Politics Of 1792

1 Assassination of Gustavus III, King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold, King of Austria
Politics Of 1792
In 1792, Brissot, a member of a lodges influenced by the Illuminati at Paris, was the chairman of the French Assembly's foreign affairs committee. He issued unilateral ultimatums to Austria for it to express an intent to never attack France or to reclaim lands taken by France from Austrian protection (e.g., the Comte region seized in 1790). He imposed a March 1, 1792 deadline on Austria to comply or face war with France. In response to this boisterous behaviour by Brissot, Sweden agreed to ally with Austria against France if a war erupted. This will provide the context to understand why the kings of Sweden and Austria were both assassinated in March 1792.

The Illuminati Of Sweden
The Illuminati of Sweden were no different in ideology than the Illuminati of Germany. T. Thorild, member of Illuminati of Sweden, under the Pernetty branch, wrote in approximately 1790 in his newspaper:
The construction of the Universal Republic that ought to be founded has as its aim the Happiness of Humanity ... They that excel by intelligence ought to rule the world; those
Illuminati of Bavaria 1

Assassination of Gustavus III, King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold, King

that have virtuous energy ought to take in hand the executive power. If some imposter is in power and does not obey, behold the sentence: feriendus. [A blow]. It will give fire to cities and destroy them since they are schools of tyranny, of corruption, of misery ... With a spontaneous return to nature, they will form a free society on the model of the [Golden Rule] ... with a uniform support of a universal religious tolerance.1

Did this group end up assassinating Gustavus III on March 16, 1792? Who was the leader of the Illuminati in Sweden? British diplomats who spoke of the “Illuminati” of Sweden happened to mention that the next in line, the brother of Gustavus, “was a fervent disciple of this mystic sect....” of the “Illuminati.”2 This particular diplomat drew no connection to Weishaupt’s Order. It is simply the name of the Order to which this Regent of Sweden was well-known to be associated with. This Regent by further machinations afterwards became Charles XIII — the King of Sweden. Yet, if the Illuminati of Sweden had Gustavus killed, why in March 1792?

Gustavus III: His Reign Was Marked As Liberal
Gustavus III, King of Sweden, was a devoted follower of the French philosophers. When he was made King of Sweden in 1766, he often met with Rousseau, D’Alembert, and Marmontel. He corresponded regularly with Voltaire. He

1. Felice, supra, at 63 n. 54. 2. Horace Rumbold, Recollections of a Diplomatist (London: Edward Arnold, 1903) Vol. 1 at 22. (Available books.google.com.) Illuminati of Bavaria 2

Plans of public education were studied. navy. and foreign relations. Only he could appoint ministers. The Riksdag accepted. thereafter acted to rid the government of the current Riksdag because it allegedly had become a corrupt oligarchy of nobles and businessmen. but widened his own powers—giving him control of the army. Rousseau and Revolution — The Story of Civilization: Part X (New York: Simon & Schuster. 4. with the support of the Army. however. However. Gustavus. The Riksdag would only assemble at his will. By 1772.3 The people hailed Gustavus as the liberator from foreign influence. Gustavus ordered the delegates to accept a limited monarchy. particularly that of Russia. Gustavus borrowed money from Dutch bankers so as to secure the nomination of the Marshal of the Riksdag.4 3. 1967) at 656-57. Free ports were created on the Baltic. When he came to power. The Riksdag would have. The reformists of France were delighted by this enlightened use of state-power. Will & Ariel Durant. the power to tax. He abolished torture and softened penalties and lowered taxes. he won military support to surround the Riksdag. the reformist group should have critized Gustavus for improper pressure over the legislators. Gustavus instituted reforms that the French physiocrats like Turgot advocated: free trade.Gustavus III: His Reign Was Marked As Liberal proved his devotion to the reforming spirit soon after taking the throne. less regulation over industry and less control over labor guilds. Illuminati of Bavaria 3 . the Caps party who allegedly were in the pay of Russia had won a majority of estates in the Riksdag.

5. Rousseau and Revolution -. The French Revolution. the most progressive of Monarchs? In 1786.The Story of Civilization: Part X (New York: Simon & Schuster. Illuminati of Bavaria 4 . The king. Rousseau and Revolution -.5 Why attack Gustavus.Assassination of Gustavus III. The other three legislative houses put no limit. This was because in January of 1789. seeds of disaffection were being sown regularly in the press against Gustavus. As evidence of the widespread support for his reforms. Charles d’Hericault. 7. On May 6. Gustavus convened the Riksdag for a vote of confidence.The Story of Civilization: Part X (New York: Simon & Schuster. at 21 6. at a meeting of Masons in 1786 in Frankfurt-am-main . always previously revered as a liberal."7 The people supported Gustavus’ politics as well. La Révolution at 104. but few supported his proposals. Will & Ariel Durant. King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold. He also went further by personally ending many priveleges of the nobility. He also opened political offices to almost anyone. Will & Ariel Durant. even the House of Nobles voted two years supplies for the war with Denmark. 1967) at 662. Denmark invaded Sweden and the people were "overwhelmingly for the King. He had adopted many liberal reforms. was now subject of pamphleteers who cast suspicion on the motives of the government’s monopoly on liquor and the expenditures on the army.6 Despite the efforts of those who were trying to undermine Gustavus. But Thwarted Through 1789 Nevertheless. 1967) at 663. supra. 1786. it was planned to kill Gustavus III of Sweden and Louis XVI. discussed in Nesta Webster. according to the testimony of two French Freemasons. he emerged alive from this dark period. King Plot on Gustavus Was In Waiting Since 1786.

