FOREWORD ............................................................................................................................. 5 AL. CISTELECAN Une aventure roumaine-française (Alice Călugăru) ................................................................. 7 GHEORGHE PERIAN L’idée de génération chez le critique roumain Mircea Vulcănescu......................................... 23 CAIUS DOBRESCU Political Theory vs. Political Mimesis in The Early-Modern Literary Representation of Decision-Making ...................................................................................................................... 31 MIRCEA A. DIACONU Cioran, ou l’impuissance d’être plus qu’un roumain .............................................................. 39 ANDREI BODIU The Generation of 2000 in Romanian Poetry. Two Eccentric authors: Radu Vancu and Vasile Leac .......................................................................................................................................... 49 SANDA CORDOŞ La littérature roumaine d’après-guerre. Une ébauche ............................................................ 53 ANDREI TERIAN Toward a History of Critical Reading...................................................................................... 61 DORIN ŞTEFĂNESCU Georges Bernanos ou la pensée en quête de quelle vérité ? .................................................... 70 NICOLETA SĂLCUDEANU Revisals and Revisionism in Postcommunist Literature .......................................................... 82 IULIAN BOLDEA Mircea Eliade – Meanings of Autobiographical Discourse..................................................... 86 ALEX. GOLDIŞ The Side Effects of Călinescianism .......................................................................................... 93 DANIELA PETROŞEL Un canon de la parodie secondaire ......................................................................................... 97 DUMITRU-MIRCEA BUDA Ways of Reception Regarding the Works of Lucian Blaga. The Issue of Mystery ................. 103 CĂTĂLIN GHIŢĂ William Blake’s Social Vision: America, Europe, The Song of Los...................................... 110 ALEX. CISTELECAN Political Lacan ....................................................................................................................... 117 ROXANA GHIŢĂ Une poïétique romantique de la lecture (considérations à partir de Novalis, Humboldt, Dilthey et Bachelard) ............................................................................................................. 126

Literature, Communication, Interculturality

DANA RUS Communicating America: Intercultural Exchange in 16TH and 17th Century English Promotion Literature.............................................................................................................. 132 CORINA PUŞCAŞ Re-Examining Reliability in the Communicative Act Proposed by Philip Roth in The Ghost Writer ..................................................................................................................................... 137 NICOLETA MEDREA Defining New Identities in V. S. Naipaul’s The Mimic Men ................................................. 143 CORINA BOZEDEAN Ecriture de la matière et matérialité de l’écriture chez Henry Bauchau ............................... 150 SORIN IVAN How to Communicate in the Tower of Babel? Academic Multilingual Education at the Core of Globalization .......................................................................................................................... 156 EUGENIU NISTOR Communication et philosophie ............................................................................................... 168 MARIUS PAŞCAN The Philosophy of David Hume - Three Centuries of Modernism ......................................... 175 LUMINIŢA CHIOREAN 'The Political Bestiary’. The Level of Discursive Practices in the Opinion Editorial ........... 183 DOINA BUTIURCĂ Language - Factor of Individuality ........................................................................................ 199 SMARANDA ŞTEFANOVICI Home and Sense of Belonging in B. Mukherjee’s “A Wife’s Story” ...................................... 207 MARIA-LAURA RUS Present Linguistic Comunication by Means of Lexical Predilections ................................... 222 BIANCA-OANA HAN Translation: Science and/or Art ............................................................................................. 227 OANA ELENA STRUGARU Exile beyond Borders. The Writer and the Exilic Subjectivity ............................................... 231 LIST OF AUTHORS ............................................................................................................. 239


Literature, Communication, Interculturality


One of the most controversial features of contemporary European cultural discourse comes from its continuous pursuit of a reconciliation between the globalizing tendency of the larger community of national states and the strive to preserve the specificity of identity, existential perspective and cultural language of each particular region. It is obvious that some fields of the cultural discourse provide a much more cohesive environment, where the effects of globalization are significantly lower, while others are more likely to be endangered by these effects. National literature, for instance, is one of such cases, since its essential bonds to the specificity of its native nation or region represent its fundamental condition of existence: even when written in exile, German, Hungarian, Polish, Czech or Romanian literature hold their principle of coherence due to the relation with the national point of origin. On the other hand, there is another bonding level between cultural creation and its scientific research. While, in the case of literature, literary research allows for broader investigation horizons only if it is set on comparative grounds (and therefore the ancient dichotomy between synchronization and loyalty to tradition reactivates), there are certain areas of human science research where the shifts between national and international, local community and European community, take place more naturally and immediately. Scientific research in Law, International Relations, Fine Arts, Visual Arts, New Media theories or Journalism (to name only a random few) is by all means more open to global “integration” and contribution to the wider community of ideas than, say, literary research. Nevertheless, there have been significant efforts to surpass the often false, artificial barriers that continue to somehow “tie” literary research to literature’s local condition. Even the concept of “local” has undergone substantial metamorphosis, to the point where it no longer covers, today, a strong reality: with the dynamics of artist migration between countries and continents and the weakening of their dramatic liason to the mother-nations, powerful, capital works of literature have started to be written regardless of the geographical (and beyond the political or economic) position of their authors. Thematically-focused literary research, as well as cultural literary studies (including gender, race, postcolonial, ideological, Post Marxist – centered types) appear to have moved the traditional perspective from an exclusively aesthetic set of criteria to one that favors rather the social-relevance of the literary text, as well as its ability to encipher and decipher key-features of collective mentality and imagery. The downside of such cultural research development, especially in the study of literature, proves to be (as Harold Bloom had theorized in the 1990s) the dissolution of the aesthetic value of the text, as well as the relativization of literary axiology (visible in the Postmodernist decomposition of the literary cannon). It appears that each new theoretical solution to the crisis of Western cultural discourse dating back in late modernity has also brought along new dilemmas and dichotomies,


Literature, Communication, Interculturality

conflicts and tensions. And this is a result of a phase shift between cultural theoretical advances and contemporary mentalities: the latter continue to hold old prejudices and reflexes in spite of the advances in the theoretic perception of things. Tensions arise, and conflicts that have not been correctly treated and extinguished continue to undermine the undoubtedly positive intentions of the theoreticians. One must nevertheless keep in mind that Westernculture has a predisposition for utopia / dystopia. Political correctness, multiculturalism as a means of solving ancient ethnic and religious conflicts, perfect social integration of all the disadvantaged classes – should not be allowed to structure themselves as the new utopias of Western civilization. While noble and remarkably advanced in their humanist side, all these emerging schools of ideas have a potential for utopian / dystopian accomplishment and a negative scenario of their mystification is not hard to be envisioned: as a matter of fact, it may already be visible in the landscape of our world. It is why we trust in the necessity of balance and objectivity, of un-tensioned, unpassionate perspectives over all these conflicting tendencies of European cultural discourse, revealing their beneficial variety and assessing their multitude of forms and features, but never falling in the temptation of worshiping one set or another. Literature provides, we think, a somehow safe cultural environment, the study of which might reveal enough convincing arguments against any fundamentalist enrolments in “radical” ideological solutions – all the wrong turns of the past, however different in shape, are encrypted in the fabulous cosmos of literary texts and expect to be revealed and comprehended. Literature, Communication, Interculturality is a collection of literary approaches trying to reflect such a tolerant yet critical and reflexive perspective. Our concept of integration – since the book hosts the contributions of prestigious professors from Romanian universities but also numerous studies signed by young postdoctoral researchers; all major interpretation keys of contemporary literary criticism, as well as communication theories, are found in the texts: from aesthetic literary history to Post Marxism, from Feminism to Postcolonial – is a concept that is basically convergent to Virgil Nemoianu’s view of the postmodern environment as a universe of cultural “turbulence, fluidity, relativity, commotion, uncertainty, and lightning-fast communication and change” where, luckily, cultural research may discover “islands of stability, durability, continuity and coherence”.



to the modernist cycle. Hortensia Papadat-Bengescu était presque la seule femme distribuée dans un rôle principal (quoique décoratif dans le plan programmatique). After a recap of the adventurous life of the poet. à la fin. Bien que toutes les deux se soient émancipées presque en même temps et dans le même rythme. Mures Une aventure roumaine-française (Alice Călugăru) The article explores the life and work of poet Alice Călugăru. avant de s’arrêter à l’incantation des sensations et au sensualisme le plus exalté. as a paradigmatic example of the passage of the Romanian literature from the traditional cycle. petit officier. elles s’en sont séparées. Elle fait son école au hasard. était transféré tantôt ci tantôt là et. The study also underlines the poet’s ambition to become a French writer. Elena Farago a pris le chemin du symbolisme (ce n’est pas tout -á-fait sûr si c’était son propre choix ou celui pour lequel s’acharnait Eugen Lovinescu). En échange. éduquées et même débutées dans le ‚‚sămănătorism’’ (et même en attirant premièrement les éloges des représentants de ce courant littéraire). mais de manière générale ils ont été plus fidèles au chemin qu’ils avaient pris. où le jeune officier faisait son 7 . plus ou moins en particulier (son père. pendant qu’Elena Farago était une domestique structurelle. Interculturality AL. assez discrètes aujourd’hui: Elena Farago et Alice Călugăru. CISTELECAN Petru Maior University of Tg. Alice Stéphanie. car elle devait prendre soin de ses trois filles. élevées.Literature. mais efficace. Le passage au modernisme a constitué le grand spectacle littéraire du dernier siècle. L’une et l’autre nées. naturellement. de toute façon ingrate. Il y a aussi. le lendemain de l’apparition du premier livre. et Alice Călugăru a pris le chemin de la poésie méditative. assurément). sa mère – une Carabella avec des parents de par l’Europe – était étudiante au moment de son mariage. even though she did manage to publish a novel in France. il a été renvoyé de l’armée. des ‚‚hommes’’ qui ont subi de remarquables métamorphoses. the article traces the evolution of her poetry. mais deux femmes poètes. voit le jour. l’ont trouvé dès le début el l’ont suivi avec une certaine constance. contemplative. par une conversion presque déclarée. elles avaient des tempéraments tout à fait différents. la cadette. Mais le saut le plus spectaculaire du ‚‚posteminescianism’’ et du ‚‚sămănătorism’’ dans le modernisme ne l’ont pas fait quelques grands héros du lyrisme roumain et de l’émancipation. à Paris. en 1886. Ses protagonistes en ont été quelques critiques et écrivains (au cas où les premiers n’étaient eux-mêmes des écrivains) parmi lesquels. an ambition which failed. rurally inspired. reçue comme première dame du modernisme. from the so-called ‘samanatorist’ stage to the phase of modern emancipation. by focusing especially on the sensual and sensualist vision and the imaginative audacity of Alice Călugăru – which made her the most ‘erotic’ and ‘passionate’ poet of all the Romanian literature. pas trop scrofuleux envers son devoir. les deux femmes poètes ont donné la preuve radicale et immédiate de leur infidélité et de leur acte de trahison. Alice Călugăru était une aventurière et une impertinente (avec charme. mais ensuite naturellement qu’elle a abandonné. Communication.

dans le travail des cuirs. Alice. mais quand même il ne veut pas être ni un assassin des jeunes talents. au collège ‚‚Sfântul Sava’’. séparée de sa famille et encore pensant à une carrière universitaire (qui ne va plus se réaliser). Maiorescu. gagne le renom d’une plus grand précocité.’’ 6 Elle a eu un enfant. on ne sait pas comment. simplement parce qu’il ne se sont plus rencontrés après le bac. ‚‚entre 1909 et 1914’’. Bien sûr que Maiorescu ne peut pas consentir à toutes les demandes.Literature. au sujet d’Alice. car on ne sait plus rien de l’enfant. témérairement faux. à juste titre affirme Dumitru Micu que ‚‚rien ne nous interdit de voir en Alice Călugăru un personnage d’histoire’’). était presque crue par ceux qui la connaissaient. n’importe quelle rumeur qui concernait Alice. dans le grand monde. par passion pour elle. ministre. elle était déjà une poète débutée. car à ses oreilles est arrivée aussi la rumeur conformément à laquelle Alice aurait conçu un enfant avec Topîrceanu. en ce qui concerne l’image de l’enfant accrochée au coin de la photographie. Les chercheurs scientifiques ont précisé les motifs (strictement familiers) de son départ. D’autre coté. quoique grossière qu’elle soit. avec un toupet nonchalant. en suivant les dénégations et les preuves des chercheurs scientifiques. en 1911. et la pauvre Eugenia se suicide!) lance le bruit – qui ensuite a été cru – qu’elle avait fait son début littéraire à 17 ans. va lui refuser une demande de bourse. (De toute façon. la même année que Topîrceanu (d’où ils en arriveront plus tard à une amitié épistolaire). Il n’a pas bien fait car la poète se débattait à Paris à la besace. il lui donne audience encore une fois en 1906. Sensible comme il était dans le domaine. la gamine demande à Maiorescu. Qu’Alice a eu un enfant. quand il s’agit d’Alice). paru en 1905. ‚‚et si elle n’est pas favorable – essaie-t-elle suavement faire chanter le grand pontife – je tirerai du profit de vos conseils pour finir à ce point ma carrière des lettres’’.Violettes’’. par exemple. donc voilà la preuve qu’on pourrait s’attendre à tout de sa part. quand elle passe son bac. mais les rumeurs se sont développées à l’aide de l’imagination. Interculturality instruction. celles qui sont arrivées aux oreilles de Ion Pillat chuchotent que la jeune poète s’était enfuie à Paris ‚‚avec un petit ami’’. de sorte qu’il refuse de lui écrire la note de publicité. du moins c’est ce que résulte d’une photo qu’elle a envoyée à Octavian Tăslăuanu – elle était aussi collaboratrice de Luceafărul – et sur laquelle il est écrit. avec son premier livre ‚‚Viorele’’/ ‚.4 Mais il paraît que Pillat était intoxiqué exprès avec de faux bruits. comme dit Pavel Ţugui. avant son début. Maussade de n’avoir reçu aucun signe de sa part. ‚‚voilà la meilleure poésie que j’ai faite. On peut comprendre 8 . en 1906.5 chose impossible. Ilarie Chendi (dont on suppose de l’avoir connue assez bien du moment que. Communication. Peut-être la pauvreté eut déterminée la poète de l’abandonner (quelques allusions dans les lettres qu’elle a envoyées à Topîrceanu).1 Assez précoce pour ses 18 ans.2 En tout cas. Il y eut été un drame. en 1910. c’est. une chose (presque) sûre. avec une bourse militaire. peu à peu. d’exprimer son opinion sur les poésies du livre ‚‚Violettes’’. la mère d’Alice s’en allant pour la Belgique avec ses filles plus grandes. Et cela avant qu’Alice soit partie pour Paris et ensuite se soit perdue. la biographie d’Alice est faite plutôt des rumeurs. il a rompu les fiançailles avec Eugenia Carcalechi. mais il la reçoit chez lui et fait des observations sur le manuscrit. et si l’opinion avait été bonne elle aurait voulu la mettre ‚à la tête de son livre’.3 En tout cas. un peu plus tard les parents se séparent. et la poète restant auprès de son père).7 (C’est le maximum de précision qu’on peut attendre.

en français. nous ne le pouvons pas exclure. Désormais. où il affirme qu’Alice ‚‚est la meilleure écrivaine. non seulement du point de vue de son âme. sous le nom d’Alice Orient (qu’elle avait pris pour la littérature française). mais on peut lui accorder des circonstances atténuantes. À peine que le nécrologue fasse son apparition. rêves. les derniers. affirme Pavel Ţugui. E. Quelquefois. rythme de frénésie – mais tout cela avec un drame sur le fond. le roman La tunique verte (les éditions Malfère. lui aussi étant d’avis que la poète ‚‚n’était pas un enfant de choeur’’. le destin de la poète les a beaucoup émues. l’Amérique du Sud. 1924). Ion Pillat envoie une lettre à Agavriloaie.Literature. La poésie primée – Les perles (traduction du titre roumain Cîntec de plasă) – est récitée dans les salons et les théâtres. c’est elle même qui se compare avec Saint Sébastien). un peu de journalisme). il l’avait déjà sélectée dans L’Anthologie des poètes d’aujourd’hui – Antologia poeţilor de azi. ambitions. par exemple). nostalgies. car elles la considèrent une championne de la souffrance: ‚‚aucun écrivain roumain n’a été poursuivi par un destin plus impitoyable que 9 . Torouţiu. car la poète non seulement était à la besace. sous la surveillance de Lovinescu. Il est possible qu’elle fût morte dans un sanatorium suisse.17 Peut-on le savoir?! Semblable à n’importe quelle virtualité restée comme ça. j’avais l’impression qu’elle avait l’esprit dérangé’’. Victor Eftimiu la rencontre et dit: ‚‚elle menait une vie lamentable. elle aurait été une gloire de la littérature française. même par Sarah Bernhardt. si ‚‚elle avait écrit encore en français. la talonnent aussi les bons mots. Sensualisme déchaîné. expériences (avec des chocs émotionnels ou avec des plaisirs). En tout cas. En 1913. ell e ne perd pas tout son temps en bohème et. mais de tous les points de vue. peut-être plus qu’il conviendrait. Amiens.13 Donc. où s’était retirée sa famille maternelle) et elle se marie. surtout. à l’antipode de la vulgarité’’. était. Alice s’est volatilisée. la poète publie.9 Peut-être qu’elle ne l’était pas. au-dessus des écrivaines contemporaines. En 1909-1910.. qui rassemblait des témoignages pour sa thèse de doctorat sur la poète. frustrations. avec sept poèmes. la plus personnelle. comme l’est I.15 Pour elles. elle ne perd pas son espoir (où plutôt son ambition) de devenir écrivaine française. sans être prouvée. sinon vrai aussi. presque le double par rapport à Ion Barbu. cependant. l’anthologie concernant L’évolution de l’écrit féminin en Roumanie – Evoluţia scrisului feminin în România.12 Bien galant. Mais ce ne sont pas seulement les rumeurs et les faux bruits qui l’accompagnent et lui construisent une représentation intéressante dans le pays. en 1921. les autres de son tempérament sensuel. correspondante de presse. Alice est ‚‚la première poète roumaine authentique’’16 qui. elle travaillait n’importe quoi (dactylographe. finalement. presque exclusivement en ce qui concerne sa poésie. elle participe au premier concours organisé par la revue Femina et obtient le deuxième prix. on ne sait plus vraiment rien. difficile à refouler et à contrôler (surtout qu’elle avait une constitution assez athlétique. qui a été la plus important poète de ma génération.8 Elle ne laisse pas une très bonne impression à aucun homme sérieux.10 Elle voyage pressée de par le monde (la Belgique. probablement avant 1940. Avec admiration et beaucoup d’empathie parlent d’elle aussi les deux dames qui ont fait. une espèce de la pire bohème. De toute façon.11 Les bruits – une fois de plus! – la donnent morte et George Topîrceanu se hâte lui dédier un beau nécrologue où il dit que ‚‚cette jeune fille. Communication. beaucoup de mystère dans la vie d’Alice..’’14 D’ailleurs. mais elle menait aussi une vie dont les méchantes langues affirment être excessivement bohème. donc la poète espérait s’élancer dans la littérature française à l’aide de ce tremplin. avec le journaliste français (et on a fait confusion avec un autre) Louis Constant Edgar Müller. les unes tenant de la vie. Interculturality cela. Une vie épique.

