluster, particularly ated withthe Persiancityof Rayy.Of those features,this Iranian footed bowl exhibitstwo:a design reservedon the lusterground(inthiscase, an "Islamized" Pegasus) and a gadroonedrim.
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exhibiteda number The pottery industry this period.It trendsduring of discernible of some of the witnesseda continuation ceramictypes seen inthe earlymedieval and period,mostespeciallythe lusterand a wares, simplifiunderglaze-painted cationof certain techniquesemployedin the earlier period. Glazedceramicarchitectural decoraworldin ninthtion,firstused inthe Islamic centuryIraq,nowwas refined,reached itszenith,and began itsdecline. the latemedievalperiod,as During in various earlier, vogues or styles current worldmanifested areas of the Islamic decorationas themselvesinarchitectural wellas on vessels. Some of these interna-
tionalstylesare explainedby contempotextsand inscriptions that rary indicating artists fromIran,namelyfromTabriz, were in Egypt,Syria,and Turkey at working varioustimesduringthe period. Latemedievalceramicswere strongly influenced Chinese, by FarEastern, mainly andcolorschemes. Effected iconography the Mongolinvaprincipally through sions and throughtrade,thisinfluence breathednew lifeintothe production of wareat thistimeand underglaze-painted the late Islamic during period. 28. Thisliddedalbarello, or storagejar, belongsto a groupof wares knownas
fromthe Persianwordforlapis lajvardina, Because of the survival lazuli, of lajvard. a treatisewritten in 1301 by Abu'lQasim a memberof a well-known al-Kashani, of Kashanpotters,much is known family aboutthe techniqueused to decoratethis group.Itis relatedto the techniqueused on mina'iware butemployedonlyoverglaze colors,whichwere fixed by a second firing. The most commonmethodof applyinggold to such wares was used on thisvessel: afterred gold was hammered intoa veryfinesheet and cut intoshapes withscissors, the individual pieces were backedwithglue and appliedto the jarwitha pen or rodand then smoothed withcotton. 27
the earlyand late medieval 29. During the periods, cityof Kashanwas renowned Persiaforits luster-painted throughout tiles,and commissionswere received Thisexample fromalloverthe country. or niche served as a mihrab, probably of Mecca-the the direction indicating houses of worship. focal pointof Muslim signature,which Exceptforthe artist's is conspicuouslyplaced inthe spandrels, the moldedepigraphicdecorationis all Koranic. The last partof Chapter2, Verse God willsufficeyou against 136, "And the Omnithemand He is the Listener, to has been used imaginatively scient," formand fillthe arch restingon slender columns.The architselfis the compound wordfasayakfikahum ("AndHe willsuffromithangs a fice you againstthem"); from mihrab mosque lamp.A verysimilar Kashan,inthe collectionof the Gulbenin Lisbon,bears the kianFoundation, same epigraphicdevice and is dated
30. The appearanceof FarEasternicoworksof artseems nographyon Islamic to coincidewiththe spread of Mongol taste about 1300. Thisbowlis a typical example of a type of waremade inthe firsthalfof the fourteenth centurywith decorativemotifsthatbetrayChinese influence-here, a proudgoose and lotus blossoms hiddenamong dense foliage. Thetechniqueused to decoratethe bowlwas also employedwithslightvariationon objects made in contemporary Egyptand Syria.Thecompositewhite body was covered witha grayengobe beforethe design was paintedon itwith a thickwhitefrit.Blackwas then used for outlinesand cobaltblueforhighlights. The sharplybreaking walland T-form of the rimare aspects of a shape typicalfor the period. 31. Chinese influenceduringthis period Chiwas notconfinedto iconography. nese celadon-glazedwares were highly in Iranand in Egypt, valuedand imitated their color was duplionly rarely although cated successfully. of this The decorationon the interior bowl-three fishencirclingits basethaton the Chinese proclosely parallels shape of the totypes.The hemispherical foot,and the radiatbowl,its low narrow ing petalpatternsin reliefon the outside decoration reflectthe shape and exterior of the celadon-glazedpetal-backedbowls kilns.The shape fromthe Lung-ch'uan was foundamong bowlsof variousdecorative techniquesduringthe latethirteenth and earlyfourteenth centuries,especially in Iran. 28
32. Thevogue forimitating contemporary in Syriadurmetalwork designs, current medieval the period,continued ing early centuryon some duringthe fourteenth wares.The Syrianunderglaze-painted decorationon thislargejarconprincipal sists of a wide band inwhicha groundof curledspiralsbears an Arabicintightly inthuluth scription script:"Lasting glory, and fortuitous desincreasingprosperity, the Kufic so Unlike angular popular tiny." in decorativeartsof the earlierperiods, thuluth is a cursivescriptcharacterized by Similar wide bands tallelegantverticals. inlaid bearingboldthuluth inscriptions withsilveron a groundof engravedor chased spirals-all positionedbetween decorativeborders-were verycommon metalwork fromSyria on contemporary and Egypt. 33. Syrianunderglaze-painted wares appearto have had an impacton ceramic as farnorthas SeraiBerke,on production the VolgaRiver, whichserved as the capitalof the GoldenHorde.Because of their allianceagainstthe Mongolswiththe Mamluks (whoruledinSyriaand Egypt until 1517)and also the bond betweenthe GoldenHordeand the Mamluks of a very activetradein slaves, itis notsurprising thatartists inSouthRussiawere influenced by pottery, such as thisexample, made in Mamluk centers.The dish has a characteristically Mamluk shape, with roundedand slightly wallsand flaring a wideflatrim.The layoutof the border and the motifswithin it-crosshatching interrupted by rectanglesbearingspots of color-are foundon pieces from SeraiBerke. 34. Farfromfinelycrafted,thisunderdish is nonethelessimglaze-painted in the of Islamic portant history pottery because a date is incorporated in its and quitetypically humblePercharming sian inscription: "Aslong as the soup is if the bowl is notso wellmade, let good,
it be. The year A.H. 779 [A.D. 1377-78].