who have played a role in the French revolution. the Duke d’Orleans.” the “brother of King Gustavus III” was “initiated in 1770” into the Strict Observance Templar Freemason system along with Gustavus III. Clootz. Avignon was the theater of the greatest atrocities because it had belonged to the Pope . 1869) at 111. are Mirabeau. . Robespierre. the “Duke of Sudermanie.8 Gassicourt identifies that the Duke of Sudermainie held international control over Templar Freemasonry during the French Revolution period: The principle initiates. A General History of Free-masonry in Europe (American Masonic Publishing. Emmanuel Rebold. [Lepeletier de] St. Fox. Since 1780. Cadet-Gassicourt indicated the Duke of Sudermanie was the chief of the Templars of Europe during the French Revolution of 1792. Regent of Sweden. as discussed below. let’s review the Duke’s Freemason career. He was the brother of King Gustavus III. . His biography is most revealing on the causes for Gustavus’ death.Now Enters The Duke of Sudermanie — Templar Chief — & Illuminati Assassi- Now Enters The Duke of Sudermanie — Templar Chief — & Illuminati Assassination of King of Sweden in 1792 The Swedish political figure known as the Duke of Sudermanie now enters the scene. Danton. The Grand Master actually is the Duke of Sudermanie. the Duke of Sudermanie was Grand Master of the “Knights Templar” of the “Strict Observance” system of Sweden. and these initiates chose it for the attack of the people because it had been the prison of Jacobus Molai [Jacques du Molay. Illuminati of Bavaria 5 . It is by the taking of the Bastille that the revolution began. 9 8. Fargeau. First. . Dumouriez. Joseph Fletcher Brennan. Grand Master in 1301 of the Knights Templars]. According to a masonic history pubication.

supra. 13. 11. he mistrusted its tendency. It was Gustavus who was put in charge of these troops who belonged to a coalition force. the same masonic historians admit that when King Gustavus III “discovered the secret plans which lay hidden under the Strict Observance. 12. à ceux qui veulent tout savoir. Rousseau and Revolution — The Story of Civilization: Part X (New York: Simon & Schuster. succeeded him. His young 13 year old son.Assassination of Gustavus III.Louis Philippe.11 In March 1792. Austria stationed troops near France should anything befall their nation’s daughter — Marie Antoinette — still the reigning Queen of France.”10 In 1792. Illuminati of Bavaria 6 . Will & Ariel Durant. 1967) at 664.Rebold & Brennan. Gustavus IV. at 451. King Gustavus III Finds Out About The Secret Plans of The Strict Observance (Templars) However. In early 1792. However. King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold. at 112. Gustavus III of Sweden was the military commander agreed upon by Prussia & Austria to lead the coalition forces to protect the King of France should any harm come. 1796) at 18. Oevure Posthume (Paris: Les Marchands de Nouveaute. also the Duke of Brunswick replaced Gustavus IV as head of allied forces on the borders of France. as a result of disturbances back home. id. Gustavus III then turned to support King Louis XVI to maintain a constitutional monarchy against internal agitators. 10. 1869) at 111. 1792. Gustavus went to Aix-le-Chapelle to lead these allied forces into France if there was war.13 As a result. Le Tombeau de Jacques Molay ou le secret des conspirateurs..12 Thereupon King Gustavus III was assassinated on March 16.Emmanuel Rebold. A General History of Free-masonry in Europe (American Masonic Publishing. Charles Louis Cadet-Gassicourt. As Louis Philippe notes: “But as this Prince 9. he was forced to return to Stockholm to see what was afoot. Memoires. Joseph Fletcher Brennan. All were in a wait-and-see mode on the next move inside France.

the Powers [Prussia and Austria] made a new choice which fell on the Duke of Brunswick. Ankarstrom. commented at the time. 1792. 16. 15.Louis Philippe. This astonished all of Europe. Histoire Philosophique De La Revolution de France (Paris: 1801) Vol. He was a Swede formerly in the royal guard. Illuminati of Bavaria 7 . Histoire Philosophique De La Revolution de France (Paris: 1801) Vol. never would move forces on France.The Assassination of Gustavus Itself [Gustavus] was assassinated in March 1792. 17. the brother of the revolutionary. As Mirabeau-Tonneau.15 Police determined this killing was part of a much larger conspiracy than just Ankarstrom. as well as the killer. The Assassination of Gustavus Itself Thus. II at 89. particularly the allies. they “arrested thirty-four persons.16 It was indeed not the lower classes conspiring. Le Vicomte de Mirabeau (Mirabeau-Tonneau)(17541792) (Paris: Hachette. Death was caused by two pistol shots from Mr. II at 90-91. at 451."14 It later turned out that the Duke of Brunswick. Memoires. We will later explore why the Duke of Brunswick did nothing. despite the seizure of Louix XVI and Marie Antoinette in August 1792. supra.” noting “it is dreadful to imagine that it is the order of the nobility that formed the infamous conspiracy.Eugene Berger.”17 14.Antoine Etienne Nicolas Fantin des Oduards.Antoine Etienne Nicolas Fantin des Oduards. who assassinated Gustavus III? The assassination took place at a masquerade ball at the opera house of Stockholm on the night of March 16. but members from the upper classes. 1904) at 368.