Literature, Communication, Interculturality

celui d’Alice Călugăru’’.18 Ce sont elles qui l’affirment. Nicolae Iorga a accueilli avec des opinions favorables les premiers poèmes écrits par Alice Călugăru (mais, pourtant, il ne perd pas de vue de la réprimander, entre les lignes, pour le toupet et les excentricités de son comportement; il paraît qu’il avait deviné quelque chose; ou bien il en avait entendu ou vu). Les poèmes d’Alice bénéficient, à l’avis de Iorga, ‚‚d’une voix très belle, d’une souplesse digne des plus grands éloges, une particulière légèreté du vers et beaucoup de sens pour l’harmonie’’19, donc beaucoup de qualités, pas tout à fait les plus grandes, et surtout vaguement analysables (elles sont convenables aussi pour une femme, non seulement pour une poésie); de toute façon, il y en étaient assez, même si Iorga était régulièrement généreux avec les jeunes talents du sămănătorism (comme c’était le cas d’Alice à ce temps-là). Ça va de soi que, pour Ilarie Chendi, Alice ‚‚occupe une place spéciale parmi nos écrivaines des vers’’20, même si, alors qu’il affirme cela, Alice l’ait déjà oublié (mais les passions orageuses sont comme ça, éphémères). L’article d’Ilarie Chendi est aussi le premier à saisir la métamorphose de la poésie d’Alice, soulignée avec des expressions héritées ensuite par tous les chercheurs: ‚‚encore que la forme lyrique légère et le genre impressionniste de son début l’aient désignée pour la poésie de la nature et pour le monde subjectif, mademoiselle Călugăru, sous l’influence de ses sérieuses études (quelles études???, peut-être celles de l’école de la vie, n.n.), a été attirée vers le genre méditatif et a démarré une série d’analyses philosophiques, avec des sujets sociales, dans lesquels souvent la poésie est dominée par la raison’’.21 L’observation revient, par exemple (il ne pouvait se passer autrement, car il s’agissait, quand même, d’une évidence) chez Dumitru Micu, qui renforce lui aussi l’idée conformément à laquelle ‚‚après la publication du volume, Alice Călugăru fait /.../ de la poésie de conception une profession’’.22 Nous la retrouvons ensuite chez Pavel Ţugui et chez Maria Platon (la dernière étant plus détaillée et plus argumentée). Le coeur de Chendi ne battait plus si fortement pour Alice (il s’était consolé et s’était marié entre temps), donc il a observé que cette poésie ‚‚d’idées’’ est seulement une question d’intelligence trop sûre de ses compositions et trop enchantée de sa capacité de manipuler ‚‚des thèmes’’. Les unes, quoique ‚‚sans doute les preuves d’une intelligence supérieure’’, lui semblent, pourtant, plutôt ‚‚des caprices de talent’’.23 Ce n’est pas le cas de ne pas lui donner raison, car longtemps Alice choisit purement et simplement des ‚‚thèmes’’ et les développe sur un module lyrique. Pour Perpessicius, Alice est ‚‚un moment culminant de notre lyrisme féminin’’24, qu’il installe elle même, quoique pas tout à fait seule, au front du mouvement d’émancipation: ‚‚patronné par Alice Călugăru et par Elena Farago, notre lyrisme féminin connaît une intéressante évolution’’.25 Alice a soulevé un grand enthousiasme chez revue ‚‚Viaţa românească’’, où, affirme Ionel Teodoreanu, en regardant Topîrceanu et Ibrăileanu, ‚‚aucune des femmes écrivaines de la revue Viaţa românească n’a laissée une impression si profonde dans l’esprit des deux hommes’’.26 ‚‚L’impression’’ a marqué aussi d’autres-uns, comme Otilia Cazimir et Demostene Botez. Le dernier, qui ne l’avait jamais vue, sachant seulement qu’elle ‚‚existait quand même’’, déclare fermement, à la fin du chapitre des mémoires (?) dédié à Alice: ‚‚Bon gré, mal gré, Alice Călugăru est l’un de nos grands poètes du début du XX-ième siècle’’.27 Raison! Je ne vois pas qui ait pu avoir une autre opinion; pourtant, il y avaient aussi de gens malicieux. Ainsi Ovid Densusianu, lequel n’aimait pas les sămănătorişti car ils faisaient parti de l’école adverse, mais qui ajoute, dans le cas d’Alice, des arguments tirés de sa poésie, en 10

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considérant ses poèmes, vus du point de vue thématique, de simples ‚‚caprices d’adolescente envers les beautés de la nature, affliction suscitée par la fuite sans retour des temps, une envie mystérieuse de silence éternel’’.28 Ni Sextil Puşcariu n’était pas sûr (à vraie dire, il était sûr du fait contraire) que les Violettes – Viorelele ‚‚nous autorisent à prévoir pour l’auteur un avenir brillant’’, en les considérant seulement comme ‚‚les premières tentatives d’une poète qui maîtrise une belle langue et trouve parfois d’intonations authentiques’’.29 L’enthousiasme de la critique d’après-guerre pour la poésie d’Alice s’est affaibli, sauf les ‚‚spécialistes’’ dans le petit domaine, toujours moins nombreux et plus justiciers; et toujours plus gratuitement justiciers, naturellement. Dans l’histoire de Ion Rotaru Alice est ‚‚féminine avant tout’’30 (et cependant comment cela eût été intéressant d’être masculine avant tout!), et Mircea Scarlat résume seulement, dans une fiche de lecture, les opinions de Călinescu (mais au moins celui là l’avait parlée de bien), en insérant le nom de la poète dans la liste de ceux qui représentent ‚‚la convention classicisante’’.31 Mais Nicolae Manolescu la met seulement sur la liste pour un éventuel dictionnaire.32 (Peut-être s’agit-il ici d’une parabole typiquement décroissante?!). C’est une liste sélecte, forcément, une liste d’honneur en soi même, mais je dirais que, pour Alice, ça c’est, néanmoins, trop peu. Vraiment! Je ne comprends pas pourquoi Alice a été exclue de l’anthologie Poeţi de la Semănătorul. Car rien d’autre que le critère très restrictif et positif employé par Petru Homoceanu ne pouvait pas l’exclure.33 Les Violettes (imprimées en 1905, Stabilimentul de arte grafice Albert Baer, Bucureşti) contiennent des poésies qui appartiennent au courant sămănătoriste. (La poésie d’ouverture – Dimineaţa – était déjà dans les manuels scolaires pour les petits.) Et elles étaient tellement sămănătoristes que Dumitru Micu, si gentil qu’il fût, les considérait faites ‚‚surtout’’ de ‚‚clichés’’; et encore‚ ‚‚de celles à l’intermède desquelles la poétique sămănătoriste nous pousse à bout’’.34 Mais qu’est-ce qu’on pouvait attendre, vers 1900, de la part d’une gamine, quelque précoce et réceptive soit-elle, déménagée d’un bourg à l’autre, avec Bucarest comme épicentre? Y a-t-il quelque chose de plus, comme disait Lovinescu, que de poèmes ‚‚combles de l’athmosphère et du matériel de Coşbuc et d’Eminescu’’?!35 Chose confirmée par tout le monde, à tour de rôles et en choeur, chaque fois qu’on parle de la poésie d’Alice; voilà, par exemple, Constantin Ciopraga, pour lequel les vers du seul volume d’Alice sont tissés des ‚‚explicables’’ (cela certainement) ‚‚échos provenant d’Eminescu et de Coşbuc’’ qui ‚‚rencontrent la transparence de Iosif, dans un petit univers de lumière et de rosée, en prouvant une pouvoir d’observation propre restreinte’’. 36 (Et Iosif l’avait révélé plus tôt, dans les premiers commentaires). Ni notre poésie n’offrait davantage, ni Alice ne pouvait, ce temps-là, davantage. Ce sont de simples exercices de collégienne, naturellement, ‚‚mais en général, de bons exercices, quelques-uns excellents’’;37 ce n’est pas tout à fait un péché envers le sămănătorism, plutôt il s’agit d’un péché de précocité. Sinon même d’un péché provoqué par la hâte. D’ailleurs, naturellement, Alice écrit comme elle a appris des autres, et des choses qu’elle a apprises (comme tous les poètes, en font). Et, pour l’apprentissage, il s’agit presque seulement de l’apprentissage sur la nature. Elle aurait pu apprendre aussi quelque chose sur l’amour, surtout sur l’amour triste ou sur l’idylle robuste de la campagne. Mais d’autant moins, elle ne parle point de l’amour, ni de celui triste, ni de celui joyeux, ni de celui personnel, ni de celui des autres, jeunes filles et jeunes hommes de décor ethnique (même si elle aurait pu le faire, car son univers est rural; mais cela probablement à cause du fait qu’elle 11

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était impressionnée par le prestige de la tradition); elle ne chante pas, comme il en aurait été le cas, ses premiers frémissements. Dans tout son livre, écrit environ à l’âge de dix à dix -huit ans, elle n’a le moindre sentiment ou pressentiment du prince charmant. 38 Ses descriptions de nature ne sont pas dérangées par aucun sentiment, sauf quelques vagues brises de rêverie; ni même par les premiers bourgeons de ses propres sensations pré-érotiques (mais ça va de soi qu’elle reprendra le dessus plus tard). Elle a même une réticence ‚‚définitive’’ (tout de même, trop constante) à l’égard de la confession directe, assumée autrement qu’enveloppée dans l’allégorie. Dumitru Micu a raison de constater que ‚‚incitée par l’existence objective, Alice Călugăru est la moins intériorisée de nos poètes et l’une des poètes les moins sentimentales de la littérature roumaine’’.39 Pour Lovinescu, cette tonalité a-confidentielle et a-sentimentale était une bonne note, une note d’‚‚originalité’’, du moins dans le contexte de la poésie féminine mélodramatique de ce temps-là. Il lui paraît que c’est l’abstraction des sentiments ou leur ‚‚objectivation’’ qui assurent l’‚‚originalité’ de la poète, originalité qui, dit-il, ‚‚se caractérise par le manque du lyrisme direct et de la féminité sentimentale, par l’observation et la force descriptive, par l’objectivité et même par une sorte de virilité de l’expression’’. 40 ‚‚La virilité’’ vient plus tard, car pour le moment, ‚‚la force descriptive’’, très méthodique, préfère la grammaire des suaves. Mais la description est vraiment scrupuleuse et les dessins faites au pastel avancent consciencieusement, comme à l’école. Les moments du jour (naturellement, sont préférés le soir et le matin, plus épiques, plus colorés et plus symboliques) sont dessinées dans de délicates monographies des détails, dans de petits films documentaires qui surprennent la phénoménologie de couleurs et météorologique séquence par séquence; comme, par exemple, dans cette Soirée/Seară: ‚‚Éclairant feuille à feuille/ Au travers les rameaux comme une pluie/ Des rayons tentent s’insinuer; / Les eaux en éclat folâtre / Rient dans les vallées ou chantent piteusement, / Voyageuses. // Mais bientôt s’éteignent à l’horizon / Les rayons étincelants’’ etc. De tels inventaires de séquencences auraient donné l’impression d’acuité dans l’observation. Mais Alice n’est qu’apparemment descriptive; sa journée est, en fait, un scénario dramatique basé sur de symboles; scénario d’extase et de déchéance, parabole déjà transparente de l’élégie méditative qui va suivre. Le matin est spectacle d’extase, à coup sûr (‚‚Et maintenant en mille rayons / L’étoile du jour fait son apparition, / Boule de flammes et de fournaise, / Toute la mer scintille / Et tout le ciel brille brille faiblement / En étincelles.’’ – Le lever du soleil/ Răsăritul), tandis que le crépuscule est un spectacle de détresse, avec des frémissements d’élégie: ‚‚Et doucement s’éteignit derrière la colline / L’auguste étoile... Se taisent aussi dans le vent / Les branches des hêtres; / La source changeait par ses ondes / Son déchirant soupir en chant / Et les pleurs en chéries complaintes’’ (Qu’est-ce que c’est passé dans le taillis? / Ce-a fost în crâng?) On doit admettre et comprendre coûte que coûte qu’il ne s’agit pas dans ces vers d’une grande pouvoir de transfiguration (les poèmes sont écrits vers l’âge de 16 ans). Mais au-delà de ce ‚‚conformisme’’ symbolique, la poète souffre, en fait, d’un complexe Alecsandri et préfère tout le temps le soleil ou l’ambiance domestique tiède, en faisant des paysages somnolents d’intérieur et en ouvrant la carrière aux chattes lyriques (lesquelles, dans ses vers, apparaissent dans trois ou quatre pièces): ‚‚Auprès du feu une chatte grise est couchée sur le plancher, / Écoutant brûlant dans l’âtre en sifflent quelques bûchettes, / elle regarde au loin par la fenêtre, somnolente, / les flocons de neige qui tombent et mollement se laissent sur terre’’ (L’hiver à la campagne / Iarna la ţară) Le soir, en automne, les topos du déclin de la 12

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lumière et de la chaleur sont considérées avec tristesse et quelque frisson d’angoisse; d’autant plus l’hiver ou la nuit, comme des topos plus définitives, tout à fait négatives: ‚‚Qu’elle est muette et triste la nuit, qu’elle est déserte! / Comme la lune jète des rayons, froids et pâles s ur les champs / Et comme le vent passe en mugeant piteusement et longuement, de la vallée / En secouant les feuilles mortes et en remplissant les bois d’affliction’’ (La nuit / Noaptea). ‚‚L’état d’esprit qui entraîne’’ la poète, dit Maria Platon, ‚‚est l’euphorie’’.41 En fait, il l’ ‚‚entraîne’’ un peu plus intensément que l’euphorie, car elle préfère la nature narcotique, la nature drogue; quelque délicats et idylliques qu’ils soient, ses dessins faits en couleurs pastel glissent invariablement dans la narcose, dans l’état d’ébriété, avec des effets d’extase: L’air est plein de gazouillements / De haut une pluie de lumière / Noie en rayons, dans le jardin, les roses ensanglantées. //...// Je m’enivre de fleurs et de lumière / Et je voudrais ne plus me réveiller. (Dans le jardin / În grădină) Est-il étonnant le fait que Le coquelicot reçoit aussi une ode grâce à ses vertus opiomanes, et non seulement pour le fardeau de feu céleste de ses pétales (feu céleste qui est le pouvoir même du drogue, mais dissimulé)?! D’ailleurs, ce qu’on demande à la nature sont justement de sensations extatiques, de sensations d’ivresse érotique – ou quasi: La fraîche odeur de feuille / Et cette fraîcheur profonde / Toi, vent, de la pré qui borde l’eau, amène-les à moi / Qu’elles s’insinuent jusque dans mon âme. (Au vent / Vîntului) Il y a ici un érotisme (concentré dans des sensations) en quelque sorte dissimulé, caché derrière la description et le paysage, car tout le charme de la nature n’est qu’un cérémonial d’enivrement érotique: Que sa chère chanson m’endort, qu’elle pénètre mon âme, / Que son eau froide et limpide me caresse sur le front, / Et que la forêt m’enivre de son odeur de feuille / Et de vieux sapins, d’eaux et de bleues fleurs de montagne (À travers les montagnes / Printre munţi). Il en ressort, donc, qu’Alice emploie la rêverie du paysage comme drogue érotisant et transfère ses sensations dans des notations naturistes. C’est à dire, elle fait cela dès maintenant, car elle va le faire, quoi qu’il en soit, programmati quement et ouvertement plus tard, quand elle va électriser la nature avec l’érotisme. Mais toutes ces parfums de la nature avec lesquels la poète se grise suavement se trouvent censurés par un sentiment vital inhibé par la conscience du recul du temps. Assez aigu, puisque la poète ne peut se réjouir (à 16 ans!) ni du printemps, car elle n’est plus la même et car le temps est comme chez Héraclite: Tout va renaître, / Et les champs vont fleurir de nouveau: / Mais le même printemps / Ne sera plus jamais (Chanson / Cîntec). Et également dans la ligne élégiaque la poète manifeste en fait une identification légèrement clandestine avec la nature, de sorte que ses lamentations ont, toujours, quelque chose d’(auto)compassion et la nature joue tout le temps sur le plan allégorique. La description se révèle être, dans son fond, une lamentation: Et d’un chant triste, sur les grèves / Pleuraient des eaux des sources / Mes rêves l’un après l’autre / S’en allaient vers leurs pays (Coucher d’automne / Apus de toamnă). Et les eaux d’Alice, quelque folâtres qu’elles soient, sont des eaux élégiaques, des larmes limpides, soit qu’il s’agit des pleurs muets de la fontaine, de ceux profonds de la mer ou de ceux vivaces des sources et des ruiseau: Oh! Je vous connais depuis longtemps, depuis longtemps / Vous, tristes eaux de sources, / Et il semble que le coeur me fait mal / Lorsque je reste songeuse et vous écoute (Pleurs des sources / Plînsul izvoarelor). Le temps et les eaux s’unissent, sur une voie d’isomorphisme imaginatif et symbolique, dans un sentiment élégiaque, dans la douleur de la fuite du temps: Là dans la vallée, qu’est-ce que chante si larmoyant parmi les roseaux? / C’est le même flot, toujours le même: la fin éternelle 13

Par conséquent. la description de la nature n’est plus seulement tableau. la passion pour l’argent: Si tu t’arrêtes un instant dans ton chemin. pour le spectacle météorologique et pour le baroque associatif. Pendant un certain temps elle continue à écrire (ni l’apparition du volume. elle met le paysages dans une parabole. dans une perspective morale (en fait.Literature. la respiration d’Alice. parmi les poètes de son temps. la poète travaille désormais aussi au vers d’épopée. brusquement. C’est justement pour ça que la poète table sur les intensités de sensation. / De son sein surgit beaucoup d’inimité. 43 Maria Cioban est la seule à lui faire quelque concurrence. Mais. elle se charge de significations morales et la poète ne peint plus. pas tout de suite. Comme à vraie dire l’affirme Doina Curticăpeanu. les fait militer pour quelque idée et les subordonne à un symbole. mais. / Et de haine se lève sans réconciliation (L’argent / Banii) Ce thématisme volontaire la préoccupe tout au long de quelques poèmes minutieux et la poète commence à être émue par sa propre sensibilité face à l’idée. d’une frayeur cosmique. écoute / quelle triste chanson retentit dans le monde entier. Pour le moment dans une écriture aisément enfantine et dans des allégories d’une brave candeur: Le printemps est une vierge / Aux bleu yeux profonds. la source a séché définitivement. mélange de couleurs et d’effluves. Ainsi. morale-sociale). naturellement. force évocatrice. ni le fait qu’elle a quitté le pays n’ont affecté son rythme. mais avec peu de succès). Contaminée par ces interprétations morales de la nature. en 1914. Dumitru Micu aurait pu avoir raison quand il disait que la poète ‚‚bat le record. Bien sûr que l’allégorie de la vie est un voyage sur les eaux de la mer et naturellement que ce voyage finit tristement. pourquoi en faire des façons!? D’autant plus qu’Alice va bientôt compenser toute déception de naïveté due au début. elle pense aux sens. elle devient même bonne. en suivant de près le pointage météorologique. Communication. n’est plus tellement mauvaise qu’elle l’eut été d’une stricte perspective du sentiment.42 Et puis. / Tant de soucis de vie. / Se perdent dans l’éternité de sa paix! (Nuit / Noapte). c’est justement pour ça qu’elle compense par des ivresses fulgurantes. devient longue et ample. non seulement de 15-16 syllabes. en méditant abstraitement à ‚‚la terre’’ (mais 14 . mais en l’augmentant avec des analogies (de plus en plus fréquemment morales). se gonflent et se déploient toujours davantage. du moins jusqu’au moment où quelqu’un trouve quelque archive égarée) des reportages picturales sur la nature. (D’ailleurs. fraîcheur associative)’’. en condamnant. si de tels poèmes ont plu à Maiorescu. Alice devient justement une moraliste et travaille directement à des thèmes sociales-educatifs. Le principe reste toujours la monographie du phénomène : Comme les serpents glissent vers l’horizon / En longue éclat rompu / Avec des langues de feu qui coupent la nue / En convulsion ils se triturent // Comme de larges toiles ils se déploient / Et le ciel ils l’envahissent soudain / Et tout l’horizon retentit longuement / D’un secoûment lointain (Les éclairs / Fulgerile). tant de détresse / Flottent doucement dans la nuit calme. étant consacrée à l’harmonie et à la régénération: En sourd tumulte étouffé. de suave. Mais avec une toujours plus intense passion pour ‚‚le drame’’ de la nature. Ses reportages. mais même de 17-18. en ce qui concerne la longueur de ses poèmes’’. Toutefois. ‚‚à côté de beaucoup de défauts le volume contient aussi des preuves d’une indubitable prédisposition (sensibilité chromatique. la nuit. souplesse. par l’accès libre et facile à la réflexion. par exemple. à sa fin paraissant assez suffoquée. avec le même zèle pour les détails et avec la même économie progressive des séquences. elle compose philosophiquement. Interculturality de la conte (La source / Izvorul). / Il se promène toujours dans les prés / Et se glisse à travers les bois (La légende des violettes / Legenda viorelelor).