Thedate permits us to have precise information aboutone type of underglazepaintedwareproducedin Iran duringthe lastquarter of the fourteenth centurya periodduringwhichverylittle is knownaboutIran's potteryproduction.
startilebearstwo 35. Thiseight-pointed a popusuperimposeddesign networks, decorativeconvention(see larIslamic finernetwork also figure23). Thelower, is leftunglazed,whilethe upper,bolder design is glazed turquoiseblue.Thecombination of glazed and unglazedareas on a singleobject,be ita tileor a vessel, tileswith rare.However, is relatively glazed and unglazedareas are known in Iran fromas earlyas the middleof the eleventhcentury. Onvessels, the unglazedareas permitwhilethe glazed areas ted evaporation,
satisfied the Persianpenchantforcolorful On architectural tilesdecodecoration. the glazed design ratedinthismanner, wouldbe emphasizedand thus seen from a greaterdistance. decorationcomprisedof 36. Architectural individual glazed pieces was firstused in Iraninthe firsthalfof the twelfth Islamic when smallmonochromeglazed century, tileswere set intothe wallsof buildings ina verysparse, tentative manner. This momentum quiterapidly, practicegained
and by the timethismihrab was made, entirewallswere being covered with mosaictotally executed in smallpieces of brilliantly glazed ceramic.The complexity of such patternsrequired awesomely accuratecutting: since every angle influences the whole,the pattern could not be realizedunless each piece was precisely cut. Thishighlyexactingphase soon gave way,forthe most part,to one in which designs were paintedon largertiles-a muchquickerand easier way to cover largesurfaceswithpatternedglazed ceramics.
on thisbordertile, 37. Thedecoration carvedin highreliefand glazed invivid thanthe decoracolors,is no less striking tionon the mihrab, yet itwas considerably easierto execute. Thistileand the group to whichitbelongs are characterized by or deeply carvedvegetal,calligraphic, geometricdesigns glazed in one or more colors.Itis typicalof the glazed ceramic decorationin Bukhara and architectural Samarkand duringthe second halfof the fourteenth century. stillwas the 38. Less time-consuming techniqueused to execute the design on startilefromthe mathistwelve-pointed in drasa("theological school")at Khargird
Persia (A.H. 848 [A.D. 1444-45]). Before
the variousmotifswere paintedwithcolored glazes, each areato be paintedwas circumscribed by a thinlineof a greasy substance mixedwithmanganese, which colorsfromrunpreventedthe different Whenfired,the grease ningtogether. burnedawayand lefta darkmatteline Thistechnique, the motifs. outlining knownas cuerdaseca ("burnt cord"), inSpain.Italso enjoyed was used earlier a greatbutbriefsuccess inTurkey during the firsthalfof the fifteenth and it century, durwas to become quitepopularin Iran ing the finalperiodto be discussed here. 39. These twotilesare rareexamplesin collectionsof the cuerdaseca Western Five techniqueas executed inTurkey. otheridentical tilesare known,fourinthe Victoria and Albert Museumin London in New and one inthe Madina Collection Allare slightly York. bowed, and theyform of an arch-and-spandrel a repeatpattern design-indicating that,set side by side, they once graced a cylindrical objectof largediameter. Perhapsthey are from of a decorativebandon the minaret a mosque. Thistechniquewas introduced intoTurearlyinthe fifteenth century. keyfromIran tilecycle in Ottoman Thefirstmonumental was executed inthistechniquefor Turkey the GreenMosquein Bursa,whichwas inthis completedin 1428. The mihrab bears an mosque inscription identifying the artists of the revetment as "masters fromTabriz"
