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Question 1: The Cognitive Revolution has won, how did this
Thomas Kuhn (1960). The structure of scientific revolutions. The historic, cyclic progression of science (Kuhn, 1960) Period of normal science Period of crisis Paradigm shift Back to normal science 1 Normal science A stable period characterized by majority of scientists working under the rubric of an all-encompassing “paradigm”. What is a paradigm? A mental framework that majority of scientists owe their allegiance to A committed point of view as to what the substantive issues of a field are what scientific questions ought to be raised and answered and what methodologies are appropriate in addressing
2 Period of crisis A chaotic period characterized by the “noticing” of anomalies that cannot be explained by the existing paradigms How are the “anomalies” noticed? Anomalies are noticed: via the development or refinements of new
” H. tools technologies methodologies How do scientists react to these anomalies? First. Ebbinghaus Question 2: Have there been paradigmatic shifts in psychology or only metatheoretical progressions? What is a theory? General explanation of a set of observations or facts . denial Then serious consideration Then the rush to offer alternative (often competing) theories and explanations for these anomalies And majority of scientists shift their allegiance and commitment to this new paradigm (Paradigm shift) And research efforts will now be vigorously directed to verifying and strengthening the theories associated with the new paradigm (back to normal science but under a new regime!) Part B “Psychology has a long past and a short history.
what the business of psychology is.What is a metatheory? Specifies a domain for Psychology Develops a set of techniques for investigating that domain Elaborates on a research program to integrate the findings of Psychology into the larger body of human knowledge and practice Metatheories in scientific/experimental psychology Introspectionism Behaviorism Cognitive Psychology A. its combinations and relations. so that it may ultimately discover the laws which govern these relations and combinations. 1912 Claimed that the domain of experience Psychology is conscious human To be studied through the method of introspection Note: Introspectionists believed that thought processes can be decomposed into their simplest mental elements through the method of sheer introspection or reflection Wundt Up Close and Personal He decided to transfer school instead. . Wilhelm Wundt’s metatheory = Introspectionism “If psychologists are asked. and did better.” Wilhelm Wundt. they generally make some such answer as follows if they belong to the empirical school: that this science has to investigate the facts of consciousness.
he decided to become a researcher and academic. In the very first course that he taught. But instead of practicing Medicine. But at the time of his death. only 4 students enrolled. John Watson’s metatheory = Behaviorism “The Behaviorist … recognizes no dividing line between man and brute. He graduated summa cum laude.” Watson. 158 Claimed that the domain of Psychology is observable human (and animal) behavior . p. What is the method of (objective) introspection? The process of objectively examining and measuring one’s own thoughts and mental activities But why did Wundtian Introspectionism failed? Because its method was UNSCIENTIFIC! Because it could not find a way out of the mind-body problem (Dualism) B.000 undergrad students and mentored 186 doctoral dissertations. 1913. he had supervised & taught more than 10. forms only a part of the behaviorist’s total scheme of investigation. and was the top notcher in the Medical Board Exams. finished Medicine in 3 instead of 4 years. with all of its refinement and complexity. Many of his students became pioneering and profoundly influential scientists and researchers. The behavior of man.
who eventually left his wife and children to live with two women (at the same time!). His only hope for a decent education was to study in a community college to become a Baptist Minister But he did so well. Note: Although Behaviorism was a very productive and successful metatheory for Psychology for more than four decades … it was itself challenged on some fronts C. He was only 25 years old --the youngest PhD that the University of Chicago had ever graduated. the very first PhD in Psychology at the University. and was given one. “consciousness”… these were now considered ephemeral phenomena that had no place in a scientific psychology Note: Behaviorists believed that any complex behavior can be decomposed into its constituent stimulus-response (S-R) elements Watson Up Close and Personal He came from a poor family. and was so confident that he actually wrote the President of the University of Chicago for a scholarship for graduate studies. the son of an abusive and irresponsible father. To be studied through experimental techniques already in place in the other established sciences And Psychology was therefore purged (EXPUNGED!) of all mentalistic concepts which were considered unscientific to study “Mind”. He wrote a brilliant dissertation on animal behavior and was awarded in 1903. Anomalies pointed out by Gestalt psychologists: .