19.This book was discussed in a 1798 issue of Allgemeine Literaturzeitung (Jahrgang 1798) Band 2 \ Numero 194. Histoire Philosophique De La Revolution de France (Paris: 1801) Vol.Antoine Etienne Nicolas Fantin des Oduards. and its online reference identifies the author as “Artaud de Montor. roi de Suede. [Artaud de Montor] Histoire de l'assassinat de Gustave III.”21 Was Montor credible? Montor in his life-time wrote over a dozen serious histories that were well-regarded. as cited and discussed in "Un Prince Allemand Du XVIII Siecle D’Apres des Memoires Inedits. and the results published by a French “historian and diplomat” named Alexis-François Artaud de Montor (1772-1849).” A second edition appeared in 1802. 20. 18.18 What Organization Was Found Responsible? A complete police investigation was made. King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold. 1866) at 920. Montor added to these achievements a career as a diplomat.19 He claimed the Swedish police proved some "Illuminati society" was behind the assassination. as one magazine in England recorded in 1840: “it has been proved that the assassination of Gustavus III in Sweden was the work of a conspiracy of Illumines: Ankarstrom and Horn did not attempt to conceal this fact. King The conspirators’ papers showed this killing was intended to start a revolution." Revue des Deux Mondes (Jan.” Fraser’s Magazine for Town and Country (May 1840) 542. Alexis-François (17721849.“The History and Mystery of Secret Societies and Political Clubs. II at 91.Assassination of Gustavus III. (Paris 1797). Montor also was a translator into French of Dante’s Divine Comedy. Illuminati of Bavaria 8 . 21. Historiker. including to put in place a new constitution. Diplomat. Many of his works are still cited today.20 This account became wellknown. The first step was to seize command of the national guard of Stockholm. at 548. Under Napoleon. par un officier polinaise temoin oculaire. 1.

as a result of Gustavus III’s assassination.wikipedia.Alexandre Dumas.: 1919) at 578. The question is whether the facts surrounding this claim fit what Montor revealed. the Duke of Sudermanie.Claude-François de Meneval. I at 230. and he was deposed and exiled.”24 Then “after the deposition of Gustavus IV. 23. Brother To King.”23 — age 13 at the time. the Encyclopedia Americana says “a conspiracy was formed against” Gustavus IV.http://fr. was called to the throne.Y. the Duke of Sudermanie became the “regent of the kingdom [of Sweden] during the minority of Gustavus IV. Illuminati of Bavaria 9 .“Gustavus IV. The Memoirs of Alexandre Dumas (Père) (London: 1891) Vol. II at 329.Y.org/wiki/AlexisFran%C3%A7ois_Artaud_de_Montor (accessed 1/1/2009).: 1894) Vol. Gains From His Brother’s Assassination Artaud de Montor was the Secretary of the French legation at Rome until 1805 when he was made chargé d’affaires at Florence.”25 22.22 There is thus no reason to disregard this treatise simply because it ‘fits’ the Illuminati legend.” The Encyclopedia Americana (N.Templar Leader. 24. Gains From His Brother’s Assassination A clearly corroborating fact is that the person who directly benefited in the short-run and long-run from the assassination turned out to be the Duke of Sudermanie. In 1792. later he “died in poverty. 25. Then in 1809. this king’s uncle. Cadet-Gassicourt referred to this same “Duke of Sudermanie. Templar Leader. Brother To King. regent” as the chief of the entire Templar system during the French Revolution period. Memoirs Illustrating the History of Napoleon I from 1802 to 1815 (N.

Louis Gabriel Michaud. supra.28 It seems pretty transparent that not only was CadetGassicourt correct about this Duke of Sudermanie being the head of European Templars at the time. now king. This was during the period the young boy-king and true king was ruling. 28. people in those days derogatorily called him the “Duke of Orleans of Sweden (not altogether inaptly). Illuminati of Bavaria 10 . King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold. Bernadotte.27 Because of the way this duke took the crown. The Public and Private Life of Louis Philippe of Orleans (London: 1851) at 75. the international head of the Templar sect — effectively ruled as regent until Gustavus IV became an adult. 26.26 Masonic histories record the duke.J. and then again later when the king turned age 30.” meaning he was regarded to be a virtual “regicide” like many viewed the Duc d’Orleans of France. This time he duke making himself king. making the true king a pauper. and the Regent-brother of Gustavus was still on the sidelines — yet laying in wait for his day to oust the true successor king and seize the throne for himself.The Duke of Sudermanie called himself King Charles XIII. The police investigation finding the “Illuminati” assassinated Gustavus III should surprise no one.Assassination of Gustavus III. but also that this duke used the same means his Templars used in France to engineer seizures of power. his brother — the Duke of Sudermanie. 27. continued as Templar Grand Master of Sweden until 1811 when he turned the post over to Prince C. King Hence. at 112. due to Gustavus III’s death.Rebold & Brennan.

Gustavus was indeed zealous to defend Louis XVI. Gustavus became more obviously a target to destroy.” based on “notices from Germany. in which he was instructed about a widespread talk that the next murder would be of Gustave.29 Gustavus III clearly had a zeal and purpose to invade France if necessary to protect Louix XVI’s life. told Gustavus III of “a plot against the King’s life. a German of distinction who served several French princes in exile. Illuminati of Bavaria 11 . I would soon have to take a drink of water. I intend to send Stockolhm all the flags that I can. but timid in the political affairs. The Swedes are brave in war. This is something that was broken when he was replaced by a new expeditionary forces leader — the Duke of Brunswick — the very same who chaired Wilhemsbad where the overthrow of France was planned in 1782. Histoire Philosophique De La Revolution de France (Paris: 1801) Vol.Antoine Etienne Nicolas Fantin des Oduards. and as I have no doubt in the success of my expedition in France. 29. When Baron Escars.” King Gustavus replied: If I allowed myself to listen to all the stories of conspiracies.Other Advantages To Killing Gustavus III Other Advantages To Killing Gustavus III Loss of A Zealous Protector Of King Louix XVI During the events leading up to the French Revolution of 1792. Sweden with Prussia and Austria in February of 1792 had agreed to protect King Louis of France if any harm should befall him. They offered this help despite no request from King Louis of France. II at 87-88. I will by my moral authority inspire confidence and respect that is naturally accorded conquerors.