40. Fifteenth-century Syrianand Egyptian wareis handsomely underglaze-painted representedby these two hexagonaltiles. The Syrianexample(below)bears a backcoiled spirals grounddesign of tightly and a motifof a liddedewer on a stand, of whicha numberof Mamluk metalexamplesexistas wellas a few ceramicones. The decorationis very Islamic,unlike that of the Egyptian tile(above),whichbetrays its dependence on Chinese models. for prototypes Althoughno Iranian these tilessurvive,they musthave existed;a religious complexin Damascus decoratedwithmorethanthirteen hundred hexagonalunderglaze-painted tiles also bears a rectangular one withthe sigfromthe Iranian natureof an artist city Itseems quitecertainthatthis of Tabriz. artist particular subsequentlymoved to Cairo,since several bowls bearinghis signatureare knownto have been made there.Similar hexagonaltilesalso exist in since ceramistsfromTabriz are Turkey; knownto have been working thereat the time,itis safe to suggest thatthe Turkish artists. tileswere also made by Tabrizi Thusitappears thatinthe earlyyears ceramists of the fifteenth century,Iranian moved westwardand establishedtheir on the ceramicproduction of at imprint thatwas leastthreecountries,an imprint to be feltformanyyears to come. bowl belongs to 41. Thishemispherical a series of wares made fromthe second halfof the fifteenth throughthe seventeenthcenturyand now knownas Kubatchi,fromthe name of the town inthe Caucasuswhere manyof these pieces This were foundinthe nineteenth century. bowlis one of a rareearlygroup inthe seriescharacterized by a design of ogee a panels encircling centralroundel-all of whichbearvegetal motifs-reserved on a blackgrounddistinguished by incised, spiraldesigns. A brilliant predominantly turquoiseglaze covers the entirebowl. Thefourknowndated pieces of thisgroup rangefrom1469 to 1495. Theyconstitute ceramic the onlythree-dimensional be can that securelyplaced in objects Iran. fifteenth-century
42. Ourknowledgeconcerningthe Muslim world's of threeproduction dimensional potterypieces duringthe fifteenth centuryremainstentative,except forthose thatbelong to a dated group (such as figure41) and those signed by an artist whose dates are ascertainable. Theshape of thisewer is identical to thatof a groupof metalewers scatteredin variouscollectionsthroughout the world; a numberof these ewers are dated. Since ceramicobjectstend to imitate metalones, itcan be concludedthatthisewer was producedlaterthanthe metalexamples, notearlier thanthe second halfof the fifteenth The determination of its century. is moredifficult. The place of manufacture of Iranian metalwork; shape is reminiscent the ewer'svegetal decorationand the of its glaze are closely paralleled in quality a bowl(inthe collectionof the Louvre) whose foot bears the information "madein and the crenelateddesign Damascus"; aroundthe base of its neck is verysimilar to designs foundon earlyTurkish wares fromIsnik. 43. The luster-painted wareof Nasrid owes itsexistence to Spain ultimately the objects producedinthattechnique in ninth-century Baghdad. MovingwestwardfromBaghdad,first to whatis now Tunisia and then to Algeria, the technique appeared subsequentlyin lateeleventhcenturySpain,where itgave riseto an centerin Malaga.Production important inthiscityled directly to the so-called wares. Hispano-Moresque luster-painted Amongthe productsof thislaterand longrecognizedgroupis this rareeight-pointed startile,whose overallgrapevinepattern withnaturalistic leaves and bunches of fruit stillbetraysthe classicalheritageof Islamic art. 44. Thisdeep dish, or brasero,whichwas made slightly laterthanthe eight-pointed startile,bears witnessto the long Islamic tradition behindits production. Itsmajor motifs-the cobalt-bluepalmettetree, the pseudo-Kufic designs inthe cartouches the centralroundel,and the surrounding coiled spiralson the wideflatrimtightly are alldrawnfromthe Islamicrepertoire.