en règle générale par l’amplification) met encore mieux en relief l’éthique de l’intensité. en faisant l’inventaire de ses significations: Terre qui engendre la vie / Et profond demeure de la mort. / Tu appartiens entièrement à nous tous / Et le monde te partage. où le rythme est pure frénésie et les sensations sont un spasme. d’une béatitude des primordiaux. il n’y a pas de vanité. mal et bien. forcément. Tel les impressionnistes. Il se fait ainsi une liaison d’arrière-plan entre les dessins suaves des Violettes et les velléités philosophiques qui s’ensuivent. ainsi que l’affirme très bien Doina Curticăpeanu. sous la fièvre de la participation et de l’intensité visionnaire. c’est avec le fer en tourment extatique qu’elle veut se confondre. Alice ne pouvait. Tout a / Un sens profond quand tu as en toi assez de passion et de vigueur / De vouloir. Mais suffisants pour le mériter. L’excursion sur le Danube devient. mais l’autre variante du Passé (la poète fait une habitude de reprendre les thèmes.Literature.44 un être sensible aux extases. passionnelle. L’intensité des sensations devient. et non pas de faire un simple voyage par le train: Lorsque les horizons dans la fumée les ceinture / Et jette son long appel / Dans son sillage. quand nos âmes peuvent / La contenir dans la fuite de l’instant entière. une immersion dans l’originaire. la fulguration des idées est illuminée. La vie est tout. retentissante. par sa nature. // Sur toi luttent sans cesse / Depuis de siècles. hélas!./ Et d’une toute entière vie tourmentée / Un instant de lumière jamais / Ne peut pas être vaincu dans l’âme (Passé / Trecut) Toujours est-il que. c’est là qu’elle veut participer. d’une transe de vision.. de l’instant extatique: Car le temps n’est rien. de la fulguration qui rachète les frustrations par le spasme électrique. Là où l’intensité est plus grande. l’esprit serein (La souffrance / Suferinţa). Alice est ‚‚une fanatique de la sensation’’. sommet éblouissant / Et sous le tapis des rayons / J’avais perdu toute la 15 . après tout. notre bonheur. dans la frénésie des originaires et dans la fièvre primordiale des éléments: Comme à la lisière d’un raidillon / J’avançais sur le rompu / Du monde. Alice se retrouve dans les extases de début du monde. seulement. / Ce n’est pas le temps qui la mesure. la sagesse se console toujours avec l’intensité fulgurante: Combien elle est puissante. dès maintenant. c’est par elle qu’Alice. lévitation extatique et submersion dans les primordialités. Et tu vas toucher un beau jour le lointain point de mire duquel / Va te rapprocher petit à petit l’effort de toute une vie (Pour les nombreux / Către mulţi). forcément. Ou en faisant directement de la pédagogie sentencieuse : Il n’y a pas de tromperie dans le monde. Quelque sage qu’elle fût devenue et quelque sérieusement qu’elle eût déployé la rhétorique des valeurs domestiques et positives. Cette éthique de l’intensité est. Interculturality aussi à d’autres généralités). en suivant un tracé ascendant et subitement descendant de la frénésie. ici. intensité de la vision. et combien elle est grande. Communication. / Son infini nous est donné à nous / Maintenant. / Mais l’ardeur d’être pareil au fer / Démarré dans le grand tourment. Alice va se déchaîner. Même les rêveries ou les souvenirs communient maintenant d’une grammaire de l’intensité spasmodique. C’est vrai que la poète a une morale positive et ne donne pas de mauvais conseils (ils sont même si bons que ni elle ne les suivra pas): Que tu aies de la vigueur dans ton âme / Que tu vives ton mal à foison / Et que tu te mettes entièrement au clair / Et profondément. / D’entendre son profond souffle / Et son cri qui remplit le ciel! (Le train / Trenul). / Et combien elle est profonde. ne pas promouvoir aussi l’ethos de l’intensité.. Car. mais le sentiment /. va se retourner vers sa sensualité et celle du monde. dans peu de poèmes. / Ce n’est pas la nostalgie du chemin qui me vainc. quand même. participative. des abstractions de ses méditations arrangées en vers. / Mais tout est de toi rompu / Et entre de nouveau en toi (Pămînt /Terre).

remarquée par Adriana Iliescu comme une ‚‚déchirure’’. même ‚‚l’évasion’’ en indéfini. comme morte / Je suis jetée de nouveau! En quel endroit / Du monde les vagues du jour m’emportent!. c’est à dire que le rapprochement des symbolistes est dû surtout à la nostalgie des espaces lointains et vagues. loin d’être une pose juvénile. Cependant.. qui ‚‚enrichissent le palmarès artistique de la poète.’’48 Comme je disais. De tels plongeons extatiques vont se répéter. – sont considérée presque du point de vue décoratif face à l’implication des transes qui finissent dans des tensions d’expressionnisme. la fréquence des fièvres participatives. en assistant.Literature. à une excursion mélancolique démarrée par des raisons vagues dont elle ne peut pas comprendre le sens’’. même si la poète fait une identification empathique et symbolique entre elle et les gitanes. constitue l’expression d’un tempérament vitaliste. jusqu’aux origines du cosmos. avec la vitesse de la transe. est anti-symboliste. et sur la logique de l’épilogue – que ‚‚la sensibilité juvénile exacerbée en inquiétude et en instinct de migration. Alice voyage comme une visionnaire. par hallucination.. avec des frénésies diurnes/. La vision gagne des accents. sur d’autres prétextes. dans les sous -sols du monde ou de l’être. comme celui fluvial’’. Alice a découvert maintenant son propre régime de combustion et son registre de l’explosion sensuel et passionnel. l’art poétique d’Alice. les tentations thématiques symbolistes – des chansons gitanes. à ses commencements et en fusionnant son être avec cet élan. // Quand de l’éternité est apparu / Le frémissant instant. mais avec les mêmes intensités./ et des tentations naturistes. à mon avis. en aucune façon comme mirage: Ah! Je ne sais plus sur quel rivage. comme destin d’exil et avortement existentiel. et des identifications avec la béatitude inaugurale du monde. des prégnances et des intensités qui font rappel à Eminescu (et des rythmes. Les effondrements dans la rêverie deviennent régulièrement des effondrements dans la primordialité. Elle a le vertige de l’intensité.46 mais il y a aussi toutes les autres choses qui la séparent d’eux.. elle n’est pas du tout manifeste). la langueur et l’agitation. Cela. qui remarque déjà dans Violettes – bien prématurément. le voyage etc. l’instinct anxieux de migration lui étaient. Pire que le poète Cărtărescu dans le Musée Antipa. l’océan et la mer. dans son principe. mais plus profondément. car Alice vit ses vagabondages comme pure angoisse d’aliénation. elle travaille sur de vertiges expressionnistes. l’Atlantide. (Sur la route / Pe drum). structurales aussi. (Aux sources du Danube/ La izvorul Dunării). // Et maintenant sur le chemin perdu / Dans l’éclat du givre / Comme dans un chaos sans passé / Il semblait que c’est le grand commencement / Pas encore forgé du monde. Interculturality terre. Communication. / Je 16 . et ses chemins me font frémir. / Mais je sens que partout je suis loin. sur des trajectoires d’intensité. sa biographie en avait été marquée. Et cela même en ajoutant celles insérées par Pavel Ţugui sur la liste des femmes poètes symbolistes: c’est à dire ‚‚l’univers neptunien. du senseur drogué. Ciopraga. la plus concrète et la plus intense possibles.. (Il est vrai qu’il ne lui manque pas quelques thèmes – ou quelques motifs – de l’arsenal symboliste. donc c’était une chose naturelle. mais ceux-ci flottaient de toute façon dans l’air de l’époque poste-symboliste française. Plutôt que sur de prétextes symbolistes. bien entendu): En vain je cherche le sens du mystère qui se déroule! / Je tâtonne dans le noir. probablement.’’45 De toute façon. en cultivant la sensation la plus précise. non seulement jusqu’aux origines de l’espèce. Peut-être qu’il est vrai aussi – mais seulement s’il est absolument nécessaire – ce que dit Adriana Iliescu.47 à bonne raison. en relevant sa propension manifeste vers le symbolisme. / Où d’abord se fit jour / En remplissant les larges déserts / avec le gaspillage des rayons. peut -être que c’est justement comme dit Const. quoi qu’il en soit.

Mais en tout cas. ils ne sont plus de leçons. comme d’autres environnements et d’autres états narcotiques. // Je bois la terre profondément par mes racines etc. le principe du concret. //. avec les mots de Dumitru Micu: ‚‚la vision d’un paradis de mythologie barbare’’. / Et à leur place arrivent de nouveau d’autres. une sensation pure de rythme et d’élan. mais de rêveries de fusion: Comme il est enivrant le repos des lézards qui dorment au soleil / Pendant les jours brûlants. des occasions de fusion érotique. / Éternellement se défont des images. donc il coupait court que ‚‚nous avons à faire avec une poésie purement féminine. Une poésie comme Du lointain/ Din depărtare met toutes les saisons sous le tourbillon de la passion. d’identification avec la sève et le pouls du monde: Et tandis que je déguste la vie d’arbre / Ma sensibilité dans son être se perd: / Je me fais des bras aimants de ses rameaux. brusquement. ‚‚comme poète – dit-il –. / Et la mousse verte me met sur la terre / Un large tapis et frais sous mes pieds. mais aussi un principe passionnel. / Avec de nuits sauvages et tristes qui trottaient longuement sous les pluies.Literature. Tout le monde est d’accord que dans l’écriture de sensations le sommet est atteint dans Mauvaises herbes/ Buruieni. L’érotique dissimulée ou implicite dans d’autres formes de fusion devient évidente. Călinescu a été très attentif notamment à son premier aspect. naturellement. La rêverie. le monde se fait violemment sensuel et Alice fait du ‚sensationnel’ une méthode de sa vision. une débauche des sens excités et saturés. étant ‚‚orientée objectivement par des instincts’’. Ou. deviennent de pures occasions participatives. par le profond sommeil qui ne sursaute. la couche de frénésie du monde. Alice a trouvé. de même que par la frénésie des sensations.// 17 . Interculturality cris de mots inconnus vers ces étrangers qui se taisent! Mon esprit combattant avec le rêve saisit des sens qui lui échappent.52 Peut-être que chez Alice aussi c’est comme ça.. d’un instant à un autre instant. des occasions de raccord avec le rythme du monde. la femme est sensuelle’’.. / Mais une nuit les sépare de ceux qui périssent. quand le vent volant renverse / Des coquelicots minces le venin! (Le travail II / Munca II). (L’arbre / Copacul). laisse-toi envahi eux. Communication. (Le rêve II / Visul II). / Je sentais comme la nature bouleversée par de profonds soupirs tourmentée / Venait avec ses lourds ténèbres dans mon âme s’abattre. qui a comme fond la sensation directe du monde’’. / De nouveaux siècles avec leurs peuples renouvelés prennent contour. comme déchaînement pure des passions. mais aussi – soudain – la couche passionnelle de sa propre nature. une pure orgie réceptive. / Du bonheur de l’immobilité. Et la gêne de se confesser est devenue. c’est toujours par la grammaire des sensations qu’elle arrive aussi au lyrisme passionnel.51 En ce qui concerne l’ainsi dite ‚‚connaissance de la femme’’ il est clair qu’elle ‚‚a la tendance de s’arrêter dans la zone de la sensation’’. / En moi résonne le chant des oiseaux.. qui se défont. // Je vois un fil de siècles. avec une ardeur sauvage déchaînée par le souvenir: Quand je n’étais plus vu. G.49 Même les thèmes moraux se droguent sensuellement. mais également car G. Réduite ou concentrée dans une pure frénésie. Călinescu considérait de toute façon la féminité au niveau stricte de la sensation. en contournant la frustration dans une extrêmement virile (maintenant c’est vraiment comme ça) confession féminine. le sommeil. quand le ciel de sa coupe ronde verse / Sa lumière comme le vin! / Oh. en effet. tout à fait violente. comme le reflet sur l’eau. audace de confession à tout risque. Le principe sensuel est.50 Et cela certainement aussi parce qu’Alice trouvait dans la sous-couche du monde une frénésie pure. / Pour embrasser le vent errant.. l’automne sombre était tombé: / Un automne avec vertige de vents déchaînés et de feuilles. elle a trouvé la vision des élans concrets des débuts du monde.

/ L’ardente passion. Alice. Ciopraga a vraiment raison quand il affirme qu’‚‚aucune autre poète roumaine n’emploie plus richement les mots qui suggèrent la combustion’’. même d’une sensualité dévoratrice. mais aussi 18 . / Et je la suivais de si près.55 Mais Alice n’est pas quelque Isolde malheureuse à cause de son unique amour. Et bien sûr que cet amour-là avait été une drogue. de l’éternité féérique / Où je t’ai vu mon esprit est plein. qui amène la nostalgie / Et de l’approchement qui donne le désir! (Mystère / Taină). (Naturellement que pas tout le monde est d’accord avec l’existence de ce registre de flammes. elle est une Dona Juana qui connaît l’histoire de l’amour (même mieux que Dona Juana de Marta Petreu) et l’a vécue avec passion (une enfilade de passions): J’ai cueilli des baisers comme on amasse / Un gerbe de fleurs. tu es venu jadis. ton visage. par contre.53 est. / Mais ma vie fut troublée / Car elles ont touché ma bouche ardente. et plus tard toutes les poètes des années ’80 arrivées sur un seuil dramatique – et poétique et d’autre nature. mais chacune était à un autre âge. quand je languis muette brûlée par la fièvre. / Aujourd’hui encore je revois ton visage serein/ Qui avait pris toute l’obscurité de la nuit / Et toute la chaude lumière des étoiles! (Première rêverie / Visarea dintîi). et longuement. sa tristesse. / En païenne j’adorais en secret dans le feu la vision d’un dieu. L’amour est lui aussi vindicatif. par exemple. du point de vue statistique. Maria Platon. brûlant et surchauffé. Et des coeurs comme on ramasse / Une brassée de fruits arrachés par la tempête. Et il n’y en a plus à trouver de telles intensités passionnelles dans notre poésie. Const. le frisson / Des éloignements. je voyais comment s’épanche / De la blanche flamme. l’unique catastrophique: Mais aujourd’hui. sa solitude. / Quand mes paupières se renferment chaudes. mais avec la mémoire enflammée du premier amour candide. / Fuyard destin brise mes désirs (La dernière rêverie / Visarea cea din urmă). seul.Literature. / Vers le passé ma pensée retournée / Par ton baiser à jamais inoubliable./ dans laquelle la poète clame. c’est l’électrique qui est importante et pas la fréquence. Communication. avec de souvenirs aigus: Aujourd’hui encore. Quand il s’agit de l’amour. une héroïne avec de la bravoure et non de bravade. pas trop adéquat aux rages passionnelles. une collectionneuse. / Mais je les ai retournés: car un fou. c’est ainsi qu’Alice paie cher la nonchalance du premier amour. carnivore (comme l’est Gabriela Melinescu de jeunesse).54 il nous suffit qu’il a raison quand il s’agit de l’intensité de ce vocabulaire ignifore. à haute voix. Interculturality Et quand au feu je veillais tard dans la nuit.. vraiment. / Et dans tes main s j’ai enfoui mon visage. croit qu’elle ‚‚n’a pas écrit aucune poésie d’une sincérité directe/. sa maladie’’). / Frémissant souvenir! // Tu ne te rappèles plus le matin / Où toi. ‚‚avec son inspiration païenne’’. aussitôt malheureux et enivrants: Je te dédiais mon amour / Premier: car il m’enivrait / D’une incomprise volupté: / Ainsi comme le pourpre vin / avait rempli cette fleur de lys. mais des unes qui poussent de tels cris authentiques d’ardeur – non. / Il remplissait mes pensées pures! (Dédicace / Închinare). (idem) Sans doute qu’il ne s’agit pas seulement d’une mémoire sensuelle féroce. car c’est comme ça que se passent les amours chez Alice. mais avec de grandes flammes: Tu ne sais même pas combien frémissant / Peut mon amour en cachette me brûler! / Comme tremble en profondeur. du premier baiser – celui définitif. corde par corde. assurément. de rayons. Elle est une aventurière en amour aussi. bien que Nora Iuga et Angela Marinescu pousseront de cris désespérés et fort sensuels. tandis qu’elle se renouvelait tellement indestructible / Que je ne savais pas si mon souffle est brûlé par les flammes ou par la passion! (Du loin / Din depărtare). enflammée et radicale: elle ne brûle seulement sur son braise. une ivresse. nous en avons encore de poètes sensuelles.. Nous n’avons pas vérifié si.

Communication. / Et ni de la part de l’ombre verte des taillis: / Mais mon ardeur s’élance / Pareille à l’alouette qui dans tes nues se perd. / Laquelle comme une fleur empoisonnée dresse son amer venin //. que par le volontarisme du sentiment. comme pouvoir sensuel absolu.// Et c’est ton rayon que boit ma bouche assoiffée. / Lourdes de leurs excès / Cueillis dans les trésors des jardins //. Mais aussi. après tout. par l’ivresse: C’est à ta lumière que je demande des caresses / Et non à la fraîcheur des eaux qui chantent / Sous ton rayon trompeusement reflété. //.// Oh. c’est comme dit Sebastian Drăgulănescu et. c’est un dessin qui joue à la limite dangereuse de l’incantation phallique..// Je m’appuie contre un arbre et là 19 . la braise des fièvres. //. s’il est comme ça. vous. Mais.. au-delà de ces professions de paganisme dissimulées en quelque partie. d’une béatification de la nymphomanie. Ses Serpents/ Şerpii (poème dont Pavel Ţugui57 dit qu’il aurait été incité par Les Grenouilles/ Broaştele de Topîrceanu. ici aussi.59 c’est comme ça. Călinescu la résume avec l’expression: c’est ‚‚l’orgueil de la femme fascinante de voir les êtres masculins qui se traînent à ses pieds’’. C’est ce qu’Alice dévoile sans cesse. le drogue de la séduction.. en se provoquant. bien entendu. Alice le fait dans de termes assez sensuels et corporels. non seulement un registre de virtuosité mais un registre de vitalité passionnelle fruste.Literature.// Et à travers les sursauts / De frissons je m’imagine des barques de fleurs / Et des fruits. tant par l’intensité de son érotisme. la chanson d’une Didone qui est partie dans le monde. pourtant. / Avec leur longs tortures.. mais d’une béatification sensuelle de la féminité. L’art de la passion exige. Il se peut que. poésie dédié à Alice. / Avec les soupirs de ma poitrine / Comme si tu cherches l’ivresse dans une boisson. l’âme extatique de la poète se dévoile entièrement dans l’hymne dédié au soleil (Prière au soleil/ Rugă soarelui). *Naturellement.. à telle passion. le génie de la séduction.. que je m’endors en elle pour l’éternité! (Désert / Pustietate). Et ici Alice est le maître absolu chez les Roumaines. il convient un paganisme pur de sensation et de comportement.. / Frisson et obscurité m’ont vaincus / De soif je suis troublée. / Les fleurs toutes avec leurs parfum / Étaient réellement dans ton baiser / Qui mystérieusement éteignaient / Sur mes lèvres la braise accablante de la soif. ‚‚pourtant. elle le fait tout de suite et absolument: La vive source. tant par le sensualisme. une sorte d’hymne-provocation. le plus grand vertu de la poésie de Topîrceanu) ne constituent pas seulement ‚‚le chef-d’oeuvre de la poète’’58 mais aussi le chef-d’oeuvre du lyrisme roumain d’excitation. compétente comme personne d’autre dans le domaine des sensations de fournaise érotique et dans celui des hallucinations d’agonie: M’enflamme encore. Alice ne franchit pas les bornes.. Interculturality d’une mémoire passionnelle vibrante. bien sûr. / De soif ardente et d’amertume. car à la différence d’autres poètes qui se prosternent – plus ou moins allégoriquement – devant l’astre.56 C’est. si je pouvais / m’ombrager au moins à mon ombre / Qui violacée s’étend sur la terre! / Que je m’habille d’elle. en glissant en aval de la rivière. de superbie. l’érotisme est peut-être le côté le plus profond de la sensibilité de la poète’’. mais. du moins jusqu’à un point. / Que je m’enveloppe. (idem). le sortilège de l’excitation. Alice chante ici la féminité sauvage.. Alice est une Sapho roumaine.. mais qui a été aussi abandonnée sur la rive de la passion. charmés d’une voix étrange!/ Dès maintenant votre torsion seulement à mon rythme se change / Et sans ardeur est contre moi votre dangereuse langue. ce n’est pas seulement une poésie d’orgueil. aussi l’art de la provocation. la magie de la provocation. que par sa densité. c’est. et même dans sa flamme. Quoiqu’elle n’évite pas – entièrement – le spectacle d’orgie: Venez mystérieux et majestueux. en tout cas. quand il s’agit de donner à l’amour la force de guérison. la féminité comme narcose ineffable et irrésistible.