30 Also. This was due not only to the disruption such a death causes but also because the new king besides the Regent (Duke of Sudermanie) appears to have sympathized with the forces behind the Jacobins. those who took power from Gustavus III. Its connection to those other events cannot be ruled out as one of the reasons why March 16. The king’s son. I." Encyclopedia of Freemasonry. 1793. are alone excepted from this inspection. the new young king put all secret societies under government supervision but his Ordinance said explicitly "Freemasons . at 312. the Duke of Sudermanie.. King Sweden Dropped Out of The Alliance Against France Another consequence of this assassination is that Sweden dropped out of the alliance. in the same month of March 1793. supra."31 Thus no secret society other than Freemasons could operate in Sweden. Hence.Assassination of Gustavus III. King Gustavus IV. 1792? The assassination of Gustavus also coincided with events in Austria. at age 14. 31. Id. . were obviously protective of the forces that were hiding the Illuminati in the upper degrees. Illuminati of Bavaria 12 . at Vol.. joined the Freemasons at Stockholm on March 10. "Gustavus IV. . We already spoke of the Duke of Sudermanie. Was Leopold Murdered on March 1. whether the boy-king or his uncle. 1792 was singled out for the date of Gustavus’ assassination. 30. King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold.

— and the king of Sweden was assassinated by Anckarstrom. 1859) No. and thus had very sincere reasons why he would wish to help his sister in France.” The North American Review (Boston: Crosby Nichols. Leopold had met the king of Prussia at Pillnitz. might be pardoned the suspicion that the Jacobins were entering in disguise the service of their enemies.”33 In fact. 1792? Leopold: Poisoned By Another. Emperor Leopold died on March 1. At the time. the cause of death appears to be poisoning by an Illuminatus. In the year prior — August 25. 349 at 354. however. on March 1. Emperor of Germany. Illuminati of Bavaria 13 . who. or A Natural Death At Age 45 on March 1._Holy_Roman_Emperor 34.“Prince Gallitzin.32 However. A formal alliance by Leopold with Austria was indeed signed on the 7th of February 1792. of poison administered by an agent of the secret order of Illuminati.wikipedia. 1791. 1792. 1792. 182. These two catastrophes struck terror into the royal and noble families of Europe. But in March. 1792? This part of the account starts with Leopold’s sudden death in Austria. and they drew up a declaration of their readiness to intervene in France if and when their assistance was called for by the other powers.http://www.org/Frederick_William_II (accessed 1/ 2/09).34 32. Or His Own Concoctions. Leopold.1911encyclopedia. at age 45. after the horrible events of the French Revolution.org/wiki/Leopold_II.http://en. died. to play more conveniently the part of assassins. — as his friends supposed. this is precisely what people believed. 33. Leopold was brother to Queen Marie Antoinette of France.Was Leopold Murdered on March 1. 1792 Leopold died “suddenly. near Dresden.

but the question was whether another person was responsible for this or Leopold himself alone. the government was obliged to perform an autopsy. History of the Girondists (N. History of the House of Austria.Assassination of Gustavus III.36 However. 36. Lagusius. Lamartine says there were a mixture of issues. 37. Gerald Brennan. From the Foundation of the Monarchy (2006) at 199 fn. Eduard Vehse’s account because his naivete about Bischoffswerder is most revealing about who poisoned the pills. Dr. who had assisted at the autopsy of the body. and some assume this was the cause of death. his chief physician. He was Johann Rudolph von Bischoffswerder (1741– 1803). someone came with new recipes. 1848) Vol. “Because of rumors that he was poisoned. shattered by debauchery and excess.Y.William Coxe. I at 365. The king had been vomitting for three days.”35 The autopsy revealed a tape worm several cells in length. in order to recruit his constitution. He had used such pills for a very long time.Alphonse de Lamartine. it is evident that the pills he used contained a poison. After advising us that the king was vomitting for three days. Let’s read Dr. shortly before his death. All Music Guide to Classical Music (2005) at 299.37 As we read on. King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold. whether Leopold or Bischoffswerder. let’s review some facts. King Before we discuss that evidence.: Harper. but no one ever seems to suspect him. an envoy of the King of Prussia. Allen Schrott. without bad effects. declared he discovered traces of poison. Illuminati of Bavaria 14 . However. including the likelihood that pills concocted by Gustavus were involved and the face a trace of poison was found — which indeed may have been in those very same pills: The most probable opinion is that this prince had made an immoderate use of drugs which he compounded himself.Chris Woodstra. Vehse explains: 35.