CENTURY SIXTEENTH TOSEVENTEENTH
ever produced Some of the finestpottery worldwas made between inthe Islamic Turkabout 1490 and 1700 inthe Ottoman ish cityof Isnik (ancientNicaea).Theinflucenter ence of thisimportant production on ceramicobjectsmade in seventeenthappearsto have been strong. centuryIran Egyptand Syria,now provincesof were also active the Ottoman Empire, areas, butthey seem ceramic-producing to have manufactured mainly copies of orto have continobjectsmade inTurkey inthose current ued the ceramictradition the precedingperiod. countriesduring TheothermajorIslamic powerat this time,the Mughals,made no new contrito the ceramicindustry. butions Mostof the manydifferent types pottery thisperiodexhibita continumade during ationof the decorativetechniquesalready periodsor a revivperfectedduringearlier al of them,althoughincertaincases these techniquesare combinedin new ways. and renaissance Thisperiodof continuity
also saw the acceleration of the declineof the industry. Bythe end of thisperiod, Islamic ceramicproduction had totally lost itsvitality. 45. Earthenware ceramicswere made in Isnik as earlyas the second halfof the fourteenth butitwas not until century, aboutone hundredyears laterthatthis centerbegan to manufacture with pottery a compositebody.The earliestcompositebodiedwaremade in Isnik was distinblue guished by an underglaze-painted decoration on a whiteground. characteristics of Amongthe principal thisware,knownas "Abraham of Kutahthe artist whose signatureapya"(after pearedon onlyone piece), are ornately contouredpanelswithsmall,highlydetailedvegetal patterns, likethose on the interior of thisbowl.Thedecorationwithin the panels,inwhitesilhouetted on a blue ground,contrastswiththe same design, in blueon a whiteground,executed on a largerscale and in a broaderstyleon
the exterior of the bowl. Thejewel-like of the colors may quality be attributed to the thinwash of partially whitebody material appliedoverthe raw bodyto serve as a surfaceforthe decoration.Thistechnicalfeaturewas common to allwares made in Isnik. of Kutahya" 46. A variant of the "Abraham type, representedby thissmallmosque lamp,is characterized by a groundcompletelycovered withdelicatespiraling stems bearingsmallflowers.Thismotif serves as the backdropfortwo beautifully executed Arabicinscriptions: "Power to the One" God, belongs (repeatedthree timeson the body of the object)and (on the flaring is no hero uppersection)"there no swordexcept dho-l-faqar except 'AIT; ['All's sword]" thisperiodin Turkey, During pottery in shape continuedto imitate metalwork as wellas in design. Thislamp,however, is one of a numbermade at thistimethat have a glass prototype. 41
47. "Abraham of Kutahya" ware soon gave way to thatwithmorevarieddesigns and morecolors.This"Damascus" itwas type, so called because originally thoughtto have been made inthatcity,incorporatedin itsdecorationcobaltblue, lightblue,turquoise,manganese purple, sage green, and a greenish blackforoutlines.Amongthe productsof this polychromegroupare the finestceramic ever producedinthe kilnsof Isnik. Likemanypieces of "Damascus" ware, thisdish has a symmetrical composition fromthe stylizedtulipsseen radiating centralrosetteand in clustersinthe borwitha favorite der,wherethey alternate Turkish motifof closed crescents, were to become very popularduringthe last phase of Isnikproduction. 48. Like the polychrome luster-painted wareof seven hundredyears earlier, the "Damascus" underglaze-painted polychromegroup,althoughexceedingly did notsurviveverylong. Itwas beautiful, at least partly a matter of economics that caused the Isnikkilnsto begin turning out tilesand vessels withanotherpolychrome colorscheme. Ofthe threetypes of ceramicsproducedin Isnik, the "Rhodian" .type, ...... . namedforthe Islandof Rhodes, whereitwas thoughtto have been manufactured,was developed lastand existed the longest(from about1555 until about new coloradded 1700).The predominant to the palettewas a "sealing-wax" red, whichwas appliedso thickly thatitstood in relief. The most populardesigns on "Rhodian" warewere flowering plants, the bluebell,hyacinth, carnaparticularly tion,rose, and tulip,manyof whichare quiterealistically depicted on this panel. thisthirdand finalphase of Isnik During the interiors of both potterymanufacture, and secular buildings were covreligious ered withtilessuch as these, givingthem a veryairybutsumptuousappearance. 49. Byfarthe mostoutstandingIsnik "Rhodian" wares were the tiles.The vessels were of lesser importance and their designs merelyabbreviatedversionsof the magnificently composed tiledecorations.One smalland raresubgroupof "Rhodian" ceramicsappears notto have had any counterpart inthe tileindustry. Thisdish,whose principal design is a single blossomwithradiating petals,is typicalof thisware,in whichchocolateor a warmblue brown,salmon-pink, opaque glaze was used as the ground fora slip-painted design. The last-named colormay have laterechoes insome Iranian illusproducts,such as the kalian tratedin figure59. 43
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50. Thispanelof six tilesis a handsomely versionof paintedexampleof the Syrian ware.Thedecorationof paral"Rhodian" vines withhybridblossoms lel undulating and bunchesof grapes thatmoreclosely is an adaptaresembleflowersthanfruit tionof similar designs foundinTurkish tilepanelsand textiles.Cobaltblue,turquoise, purple,and green, allwithblack colors. outlines,werethe preferred 51. ThisEgyptian panelfroma mosque of the ceramic the continuation illustrates the Ottoman tradition conquest following and is proofof how little of thatcountry the political prochange affectedartistic reads: duction.Itsboldcursiveinscription ibnAbdallah, weakservantKayun "The the one in need of God'smercy, the sinful, foundedthisblessed mosque. Itwas builtinthe year1000 [A.D.1591-92]"Ifthe were notincorpodate of manufacture
ratedin itsdecorationand ifthe arabesque design inthe spandrelsdid not exhibitstrongOttoman influence,itwould the be temptingto place thispanelwithin Mamluk periodsince a numberof similar tilesonce graced and stilldecorate
i_ .i . _- -_ _lC &L _:- A - __ A __, in mis perioa aliro oaay. DUllaingsOT r _l_ _ " 'J__ _ 1
The dish is a very rareexampleof a dated sixteenth-century Persianceramic object:A.H.975 (A.D. 1567-68) appears on itsexterior wall.