l’autre est de plus en plus rare. 1985. Interculturality j’attends tout votre peuple vaincu / Qu’il se rassemble à mes pieds avec des corps acérés d’épée. Editura Fundaţiei Culturale Române. 1982. IV. Dumitru. Călinescu. Quoi que ce soit. Istoria literaturii române de la origini până în prezent. revăzută şi adăugită. Perpessicius. 1970. Cluj. Principii de estetică. Communication. Eugen. Bucureşti. Editura Minerva. Il se trouvent ici des audaces dont notre poésie féminine va se méfier encore longtemps et même Maria Banuş. Bucureşti. Iaşi. mais de l’audace de l’art. Dicţionarul general al literaturii române. 1970. 1967. Istoria literaurii române contemporane. 1973. notes et commentaires de Valeriu Râpeanu. Opere. Scrieri. Maria. Dicţionarul Scriitorilor Români. Lovinescu. O poetă. Editura Fundaţiei Culturale Române. 2000. mais l’avait surtout le dernier. Bucureşti. Ediţie îngrijită. Éditeurs Valeriu Râpeanu et Sanda Râpeanu. A-C. Alice reste la plus bouillante amante de notre poésie. studiu introductiv. Bucureşti. Alice Călugăru. 1971. Iliescu. Editura Paralela 45. avec son volume Le Pays des jeunes filles/ Ţara fetelor.Literature. 1968. Le premier est devenu aujourd’hui banal à cause de trop d’usages. BIBLIOGRAPHIE: I. Micu. 1987. Bucureşti. Istoria critică a literaturii române. Editura Minerva. 1979. Curente şi scriitori. bibliografie de Pavel Ţugui. George. Ediţia a II-a. Editura Minerva. Bucureşti. Menţiuni critice. Constantin Literatura română între 1900 şi 1918. La traduction du roman La tunique verte de Virgil Tiberiu Spânu. Adriana. 2001. pe nedrept. Ilarie. C-D. Nicolae O luptă literară. au contraire. en enroulant sur mon bras tendu. Ediţie îngrijită. sûrement aussi. Alice Călugăru. Bucureşti. prefaţă. Lecturi interminente. Scrieri. le premier. Editura Noël. Ediţie de Eugen Simion. 2004. Dumitru Început de secol. Alice l’avait. Poezia simbolistă românească. Editura pentru literatură. Editura pentru literatură. note şi bibliografie de Vasile Netea. Piteşti. Călinescu. Manolescu. Mais surtout il y a ici une sensualité tellement déchaînée que ni l’incantation d’ours d’Ileana Mălăncioiu et ni le frémissement sensuel des chevaux de la poésie de Carolina Ilica ne peuvent pas tenir le rythme. Et il ne s’agit pas de l’audace thématique ou attitudinale. / Et dans des ceintures animées que je laisse ma taille ceinte. Botez. Editura Dacia. Literatura română în secolul al XX-lea. Ciopraga. 1995. note. n’ira pas si loin. Micu. II. I. Platon. étude introductif. Editura pentru literatură. Editura Minerva. 1969. Editura Minerva. Editura Univers Enciclopedic. Bucureşti. 1970. / Que je hausse. Editura Junimea. Demostene. Perpessicius. Iaşi. 2008. Nicolae. Bucureşti. Chendi. Piru. Bucureşti. Bucureşti. Editura Minerva. 20 . Pagini de critică. comentarii. Bucureşti. George. II. uitată. Memorii. Ediţie şi prefaţă de Al. 1900-1916. Iorga. Editura Minerva.

p. 21 Idem. Iaşi. 10 Idem. Ecaterina. notes et commentaires de Valeriu Râpeanu. Evoluţia scrisului feminin în România. Bucureşti. p. 31 Mircea Scarlat. 28 Ovid Densusianu. p. 15. 1935. Pavel Ţugui. p. 379. Ciopraga. Vasile Netea et Const. Editura Minerva. p. Ediţie îngrijită. 1978. 189. 24. 1971. Iorga. 6 Idem. 311 -312. Editura Minerva. cit. 140. 32 Nicolae Manolescu. 1935. p. Bucureşti. prefaţă. 235. ibidem. Bucureşti. O luptă literară. 882. Communication. Cinci ani de mişcare literară (1902-1906). 1909. 235. Piru. notes à l’édition cité. Piteşti. p. Puşcariu. 31. : Alice Călugăru. Bucureşti. 309. utilise ici aussi les résultats obtenus par Gh. 24 Lecturi interminente. 381. Popescu-Cadem . Bucureşti. I. Bucureşti. Verghy. studiu introductiv. 1971. Sextil. étude introductif. 1987. p. p. p. p. II. La traduction du roman La tunique verte de Virgil Tiberiu Spânu. 27 7 Idem. O poetă. 23 Ilarie Chendi. 4 Pavel Ţugui. II. Literatura română între 1900 şi 1918. comentarii.320.. 1984. La dernière systématisation de ces dates se trouve chez Maria Platon. Bucureşti. ibidem. 1970. p. 22 D. 324. Iaşi. Editura Dacia. 28. Miller et Săndulescu.. au delà de ses propres recherches. Préface. 14 Ibidem. 34. Bucureşti. 379.Literature. 9 Idem. p. Istoria poeziei româneşti. II. p. Editura Junimea. 27 Demostene Botez. 16 Idem. Bucureşti. 26 Apud C. C’est l’édition dont nous allons citer. 35 12 Idem.. 1972. Rotaru. Editura Minerva. 13 Ibidem. 1984. Cuvînt înainte de Al. 472. pe nedrept. 309. p. op. op. p. 28. p. dans ‘Viaţa nouă’. Bucureşti. Scrieri. Agavriloaie. p. Editura Bucovina. 30 Ion Rotaru. (De la 1900 la cel de-al doilea război mondial). Memorii. I. op. la biographie d’Alice a donné beaucoup de travail aux chercheurs. Editura pentru literatură. p. 17 Idem. p. 1970. Interculturality Poeţi de la Semănătorul. Mircea Istoria poeziei româneşti. p. Notes: 1 Les dates biographiques sont prises de la préface de Pavel Ţugui au vol. 25 Idem. Pagini de critică. Editura Minerva. (De la 1900 la cel de-al doilea război mondial). 1969. 20 Ilarie Chendi. Alice Călugăru. Bucureşti. 177. 1909. Marg. note. p. 8 Idem. 5 Idem. 18 Idem. note şi bibliografie de Vasile Netea. Miller Verghy et Ecaterina Săndulescu. Istoria critică a literaturii române. Evoluţia scrisului feminin în România. Editura Minerva. cit. Ion. Bucureşti. 19 N. O istorie a literaturii române. Éditeurs Valeriu Râpeanu et Sanda Râpeanu. Editura Minerva. Editura Minerva. cit. 15 Marg. 29 Sextil Puşcariu. Editura Noël. Ediţie de Petru Homoceanul. 21 . Ediţie îngrijită. 2008. Editura Minerva. 2 Ilarie Chendi. nr. ibidem. 309. 70. bibliografie de Pavel Ţugui. uitată. Cluj. p. Editura Minerva. p. 13/1905. apud Maria Platon. O istorie a literaturii române. II. Editura Paralela 45. 1972. Scarlat. 1979. Micu. 11 Idem. Editura Bucovina. Cinci ani de mişcare literară (1902-1906). Editura Minerva. 3 Pavel Ţugui. p. 2001.

op. p. 44 Idem.. 522. Istoria literaturii române de la origini până în prezent. 1995. p. 1900-1916. op. Bucureşti. Curente şi scriitori. Opere. Editura Fundaţiei Culturale Române.9.. Introducere. Bucureşti. p. Editura Minerva. 1973. Piru. 323. 2004. cit. p. Micu. 52 Idem. cit. Editura pentru literatură. Ediţie şi prefaţă de Al. p.. p.Literature. Menţiuni critice. p. cit. Editura Univers Enciclopedic. Editura pentru literatură. 58 Pavel Ţugui. Bucureşti. Bucureşti.. 41 Maria Platon. op. p. on ne trouve aucune poésie d’amour’. Bucureşti. 81. p. 264. p. 9. Micu. p. Bucureşti. 192. 39 D. op.. 34 Dumitru Micu. 1982. 1967. IV. op.. 42 Dicţionarul Scriitorilor Români. 1985. cit. 274. 40 E. 35 E. Istoria literaurii române contemporane. cit. op. 43 Idem. pp. p. comme dit la Note sur l’édition : Poeţi de la Semănătorul. C-D. Editura Minerva. 37 D. cit. 263. 521. Început de secol. p. 49 Dumitru Micu. 1968. 48 Pavel Ţugui. Bucureşti. 54 Const. 521.. Communication. Istoria. Poezia simbolistă românească. constate Maria Platon. cit. Călinescu. Editura Minerva.. 47 Idem. 25. Bucureşti.. Editura Minerva. Literatura română în secolul al XX-lea. Cuvînt înainte de Al. p. 147. 681. 55 Maria Platon. 35. cit. Editura Fundaţiei Culturale Române. 681. 56 Dicţionarul general al literaturii române. cit. p. revăzută şi adăugită. 45 Const... 241. op. 1978. 77. 38 ‘Il nous semble surprenant le fait que. 1970.. Ciopraga. Editura Minerva. p.321. 321. 55-56. 103. 464. 53 Perpessicius. op. 22 . 36 Const. Ediţia a II-a. Bucureşti. p. p. Lovinescu. 57 Pavel Ţugui. p. 51 G. Ciopraga. Bucureşti. Ediţie de Eugen Simion. cit. p. op. op. Ciopraga. cit. 464-465. p. parmi les 41 textes du volume.. 50 G.. 2000. A-C. Călinescu.. 23. p. p. Călinescu. Interculturality 33 C'est-à-dire strictement des poésies ‘publiées dans la revue Sămănătorul’. 46 Adriana Iliescu. op. p.. Ediţie de Petru Homoceanul. Scrieri. 59 G. II. p. Lovinescu. p. Piru. 35. 299. Principii de estetică.

cultural and economic one. où l’intérêt pour le phénomène des générations a augmenté après la première guerre mondiale. Loin d’être une préoccupation constante des critiques littéraires roumains. d’oubli ou de refus. nous pouvons affirmer qu’il y a eu dans la critique littéraire roumaine trois moments „générationistes”. where attention to the phenomenon of generations began to grow and result in books after the First World War. mais aussi des périodes défavorables. mais plus tard aussi qu’en France.Literature. mais elles ont eu comme point de départ l’observation directe de la vie littéraire avec toutes les confrontations intergénérationnelles qui l’agitaient périodiquement. L’idée a stimulé la réflexion théorique des critiques chaque fois que dans la littérature roumaine a eu lieu un changement de générations et chaque fois que ce changement a eu pour effet des polémiques et des conflits d’intérêts. psychological. published in the journal "Criterion" in 1934. Dans l’évolution de la théorie littéraire roumaine. Chez nous. conférences tenues dans l’amphithéâtre de la Fondation universitaire Carol I-er et présentées par quelques penseurs importants de l’époque. les préoccupations de ce genre deviennent plus manifestes au début des années ’30 du dernier siècle. Chez nous. Communication. les études sur ce thème n’ont pas été uniquement le résultat des recherches de bibliothèque ou des réflexions de cabinet. le premier grand moment „générationiste” a été celui des années 1930. quand Mircea Vulcănescu a publié une série 23 . seeking to highlight all its senses. The first big "generation" moment in the evolution of the Romanian literary theory represented the critic Mircea Vulcanescu. conferences held in the auditorium of the ‘Carol I’ University Foundation and presented by some of the leading thinkers of the time. où les premières études sur ce thème remontent à la fin du XIX -e siècle. quand la Société roumaine de philosophie a organisé un cycle de conférences sur „Le problème des générations”. whose work fellow he was. inégaux en envergure et qualité. from the biological one to the sociological. Beaucoup plus tard qu’en Allemagne. Interculturality GHEORGHE PERIAN Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca L’idée de génération chez le critique roumain Mircea Vulcănescu In the Romanian literary criticism. and defined the concept of generation of a multiple perspective. He published a series of articles about the phenomenon of generations. quand le sujet intéressait tout le monde et on en écrivait beaucoup. but much later than in France. when the Romanian Society of Philosophy organized a series of conferences on "The problem of generations". where the first studies on the subject dates from the late nineteenth century. l’étude des générations littéraires a connu des périodes propices. culminating with the Generation study. Dans la critique littéraire roumaine le problème des générations est devenu sujet de réflexion théorique plus tard que dans les pays de l’Europe occidentelle. Much later than in Germany. the issue of generations became the subject of theoretical reflection later than in Western Europe. Tenant compte de la chronologie. In our country such concerns became more obvious in the early 30s of last century. The author based his study on Dimitrie Gusti’s monograph concept. mais qui ont produit des clarifications importantes et ont essayé d’offrir des solutions raisonnables aux questions difficiles de ce domaine. historical.

La lecture à l’horizontale d’un arbre généalogique suffit pour comprendre une génération. sont les adultes liés entre eux par leur passé et intérêts communs. l’âge perd de son importance à l’avantage d’autres règles qui décident la distribution des positions sociales. Il est vrai que dans la société moderne. les théoriciens de la littérature ont gardé uniquement l’idée du décalage temporel grâce auquel les deux catégories d’âge arrivent à s’éloigner l’une de l’autre. C’est un éloignement uniquement chronologique. Quoiqu’il ait maintes fois rejeté le marxisme. en plan quantitatif et qualitatif également. apparaît dans leur cercle d’existence. parce que. qui peut atteindre des niveaux explosifs. culturel et économique. Du sens biologique. leur impatience augmente progressivement et un état de nervosité sociale. Les jeunes sont en attente et se préparent pour devenir. les conséquences en plan théorique d’une expérience sociale désagréable que la génération „Criterion” a dû supporter après la fin des études. Il s’agit du marxisme. actifs. Sous l’aspect sociologique. et définissait la notion de génération de plusieurs points de vue. descendants dont les dates de naissance constituent un niveau temporel distinct et distancé de l’âge des parents. sociologique. Quand l’attente se prolonge d’une manière exagérée. L’auteur partait de la conception monographique de Dimitrie Gusti. sans tenir compte du facteur biologique. caracterisée par complexité. dont le plus important. Ceux qui sont actifs et intégrés pleinement dans la société. psychologique. Selon les 24 . relevé par l’étymologie latine du mot. il est à observer que. en distingant tous ses sens: biologique (considéré primordial). Communication. a paru en 1934 dans la revue „Criterion”. occupant les positions les plus fermes et les positions de direction. historique. parce que celui-ci conditionne souvent la performance. à la haine et au ressentiment. Génération. Mircea Vulcănescu utilise ses termes chaque fois qu’il écrit sur „la prolétarisation de la jeunesse intellectuelle”. La prééminence accordée au sens sociologique s’explique par l’affiliation de l’auteur aux idées de l’école monographique de Dimitrie Gusti. il n’y a pas de ruptures graves dans la succession des âges. qui fixe la société moins dans des catégories de génération que dans des classes sociales en antagonisme. D’un tel point de vue.Literature. dont il a été le collaborateur. Les hiérarchies dans la société se fondent en fonction de l’âge aussi. terme autour duquel s’organisent tous les autres sens. Interculturality d’articles sur le phénomène des générations. et ont éliminé le principe de l’hérédité en tant que facteur de continuité. la continuité entre la génération des parents et celle des fils est assurée toujours par l’hérédité. Le premier et le plus durable sens de la notion de génération est celui biologique. autrement. mais aussi par la nécessité de résoudre d’urgence les problèmes d’ordre social de la jeune génération de son temps. pour ceux qui étudient les caractères hérités et les problèmes de la généalogie. dans une communauté. Mircea Vulcănescu a soutenu que le sens sociologique est essentiel pour définir la génération. mais aussi des catégories sociales engagées différemment et ayant une importance inégale dans la vie quotidienne. Le placement du sens sociologique en position de critère supraordonnateur et la descente des autres sens au niveau de subsidiarité ont été. La génération est une unité qui mesure l’intervalle de temps nécessaire pour le passage d’une catégorie d’âge de la période active à celle de retrait de l’activité sociale. les adultes et les jeunes forment non seulement des catégories éloignées par l’âge. à leur tour. au début des années 1930. sur „le chômage” ou sur l’incapacité de la société roumaine d’intégrer la nouvelle génération dans le système institutionnel déjà bloqué. de ce fait. par génération on comprend la multitude des descendents issus d’un même géniteur. Au contraire. en l’obligeant ainsi au mécontentement.

A. continuent à se manifester dans les anciennes structures. Rosetti et Avram Iancu en tête. Les revues dans lesquelles ils se sont manifestés étaient „Semănătorul” et „Viaţa Românească”. peu convaincante jusqu’ici. orthodoxie. mais c’est uniquement de temps en temps. Le premier courant était pour l’unification de la Transylvanie avec la Roumanie et le deuxième pour l’annexion de la Bassarabie à l’État roumain. Le change de générations peut produire un changement de paradigme aussi. Pour illustrer la périodicité mentionnée en haut. en même temps que la Révolution de Tudor Vladimirescu. Cezar Petrescu. il a été l’un de ceux qui ont fondé ce „genre” dans l’histoire littéraire de chez nous. Ses représentants ont été Gheorghe Lazăr en Munténie et les „carvunari” en Moldavie. On sait aujourd’hui que. avec Ion Brătianu. Tudor Vianu. elle groupait les représentants de l’aristocratie (P. issue après la révolte de 1907. Camil Petrescu) se préoccupaient en égale mesure du roumanisme et de l’universalité. Mihai Eminescu). les générations respectueuses. C. La suite peu longue des générations roumaines commence par la soi-disante „génération des précurseurs”. Composée de petits boïards avec des études en France.C. Mihail Ralea. Nichifor Crainic. Sa démarche a été suivie d’autres essais similaires. Cuza) et le „poporanism” (courant socialiste ayant au premier plan C-tin Stere). Victor Ion Popa. Après eux. Communication. parce qu’il y a des générations qui. M. Carp. la régénération du substrat biologique de la société se passe tous les trente ans. la plupart ayant une culture allemande. leur propre univers thématique. Ce sont les générations d’héritiers. Octavian Goga. celle qui a créé la Roumanie moderne. Son idéal politique a été l’unification de tous les Roumains en un seul pays. Kogălniceanu. L’opinion de la génération a été résumée par Nae Ionescu en quatre mots: réalisme. observée par les historiens grecs déjà dans l’Antiquité. et elle s’est fait remarquer par une attitude anti-grecque et autochtoniste. surtout à l’époque des années 1980. par son tableau. La quatrième génération. que se produisent des changements de mentalité. La statistique des générations. Elle a initié des courants idéologiques tels le „semănătorism” (courant nationaliste animé par Nicolae Iorga et A. Les débuts de la génération suivante. quand les débats sur la génération ont connu leur dernière recrudescence. cette génération a mené une vie tumultueuse. Ion Creangă. Iacob Negruzzi). Leur revue a été „Convorbiri literare” („Conversations littéraires”) tandis que leur idée maîtresse était celle des „formes sans fond”. devient encore 25 .Literature. Il faut préciser que c’est une limite flexible et que la durée de prééminence d’une génération est plus longue ou plus restreinte en fonction du climat social. Pamfil Şeicaru. quand les astres sont favorables. engagée dans des révolutions et des guerres mais aboutissant à la fin à transformer la Roumanie en un État européen. s’est trouvée sous l’influence du „narodnicisme” russe et a créé une littérature d’inspiration rurale. de la paysannerie et de la bourgeoisie (Titu Maiorescu. la génération de la Grande Unification (ou la génération de la revue „Gîndirea”) remontent à l’année 1914. Conservatrice et réactionnaire. Elle a annoncé son existence en 1821. Emanoil Bucuţa. En 1880 c’était le tour de la génération junimiste de s’affirmer. Mircea Vulcănescu a dressé un tableau des générations qui se sont succédé dans la littérature roumaine à partir du XIX-e siècle. Lucian Blaga. Ion Marin Sadoveanu. pas assez fortes pour édifier leurs propres normes. mais pas toujours et pas de manière obligatoire. Ses représentants (Nae Ionescu. monarchie et autochtonisme. en 1848 s’est constituée la génération romantique. Interculturality études démographiques. bien qu’elles aient pris les positions des retirés de l’activité.P. Le passage de ces trente années crée chaque fois le cadre nécessaire pour l’apparition d’une nouvelle génération.