at 78. 1856) Vol. Hormayr. 1781. manufactured in his own laboratory. Aristocracy.W. and hastened his death by the use of stimulating pills. Frederic William II of Prussia had sent to him. When F.From 1778 to mid-1780. with the alias Ormesus Magnus. (Christopher McIntosh. has completely refuted this gratuitous suspicion. Bischoffswerder accepted him as a candidate as F. however.38 and with this adept the Emperor was repeatedly engaged in alchemist and other similar experiments in his secret laboratory. 38. Major Bischosffswerder was stationed as a calvary officer in Bavaria fighting the potato war with Austria. the famous Rosicrucian. Memoirs of the Court. Yet. the suspicion even being fixed on Signora Livia. II at 371. supra.) 39.W. Bischoffswerder applied a ‘magic elixir’ to cure Prince Frederick William (F.W.Was Leopold Murdered on March 1. Everyone assumed Bischoffswerder was above suspicion. Franz Demmler). Eduard Vehse (trans. Illuminati of Bavaria 15 . he was anxious to join. as an ambassador. 1792? There was a rumour of his having been poisoned. Bischoffswerder with Wollner initated him into the Rosicrucian order.Dr. He said the Order held the secrets.) of some disease. After a year’s probation. recovered. on August 8. of that sort which were then in Italy called Diavolini. and Diplomacy of Austria (London: Longman Brown. who was reputed to be particularly skilled in the preparation of those erotic stimulants.39 So this doctor does not think anyone but Leopold poisoned himself. General Bischofswerder. The Rosicrucians. who afterwards lived in great luxury in Italy. Leopold dabbled in alchemy and chemistry. the doctor ignores the role potentially played by the “Rosicrucian” Bischoffswerder in helping formulate new alchemist concoctions. was already an initiate in the Masonic lodge of the Golden Keys.

First. One was controlled by the Illuminati. The other lodge at Berlin was a lodge of Rosicrucians at Berlin. that the man who possesses his chief confidence (Bischoffswerder) is one of its chief heads. to be followed by Gustavus III on March 16th by two pistol shots. Just as Cagliostro was told the Illuminati were the higher superiors within the Strict Observance. the Comte d’Artois. not Wöllner In October 1790. the Comte de Vaudreuil. once one understand this “Rosicrucian” Bischoffswerder was actually part of the Illuminati. Bischoffswerder & The Illuminati Introduction & Synopsis of Conclusions The evidence below should establish that at Berlin there were two lodges of significance in our account of Bischofswerder. but the other was a Rosicrucian lodge. that one finds these sectaries everywhere. then there is no coincidence that Leopold died by poisoning on March 1st. wrote him from Venice: What strikes me most is that the sect of the Illumines is the cause and instigator of all our troubles. there was a Freemason lodge Concordia that later changed over to become a Strict Observance lodge. King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold. 1792. King However. So did Wöllner.Assassination of Gustavus III. this was the lodge run by the Illuminati linked to Weishaupt.40 Illuminati of Bavaria 16 . as explained next. Bischofswerder belonged to both. The Illuminati Are Linked To Bischoffswerder. advisor and friend to the emigre prince of France. that even the King of Prussia is imbued with this pernicious system.

And note that Bischofswerder is linked to the Illuminati.org/wiki/Henry_Vassall-Fox. and his Illuminati sect. There he became leader of the (liberal) Whig party. 41. He was a member of the Whig opposition party from 1797 and served as lord privy seal in the coalition ministry of 1806–7. the celebrated Whig politician and the most powerful British supporter of the French Revolution in this period. we need some background on Lord Holland to understand his reliability. but that did not matter if Bischoffswerder. nephew of Charles James Fox.http://en.43 In 1796. 3d (1773–1840). “British politician. Henry Fox became Lord Holland as he joined the House of Lords. as of 1790. 2005) at 98. held sway over the king. quoted in N. The History of Gothic Fiction (Edingburgh University Press. Webster. The King of Prussia may have sympathized with the emigre Princes of France. 43.Bischoffswerder & The Illuminati Thus.”42 Through connections of his famous uncle. “Throughout [Lord Holland’s] whole 40. He again visited France in 1793 during its most extreme phase. There is no mention of Wöllner. at 86.answers. supra.” http://www. not Wöllner. First. Henry Fox. Lord Holland (1773-1840) 41 was the “orphaned nephew and ward of Charles James Fox. including the company he kept.wikipedia. World Revolution. Lord Holland’s Links Bischofswerder To The Berlin Illuminati Lord Holland provides a most ‘illuminating’ account of the Illuminati and Bischoffswerder.Correspondence du Comte de Vaudreuil et du Comte d’Artois (Paris: 1889) Vol.Lord Holland.Markman Ellis._3rd_Baron_Holland Illuminati of Bavaria 17 . the French emigre princes were not fooled into thinking Bischoffswerder was on their side. I at 342. Henry Fox 3d. Henry Fox/ Lord Holland went to Paris in 1791 and was able to meet with Lafayette and Talleyrand. Henry Richard Vassall Fox.com/topic/baronholland 42.

no counter-attack from Prussia ever came. but that so many statements to the same effect must have some truth in them. as a pretext to initiate revolution at Paris.Assassination of Gustavus III. In 1850. this could be. and was used. After threats were made by Prussia. was a member .”44 He opposed absolute monarchies in Europe and any effort to restore the Bourbons to France.html 45. Of that association of visionaries and impostors. and called the Illumines. It became a salon comparable to those found in France. This is precisedly what happened on August 10th. because Bischoffswerder often encouraged the Prussian king to war against the revolution. he was much under the influence of a sect then famous in Germany.com/2008/03/lady-holland-dahlias-everlastings. Lord Holland wrote a book of his reminisces from what he heard in such political circles. King political career he took a pro-French stance.But what Holland overlooked is that if the Prussian king ended up only threatening war from Prussia on France. Holland. 1729. Illuminati of Bavaria 18 . where important figures from around the world visited. Bischoffswerder. for the purpose of converting the King to his views of policy. and swapped stories.http://johntyrrell. King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold. including discussions about Bischoffswerder.45 Here is Lord Holland’s reminisce of King Frederick William II of Prussia and the role of the Illuminatus Bischofswerder in his cabinet: However irregular in morals. Lord Holland specifically reported how Bischoffswerder used Illuminati seances to manipulate of the king of Prussia. Holland could not fathom how this made the Illuminati in league with the French Revolution. His home was known as Holland House.blogspot. his favorite. he was not devoid of superstition. Frederick William II. He does not claim they are all true. 44. and he is much belied if he did not resort to conjuration and apparitions. In 1792. Yet. Mr.