52. Likea numberof ceramicobjects producedin Isnik duringthe sixteenth this Iranian dish combines Far century, Easternand Islamic motifsin its underdecoration. The borderdeglaze-painted of the wave pattern sign is a corruption foundon fifteenth-century blue-and-white and the design inthe Mingporcelain, cavettois an encircledand beribboned variation of a fairly commonelementon Chineseblue-and-white sixteenth-century and polychrome wares.Thecentral design of a benignlionin a landscape is, however,purelyIslamic.
53. The stronginfluencethatChinese blue-and-white porcelainbegan to exert on Islamic ceramicsinthe latefourteenth centurypersistedforat leastthe nexttwo hundredand fifty of this years. The artist large Persiandish selected and adapted elementsof Chinese blue-and-white porcelainof variousdates forhis decoration-such as the design on the cavetto, the dragons,and the concentricwave The "tasselmark" on the foot of pattern. the dish, in imitation of a Chinese reign mark,or nien-hao,suggests a sevendate because itis very teenth-century similar to marksfoundon otherIranian bowlsattributed to thistime.
54. Thisdish belongs to the final,polywares (see chrometype of "Kubatchi" figure41). Itsunderglazestain-and and paletteof blue,turslip-painting, quoise, green, yellow,and red, with blackoutlines,may indicatethat "Rhodian"wareexertedan influenceon the characteristic techniqueand color scheme of these polychrome"Kubatchi"pieces. Mostof the figuresincorporatedinthe designs of bothdishes and tilesinthisgroupappearto be to those foundin miniature verysimilar and monumental paintingsexecuted in Isfahan the reignof Shah during 'Abb5s 1(1589-1628). 55. Some of the buildings constructed in Isfahan duringthe reignof Shah 'Abbas Iwere decoratedwithtiles such as these, whichwere executed in the cuerdaseca technique(see figures 38, 39). who were presentin relEuropeans, ativelylarge numbersat his court,are oftenrepresentedinfashionsof the tiles,the day.Onthis panelof thirty-two gentlemanin Europeandress appears to sell to be a merchantattempting fabricto the womanreclining on pillows.An Iranian gentlemankneels by the tree at her left,and three servants attendthe group, bringingliquidreand dishes of fruit.
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56. Another type of waremade in thatappearsto Iran seventeenth-century have been influenced by ceramicsfrom kilnsis a groupwhose principal the Isnik decoration,as seen on thisdish,consists of small,delicatedesigns, some of which contouredpanels, are framedby ornately broaderdesignswithlarger, alternating on "Abraham the combination not unlike ware.The use of underglaze of Kutahya" stain-and slip-painting togetheris found "Kuand polychrome on both"Rhodian" batchi" ware,and the delicatearabesque design inthe cavettois incisedthrough the blackslipinthe same manneras the secondarydesigns on the early"Kubatchi"bowl(figure 41).
Itis likely thatthe Iranian centerthat producedthe "Kubatchi" pieces transmitted Turkish influence to the laterPersian potteryindustry. 57. Ithas been suggested thatthe inspiration to decorate pottery withpainteddesigns came to Chinafromthe MiddleEast as didthe cobaltore forthe earliestblueand-white Thus,in Islamic porcelain. ceramicssuch as thisdish,whichbetrays the influenceof Chinese blue-and-white ware,the circlehas been completed. Thedesigns foundon the type of ware representedby thislargedish are more faithful to theirChineseoriginals than those of the type discussed infigure56.
Theyare outlinedwithan intenseblack; the blue has a decidedlyviolethue and is appliedin varyingthicknesses.The rim of thisvessel bears an inciseddesign, a decorativefeaturefoundon plates made forexportduringthe late Mingperiod. of the the revival 58. Thisbowlillustrates incisedwarecommonintwelfth-century Iran(see figure13). Itmay have developed fromthe type justdiscussed, as that executed largedish bears a similarly on this rim. The decoration on its design bowlof tangentpetalshapes circumscribing lotusblossoms is so deeply incised thatitpermitslightto shine throughthe vessel's walls.