nous 26 . dans les pages de laquelle la doctrine du courant a été exprimée d’une manière irrévocable. comme j’ai déjà affirmé. subordonnée à l’idée de temporalité. la Grande Unification de 1918). qu’il réduit au „poporanism” et au „semănătorism”. par les „Conversations littéraires” et quand Titu Maiorescu a publié sa grande étude intitulée Une recherche critique sur la poésie roumaine à partir de 1867. que la génération junimiste n’a pas attendu la Proclamation du Royaume pour faire son entrée dans la littérature. Dans nos calculs de temps. erroné et tendancieux. d’une semi-génération issue à l’ombre de la génération antérieure. jusqu’à l’indéterminé. Anton Holban? L’élimination de E. la sienne. Où sont Ion Barbu. Tout ce qu’il affirme en cette question montre le fait qu’il s’agit. qui ne coïncide que rarement avec celle de l’histoire événementielle. la Révolte de 1907. Les sept notions énumérées en haut forment une échelle et se distinguent l’une de l’autre par l’intervalle de temps qu’elles mesurent. tout comme on fait aujourd’hui. Composé des positions de la droite intellectuelle. d’orientation démocratique et libérale: L’Histoire de la civilisation roumaine moderne (1924-1925) et L’Histoire de la littérature roumaine contemporaine (1926-1929). de l’autorité de laquelle voulait s’échapper. Mircea Vulcănescu devient tendancieux. celui-ci ne passait pas encore pour un grand prosateur et. la génération devient un élément d’une chaîne conceptuelle plus longue. Lovinescu du tableau de la génération de l’entre-deux-guerres est encore plus stupéfiante et réprouvable si l’on pense que. le siècle. Interculturality plus embrouillée lorsque Mircea Vulcănescu commence à parler de la sixième génération.Literature. Hortensia Papadat-Bengescu. il est vrai. la Proclamation du Royaume en 1881. que le poporanisme remonte à 1893. depuis la fondation de la revue „L’Événement littéraire”. l’époque. à l’heure-là. mais pas très cohérente en son essence. il avait collaboré avec l’occupant allemand pendant la guerre). Le tableau panoramique dressé par Mircea Vulcănescu est fragile pour deux raisons. Dans la génération de Junimea il n’a pas trouvé de place ni pour Caragiale (probablement parce que l’écrivain était allogène et avait la langue bien affilée). Attaché au nationalisme et à l’orthodoxie de la revue „Gândirea” („La Pensée”). Il se fait coupable d’autres omissions graves quand il décrit la génération qui suit. ni pour Slavici (à ce temps-là. l’auteur semble avoir oublié que la littérature a sa propre périodicité interne. Premièrement. Communication. De plus. il a ignoré presque totalement le groupe littéraire de la revue „Sburătorul” et s’est borné à mentionner – en fin de liste – le nom de Camil Petrescu. il n’aurait eu aucune difficulté à comprendre que la génération romantique a ses origines en 1840. le courant. outre cela. ayant Alexandru Macedonski en tête. la Révolution bourgeoise de 1848. de plus en plus étendu. mais elle a signalé son existence dès l’année 1867. le critique avait déjà publié deux de ses livres importants. l’ère et l’éon. Située dans la même catégorie que la mode. en délimitant les générations en fonction de quelques repères chronologiques importants (la Révolution de Tudor Vladimirescu. comme il l’avait fait dans le cas des premières. Le problème était qu’il ne pouvait pas associer cette génération a un événement historique. qui ne voulait pas respecter la périodicité de trente ans. S’il avait utilisé pour périodiser. mais sans réussir complètement. en réalité. socio-politique. des critères strictement littéraires. il n’avait aucun nom pour elle. Dépourvu d’expérience préalable dans la délimitation correcte des générations de la littérature roumaine. malgré la présence active des écrivains décadents et symbolistes. lorsque Mihail Kogălniceanu a fait paraître la revue „Dacia literară”. le tableau des générations de Mircea Vulcănescu peut être lu aujourd’hui uniquement comme un document d’époque.

Peu importe pour nous. Le „junimisme” a été édifié. intéressée uniquement à continuer l’oeuvre de la première et. celle des écrivains fougueux (Heliade. à leur hauteur. surtout après qu’Eugenio d’Ors et Gustav René Hocke ont découplé le baroque et. seulement quelques-unes sont des termes strictement d’ordre temporel (le siècle. Mircea Vulcănescu n’a pas mené à bout la distinction d’ordre théorique entre la typologie et la génération. Le critique a la possibilité d’identifier une typologie. Maiorescu. se rapporte à des manifestations à durée variable. la génération. en quel courant on s’inscrit ou quelle mode on suit. grevé d’un sens temporel faible. les critiques littéraires ont voulu lier et même unir. plus longue dans le passé et de plus en plus courte à mesure qu’on s’approche du présent.Literature. Suprahistorique et plaçant ensemble des écrivains d’époques différentes. à l’aide de son information et de son pouvoir de corrélation. y compris au vingtième. ont une dimension spéculative et presque mystique. et d’observer son évolution dans le temps. mais aussi par le fait qu’elles sont toujours des constructions de la critique littéraire. jusqu’au début du vingtième siècle. Dans leur énorme ouverture. par la génération des disciples. Rădulescu-Motru). mais c’est important de savoir de quelle génération on fait partie. dont l’une innovatrice et l’autre d’épigones. dans la définition de la génération. parmi lesquelles la génération. Comme je disais. Quoiqu’il ait proposé deux séries typologiques. la notion de „typologie” n’a pas de place dans la chaîne conceptuelle de la génération. plus tard. Combien dure une ère? Une époque? Et un éon? Les durées courtes. d’ère ou d’éon ont en elles quelque chose de surhumain. par la génération de Maiorescu et il a été maintenu en actualité pour longtemps. Iorga) et celle des écrivains raisonnables (Kogălniceanu. en tant qu’individus. l’auteur a donné la primauté au 27 . accessible à peine à nos esprits pragmatiques. Communication. à la répéter. dont la description globale est compliquée et difficile à prouver. apparaissent toujours plus clairement que les durées longues. les autres ayant des conotations qui renvoient vers un champ sémantique plus large. Le courant littéraire. Aujourd’hui peu de gens croient encore à la dissociation nette entre la typologie et le courant littéraire. si c’est possible. Il nous est facile de compter les années d’un siècle ou d’une génération. Les typologies sont des faits de répétition. le courant. On sait qu’au début des années 1930 la réflexion de Mircea Vulcănescu et de ses confrères a été monopolisée dans une grande mesure par les thèmes de la vie sociale. La mission du critique est seulement de constater leur aparition et d’étudier leur évolution avec les moyens de l’analyse. Interculturality utilisons fréquemment les quatre premières notions (la mode. en dehors de sa volonté et indépendemment de sa raison. le maniérisme de leur sens strictement temporel et les ont considérés des styles artistiques trouvables dans plusieurs siècles. C’est pourquoi elles ont tant plu aux écrivains romantiques. les typologies se définissent par leur sens suprahistorique. Mais il a séparé là où. De ces sept notions. respectivement. dans ses grandes lignes. Mais les générations existent d’une manière objective. surtout). C’est pourquoi. le siècle) et très rarement (ou guère) les autres. les notions d’époque. en se référant explicitement aux difficultés d’intégration dans le système des jeunes intellectuels du temps. comme les générations. et non pas de succession. Hasdeu. en quel éon on vit ou en quelle époque. dévouée au maître et aux règles imposées par celui-ci. mais on ne peut pas dire avec la même précision quels intervalles de temps mesurent les trois notions romantiques. par exemple. L’épigonisme résulte de la peur de l’avenir et du désir (ou résignation) d’être semblable aux précurseurs et. Il peut être la création des deux générations successives. à certains égards.

les solidarisations sur des critères d’âge sont plus rares et plus faibles et laissent lieu à des associations sur la base d’affinités esthétiques ou idéologiques. un processus qui ne pouvait plus être arrêté et qu’ils étaient obligés à mener jusqu’au bout.Literature. comme une parole. Mircea Vulcănescu abandonne le point de vue déterministe et adopte une conception de type platonicien. Plus loin. intéressés à assimiler de l’expérience et à construire leur personnalité. du siècle précédent. L’ancienne génération. des modifications d’ordre structural dans la manière de penser et d’agir de ceux qui l’ont vécu. se retire sur une position désengageante ou de rejet de l’événement et n’accepte pas son influence. conditions dont la plus importante est la résistance au désir de s’affirmer des jeunes. quand les événements historiques manquent. à cette heure-là. la liberté. Poussé par la conviction qu’une structure générationnelle ne peut pas apparaître en l’absence d’un événement historique qui la modèle. figée dans ses convictions et ayant une curiosité réduite vis-à-vis du nouveau. par exemple). l’événement historique est considéré un facteur qui produit. La psychologie des âges se distingue et apparaissent les conditions nécéssaires pour l’éclat d’un conflit intergénérationnel. dans la structure d’âme de ceux qui font partie d’une génération. ils disposaient d’une capacité de compréhension trop réduite pour être profondément marqués de ce qui se passait. Les uns de ces événements peuvent être considérés des actions de génération (la Révolution de 1848. La réverbération interne produite par l’événement a une amplitude inégale. quand il se réfère aux générations culturelles. Une guerre. Dans son étude. une révolution et encore d’autres circonstances moins explosives deviennent les lieux communs dans lesquels les membres d’une génération se rencontrent et qu’ils invoquent fréquemment comme un signe de reconnaissance. il a invoqué la guerre de 1916. par sa grande force d’influence. 28 . Des inconvénients de ce procédé j’ai déjà écrit. a été une limite majeure de la génération „Criterion”. les autres ont leurs causes en dehors de la génération qui doit seulement les supporter. toutes les conditions que l’exemple théorique de la notion les a mises en évidence. L’influence maxima et formatrice s’exerce sur les jeunes à la mentalité encore peu formée. Mircea Vulcănescu a voulu montrer que les jeunes de son âge disposent de tout ce qu’il faut pour être une génération et qu’ils remplissent. Interculturality sens sociologique. rôle attribué par Mircea Vulcănescu à l’événement historique. étant conditionnée en grande mesure de l’âge. en passant avec trop d’aisance sur le fait que ni lui et ni ses confrères n’étaient pas complètement sortis. Selon eux. par suite. Communication. universités). mais non pas le plus important. au moins au niveau d’intention et au niveau déclaratif. tous les autres sens. Toujours dans l’esprit de Taine. parfois en claquant la porte. lorsqu’il veut délimiter les générations qui se sont succédé dans la littérature roumaine. de l’enfance et que. la guerre a ouvert la voie à un processus de liquidation des valeurs héritées du XIX-ème siècle (la raison. Malgré tout cela. est de construire les bornes entre lesquelles se manifeste une génération littéraire. C’est une contradiction qui montre que le premier. axée sur la question du logos. en lui subordonnant. l’événement historique est compris comme une cause primaire dont les effets se voient surtout au niveau de la psychologie. D’une manière surprenante. Cette hâte de se séparer. nous avons vu que dans la périodisation. instituts. manifestée par les vieux fortifiés dans les institutions de l’État (académies. point par point. Dans les époques de calme. Il affirme que les positions spirituelles (l’idéalisme. suivant la conception déterministe d’Hippolyte Taine. il quitte le plan sociologique et invoque les grands événements de l’histoire politique. la démocratie). collèges.

Il a été exprimé parfois. a une contribution sans importance à la clarification de la notion. le matérialisme. L’étude finit par l’observation que le marxisme. transitoire. En 1934. Interculturality le réalisme. dans la sphère de la culture et de la philosophie. le théisme. quand les jeunes n’éprouvent pas le besoin de se renfermer dans le bastion de leur génération et s’associent selon d’autres critères que celui biologique. étant soumises à la précarité. avant tout. grâce à queques indices d’une relative précision. mais toujours hiérarchisées. le communisme) sont éternelles et extratemporelles. le succès d’un genre ou d’un style. catastrophales. concurrencé par les sens nouveaux. en la guidant vers une dominante spirituelle. base économique etc. il a très bien compris que ni séparés et ni ensemble ces deux facteurs ne peuvent pas aboutir à la constitution d’une génération en l’absence du support biologique de l’âge. mais les idées qu’elles embrassent et soutiennent sont sous le signe de la pérennité. le degré d’influence d’une oeuvre littéraire. parfois difficiles à concilier. race. Pour les marxistes. Les générations sont assimilées aux classes sociales et le conflit entre les générations est transposé en lutte de classe. il a laissé échapper une phrase sur les dissensions entre les jeunes 29 . D’autre part. Aussi peu d’importance a celui-ci dans les époques de calme historique. tel celui du conflit entre les générations. le nationalisme. Les différences d’ordre social. dans toutes ses explications. comme sont celles européennes du vingtième siècle. Mircea Vulcănescu signale deux cas où il paraît qu’il perd de son importance.). Communication. C’est un fait qu’à l’intérieur d’une génération on distingue plusieurs positions spirituelles. tels les tirages et les éditions d’un livre. interviennent des critères de différentiation sociale sans corrélation directe et nécessaire avec l’âge. mais en termes vagues et d’une manière fugitive. lorsqu’il a publié cette étude. Une première conclusion est que. Quoique le sens biologique de la notion soit le plus ancien et le plus durable. des idées actualisées sélectivement dans l’histoire par chaque génération. le marxisme dissout le problème des générations en déterminisme économique et en idéologie politique. Elle peut être identifiée avec des moyens statistiques. Bref. La deuxième conclusion est qu’un thème très sensible. Toutes les générations ont un caractère temporel. En discutant du sens psychologique de la notion de génération. de relever les mérites de la plus répandue et de définir la génération à partir de celle-ci. Mircea Vulcănescu voulait encore tenir sa génération loin de l’action politique. La solution correcte est de reconnaître la diversité de ces positions. Dans les sociétés évoluées. L’auteur met la doctrine marxiste dans la catégorie des soi-disant sociologies unilatérales auxquelles il reproche d’avoir expliqué la génération d’une manière exclusiviste. une catégorie d’âge. dont le principe explicatif est la réduction au facteur économique. par l’influence d’un facteur unique (milieu. La génération est.Literature. Mais les évolutions ont été différentes. unie par un sentiment de solidarité et par des intérêts communs. Mircea Vulcănescu a donné une importance spéciale à l’influence que l’événement historique et la situation sociale exercent sur les gens d’une époque. une génération se définit par la manière de participation à l’activité économique et par le degré d’intégration dans „la hiérarchie sociale existante”. Ce serait une erreur de forcer la réduction à l’unité des positions spirituelles sur lesquelles se fixe une génération. psychologique et culturel qui apparaissent entre deux générations voisines se succèdent aux différences d’âge et en dépendance de celles-ci. n-a pas constitué sujet de réflexion pour Mircea Vulcănescu. celui qui conditionne et module toute influence venue de l’histoire ou de la société. L’une d’elles a un caractère de dominant.

Paris 1997. Berlin. Devenue tout de suite un repère dans la réflexion indigène sur le problème. Interculturality et les vieux. Mircea Vulcănescu. Paris. l’étude a créé une émulation et nous pouvons dire que toutes les contributions suivantes. quoiqu’elles aient évité la polémique directe et explicite. Armand Colin. 1948. Boivin. Les générations littéraires. 1930. Paris. Editura Compania. sous la direction de Pierre Nora. 2004. Bucureşti. Pierre Nora. Generaţie. La génération. Gallimard. Henri Peyre. Car autrement.). în Les lieux de mémoire. sans y insister. dans Emil Ermatinger (coord. Communication. BIBLIOGRAPHIE: Julius Petersen. Karl Mannheim. formulée en 1934. în „Tânăra generaţie”. jusqu’aux années 1950. Je crois que son silence sur cette question a été un silence diplomatique. II. 30 . ont été écrites en réplique et ont essayé d’adoucir la théorie un peu abrupte de Mircea Vulcănescu. en affirmant partout que les différences entre les générations commencent à partir de l’âge et qu’elles deviennent plus profondes au niveau de l’expérience historique et sociale. traduit de l’allemand par Gérard Mauger et Nia Perivolaropoulou. 2011. ediţie îngrijită de Marin Diaconu. Mircea Vulcănescu a toujours sous-entendu la possibilité du conflit intergénérationnel. Le problème des générations. Philosophie der Literaturwissenschaft. Die literarischen Generationen.Literature.

Communication. could count as aesthetic. 1995: 31-2). This principle is commonly understood as referring to the imperative of emulating the unsurpassable accomplishments of the creative artists preserved in the Hellenistic and Roman houses of fame.g. The interaction between these two patterns generates. but also hard to distinguish in the late Antiquity. The simulation-based ethical mimesis is used as a pedagogical instrument on the one hand by the early-Renaissance dynamic political culture. 1098 a 22-32. under controlled circumstances. of the formal innovation. Nicomachean Ethics. Therefore. when mimesis came to refer primarily to imitating the old masters. the ethical meaning of mimesis was severely discredited by the modern belief in the necessary preeminence. But the reverence for the classical times also implied the strong belief in their moral superiority. b) contrasted against the emergence of the mental habits that support the rhetoric of the modern political theory and ideology. in point of artistic excellence. the meaning of mimesis as the activity of convincingly replicating the appearance and/or structure of a given natural object is constantly fused with the meaning of imitation as assimilation/absorption or internalization of a moral paradigm (The Republic 3. in the early modernity. of character-building explorative and dubitative experiences.397 d – see also Gebauer & Wulf. Once the idea that the arts and letters should play a moralizing role in society became repugnant. Interculturality CAIUS DOBRESCU University of Bucharest Political Theory vs.Literature. The nature and consequences of the polarization between political theory and the fictional political mimesis are exposed in the work of John Milton. In order to make them more apparent. 1973).g. and to expose at least partly the complex ethical ramifications in the rich semantic 31 . Laws 7. The history of the mimesis concept predominantly consists of the multiple variation of the idea of the “imitation of nature” (Tatarkiewicz. the classical tradition that closely linked the study of literature to building or strengthening one’s character in preparation for future public confrontations and responsibilities fell into oblivion. 1171b). complex fictional structures articulating the simulation of factual uncertainty with the simulation of ethical doubt. It is largely ignored that the concept of mimesis also appears in the ethical writings of both Plato (e. Political Mimesis in The Early-Modern Literary Representation of Decision-Making1 Departing from a replicative understanding of mimesis. and on the other hand by the late-medieval spiritual practice of the imitatio Christi. in their intrinsic nobility. in our contemporary understanding. The two meanings became not only associated. Even if still prominent during the major part of 19th century. the paper re-describes the notion as the simulation.817 b) and Aristotle (e. it is the purpose of the following argument to separate the school of thought that justified literature primarily by virtue of its preferential access to moral grandness from the caricature to which it has been reduced. Actually even in those parts of their writings that. these structures are: a) followed in their close association with the inherently dramatic context of the representation of/training for political decision-making.

for advancing into an ever-changing empirical reality. or rather meta-nomic nature of that model. Against an obscure background dominated by the works of Fortuna. standards and techniques aimed at the successful appropriation of the desired model. in the monastic-intellectual milieus. It is their hardly predictable interplay that absorbed his theoretical industriousness. while simultaneously subverting them through and through by a deeply rooted consciousness of the arcane and anomic. could be perceived only obliquely. two distinct and potentially conflicting faces of early modernity itself. Christ.Literature. 1968. Communication. Ong. Given His divine dimension (which. only in the paradoxical manner of following specific norms. The scholastic focus on the hierarchical organization of information and on the metaphysical legitimation of a general world-view was displaced by the imperative of training the elites of the Italian commercial republics for facing the multiple tasks of confronting high-risk social. Machiavelli was concerned with the vast number of determinations external to the consciousness. the nature of the latter considerably changed. Obviously. and being trained. Even if it preserved the partition between an aspiring soul and the object of its assimilationist aspiration. They could be clearly perceived in the polarization between the Machiavellian and the Lutheran visions of the realms of predictability-unpredictability and of the “natural” ratio between them. but we will concentrate on the representation of political decision-making in earlymodern literature because it offers a most concentrated and dramatic context for the expression of moral persuasions and sentiments. for advancing into the unknown and uncharted territory of the genuine mystical experience represented. political and economic environments (Nauert. And. by acknowledging the limits of the human understanding and the divine differentials). in this peculiar but foundational case. In this view. Early modern ethical instruction between simulation and emulation The Italian Renaissance has been interpreted as being first of all a pedagogical revolution. 2006). these implications are not necessarily political in nature. gradually acquired the spiritual and mystical overtones of the imitatio Christi (Eppelsheimer. two separate branches of the education of early modern social elites. a radical turn in managing knowledge as a basic resource of adaption to fluctuating external circumstances. the restored classical notion of moral mimesis (an effort of spiritual identification with an excellence of character embodied by the classical heroes). maybe. 1994). human 32 . Interculturality heritage of the concept of mimesis. being both human and trans-human. Being trained. since the intended model. A nature that could at any moment call into question its very classification as a “model” by any reasonable standards. The Christian perspective significantly altered the substance of the classical concept of mimesis. at the beginning. according to the “negative” or “cataphatic” theology. In the same Renaissance melting pot. the Christ couldn’t be approached simply as an exceptional but thoroughly human paradigm. in the political-mercantile milieus. Imitation as identification could function. the explorative attitude of the modern empirical sciences was anticipated by the political necessities of understanding and conceptualizing risk and uncertainty (and of consequently simulating them mainly through the empathetic hermeneutics of Greek and Latin historical and literary texts). couldn’t be reasonably confined to a list of commendable virtues.