Some years afterward it became a fashion or an artifice among the servile apologists of tyranny.Henry Richard Lord Holland.archive. nor have examined the authorities on which they rested. to inflict the calamities of war on mankind.46 46. 1851) at 52-53. Some odious and many ludicrous instances of the delusions practiced to engage the King in the war. and nobility from destruction. considerably heightened by public report.Bischoffswerder & The Illuminati which were very versatile and changeable. whimsical.org/ stream/foreignreminisce00hollrich/ foreignreminisce00hollrich_djvu. popery. and one important court of Germany. and their progress. It is. Many. I believe they were entirely distinct in their origin. for the purpose of rescuing the institutions of monarchy. Illuminati of Bavaria 19 . and not unfrequently as mysterious and unintelligible as his belief in necromacy. sufficiently to justify my recording them as facts. first with free-masonry. and nearly as many of similar artifices to wean him from the prosecution of it. but there could hardly be so much exagger ation without some truth. Foreign Remisces (N. at least. were invented . no doubt. that the only known practical result of such visionary practices on the events of the political world. and afterward with the disorganizing and irreligious principles of the revolutionary clubs in France.& London: Harper.txt (accessed 1/2/09). though I neither recollect the details. and the notorious prevalence of such superstitions in all the courts of Germany rendered the stories probable enough. were circulated and credit ed throughout Europe. and an immaterial world. their objects. and all their ramifications. was to prevail on many petty. in all likelihood. to connect the sect of Illumines.Y. magic. A complete copy is at http://www. and most.

”50 47. The original French title was Hitler et les societes secretes (1969).René Alleau. 2006) at 109. Le origini occulte del nazismo (trans.”49 Much later “Members of the Order [at Berlin] associated with the Illuminati. then came along “an order known as the Strict Observance. Specifics On Lodge Of Bischoffswerder: Templar Origins The lodge which I believe is where the Illuminati came to predominate was founded actually in the 1760s at Berlin.”47 Yet.”48 Alleau says this particular Concord lodge linked up to the Strict Observance — the Templars.History of the Ancient and Honorable Fraternity Part 1 of Free and Accepted (Kessinger reprint) at 492.. Rene Alleau. Gianfranco De Turris) (Edizioni Mediterranee.Assassination of Gustavus III. Sometimes for war. which will prove important. Le origini occulte del nazismo (trans.René Alleau.) When Freemasonry was losing energy. R. as it originated in a Protestant nation (i. Illuminati of Bavaria 20 . Henry Fox aka Lord Holland recorded what he learned from his international crowd. The original French title was Hitler et les societes secretes (1969). 2006) at 109.e.James Van Horn Melton. 50. The Rise of the Public in Enlightenment Europe (2001) at 77. 49. supplanted Freemasonry. Bischoffswerder manipulated the king of Prussia using the German Illuminati at Berlin. or “For Concord. in his scholarly work on the occult origins of Nazism. explains that the lodge’s German name was Zur Eintracht. Bischoffswerder “was initiated into Strict Observance masonry under the ceremonial name of Eques a Grypho. Sometimes against it. King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold. it was dying out soon thereafter. Freemasonry was viewed suspiciously in Germany. Leveghi. Notice again this is not linking Wöllner to the Illuminati. But always the king was like a puppet due to his credulity for the mysticism of the lodge. King Thus. 48. England. R. Leveghi. Gianfranco De Turris) (Edizioni Mediterranee. claiming succession from the Templars.

Meanwhile.55 51. This must have been true as well for the Berlin branch. Illuminati of Bavaria 21 . Gianfranco De Turris) (Edizioni Mediterranee. Leveghi. Hegel and the Hermetic Tradition (2001) at 250.”53 As we saw previously. 2006) at 109. when Cagliostro was initiated in 1780 within a Strict Observance lodge.Glenn Alexander Magee. in 1781.54 Involved in this same lodge was Ferdinand of Brunswick. was that the Strict Observance had “unknown superiors.Bischoffswerder & The Illuminati Part of Bischoffswerder’s transformation toward the Illuminati might have taken place when in 1778 until the mid1780. mention is frequently made that Bischoffswerder belonged to this Concord (now Templar) lodge as well as the Rosicrucians.James Van Horn Melton. The Rise of the Public in Enlightenment Europe (2001) at 266-67. 55. The Rise of the Public in Enlightenment Europe (2001) at 77 (mid-1780 is based on the one year anniversary stated by Melton being August 1781).René Alleau. at Christmas eve 1779. 52.52 Going back to the Strict Observance.R. he was told the superiors of the Order belonged to an inner circle known as the Illuminati. R. 3 at 107. one of the key differences from ordinary masonry in this sect.51 Yet. he was stationed in Bavaria in the “Potator War” with Austria. Le origini occulte del nazismo (trans. The original French title was Hitler et les societes secretes (1969). 54. Book of the Rosicruciae (Rosicrucians) (2005) Vol. Bischoffswerder and Wöllner had initiated the future heir to the Prussian throne — Freidrich Wilhem — into their Rosicrucian lodge. This is thus where the Illuminati were — in this Strict Observance lodge. it was in that time. that Bischoffswerder (probably at Hamburg) joined a Rosicrucian Order. Swinburne Clymer. 53.James Van Horn Melton. other than using the Templar myth. In the Rosicrucian lodge at Hamburg.