59. Another techniquepopularintwelfthand revivedat thistimewas centuryIran frit carving(see figure16).The rarestas wellas the most beautiful objectsexhibitmade were this by applying technique ing to the entirevessel a thicklayerof frit that, when dry,was carvedwitha design to the whitecompositebody and through subsequentlycovered witha transparent on thiskalian, glaze. The blueof the frit of the color or waterpipe, is reminiscent on a raretype made inthe kilnsof Isnik to 49). (Themetalattachments (figure are lateradditions.) thiskalian
was also reviveddur60. Luster painting ingthe late Islamicperiod.Thiscarafe was covered witha clearglaze and its an inilobes stainedblue.After alternate landthe copper luster-painted tialfiring, scape design was executed. The graceful shape is enelegance of the bottle's formand the subtle hanced by the lobular blueshadingof the lobes, whichboth of the object. emphasizethe verticality Such shapes were popularinthisperiod; a similar bottlecan be seen inthe foregroundof the tilepanelinfigure55.
1. EWER. Earthenware, appliedand inciseddecoration.Iraq,1st half8thcentury. H. 133/4 in.(35 cm.).Gift of V.Everit 1930 (30.112.48) Macy, 2. EWER. moldedand applieddecoraEarthenware, in.(36.8 H. 141/2 1sthalf8thcentury. tion,glazed.Iran, of Richard 1978 (1978.549.2) cm.).Gift Ettinghausen, 3. DISH. moldedinrelief and glazed. Earthenware, 9thcentury. Diam.67/8 in.(17.5 cm.). Rogers Iraq, Fund,1953 (53.110) 4. JAR.Earthenware, Iraq, glazedand stain-painted. H.81/2 in.(21.6 cm.). RogersFund,1932 9thcentury. (32.149) 5. DISH. Earthenware, glazedand luster-painted. 9thcentury. Diam.15 in.(38.1 cm.).Fletcher Iraq, Fund,1976 (1976.309) 6. BOWL. Earthenware, glazedand luster-painted. Diam.95/i6in.(23.7 cm.).Gift of Iraq,10thcentury. Edwin and S. Perkins 3rd, Purchase,Richard Binney, 1977 (1977.126) Gift, 7. BOWL. Earthenware, glazedand luster-painted. Diam. 7 in.(17.8 cm.). Egypt,2nd half10thcentury. 1963 (63.16.3) RogersFund, 8. BOWL. whiteengobe, incised,colEarthenware, oredandcolorlessglazes. Iran, Nishapur, 9th-early of 10thcentury. Diam.101/4in.(26 cm.).Excavations Art. Museum TheMetropolitan of RogersFund,1938 (38.40.137) whiteengobe, slip-painted, 9. BOWL. Earthenware, or or Transoxiana, incisedand glazed.Iran Nishapur 10thcentury. Diam.18 in.(45.7 cm.). Samarkand, RogersFund,1965 (65.106.2) 10thcentury. 10. CUP. Earthenware. Iran, Nishapur, in.(8 cm.).Excavations H.31/8 of TheMetropolitan Museum of Art.RogersFund,1940(40.170.43) 11, BOWL. Earthenware, glazedand luster-painted. Diam.10 in.(25.4 Egypt,c. 1000.Signedby Muslim. 1963 of Mr. and Mrs.CharlesK.Wilkinson, cm.).Gift (63.178.1) 12. BASIN. body,glazedand lusterComposite Diam.117/8in.(30.1 mid-i2thcentury. painted. Syria, 1975(1975.40) of Habib Anavian, cm.).Gift BOWL. 13. FOOTED Composite body,incisedand in.(9.2 cm.). Harris H.35/8 12thcentury. glazed.Iran, Brisbane DickFund,1963 (63.159.2) 14. SIX TILES. Composite body,carvedand glazed. 67 x 7 in.(170.2 x 17.8 cm.). century. Syria,12th-13th Gift of OttoH. Kahn,1910 (10.56.1) moldedand glazed.Afghani15. TILE. Earthenware, H. 51/8 in.(13 cm.). 12th-13th stan,Ghazni, century. F.and inmemory of Herbert Gift of Marjorie Schwarz, C. Schwarz,1975 (1975.193.1) Dorothy 16. CUPComposite frit-painted. body,underglaze Max.diam.55/8in.(14.3 Iran, 2nd half12thcentury. Joseph Pulitzer Bequest,1967 cm.).Purchase, (67.104) incisedinchamplevetech17. BOWL. Earthenware, 2nd and glazed. Iran, whiteengobe, painted nique, of Diam.10 in.(25.4 cm.).Gift half12th-13th century. Edward C. Moore,Jr.,1927 (27.13.3) 18. DISH. body,carved,coloredand colComposite Diam.77/8 2nd half12thcentury. orlessglazes.Syria, in memory in.(20 cm.).Purchase, Gifts of Richard 1979 (1979.210) Ettinghausen, 19. BOWL. body,stain-and overglaze Composite late12th-early13thcentury. and gilded.Iran, painted Collection in.(19.7 cm.). Henry G. Leberthon Diam.73/4 of Mr. and Mrs.A. Wallace Gift Chauncey,1957 (57.61.16) 20. JAR.Composite body,underglaze-painted. H.9/2 in.