A fictional simulation of the political decision is an undertaking in which two lines of mimetic accuracy. political thinkers who try to import the sophistication of the political mimesis into a theoretical framework (Foucauld or Rorty could illustrate this distinct possibility). the one oriented towards creating the effect of factual unpredictability and the one oriented towards creating the effect of vibrating ethical doubt. and of mastering the tensions generated by ethical doubt. There are important authors who transform the mimesis into a simple technology subordinated to their peculiar ideological beliefs and to the species of political theory they passionately cherish (Brecht or Sartre could serve as most relevant examples). or epi-optional: it doesn’t take decision as an unquestionable and transparent fact of life. Their fusion fostered the emergence of a concept of action equally and simultaneously implying the necessity of managing high levels of factual uncertainty. culminate into a thoroughly un-real. Communication. As polar and incompatible as they seem (and actually are) these two visions of (un)predictability where brought. to a deeper and deeper mutual implication. from this point of view. from the mainstream of early modern political theory. in the historical unfolding of European intellectual modernity. if not luminous. thoroughly predictable. if let to themselves. of In-determination) could occur only in the only segment of the cosmic design that he considered to have been allowed the mixed blessing of self-governing. It is along these lines that the practices of artistic mimesis tend to evolve into a form of reflecting on politics and the political that clearly diverge. The case of Milton By political mimesis I understand much more than a reconstruction of the intellectual and psychological decision process. considering they were marshaled by the inflexible laws of nature and. it has to be fueled by a rhetoric of conviction and determination. also. it distances itself from the decision process and renders it as something essentially unfamiliar and strange.or supra-. political theory. At the other end. un-mimetical) object. It is the main assumption of the present essay that this merger can be exposed with certain clarity in the literary strategies of imitating-simulating the political decision-making seen as the office of mediating between states of cognitive and ethical ambiguity. pre.-theory hypothesis are those who prove strong and divided loyalties towards both ideals of 33 . at least limpid survivaldriven rationality. social or economical concerns. it has to be fashioned according to what we could call a poetics of “sustainable illumination”. It is post-optional in its very nature: in order to function. But the authors who can offer the most provocative case-studies for our mimesis-vs. the deepest recesses of the human soul. un-natural (and. The main difference lies in the fact that theory aborts from the very beginning the moment of doubt. There are.Literature. In order to convey to the project that it nurtures an aura of effectiveness. But the political mimesis is. therefore. The mystery of the Unpredictable (actually. by means of values and goals. Which was to say. as paradoxical as it may sound. Interculturality consciousness seemed rather unproblematic in its. Martin Luther bracketed almost all serious interest in the realm of the political. Such a simulation is a transgressive structure of coherence emerging from the suppression or neutralization of the borderline between the “outer” world of the interplay of objective determinations and the “inner” intersection of competing lines of ethical argument. Political mimesis vs.

there could be no example more unequivocal than Milton’s passionate defense of the death sentence that the Parliament passed on king Charles I (Peacy. tends. His attitude on this extremely sensitive ethical and political matter is archetypal for the revolutionary ethos of the modern age. his theological epos Paradise Lost. then they who adhere to wisdom and to truth. Milton’s political tracts expose the very essence of theory as a display of unfettering certitude cum fortitude. the first two books of the epic poem offer. As far as the post-optional nature of the theoretical discourse is concerned.Literature. Decision. Interculturality charismatic ideological self-evidence. in opulent biblical garments. manifesting both a historical antecedence and a structural exemplarity. But in my opinion it goes not ill with that people where these virtues grow so numerous and well joined together. in the present context. if ignorance and perverseness will needs be national and universal. are not therefore to be blamed. Actually. Written against the royalist Eikon Basilike. are miscalled. “divinely inspired”) ideological bliss. a most elaborate simulation. is the polarization between the political-theoretical and the political-fictional (or. Communication. after all these changes and commotions. the dramatic coexistence of these two very different patterns of thought and expression in one and the same consciousness. according to the terms of the present inquiry. in the first phases of the intellectual modernity. when turning to fiction. a book propagandistically attributed to Charles I himself. glides towards the center of the mental stage and becomes a theme and an object of thought in itself. 1847: 446) But once we moved to Milton’s most acclaimed and resistant literary accomplishment. Milton deserves. This therefore we may conclude to be a high honour done us from God. Milton not only avoided the slightest expression of moral doubt. almost unique in the fictional literature 34 . but also energetically tries to dissipate it in the consciousness of those of his potential readers still appalled by the recent beheading of the monarch: Thus in a graceless age things of highest praise and imitation under a right name. and of the baroque beauty of tensionally multileveled motivations of the human actions. we will discover the full-fledged representation of exactly those moral pangs precluding the political decision that he completely evacuated from his ideological-theoretical endeavors. Our example of choice. in the epochs vocabulary. to withdraw to far more cautious and skeptical attitudes and appetites. political-mimetic) in the work (and the mind) of John Milton. on the other hand. As a father figure of all European revolutionary artists/intellectuals. for being so few as to seem a sect or faction. on one hand. that possesses and hurries on the vulgar sort. Certainly. as to resist and make head against the rage and torrent of that boisterous folly and superstition. the utmost attention. A paragon to all the polemic and apologetic literature that he authored during the puritan Revolution. which is totally distillated in the rhetoric of commitment. to make them infamous and hateful to the people. and a special mark of his favour. Raymond. to stand upright and stedfast in his cause /…/ (Milton. 2003). whom he hath selected as the sole remainder. 2004. Milton’s Eikonoklastes (1649) could be especially seen as based on a psychological technology of obtaining a sustainable state of inner non-contradiction leading to a “sustainable” (or. It is instructive to follow how an author who displays the most unequivocal support for the linear logic of a given walk of the modern political theory. It is especially relevant to witness.

it is not measured against the inner balances and rhythms expected to underlie. of a fundamentally unpredictable field of experience: the amorphous and still uncharted territories of the Inferno where the Demons have been thrown by the armies of God’s faithful Angels. vibrant human character. for within him Hell He brings. This is to say that the moral experience. Just consider under this angle the seminal Miltonian rejection of the theological legitimation of the monarch as legitimately embodying. This one is no more anthropomorphic. The model is abstract. in compensation. since the effort of imitation is no more directed towards the identification with the deeds and attitudes of a larger than life personality. Satan himself: /…/ Horror and doubt distract His troubl’d thoughts. On the other hand. or rather with the belief in a principle of abstract selfstructuring. in its turn. which replicate the epoch’s deliberation procedures with surprising accuracy. the personalization (in the sense of emotional overcharge) of the medium brings about or is simply simultaneous with a thorough impersonalization of the message. personalizing. a human consciousness. So that. nor from Hell One step no more than from himself can fly By change of place (IV.e.or non-personalization of the very notion of ethical model. to the almost complete de-personalization of the “model”. Interculturality of the European early modernity. it is a set of pure notions and ideas. is equally incompatible with the classical idea of the spiritual magnetism exercised by the noble characters. Both political theory and political mimesis are telling for an advanced process of de. The moral experience 35 . Communication. On the one hand. as illustrated in the Miltonian revolutionary polemics. the political power. and round about him. though obviously incompatible with the notion of logical non-contradiction and self-consistency central to the discourse of theory. i. as a coherent. political theory. but with a corpus of ideas. what we have called political mimesis is also clearly removed from the classical ethical mimesis. and from the bottom stir The Hell within him. accounts for a highly paradoxical process: an intense personalization of the discourse. accomplished. to put it in a nutshell. This perceptually-mimetic reproduction of utter conditions of factual uncertainty and risk is superseded by the reconstruction of an institutional process of political decision: the workings of the Parliament of the Demons. at least ideally. an intensely emotional (to wit visceral) approach of the ideas leads. But this personalizing quality of the model begins to fade at the wake of modernity. doubled by the reconstruction of the ethical torment that swipes the individual consciousness of the arch-decision-maker. The objectified political debate being. Political mimesis is rather the skill of building the virtual environment that offers the consciousness a vivid representation of the factual uncertainty and the ethical doubt under which real life decisions have to be taken. The classical hero or the Christian saint is actually a set of norms that is completely construable as a “person”. The very classical notion of ethical mimesis is thereby profoundly altered.18-23) This split between theory and mimesis is relevant for two main walks of the transformation of the classical-Christian ethical ideal of the imitatio.Literature.

if the mimetical engineering was successful. resorting to a form of intellectual (both conceptual and conceptualized) baroque. On the one hand. on the other hand. because there can be no preexisting model anymore. The advancement in the field of empirical experience and of ethical emotion is tentative and explorative. The tentative. In other words. of the unpredictable and the morally ambiguous. 1994. if the fictional environment was able to convey a sense of the unexpected. And connect the exploration of mimesis-as-simulation to that rich interference of pragmatic incertitude and ethical doubt emerging. my approach means to open another perspective on understanding the relationship between mimesis (seen as the fictional simulation of external and internal decisional environments) and the sphere of the moral experience (including the famous “ethics of authenticity” – Taylor. Knight. Even a quick survey of Milton’s efforts to represent. 2006. 1995. Interculturality cannot rest in the absorption of a preexisting model. the political mimesis is equally marked by a paradox. 1990. Goldmann. A final starting point The above observations are not meant to contain the problem of the common origins and the diverging evolutions of political theory and political mimesis to the intellectual world of the early modernity. At the same time. of a personal model. 2006). MacIntyre. should warn us against the rather narrow psychological positivism of the contemporary study of literature-as-simulation (Currie. the growing cultural awareness of the fallibilities and inner conflicts of classical models of virtue generates an ever more finely tuned and calculated fictional reproduction of the complex determinations that surround or constitute the political decision-making. of a model configured around a strong belief in the consistency and irreducibility of the human person). 2002). 1999.Literature. The least the perception of the said complexity could do is make us reluctant towards that discourse of the contemporary philosophical main-stream which unproblematically and pejoratively identifies simulation with moral deceit. Walton. I would expect the dramatic distinction between the theoreticalideological and the ethical-mimetic practices of the Miltonic cogito to awake the interest in exploring the complexity of the latter against the manifest unilateralism of the former. because what is considered fundamental and formative from the perspective of a high moral pedagogy is not the absorption of a preexisting spiritual pattern (that is to say. explorative and emergent representation of the ethical experience and decision-making directly contradicts the principles of the classical ethical mimesis. the intricacies of political decision-making. 2007. Quite the contrary. Agamben. 1992). In my understanding. while presenting a spiritually-hollow modern society creeping under the brutal domination of all-pervasive simulacra (Baudrillard. Žižek. Stone & Davies. for instance. 1990. from such an 36 . But. Like the political theory. this substantial increase in the replicative rationality of the means of representation goes hand in hand with a tendency of emotional dispersion as far as the ends of the representational process are concerned. the literary study of the political mimesis should avoid the dead-end of shallow and self-reproductive anti-simulation theories. but the process through which consciousness develops the kind of moral fiber necessary to confront the impersonally-merciless pressures of real-life incertitude and doubt. Communication. this could only erode the belief in an aprioristic model and substantiate the vision of an ethical coherence pattern gradually emerging from experience.

Milton Park: Routledge. Simulacra and simulation. Summer. Mental Simulations. pp. Gregory. Religion & Literature. Jean. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. "The Literature of Controversy" in A Companion to Milton. Harvard University Press. 2006. Däubler. Jinhee Choi (eds. p. Mimesis as Make-Believe: On the Foundation of the Representational Arts. Politics as a Vocation. John. pp 41-56. 31-32. Walter J. Tony/ Martin Davies (eds. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press. Possibility. Knight. 1992. BIBLIOGRAPHY Agamben. Turner. Deborah. 73-77. Milton. Moore. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Philadelphia: John W. The Ethics of Authenticity. Mimesis: culture. Tayor. Eppelsheimer. Jason. Mimesis and the following of Christ. New Essays on Pretence. Ed. Imagination and Simulation in Audience Response to Fiction in Shaun Nichols (ed. Weber. Currie. Humanism and the culture of Renaissance Europe. 2007. University of Notre Dame Press. 1968. 1919/1991). Morgenstern. 1990. In Fictional Shoes: Mental Simulation and Fiction in Noel Carroll.Literature. Charles G. The man without content. and Fiction.). Kendall. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 77-128. society. Stone. Thomas Corns. In the Philip H. 1994. Gunter/Christoph Wulf. 271-279.) The architecture of the Imagination. California: University of California Press. Alisdair. Tatarkiewicz. with a new preface by Bryan S. Ong. Bern/München: Francke. Max. MacIntyre. 1991. Giorgio. Wiener (ed. University of Michigan Press.
Mimesis und Imitatio Christi bei Loerke. 1847. Philosophy of film and motion pictures: an anthology. Cambridge University Press. Edited with an introduction by Hans Heinrich Gerth and C. The Prose Works of John Milton: With a Biographical Introduction by Rufus Wilmot Griswold. Burlington: Ashgate. 2006. pp. Blackwell Publishing. Oxford University Press. 1995.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory. 1973. Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Walton. pp. Raymond. 1994. Interculturality implicitly Miltonian work as Max Weber’s “Politics as a Vocation” (Politik als Beruf. 1. Hölderlin. Joad. Translated from French by Sheila Faria Glaser. Stanford University Press. Goldmann. Alvin. Wladislaw. 37 . with its stress on the cardinal distinction between the “ethic of ultimate ends” (Gesinnungsethik) and the “ethic of responsibility” (Verantwortungsethik). 2006. art. 1990. The nature of Fiction. 2003. Rudolf. Sutdies of Selected Pivotal Ideas. Gebauer. Politicians and Pamphleteers: Propaganda During the English Civil Wars and Interregnum. Baudrillard. 225-230. Mimesis. Nauert. 1999.). 1995. Translated from Italian by Georgia Albert. In From Max Weber: Essays in sociology. Communication. Peacey. Clarles. Vol. 2004. Wright Mills.

1649-1689. financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number SOP HRD/89/1. Communication.5/S/59758. 1993. 38 . Welcome to the desert of the real! London: Verso. Interculturality Žižek. Zwicker. Notes: 1 This paper is supported by the Sectorial Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD). Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Steven. Slavoj.Literature. 2002. Lines of Authority: Politics and English Literary Culture.

ou l’impuissance d’être plus qu’un roumain The present study questions the hypothesis according to which Cioran’s choice to abandon his youth Legionary beliefs is due to his refusal to write in Romanian and to the embracement of French language as the language of reason. comme chez Pessoa. Ainsi. ahurissante. dans une multiplication du «moi». audelà du besoin de se comprendre soi-même (réellement ou pas. le sens des affirmations reste le même. Our theory is justified by the interpretation of the reasons that generated his ostentatious and “antiRomanian” excesses during the Romanian period. en exprimant son regret. Communication. Nous avons. même si. qui pourrait perturber le fragile équilibre gagné. des notes. parmi lesquelles nous ne devrions pas exclure celle de Cioran lui-même. Mais Cioran peut-il encore être sincère si le monde dans lequel il vit se rapporte à des valeurs tout à fait différentes? Combien de lâcheté (opportunisme ou conformisme) reste t-il du courageux qu’il était dans sa jeunesse?! Savait-il qu’il était poursuivi par la police 39 . His attacks against Romania are. ce sont des témoignages justificatifs et annihilants. Parler de Cioran est. qui me semble distinctive pour la modernité que Cioran illustre. la réaction d’un destinataire. en fonction du contexte. on peut soupçonner que.. expressions of self-loathing (of his own identity in crisis). en quelque sorte. folle. finalisée. and also to the existing differences between this period and the French one. jamais définitif. en exprimant le regret d’une jeunesse tumultueuse. autant que possible) et.Literature. D’une façon ou d’une autre. in reality. Certes. The rift is more likely a change in vision: in France. le fait (qui devrait être minutieusement décrit. Interculturality MIRCEA A. présenté en régime descriptif et d’inventaire. Cioran ne fait que lire sa jeunesse comme on lit un texte (il en garde dans sa mémoires des bribes). Et parmi les nombreuses raisons de son non-retour en Roumanie. Cioran doit (il sait qu’il le doit) nier son passé. au fond. je réfléchirais justement à cette crainte de la rencontre avec un soi étranger. La vérité de Cioran sur lui même?! Il ne fait que construire (re-construire) une identité dans une crise permanente. des entretiens. C’est surtout cette précarité du soi. En tout cas. Cioran acknowledges the very representations of his people he strongly rejected during the Romanian period. DIACONU Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava Cioran. chacune d’entre elles ayant son grain de vérité. de l’autre côté. de l’occupation des marges. de l’absence du moi. peser aussi l’épisode de sa jeunesse légionnaire. qui lui est garanti par l’anonymat. Puisqu’il ne se reconnaît pas dans un milieu fort. en fonction du destinataire des lettres. d’un point de vue documentaire. ces faits peuvent recevoir plusieurs explications. Cioran y rêve pour se contenter après de l’exploration de la négativité. c’est une autre question à laquelle je ne donnerais pas des réponses toutes faites. S’il le renie véritablement. En tout cas. ses propres mots sur la jeunesse tumultueuse disent de facto autre chose. Ses propres mots sur cette séquence biographique – invoqués souvent et que nous ne reprenons pas ici – ne devraient être lus qu’à titre d’hypothèse. les différentes interprétations données. on l’ignore). en principe. d’un côté. une interprétation qui vise. Ils disent autre chose parce que. etc. qu’il traduit dans un autre texte.

ce n’est pas surtout cette partie abyssale de l’être qui revient avec une récurrence obsessionnelle. 137). en tout cas. mon passé. mais peut-être l’orgueil d’en faire une somme. Plus tard: «Renoncer au roumain permet sans doute d’expier et d’extirper de lui-même les racines d’une langue qui avait permis en même temps que l’enthousiasme et la fureur ce qu’il appelle des divagations» (Dollé. 128). par là même. au-delà de l’intention de communiquer une image sur soimême. on y cite les mots dits à Gabriel Liiceanu: «J’ai rompu d’un coup avec tout: ma langue. Interculturality secrète française? En tout cas. que parce que Cioran change de langue: renoncer à l’idiome dans lequel ont été exprimées les opinions antisémites constitue la seule façon de les mettre à distance et de s’en séparer» (Dollé. une langue. les difficultés. qui n’a pas la prétention de nier les autres. Comprendre les mécanismes subtils qui ont généré l’adhésion de Cioran à la droite nationaliste ne signifie pas seulement comprendre l’époque. impulsive). De quoi s’agit-il.. par là justement. conséquence d’une identité pulvérisée.ce renversement n’est possible. de manière stringente. des trajets essentiels sont générés par des faits absolument dépourvus d’importance. finalement. honnête avec lui -même et qu’il se situerait. Difficile à croire qu’il puisse être plus «objectif» que quelqu’un qui n’y est pas impliqué. L’imaginaire des langues. J’y ferais plutôt une lecture suspicieuse. une des causes qui auraient généré la folie de la jeunesse. oubliés dans la zone plutonique de l’être. comprend -on. non pas en tant qu’auteur. L’étranger qui porte (partiellement) son nom doit être compris. Cioran regarde vers son propre passé comme sur une toile de cinéma: il se voit dans un film et essaie de s’y reconnaître. une de plus. non pas plus grandes. son discours (luiaussi) s’illuminant par l’accès de réflexivité. Souvent. Communication. J’espère n’voir rien détourné. sont d’autre nature. La folie de la jeunesse serait ainsi due au fait que Cioran écrit en roumain. Plus encore. de son propre aveu. nonréflexive (éventuellement expressive et. mais aussi connaître le personnage dans ses vibrations intimes.. par voie de conséquence. mais le débat d’une idée. tout en les dépassant. On a. le besoin d’affirmer la rupture avec le désir même de la réaliser?! S’il avait 40 . 135-136). brièvement? Citons quelques fragments qui renvoient à la conversion de Cioran: «Tout ce qu’écrit Cioran en français possède une dimension réflexive et. même s’il avait été tout à fait sincère. et. et. on le sait bien. Je proposerai. Et. Je l`ai retrouvée formulée clairement dans une étude signée par Marie Dollé. mais surtout. En tout cas. le but de cet article n’est pas cette hypothèse en elle-même. se complètent. véhiculée ces dernières années dans l’espace culturel français. en dépit de la décision de rompre définitivement d’avec le passé. il reste la question si une telle rupture était-elle possible. qui est sur le point d’utiliser une langue qui pourra assurer sa célébrité. même si l’on sait que Cioran fait des affirmations souvent contradictoires. Les conclusions de la dernière phrase? «. par là même. tout». Ce n’est pas justement l’impossibilité de rompre définitivement et irrémédiablement qui génère la fermeté d’une telle affirmation? De plus. les différentes interprétations qui se superposent.Literature. par condensation. en tant qu’être. du sens explicite de cette idée que l’exégèse française plus récente construit sur ce thème. sousentend-on. une fois entré dans l’espace culturel et linguistique français. se nuancent. Cioran sacrifie sa langue. le changement de langue introduit une cassure brutale et définitive dans sa vie d’écrivain» (Dollé. Quant à une vérité absolue extérieure. mais le fait afin de se sauver lui-même. En dépit du tranchant ferme d’une telle réponse. Cioran abandonne la langue de la jeunesse. même en se contredisant.