“Prince Henry.Christopher McIntosh.Georges Lefebvre. he was a stablemaster and chamberlain to a duke. at 78. The Rosicrucians. 58.”58 By contrast. he was hoping his friend.James Van Horn Melton. This was the origin of the favor he enjoyed with that Prince. Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry (2003 reprint) at 166-67. 1910) Vol. XI at 64.56 Later in 1788. Book of the Rosicruciae (Rosicrucians) (2005) Vol. and the Hereditary Prince [Freidrich W. King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold. at 77. King Now between the two men. at 268. 60.”57 Religious tests were imposed. was not active in matters of the church.Christopher McIntosh. 61. Johann Christopher von Wöllner was born in 1732. He left being a pastor to become a specialist writer on agriculture. quoted in Albert Pike. Bischoffswerder’s background was that he had initially studied law. would place him at the head of the religion department “for the purpose of saving millions of souls from perdition and bringing back the whole country to the faith of Jesus Christ. brother of Henry. took him into his Council. His father was a Lutheran minister. Thereafter. the Crown Prince now King.“Frederick William II.”60 His only official post in the kingdom after 1786 was that he was Adjutant-general on the king’s military staff. 57.” (Biographie Universelle. after the latter came to the throne. The French Revolution (2001) at 76. The Rise of the Public in Enlightenment Europe. when the old king died. Swinburne Clymer. 3 at 107. By Hugh Chisholm 59. Wöllner’s biography is the only one that suggests conservatism.Assassination of Gustavus III. Wöllner issued the “Edict on Religion” signed by the king “which attempted to impose stricter standards of orthodoxy on Prussian Protestant clergy. he was a soldier.61 56.” The Encyclopædia Britannica (Cambridge. but later became a Prussian calvary officer. supra.] took lessons from him in political economy.59 “Bischoffswerder. He was “a minister of religion” in his early life. and Wöllner had been an “ordained” minister.R. supra. The Rosicrucians. supra. In 1786. unlike Wollner. There was no sign of any esoteric studies. Illuminati of Bavaria 22 .

Wöllner had been an ordained minister of religion as a young man. Le origini occulte del nazismo (trans.. within standard Freemasonry] of the ‘Three Globes’ against the Illuminati is testimony to the power of the ‘Rosicrucian party’ of Wöllner in Germany masonry at the end of the 18th Century. Illuminati of Bavaria 23 .” which he presented as a revolutionary sect and “devouring wolves” and “assassins of the spirit. Wöllner denounced the Illuminati in 1783 in the Rosicrucian context: Wöllner. Leveghi. the exposures started to take place in Bavaria on the Illuminati.became freightened by the persecution that had been exercised against the “Illuminati of Bavaria. 1783 by the regular Mother lodge of Prussian Freemasonry. in 1783.. 63.. in 1783. It would not use a new Templar rite. relying upon Arnold Marx’s book.e. 2006) at 110.See “Bavarian Investigation & Suppression Decrees” on page 1 et seq. R.62According to Alleau. The issue of the Bavarian Illuminati came up at a lodge.” The taking of the position. What happened was that in light of the 1782 decision at Wilhemsbad to essential “subvert the Strict Observance. apparently the Rosicrucian Berlin lodge. In the quote above. as condemning the Illuminati Order. The Three Globes.Bischoffswerder & The Illuminati Wöllner’s next action around 1783 corroborates his conservatism and rejection of the Illuminati was sincere. Gianfranco De Turris) (Edizioni Mediterranee.” and it instead it would recognize all masons “except the Illu62. As mentioned previously. not Bischoffswerder. Alleau is also referring to a decission on November 11. Gold und Rosenkreuz (1929). of the national ‘Mother Lodge’ [i. There is no guarantee that Bischoffswerder shared the negative sentiments expressed by Wöllner.63 Notice this spoke of Wöllner. It “refused to conform to the rectified Templar system.” the Three Globes dissented and refused to agree. in 1783.René Alleau.

“Illuminés.Moses W. 66.”65 Whether Concord refused to use the rectified Templar rite adopted at Wilhemsbad is not known. Conclusion There is a repetitious identification of Illuminati at Berlin as being under Bischoffswerder’s influence. at 80.68 But other than his listening to either of these two lodge brothers.” Daniel Ligou. supra. On that date. The Rosicrucians.Alleau.Assassination of Gustavus III.Christopher McIntosh. at 80. Where was King Friedrich William in all this? He insisted upon twice having two bigamous marriages by 1789 with both wives in his life simultaneously.”66 This means he was moving toward supporting the Freemasons. Neither time is there a reference to Wöllner. at 109. Dictionnaire de la Francmaçonerìe (1987).Christopher McIntosh. 65. 67. Ed. Ligou implies that this is directed at the Rosicrucians of Munich and Vienna where they allegedly were influential. The Rosicrucians. Meanwhile. Despite this disagreement. Three Globes would still accept Duke Ferdinand as Grand Master. he became the Grand Master of the Mother Lodge Zu den drei Weltkugeln (The Three Globes). Illustrated History of Freemasonry (1997) at 430. Illuminati of Bavaria 24 . 68. Redding. supra. supra. King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold. supra. Le origini. he did not seem to have a mind of his own. King minati” freely across systems.64 The Three Globes were very serious about this. Wöllner’s conservative leanings are evident in the fact that “in 1791. 64. not the Templar Rite. and no othe name is referenced.67 He did allow himself to be persuaded to conservative decrees on religion proposed by Wollner. it issued a warning that at Berlin had arisen the Illuminati — a “masonic sect which wants to sap the Christian religion and to make Masonry a political system. at 604.