(21.4 13thcentury. late12th-early Syria, 1956, cm.).Bequestof HoraceHavemeyer, H.O. Havemeyer Collection (56.185.16) and 21. JAR.Composite slip(?)body,underglaze H. st half13thcentury. stain-painted. Syria,late12th-1 93/4 in.(24.8 cm.).RogersFund,1923 (23.162.1) 22. TILE ASSEMBLAGE. body,overComposite 1sthalf13th and leafgilded.Turkey, glaze painted in.(22.7 cm.).Gift and of Mr. Diam.815/16 century. Mrs. JackA. Josephson, 1976 (1976.245) 23. BOWL. and Composite body,underglaze slip(?)Diam. Iran, Kashan, stain-painted. early13thcentury. 83/4 in.(22.2 cm.). Purchase, Joseph Pulitzer Bequest, 1964 (64.256) 24. EWER. and Composite painted body,underglaze incised(glazepartially stainedcobalt),withpierced outershell.Iran, datedA.H.612/A.D.1215Kashan, 16. H.8 in.(20.3 cm.). Fletcher Fund,1932 (32.52.1) 25. BOSSE. Composite body,molded,carvedand in.(14.6 cm.). Diam.53/4 13thcentury. glazed.Turkey, gift,1974 (1974.370.12) Anonymous 26. EWER. body,underglaze-and lusterComposite H. 73/8 st half13thcentury. late12th-1 Syria, painted. 1948 of HoraceHavemeyer, in.(18.7 cm.).Gift (48.113.15) 27. BOWL. body,glazedand lusterComposite Diam.8 in. late12th-early13thcentury. Iran, painted. (20.3 cm.).RogersFund,1916(16.87) 28. JARWITH COVER. Composite body,overglaze 2nd half13th-14thcenand leaf-gilded. Iran, painted G. 143/4 in. H. with cover (37.5 cm.). Henry tury. and Mrs.A. Wallace Gift of Mr. Leberthon Collection, 1957 (57.61.12) Chauncey, NICHE. 29. TILE body,glazed,stain-and Composite Kashan, Iran, early14thcentury. luster-painted. the ibnAnmadBabuyeh, Signedby Hasanibn'Ali builder. RogersFund,1909 (09.87) 30. JAR.Composite painted. body,underglaze H. 111/4in.(28.6 cm.).Gift of Syria,14thcentury. 1941 (41.165.45) HoraceHavemeyer, decoration 31. BOWL. body,applied(?) Composite Diam.111/4in. 1st half14thcentury. and glazed.Iran, inmemory of Mrs.HoraceHavemeyer (28.6 cm.).Gift of herhusband,1959 (59.60) 32. JAR.Composite body,underglaze-painted. C. in.(33.6 cm.).Edward H. 131/4 Syria,14thcentury. C. Moore,1891 Moore Collection, Bequestof Edward (91.1.130) 33. DISH. body,underglaze-painted. Composite in.(23.3 cm.).The Diam.91/4 Syria,14thcentury. ofthe Islamic Fund,1971 Friends Department (1971.21) 34. DISH. body,underglaze-painted. Composite Diam.1113/6 in.(30 14thcentury. lastquarter Iran, Gift,1970 (1970.28) Purchase, Anonymous cm.). carvedand partially 35. TILE. Earthenware, glazed. 13thcentury. Diam.11 /4 in.Gift of CharlesB. Iran, Hoyt,1932 (32.41.1) 36. MIHRAB. body,glazed,sawed to Composite c. 1354. H. 11 shape and assembledas mosaic.Iran, Brisbane DickFund,1939 ft.3 in.(342.9 cm.).Harris (39.20) 37. TILE. Composite body,carvedand glazed. W.13 in.(33.5 2nd half14thcentury. Greater Iran, D. Binger Walter Gift,1972 (1972.88) cm.).Purchase, 2nd 38. TILE. Iran, body,glaze-painted. Composite of in.(38.7 cm.).Gift Diam.151/4 15thcentury. quarter M.Lydig,1917(17.143.1) Philip TILES. 39. TWO Earthenware, Turkey, glaze-painted. H. 18 in.(45.7 cm.).Rogers 15thcentury. 2nd quarter 1908 Fund, (08.185) TILES. 40. TWO body,underglaze Composite and Syria,1st painted.Egypt,2nd half15thcentury in. W. 7/2 in. half15thcentury. (19.1 cm.)and 65/8 (16.8 cm.) RogersFund(67.69.4);Sourceunknown (X228.1) 41. BOWL. painted body,underglaze Composite Diam.123/8 2nd half15thcentury. and incised.Iran, D. Fletcher CollecMrs. Isaac Mr. and in.(31.4 cm.). 1917 (17.120.70) tion,Bequestof IsaacD. Fletcher, 42. EWER. body,underglaze-painted. Composite H. 51/2 in.(14 15thcentury. Provenanceunknown, 1969 (69.13) cm.). RogersFund, 43. TILE. Earthenware, glaze and luster-painted. in.(24.8 W.93/4 15thcentury. Spain,late14th-early 1941 (41.165.41) of HoraceHavemeyer, cm.).Gift 44. DEEPDISH Earthenware, glazed, (BRASERO). stain-and luster-painted. Spain,c. 1430. Diam. 1956 in.(45.1 cm.).TheCloisters 17 3/4 Collection, (56.171.162) 45. BOWL. Composite body,opaquewhiteglaze, 1stquarter 16th Isnik, underglaze-painted. Turkey, Diam.10 in.(25.4 cm.).RogersFund,1932 century.