Basic Gestalt principle of perception: Regardless of the form or the structure of an incoming physical stimulus. Amzanig huh? I cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdgnieg. People seem to be “doing something” to transform the stimuli (in accordance w/ the principles of WHOLISM and GOOD ORGANIZATION or PRAGNANZ . as a TOTALITY of EXPERIENCE. the human perceptual system has a natural tendency/preference to organize the perceptual experience in a satisfyingly wholistic way. the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef. Try Reading This: The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are. Super Motto: “The whole is more than the sum of its parts!” A. area of perception area of problem solving They believed that… psychological functioning should always be viewed as a patterned WHOLE. or as a GESTALT. but the wrod as a wlohe.
How many circles are there? (Principle of Closure) Insightful Problem Solving: The Gestalt psychologists conducted extraordinary experiments (during their war-time exile) that led to the concept of “insightful” problem-solving.B. Four characteristics of insight Suddenness “Solution” precedes behavior (in contrast to Thorndike’s cats) Smoothness (once solution is arrived at. but a whole new way of looking at the problem) . unhesitatingly) executed fluently & Novel (not just the application of existing habits.
Box Problem: Are You Smarter than a Chimpanzee? These observations were problematic to Behaviorism because they could not be explained by conditioning principles if we can attribute insightful-like behaviors to monkeys. it would seem illogical to deny them to humans So the Gestalt project also failed! Inspite of the fact that these anomalous phenomena were convincingly demonstrated by the Gestalt psychologists.C. why did Western psychology NOT shift from Behaviorism to Gestalt Psychology? D. Advent of Cognitive Psychology (Yehey!) The tools & technologies that brought down behaviorism the design and development of SERVOMECHANISMS .
& guided missiles on course to perform this function. feedback. the invention of the COMPUTER Servo-mechanisms Designed by Norbert Weiner (at MIT) to keep airplanes. and control . anti-aircraft artillery. communication. they had to correct themselves by continuously getting feedback from the environment They worked by computing the difference between their goal state and their current state Cybernetics The new science created by Wiener to study the concepts of information.in both living and non-living systems View of human behavior Opposed the behavioristic view…and claimed that human beings are ACTIVE INFORMATION-PROCESSORS and not merely passive receptors of stimuli Humans process information in terms of their existing goals and adjust their responses so as to achieve these goals Logico-mathematical basis of the computer Boolean algebra in the 1800’s (ugh!) Bertrand Russel & Alfred North Whitehead’s Principia Mathematica The Turing Machine (by Allan Turing) The Turing machine .
Theoretically. . open/close) Neurophysiology (e. it could execute any program or plan that can be expressed in binary code (0/1. Warren McCulloch. the idea of a machine that can perform a task using binary code paralleled Boole’s idea that “thinking” or logic (deciding whether something was true or false) was itself a binary process The Turing machine embodied the notion that “thinking” (or problem-solving) was a COMPUTATIONAL PROCESS Convergences: Computer science & Psychology Information theory (e.g.. Servo-mechanisms and computing machines can be designed to be goal-directed and purposeful. Claude Shannon) the BINARY principles of logic (truth/falsity) parallel the BINARY states of electromagnetic relays (on/off. Walter Pitts) human neurons also BINARY (they either fire or not fire) neurons can then be seen as logical units carrying information The Psychological Implications of the Computer Age Computers are designed to process information actively and intelligently .g.according to their stored programs. blank/slash) Philosophically.
) Result: The down-fall of behaviorism! . Computers can process many kinds of information and can solve many types of problems so long as they have the appropriate software. (Many software can work on any type of hardware.
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