Certes. Pourtant. Cioran. Français. ses vices en chance. par goût de 41 . Il parle de lui comme de quelqu`un de douteux. amorphes. Autrement. 48). quoiqu’à un autre niveau. Pour être clair depuis le début. la langue n’est pas le seul facteur déterminant. interprétation. Je citerai encore une seule affirmation: «Tout homme veut être autre qu’il n’est (Cahiers. au-delà de la beauté de la théorie. grands dieux! Il faut s’arracher à ses origines. non pas latin (rien donc de rationnel). Communication. de sorte que les différences ne sont pas du tout si grandes que certaines interprétations le laisseraient croire. La «fureur désespérée» de jeunesse – mais le syntagme est extrait des cahiers parisiens est fait donc référence au présent – ne peut pas être comprise qu’en regardant ce Cioran des années parisiennes. Voilà: «Quand je pense à l’effervescence où j’étais dans ma jeunesse à cause de ma tribu! Quelle folie. d’un côté. est Celan. sa simplicité. gavés. mais aussi d’une phrase à l’autre. Sans doute. ses maladies.. il me semble qu’au coeur de cette hypothèse se trouve une contradiction de fond. on le sait bien. dépourvus de vitalité. un travail. ses lâchetés. sur un autre plan. revenons à Cioran. langue de l’esprit. Mais Cioran est trop compliqué pour qu’il puisse être réduit à une si élémentaire. il refuse tout: un mariage. Cioran n’aurait plus été intéressé par le passé. Comment expliquer le fanatisme de la jeunesse par la langue d’un peuple que Cioran considère inapte pour faire l’histoire? Autrement dit. Il n’explore que le négativisme et transforme ses impuissances. Il semble n’assumer aucun type de responsabilité centrale. est plutôt une exception. ses échecs. il est ravagé par la mélancolie. ou tout au moins les oublier. si tel était le cas. de comportement et d’identité. supérieure. Anglais. 78)i. Cioran reprend à Paris une partie des obsessions et du comportement de sa jeunesse. chose que j’essayerai même de démontrer en quelque sorte. tous les écrivains en langue roumaine auraient le même tempérament que Cioran lorsqu’il était jeune. la langue a été anihiliée pendant des siècles et seulement pour Cioran elle est explosive et tempéramentale?! Au fond. Mais revenons. ignorante. j’ai derrière moi des siècles de malheur ininterrompu. y-compris celle de Cioran. Ce qui est surprenant au fond dans l’hypothèse à laquelle je me confronte est. Oh! je ne suis pas d’ici. impuissant.Literature. sans doute par masochisme. afin de regarder d’un autre angle le désir de rompre d’avec le passé. je dirais que blâmer la langue de Cioran pour les ferveurs de sa jeunesse me semble une solution commode. au sens de simple. Différents «moi» à l’intérieur d’un même paragraphe des Cahiers. Qui a comme but. Interculturality vraiment rompu d’avec le passé. Et une de plus. Étrange comme il se reconnaît dans sa mère et dans son peuple. de l’autre côté. je crois que. (Une autre exception. Tout est assumé comme revers. cela peut être un moyen de couper une fois pour toutes le noeud gordien. sauver Cioran et. Et si l’on parlait de multiples «moi». un fait quelconque qui puisse l’inscrire dans la société. comme dans le cas de Pessoa. pour tous les autres. qui continue à écrire dans la langue de ceux qui avaient tué ses parents). Or. Citons quelques fragments éloquents des Cahiers: «Tous ces peuples heureux. avant tout. de la raison. la langue est un sceau qui donne forme à l’être. Plus encore. il fuit devant l’histoire. Au-delà de tout. on ne prend pas en compte les deux possibles hypostases – avant France et après Roumanie – mais les multiples changements d’attitude. il s’identifie aux juifs errants. (Cahiers. J’ai tendence à m’y reporter. qui aurait en lui quelques chose de slave et de hongrois. suspect et incertain. pas seulement d’un jour à l’autre. démontrer la supériorité (par la réaction qu’elle génère) de la langue française.. mais dans une manière différente.

que dans le sens d’un changement d’attitude. et n’ai obtenu que cette prostration de termite» (Cahiers. à un bonheur surhumain. où il voit les limites de son peuple. qui pourtant ne s’excluent pas. Par conséquent. mais en plus il attire une identification évidente avec le peuple duquel il est parti et qu’il voulait différent. Comme on le sait. Quelques uns des portraits plus tardifs. la peur originaire. en renonçant à la langue roumaine en faveur de la langue française Cioran ait abandonné la folie de jeunesse par un saut brusque dans la bateau de la raison. pis même. renvoie justement à sa propre identité. Suffisamment pour construire un autre portrait et d’autres causes. s’inaugurer dans le ratage et s’épuiser interminablement dans une extase embryonnaire» (Cahiers. une identité précaire. se dispenser d’évoluer. et parce que. De l’autre: «Peut-être fallait-il s’en tenir à l’état de larve. deux séquences qui se répondent mutuellement. animale. Il y est question non seulement du sentiment de solitude supérieure. Citons aussi des Cahiers. pour l’humiliation. Il ne lui reste donc qu’aimer les limites – les siennes et celles de son propre peuple. qui transfère la flagellation de soi vers son propre peuple. qui glisse entre limites incompatibles. le changement de langue ne génère pas le saut dans les raisons (et le reniement de sa propre jeunesse). qui l’aurait cru?! En réalité. l’humiliation et l’anonymat. des «chaînes». Cioran – un goût pour l’asservissement. Voilà pourquoi je ne crois ni dans une rupture entre l’époque française de Cioran et celle roumaine. parce que Cioran se voulait différent lui-même. En France il fait l’apologie de l’échec et de l’incréé. d’après moi. tout comme la sagesse donnée par la langue française n’est qu’un moyen d’accepter et d’explorer ce qu’il blâmait lorsqu’il était jeune: l’impuissance de faire histoire. nous montre Cioran dans la posture de la Roumanie. la folie de jeunesse est due. mais le cultive. la ferveur de jeunesse n’est plus ce qu’elle semblait être. C’est une façon d’attaquer le noyau de son propre être. D’un côté: «Pourquoi je suis un raté? Parce que j’ai aspiré à la félicité. c’est la haine de ses propres limites. *** Mais. Il me semble qu’il s’y agit de l’être lui -même et non pas de la conjoncture. mais surtout à l’auto flagellation. qui est Émile Cioran? La peur qui est à la racine de toutes ses interrogations. Dans une des citations précédentes on sent le bonheur d’appartenir à un peuple qui a derrière soi des siècles de malheur. niée souvent dans toutes ses hypostases. dont il désirait la transfiguration. En tout cas. dans une tristesse sous-humaine. sa solution de survivence – ni que. 600). l’existence en marge.Literature. il n’est pas du tout lié au fait d’avoir dépassé la ferveur de jeunesse en faveur d’une raison lumineuse. pas nécessairement au besoin de sauver son peuple par flagellation. car ce qu’il hait au début il arrive finalement à aimer – c’est sa façon de sauver son moi. 708). il ne nie plus son vide. il échoue. Il admire les anonymes restés en Roumanie et qui ont échoué. Au fait. affirmée ainsi par la négation. mais d’une haine de soi – qui le rapproche des Juifs de l’Europe Centrale – causée par ses propres limites qu’il veut dépasser. pour les chaînes. des années parisiennes. de l’humiliation» (Cahiers. n’y pouvant atteindre. demeurer libre et inachevé. Si un changement survient donc dans la période parisienne. J’ai voulu le bonheur qu’on goûte auprès des dieux. dans une tristesse d’insecte. Communication. 674). enfin. entre apparence et vérité. il regrette de ne pas être un berger dans les montagnes. questionnée en permanence. D’autre part. 42 . Par conséquent. Interculturality l’esclavage. ce que Cioran veut c’est d’être autre. je me suis enfoncé dans le contraire.

Enfin. dans ce balancement entre engagement et abandon on devrait peut-être identifier les moments d’une métamorphose. 613).. Les autres.. j’ai connu des extases fréquentes. par la suite. je me suis même exécré jusqu’à une fureur meurtrière. 369): lorsque. il ne lui reste que se nourrir de cette haine de soi. un autre thème de l’écriture cioranienne. 345). 579). il vit «dans des situations fausses». Cioran dit: «À l’âge où j’écrivais en roumain Cartea amăgirilor (vingt-cinq ans?) je vivais avec une telle intensité que j’avais littéralement peur de finir en fondateur de religion. Si on peut se mettre en dehors de sa propre vie et la traiter comme si elle appartenait à un autre. souvent nommée sagesse. ou. la haine de soi et l’orgueil caché satisfait. qui «exige un minimum de laisser-aller et de cabotinage» (Cahiers.qui demeureront à jamais les sommets de ma vie. à la vie. leur propre vanité. «toujours à côté» (Cahiers. Interculturality À un moment donné. par excès de lucidité ou par une autre raison. il se méprise lui-même pour le refuge dans la lâcheté. qu’il admire parfois aux autres.. d’une transfiguration. Haine de moi voisinant le cri ou les larmes» (idem). Je me suis rabattu sur le Vide par besoin de sécurité. où que ce soit. au fond. Ailleurs.Literature. voilà les faces du même individu multiplié sans fin. que la poltronnerie est un moyen lâche de se soustraire aux confrontations. «Que je hais ma poltronnerie. et à Munich. On déduit. il aimerait éviter. de la projection dans l’apparence: «Le dépouillement est le grand secret. ayant la nostalgie de ceux qui croient et qui. Si par moi on comprend sa propre identité. alors oui. Voilà. Toujours à mi-chemin entre ma quasi-existence et mon néant» (Cahiers. C’est la lâcheté. Communication. le fait de trouver dans la «poltronnerie» une solution c’est un fait qui perd de son importance. comme il le fait d’ailleurs. Cioran soupçonne de mystification justement sa préoccupation constante pour l’identité de l’homme. est doublé par «l’horreur de me manifester». Or. s’exclame-t-il à un moment donné. même si «un faux escargot» (Cahiers. L’admiration secrète et la révolte. Et ce qui suit renvoie à l’attitude que Cioran manifeste conséquemment vis-àvis de soi-même: «Cet après-midi je suis passé par les transes du dégoût de soi. sous le masque de l’engagement.. 479). Depuis. C’est pourquoi le besoin d’une croyance. Cioran est obsédé avant tout par le «cher petit moi». Entre parenthèses soit dit. Je n’aurai eu le courage ni de vivre ni de me détruire. Souvenons-nous: «imposteur quiconque. mon manque héréditaire de dignité» (Cahiers. les causes de la lâcheté et celles du dépit de soi. s’identifient à une croyance. 369). le jeu social de la conversation. en tout cas.» (Cahiers. au fait ne comptent même pas. étant ce qu’il déteste. Il n’existe. il préfère rester un «escargot». que par voie collatérale. Il se pose ainsi la question: «Pourquoi l’homme m’intéresse au point d’en faire mon unique préoccupation? Ne serait-ce pas là une voie détournée pour masquer l’obsession que j’ai de mon cher petit moi? (Cahiers. «La perspective d’être présent. encore moins La peur d’appartenir à ceux qui mystifient ronge plus d’une fois Cioran. Cioran se méprise souvent lui-même. 518) et. En méprisant donc les autres pour leur activisme. L’être humain. on doit en arriver à vaincre la peur et même mépriser sa propre mort» (Cahiers. 510). en méprisant sa propre mort. 25). n’arrive pas à s’identifier avec quoi que ce soit» (Cahiers. C’est sa façon de reconnaître qu’il ne s’agit que de sa propre identité. Je me demande parfois par quel miracle j’arrive à me supporter encore. le grand secret de l’errance délibérée. aux énergies en action. Mais. je n’en ai plus que des simulacres» (Cahiers. me donne la chair de poule. «Ma pusillanimité m’a empêché d’être moi même. sur les années passées à Berlin: 43 . Sans s’identifier complètement à quoi que ce soit. lorsqu’il les accuse de cultiver. À Berlin. plus encore. Or. 280). s’il n’était pas un détracteur.

du vide intérieur. Je ne retrouve pas mon identité. la jeunesse. sans la chance d’arriver au centre. dit Cioran. mais les cahiers sont.. Interculturality «Ma solitude berlinoise ne se laisse pas imaginer par un homme normal. que l’oracle ni Socrate n’ont deviné» (idem). sans aucune relation avec moi.» (Cahiers. le vide ne prend pas seulement le visage de la peur de l’hypocrisie. Comment ai-je pu tenir nerveusement? Jamais je n’ai été aussi près de la dégringolade. mais aussi. regardant derrière et ne reconnaissant plus rien.. 646). la quête de soimême est un enfer. 301). / Génération des douleurs» (Cahiers.» (Cahiers. l’illumination de l’impuissance. 26). Ainsi donc. Étranger (aucune dénomination. y-compris par la torture de soi: «Nul esprit clairvoyant ne devrait prendre la plume. Sauf que chez Cioran la genèse a un statut ambigu: «J’entends en moi.. Cioran descend perpétuellement dans cet enfer. tout me parut nouveau. un effort d’adaptation pénible et humiliant. 301). Le 24 février 1960 Cioran note: «Aujourd’hui. l’expression des contradictions qui se développent en synchronie. Ou bien. Il n’y a plus de trace de moi en moi-même» (Cahiers. 24). puisque toutes sont disparues? Je suis un étranger qui a mon âge. Ou bien: «À vingt ans. Les psychiatres appellent cela sentiment d’étrangeté.à moins d’aimer se torturer» (Cahiers.. ne comprenant pas les éloges qui ont comme objet un livre qu’il avait écrit. dit-il à un moment donné. . un dramatisme s’institue. 79). la lucidité mortifiante. Mais la diachronie n’est qu’une apparence. déconcerté. «Je ne suis plus moi-même» (Cahiers. / Prostré.Literature. regardée ici avec admiration. la lâcheté. il regarde les gens autour de lui comme s’il se rappelait «un cauchemar fait dans une autre vie» (Cahiers. en tout cas. l’année de ma naissance. témoigne-t-il ailleurs. j’avais un insatiable désir de gloire» (Cahiers. ce fut comme si je l’avais écrit pour la première fois. 51). sans la possibilité de pouvoir revenir en arrière. 25). en écrivant mon nom sur un formulaire. Communication. 98). ou. car. Toute descente en soi-même acquiert les dimensions et les significations d’une genèse. il garde le sentiment de l’échec. le grand thème de l’écriture de Cioran est le labyrinthe du moi intérieur. Sa victoire – qui s’édifie sur les ruines de l’impuissance d’agir – est qu’il ne s’engage à rien. Quant à ma figure. il se sent habité par le vide: «J’ai cinquante-quatre ans: où sont allées les sensations que j’ai éprouvées durant cet espace de temps? Les ai -je senties vraiment. écoeuré devant la révélation d’être soi» (Cahiers. «J’ai une capacité infinie de convertir tout en souffrance. les appels et les déchirements du Chaos avant de se convertir ou de se dégrader en univers. 74). C’est pourquoi l’envie et le dégoût vis-à-vis de ceux qui croient est dans une permanente confrontation. C’est vrai que certains accents changent avec le temps. Or. et de la sainteté. Plus encore. ou plutôt d’aggraver toutes mes souffrances. 35). du manque d’identité. âge de l’engagement aveugle. je ne sais plus qui je suis» (Cahiers. je m’infirme et tout m’infirme. Le jour. dans lequel il erre sans cesse. Justement à cause de n’être jamais le même. s’autotorture. évidemment. ne lui convient en ne le flatte autant). Chez Cioran. «Je n’ai pas trouvé le chemin le plus court vers mon centre» (Cahiers. de cette manière. retrace les marges d’une identité qui est chaque fois une autre. pour continuer le même paragraphe: «L’enfer de se connaître. et inexplicable. Au fait. Cioran s’explore-t-il et. comme si je ne le reconnaissais pas. pour peu que j’y descende. Ainsi. l’écriture est motivée seulement par ce besoin de se connaître soi-même. autrement dit. celui de la propre projection dans l’illusoire. comme on l’a déjà observé. Une souffrance 44 . qu’il ne croit en rien. Cioran garde cette inquiétude dans la question qui le hante: «Ah! Si je pouvais me convertir à mon essence! Mais si elle est corrompue? Décidément. serait-elle suivie par l’abandon du monde. souvent il me faut faire un effort pour l’identifier.