46. MOSQUE body,opaquewith LAMP. Composite 1stquarter Isnik, Turkey, glaze, underglaze-painted. Brisbane H.65/8in.(16.8 cm.). Harris 16thcentury. DickFund,1959 (59.69.3) 47. DISH. Composite body,opaquewhiteglaze, unmid-16th Isnik, century. Turkey, derglazepainted. Diam.113/4in.(29.8 cm.). Bequestof Benjamin 1913 (14.40.732) Altman, PANEL. 48. TILE body,opaquewhite Composite Turkey, slip-and stain-painted. glaze, underglaze in. x 471/2 2nd half16thcentury. 473/4 Isnik, 1917 of J. Pierpont Morgan, (121.3 x 120.6 cm.).Gift
49. DISH. body,opaque blueglaze, unComposite 16th lastquarter Isnik, Turkey, derglazeslip-painted. of the in.(30.6 cm.).TheFriends Diam.121/16 century. Islamic Fund,1970(1970.30) Department PANEL. 50. TILE body,underglaze Composite 33 x 22 in. 2nd half16thcentury. painted. Syria, (83.8 x 55.9 cm.).RogersFund,1922(22.185.13a-f) PANEL. 51. TILE Composite body,underglaze in. L.631/4 painted.Egypt,lastdecade 16thcentury. 1958 of Miles Carpenter, Agnes Bequest cm.). (160.6 (58.90.1a-g) 52. DISH. body,underglaze-painted. Composite in. datedA.H.975/A.D.1567-68.Diam.127/8 Iran, DickFund,1968 (68.42) Brisbane Harris (32.7 cm.). 53. DISH. body,underglaze-painted. Composite in.(43.8 cm.).Harris Diam.171/4 17thcentury. Iran, 1965 Dick Brisbane Fund, (65.109.2) 54. DISH. body,underglaze-painted. Composite in. Diam.137/8 Northwest Iran, early17thcentury. and Mrs.IsaacD. Fletcher Collection, (35.2 cm.).Mr. D. 1917(17.120.56) Bequestof Isaac Fletcher, PANEL. 55. TILE Composite body,glaze-painted. L.78 in.(198.1 cm.). 17thcentury. 1stquarter Iran, RogersFund,1903 (03.9c) and 56. DISH. slip(?)body,underglaze Composite Diam. 17thcentury. incised.Iran, stain-painted, C. Moore in.(36.2 cm.).Edward Collection, 141/4 C. Moore,1891 (91.1.92) Bequestof Edward 57. DISH. body,incisedand underglaze Composite in. Diam.171/2 1st half17thcentury. painted.Iran, (44.5 cm.).RogersFund,1924(24.47.4) 58. BOWL. body,incisedand glazed. Composite in.(20 Diam.77/8 or later. 2nd half17thcentury Iran, 1911 (11.137.1) R.Valentiner, of William cm.).Gift carved 59. KALIAN. body,frit-painted, Composite in.(22.2 cm.). H.83/4 17thcentury. and glazed. Iran, Fletcher Fund,1975(1975.61.3) 60. BOTTLE. body,glazed(partially Composite 2nd half17th stainedblue)and luster painted.Iran, M.Davis in.(29.8 cm.).Theodore H. 113/4 century. Collection, Bequestof TheodoreM.Davis,1915 (30.95.157) CHRONOLOGY ofthe prophet Flight (Hegira) the Muhammad fromMecca,marking Islamic of history beginning Guided TheFourOrthodox or Rightly Caliphs TheUmayyad Caliphs TheAbbasid Caliphs TheSpanishUmayyads TheFatimids TheSamanids TheGhaznavids TheSeljuqs TheRumSeljuqs TheIl-Khans (Mongols) TheGoldenHorde(Mongols) TheNasrids TheMamluks TheOttomans TheTimurids TheSafavids TheMughals TheQajars
622 632-661 661-750 749-1258 756-1031 909-1171 819-1005 977-1186 1038-1194 1077-1307 1256-1353 1226-1502 1230-1492 1250-1517 1342-1924 1370-1506 1501-1732 1526-1858 1779-1924
Inside back cover: Detail of Egyptian tilepanel (figure 51).
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