and everyone in the world regarded Bischoffswerder as an Illuminatus. This system had turned itself over to the Illuminati at Wilhemsbad. Fox clearly said this was the “German Illuminati. sent letters to Austria that were conciliatory in tone. Each time the Illuminati are connected to Bischoffswerder. They accused de Lessart of treason and began impeachment proceedings against him.Next Moves In France After Leopold Died On March 1. de Lessart. Next Moves In France After Leopold Died On March 1. Henry Fox.” meaning the order of Weishaupt. for the greater advantage of dominating the king via the lodge. said again the Illuminati were serving Bischoffswerd. pretending to tolerate what Wollner was doing. Lord Holland. The ministry now included a Swiss banker Illuminati of Bavaria 25 . Bischoffswerder in 1780 had spent over a year stationed in Bavaria on a war assignment against Austria. 1792 and all the other ministers on the 10th. then we can put two-and-two together. In sum. As a result. Two weeks later Gustavus II would be taken care of by pistol shot. one of the problem kings to France’s future was eliminated on March 1. There is every reason to believe he was playing along. King Louis of France decided to put the Brissotins in all minister positions as an offer of conciliation to stop these Jacobin critiques. 1792 First. we quoted Comte de Vaudreuil in 1790 saying the Illuminati are serving Bischoffswerder. The evidence appears that only Bischoffswerder had previously been in the Strict Observance system. 1792. 1792 The French king’s minister. The king felt compelled to dismiss de Lessart on March 9. The Jacobins under Brissot’s influence at the time spoke out in the Assembly. not Wöllner. It would appear likely that Emperor Leopold was killed by poisoning himself using a recipe from Bischoffswerder that was designed to kill him. when we learn that Bischoffswerder was giving pill recipes proximate to Leopold’s death.

The Austrians had put 50. Roland. . . and Dumouriez. He said: Humanity will doubtless suffer. a soldier (Minister of War). Mailhe called for a declaration of war to liberate all of Europe. upon the slightest of pretexts Jacobin deputies demanded war with Austria. William Doyle. the Jacobins acted entirely fearless of Prussia. an unemployed factory inspector (Interior Minister). Simon Schama. 1989) at 593-95. and Sweden who were now amassing to attack France despite the king’s protestations that he was not asking for these foreign nations to help him. The king apparently imagined that the Brissotins would not want war if they were now in power. The pretext was that Austria sent letters to General Bender in the Netherlands (Belgium) that Bender should assist the Elector of Tiers if the French invaded Tiers. Citizens--A Chronicle of the French Revolution (N. Then. supra.000 troops at the frontier.Y. Consider also that outside France despotism is in 69.69 King Louis miscalculated. King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold.: Vintage Books.Assassination of Gustavus III. . at 180. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. These three men were all for war. 70. Illuminati of Bavaria 26 . King named Clavière. a close friend of Mirabeau and Brissot (Minister of Finance). 70 Deputy Mailhe’s speech in April revealed once more that the Jacobins did not want war merely to satisfy wounded French pride that someone thought France belligerant enough to attack Triers. Rather. when one considers that in decreeing war you are also decreeing the death of several thousand men. Austria. but consider also that you are perhaps decreeing the liberty of the entire world . the true reason for all this Jacobin rhetoric was that the Brissotin-led Jacobins wanted war to cause an overthrow of the French king and then conquer its neighbors in a world crusade. Amazingly.

will the suit of plebians against the nobles be decided . II. 1986) at 63. . . quickly!”72 One deputy. Becquet. and more fortunately. Illuminati of Bavaria 27 . He has asked their help in June 1791. but consistently begged them not to intervene after the October 1791 elections because it would make matters worse.Next Moves In France After Leopold Died On March 1. at 77 fn. 72.71 The Assembly of France declared war on April 20. . beginning with Holland. Citizens. And yet. The Brissotin Jacobins thereby put the king in a conflicting situation where he was fighting nations which claimed they were allies of the true majority of French who wanted the Constitution of September 1791. which he did so in a faultering voice. but to take over all Europe.Taine. Tuscany.C. T. King Louis had not asked for their help this time. Schama.W. . He said: "the more extensive the seat of war the sooner. 71. Blanning. 74. supra. 73. Cloots arrived handing out maps that showed all of Europe carved up in departments. 1792 its death-throes and that a prompt attack will precipitate its final agony. at 597. Clootz alias Anarcharsis at the Jacobins made a speech on April 21st where he claimed that the purpose of this war was not defensive. Belgium and Savoy. 1792 at this juncture. We require enemies. The French Revolution in Germany — Occupation and Resistance in the Rhineland 1792-1802 (Oxford: Clarendon Press. . Savoy.74 Talleyrand now became the foreign ambassador on behalf of General Dumouriez to make this war come about. and quickly. warned in dissent that "we shall earn the reputation of being an aggressive and restless people who disturb the peace of Europe and disregard treaties and international law."73 Louis XVI was compelled to read the declaration of war. No evidence at King Louis’ trial in December 1792 ever showed otherwise.

In the next chapter. King Analysis of the Call to War After their allies knocked off Gustavus III on March 16. we shall discuss how the war was manipulated so as to cause the Revolution in France.Assassination of Gustavus III. and sending them fleeing. King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold. there was nothing to fear from armies under Brunswick’s control approaching them. These Jacobins knew their opponent would act as their secret allies and merely pretend to attack so that the Jacobins could bring about a revolution at home. 1792. These plans of war were very successful. The Brissotin-led Jacobins could fearlessly talk of wiping out their enemies. and thus by the time they declared war in April 1792 at Paris. the Brissotin-led Jacobins knew the war leadership would fall to the Duke of Brunswick. Illuminati of Bavaria 28 .

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