En tout cas. on n’imagine pas deux êtres plus divergents. tellement j’ai honte de moi. et j’ai beau les écarter et refouler. je suis violent – par option. sans aucun commentaire: «Ballotté entre le cynisme et l’élégie» (Cahiers. À côté de cette lucidité tournée en violence. cette honte aussi est une preuve du même orgueil: «Tant qu’on n’a pas touché aux extrémités de l’humiliation et de la honte. mais se déclare sage. ou plutôt je ne le retrouve que lorsque toutes mes apparences se volatilisent. avec les conséquences qui découlent de ces contradictions.. qu’il regrette ou qu’il blâme. en attendant de prendre le dessus » (Cahiers. 478). la honte d’être: «Je ne veux plus voir personne. 61). Ailleurs il note sec. soit dans des espaces élémentaires.Literature. Cioran est. ce que Cioran voit avant tout dans soi-même est l’impuissance d’être quelque chose. 316). pour se poser enfin la question: «Les sceptiques grecs et les romantiques allemands. parfois c’est justement ce mépris qui nourrit la survie – et le sens. au lieu de la lucidité apparaît la furie de soi-même et. Mais. Il est lâche ou humble. l’étranger. plus clairement: le mépris envers les siens est une conséquence du mépris envers soi-même. Ou. sur cette synthèse ratée. Enfin. 21). primitifs. et sans. Cioran aime se confondre avec. Plus je vais. on n’a pas le droit d’aborder les grands problèmes» (idem). une violence dirigée vers lui-même et vers tous. une altérité. soi-même. Plus explicitement. Quoiqu’il arrive. Cioran méprise en même temps ses racines. Bien sûr. par conséquent. en toute occasion. en contradiction avec soi-même? De quel côté. vais-je me pencher? pour qui vais-je me décider? à quel moi me ranger?» (Cahiers. L’exploration de soi ne laisse d’espace à aucune utopie et sa finalité est l’autodestruction délibérée. quelqu’un en moi proteste et se lamente. Au-delà de cette dispute. je cherche en vain mon «moi». En méprisant la tribu. quand se suspend et s’annule ce que précisément on appelle un «moi». soit l’autre. le pays d’où il provient: «Le paradoxe du peuple roumain est d’être à la fois malheureux et frivole» (Cahiers.» (Cahiers. de mes humeurs. il va sans dire. voilà: «Par nature. Interculturality qui devient haine de soi-même. Voilà. pour après exploser dans des accès de violence. À chaque instant. à l’extrême. La cause de ces contradictions? Parfois. je me trouve plus bas que ceux qui n’existent même pas à mes yeux» (Cahiers. entre savoir et vouloir. 76). plus je cons tate 45 . 570). Souvent. un cadeau de famille. Il note quelque part: «Ma peur héritée devant la vie. Je n’ai pas réussi à neutraliser en moi leurs caractères irréductibles. Il est sans cesse autre. Ailleurs. 317). car il ressent une permanente impuissance d’être. aucune possibilité de synthèse. quoiqu’il fasse. le plus souvent. il parle du «mélange entre le doute et le rêve». dans l’exultation de mon anéantissement. 580). constate-t-il avec une lucidité sceptique. 27). soit dans des lieux «décadents». Sauf que. se méprisant lui-même. en permanence. Cioran regrette. à chaque instant. sceptique. Il faut se détruire pour se retrouver: essence est sacrifice» (Cahiers. «Ce que je sais détruit ce que je veux» (Cahiers. les raisons de profondeur qui déterminent Cioran à se nommer. Comment concilier des tendances aussi divergentes? Comment vivre. J’essaie en vain de me débarasser de mes ancêtres.. Quleque part Cioran constate: «Il y a en moi du moine et de l’esthète. Il y a en lui quelque chose de bavard et de moine trapiste. comment peuvent-ils se combiner dans une même âme? Se tourmenter au milieu d’apories lyriques.d’où jaillit la souffrance. Communication. soit une somme de contradictions. ainsi pèse-t-il sur mon esprit une double et irréconciliable hérédité» (Cahiers. On s’arrêtera sur cette somme impossible. comme chance pour l’édification: «Je suis la succession de mes états. ils reviennent à la charge. Je ne sais vraiment plus sur qui exercer mon mépris. Cioran accuse l’hérédité immédiate: «Ma mère et mon père.

Déchiré entre nostalgie et anxiété. cérébrales. Mais les choses vont plus loin encore. il est douteux qu’un autre eût pu réussir à travers tant d’années. entre passé et futur. admiré. Certes. ceux qui se manifestent. «Toute ma vie j’aurai vécu avec le sentiment d’avoir été éloigné de mon véritable lieu» (Cahiers. plus loin. Interculturality qu’ils ont sur moi l’avantage et que ma lutte contre eux devient désespérée. par construction de soi. un lâche aux accès furibonds de violence. Est-il possible que derrière cela se trouve l’orgueil? Ou bien la fascination? La simple. il lit souvent des livres sur des figures de souverains. les accès de violence de sa jeunesse illustrent ce besoin d’être. 338). qui agissent. c’est parce que sa terreur «de ce monde est insuffisante et incomplètement sincère» (Cahiers. 111-112). sont doublés par un orgueil luciférique. comme lui souvent. l’une et l’autre abstraites. cherché dans les autres ce que je ne trouvais pas en moi-même. au fond. violents et déchirés. l’anonymat. Je retombe dans mes origines.Literature. 344). Transformées en idéologie. celui rêvé et. exclame-t-il à un moment donné. conséquence de l’impuissance de faire partie de l’histoire et de sa déchéance. Mais le mépris et la honte de soi. un héros en négativité. mais en admirant les énergies élémentaires. 73). Que d’orgueil. Cioran n’aime que «l’effacement. voilà à quoi je serais bon: un monstre dans les deux cas» (Cahiers. il est dégoûté par soi-même. sont mes traits caractéristiques. 23). un frivole. 572). 352). non pas en dehors d’elle. c’est le fait de n’avoir rien de commun avec eux» (Cahiers. Le voilà dans l’hyosthase qui le sauve. et si étrange que cela paraisse. 342). Mon aboulie a besoin de fouet» (Cahiers. au mépris envers soi. un «superficiel de nature» qui ne connaît en profondeur que «l’inconvénient d’être né» (Cahiers. Cioran généralise: «J’ai toujours. Or. comme il précise quelque part. Communication. «Avec une vision des choses comme la mienne. 360). Et. on déduit que la haine est provoquée justement par des éléments communs. il sait bien que le mépris envers les autres et la haine que les autres lui provoquent ne sont que la conséquence de sa propre identité: du mal qui habite son intérieur ou d e la métamorphose subjective du monde. Le courage des autres nous sert quelquefois de tonique» (Cahiers. «les temperaments agressifs et contradictoires. d’aboulique. «Extrémités de l’aboulie!». comment aurais-je appris celui de supporter le monde? C’est toujours en nous que 46 . pour mon malheur. qui vivent dans l’histoire. 85). Cahiers. damné. autre. dans le fait d’assumer la déchéance. un buffon qui souffre de l’absence de l’absolu. l’absence! Un orgueil qui ne peut pas éliminer les moments de cruauté envers les autres et envers soi. le déclare-t-il souvent. Son exil métaphysique a cette connotation. et vous désarçonnent. au lieu de m’en tenir à mes insuffisances et de m’en contenter» (idem). 16). y a-t-il des jours où je me fais l’effet d’un héros» (Cahiers. de toutes ces ruptures: «La cruauté et la pitié. voire les figures contradictoires. un exilé. Aussi bien. Un hédoniste à l’envers. Enfin. et qui par leur excès vous stimulent. En se rappelant l’admiration pour les Allemands. avec l’orgueil que cela implique» (Cahiers. par le monde. Pour se sauver. qui survit grâce à la haine de soi. en attendant de m’y abîmer» (Cahiers. Ainsi donc. Tyran ou ermite. mais. je lis de temps en temps quelque livre sur Napoléon. «N’ayant pas réussi à trouver l’art de me supporter moi même. à la lâcheté. condamné à la gravité (cf. Et il continue: «Pour y échapper. Au fait. indiscutablement. 112). Cioran est conscient de toutes ces contradictions. Il admire en tout cas. du temps où il était passé par Berlin. il affirme: «Ce qui a dû me fasciner chez ces ci-devant Germains. instinctive hypocrisie? S’agit-il d’impuissance? Cioran aime. voilà une raison de plus pour que Cioran se sente un étranger. voyons d’autres contradictions: «un ermite en plein Paris» (Cahiers. s’il demeure encore sur cette terre.

Nous avons des tares communes» (Cahiers. Patrice. Dans ces conditions. Cioran l’hérétique. 67). je les considère comme des substituts de la réalité dernière» (Cahiers.]. car j’ai hélas! cessé de la pratiquer). quoiqu’il refuse de parler le roumain et qu’il est agacé par les Roumains. 34). Craiova. 804) pourrait être anarchiste et nihiliste? L’apathique devient souvent fervent. je n’arrive pas à me réconcilier avec moi-même. Paris. 818). Il note. «Je ne m’entends en profondeur qu’avec les Juifs. la comparaison faite par Berdiaev entre Neceaev et Ignace de Loyola: «Le révolutionnaire comme ascète» (Cahiers. 1960. Éditions Gallimard. cannibale. voire fanatique. no. Qu’est-ce que Cioran aurait aimé être? En tout cas. 687).. elle l’exténue et l’appauvrit» (idem). je les incrimine. Cioran témoigne qu’il a cessé de croire dans la destruction. de l’anarchisme extrême. Comment quelqu’un qui dit «personne n’a aimé autant que moi ce monde» (Cahiers. Le sceptique vit des moments euphoriques. il voit dans cette langue les racines qu’il a trahies? Voilà: «L’extraordinaire langue roumaine! Chaque fois que je m’y replonge (ou plutôt que j’y songe. Ciocârlie. sauf ce que j’étais. Russe. avoue Cioran. la rupture entre l’époque française. 361). arce qu’il vit grâce à un courage négatif qui se traduit par une haine de soi. parce que sa propre identité se nourrit de crise. En insurrection permanente contre le sort. Henri. ma sensibilité s’apparente à celle des romantiques [. Caietele lui Cioran. elle abuse de celle-ci. j’ai le sentiment d’avoir commis. C’est la raison pour laquelle il s’appelle un «démon désabusé» (Cahiers. de la raison. parce qu’il s’y reconnaît. est celle-ci: «Je suis métaphysiquement juif» (Cahiers. BIBLIOGRAPHIE: Amer. Ma fureur n’a pas de bornes. Il se sent près des écrivains russes. Quand je les condamne. une lutte contre la «chair». que j’en sois l’objet ou que ce soit l’univers indifférement» (Cahiers. ces moments où il sort de soi-même. «Cioran le docteur en décadences» in NRF. Gallimard. Un juif. autre chose de ce qu’il était: «Toute ma vie j’ai voulu être autre chose: Espagnol. une criminelle infidélité» (Cahiers. et celle roumaine. 92. p. pour continuer dans le paragraphe suivant: «S’il me fallait choisir entre l’ascèse et la débauche c’est vers la dernière que j’inclinerais. Peut-être parce que. 254). 1999. Mais la définition la plus exacte. Au fait. quelque part il arrive à se nommer rien qu’un «Mongol dévasté par la mélancolie» ( Cahiers. il aime les Espagnols. 1997. je prends mes humeurs pour des mondes. dit Cioran dans ses moments de lucidité. les autres ne sont que moi-même. elle aussi. parce que ces racines ne se trouvent nulle part. comme l’on regarde un autre. parce qu’il sent le besoin de «s’intoxiquer de vertige» (Cahiers. Cahiers (1957-1972). Ou bien: «Tout bien pesé. les Hongrois. 1997.Literature. 297-307. comme étranger. je suis toujours en mauvais termes avec mon être. 47 . n’est plus si évidente. 883). Cette folie de se vouloir différent de ce qu’on est. d’épouser en théorie toutes les conditions sauf la sienne» (Cahiers. mais qui n’entraîne ni le suicide. Communication. Une furie sans marges. 721). Bollon. parce qu’il est en permanence autre. en me détachant. Scrisul Românesc. / D’ailleurs la débauche est. Livius. Interculturality réside le mal. souvent. afin de pourvoir se regarder froidement. Cioran. et le chercher ailleurs c’est prouver qu’on est encore à l’enfance de la sagesse» (Cahiers. À un moment donné. Mais le plus souvent Cioran ne se supporte pas soi-même: «J’ai beau me démener. 102). ni l’immersion du monde dans le néant.tout. je les abjure. 94). 635). Allemand. Paris.. contre ma naissance.

Scutennaire. Cluj-Napoca. Ionesco. Cioran jadis et naguère. Marta. Petreu. p. Gabriel (éds). Gabriel. Cioran ou le dernier homme. Genève. Paris. Marie. M. L’Herne. no. 1999. Lang. 1995. Cioran. «L’époque de Cioran» in Critique. «Un trecut deocheat sau “Schimbarea la faţă a României”». Eliade. Paris. Moret (Philippe). 2000. Biblioteca Apostrof. Éditions Gallimard. 1991. 2001. PUF. P. William. Reverdy. José Corti. Desjonquères. La morale dans l’écriture: Camus. Cioran: itinéraires d’une vie. Paris. Cioran ou la dissection du gouffre. Alexandra. 1997. Norbert. Jourdan. Sontag. Seuil. Şora. Michalon. Jarrety. Cioran ou le défi de l’être. 48 . Paris. Sylvie. 1997. Cioran naiv şi sentimental. Biblioteca Apostrof. Klupack. Finkenthal (Michel). Mariana. Paris. Cluj. Chazal. Philippe. 2001. 1987.Literature. L’oubli du fascisme. New York-BerlinParis. Cioran. Paris. 1999. Parfait. Liiceanu. Liiceanu. Tiffreau. L’imaginaire des langues. Lectures de Cioran. Interculturality Dodille. Paris-Montréal. 2002. E. p. 1997. 1990. Paris. Laignel-Lavastine. Notes: i Tous les passages sont reproduits d’après les Cahiers (1957-1972). L’Harmattan. Susan. Nicole. Paris. Jaudeau. Dollé. Communication. Cioran. PUF. 479. Vartic. Georges. Droz. Henri Veyrier. 47-75. 1997. The temptations of Emile Cioran. Paris. L’Harmattan. Paris. François. Michel. 1988. Ion. 267-282. «Penser contre soi: réflexions sur Cioran» in Sous le signe de Saturne. Tradition et modernité de l’aphorisme: Cioran. Char.

that his way of understanding poetry is very similar to that of such poets as Alexandru Muşina. Ion Stratan. These particular cases I debate in this paper are Radu Vancu and V. Traian T. Interculturality ANDREI BODIU Transilvania University of Brasov The Generation of 2000 in Romanian Poetry. It is not the main atitude for the poets of his generation. He finds the idea at Bogdan Creţu and Dumitru Chioaru but the first theoretician that emphasized it was Ion Bogdan Lefter in different areas of his work. Its claimed roots can be found in the extensions of expressionism in the Romanian literature. Communication. Instead of opposing the main stream of the 80’s generation. Coşovei.Leac. important representatives for the extensions of the expressionism in Romanian poetry. Moreover. extensions.” Further on. moreover. Radu Vancu pledges for the idea of diversity. Things seem not to be the same for other poets of the generation who clearly affirm their affiliation to the extensions of the Romanian expresionism. as a poet.6 The idea of separation for the Romanian generations of poets is not the theme of this paper. However there are voices. like Radu Vancu and V.Literature. but in the Romanian expresionism and its. To the question about the models and the antimodels of the 2000 generation in a special issue of „Vatra” dedicated to his generation. Iaru. sometimes very recent.Leac whose poetry is different because they claim different cultural sources than their colleagues of generation. There are some very interesting and particular cases of the 2000 generation poetry which are not dealing with the main stream that I depicted in the article from 2009. the generation of Romanian poets who write before the 2000 generation. in a recent interview5. because he does not define himself in 49 . In 2009. The main idea was that the main cultural background of the Romanian young poets is to be found not in the postmodernism of the 80’s. Radu Vancu agrees with the idea that the so called „douămiişti” are a part of the same generation as the poets of the 80’s. First. Two Eccentric authors: Radu Vancu and Vasile Leac The main stream poetry of the 2000 generation in Romanian poetry is considered to belong to the neo-expressionism. In other words. starting from two very interesting PhD theses authored by Cristina Ispas 1 and Georgeta Moarcăs.2 I wrote a study3 on the relationship between the Romanian generation of poets of the 2000 and postmodernism. Vancu’s idea is that he. Radu Vancu is not very affirmative in pointing out that his cultural background includes poets like Angela Marinescu or Ion Mureşan. is opened to communication with the other generation and. Radu Vancu insists upon the idea that the cultural sources of his generation are „eclectic”4. This paper examines these sources and stresses the originality of the poetry of Radu Vancu and V. Radu Vancu gives a balanced answer: „there is no dogmatic corpus of literary works that is to be claimed by the members of the generation. These extensions do not represent the mainstream poetry of the ’80. I can define Vancu’s attitude as relaxed and soft. for instance. Radu Vancu is not so clearly against the main stream poetry of the 80’s generation represented by Cărtărescu.Leac. two poets who are eccentrical in the generation of 2000. Romulus Bucur or Alexandru Muşina.

essential for the author of Sebastian în vis (Sebastian in dream). walking with his baby niece. in the exploration of the intimate life. Ayenbite of Inwyt.Literature. we can find an ingenious mixture of remarks connected to culture and also to the specific belongings of a baby. Radu Vancu writes all the seven cantos of the poem using the block-text which is specific for prose. First.and they are very important poets. Ivănescu’s presence should be found. Communication. Regarding the second level. Interculturality opposition to the main stream of the 80’s poetry but in accordance with it. „ I do not know if I feel any resemblance with the poets of my generation. had upon him.”7 There is a clear irony in Leac’s words. the Avent bottle in an explicit or implicit dialogue with fairy-tale charachters like Snow White. Many of them write deep. creating the rhythm and rhymes of verse. the volume is situated in the line of Romanian poets who can be considered poeta faber. he is close to the postmodern way in which Mircea Cărtărescu mixes the cultural allusions in his work. It is clear that this is not the main attitude of the “douămiişti” who ignore pragmaticaly and programmaticaly the main stream of the ’80s in poetry. an allusion to the image of the great poet. Mircea Ivănescu. Sebastian. namely that of the cultural allusions in the text of the volume. in an amusing image. In the first canto of the book. medieval stories. after the banning of the onirist movement by the communist regime. questioned about his 50 . the Lego games.I don’t know if the term traditionalist is good. Dimov and Cărtărescu are also present as two of the most important oniric contemporay Romanian poets. maybe. the multiplied image of Mihai Eminescu. Vancu’s “ecumenical” vision can be also the result of the influence that one of the most important post World War II Romanian poets. There is. Ivănescu’s cosmopolite perspective on literature and culture seems to be the most influential for Radu Vancu. Radu Vancu introduces Dimov. the Nuk nose pump. Vasile Leac answers a question regarding the poets towards whom he displays affinity. In this respect. in a traditionalist manner. more important. Sebastian în vis (Sebastian in Dream) both from the point of view of its cultural background and from the point of view of the cultural remarks in the text. Besides. as a character of his poem. I think that Radu Vancu’s poetic connection with the vision of the poets of the 80’s can be underlined from the perspective of the cultural genealogy that can be found in the volume published in 2010 at Tracus Arte publishing house. starting with Tudor Arghezi and Ion Barbu. followed by Leonid Dimov and Mircea Cărtărescu. Sebastian in Traum In an interview published in the quaterly „Corpul T”. both Dimov and Cărtărescu developed a deeply ludic dimension in their poetry. a mark of the great poet who died this year. In a way. the dreaming baby falls asleep on Leond Dimov’s belly. Radu Vancu’s perspective is consistent with his permissive and tolerant vision of the cultural models of his poetic age. the Shoah and the Gulag or with elements like Beauty and Eloquence which evoke the authors of the European Renaissance. an image which can be found in one poem writen by Mircea Cărtărescu. In the first part of the second canto. This mixture. a fact that is also relevant for the poetry of Radu Vancu. This kind of cultural sophistication meets the refinement of the ecriture. truly. the Rubik cube. It is interesting to read the latest volume of poems written by Radu Vancu. for whom another literature than the one written by his generation seems to be. The title itself is a Romanian version of a famous book by Georg Trakl. In the same interview. The sphere of elements contained in the first canto of the book puts together: the Nestle condesed milk. Cărtărescu himself considers Dimov one of the most important Romanian poets and acknowledges Dimov’s influece upon him. connected with the personality of the new born strenghtens the idea of ludic. maybe.

Leac proves a real explorative dimension of his poetry. With Romulus Bucur. Alexandru Muşina or Romulus Bucur. in very original manners with the main stream of the poetry of the 80’s and with other important voices of the Romanian post-World War II poetry. Angela Marinescu and Ion Mureşan. This affinity between the two stresses the fact that in their generation they are eccentric. This feature is clear in the last part of the book because the poem is writen in a prose-like manner. the echoes of prose can be found starting with the first poem. Ivănescu. there is a fascination for the poeta faber. their cultural models being not the poets that are significant for the extensions of expresionism like. seldom. as you have seen. a connection with the interest of Leac for prose can be found. Regarding the prose writers. for instance. very much”. First of all we may emphasize that in all the three chapters: Între noi (Between us). Joyce and Salinger8 It is interesting that. he recalls. V. at the margin of their generation. both Radu Vancu and Vasile Leac preserve something from the” anxious and drilling spirit of the anvantguard. Leac answers that he reads mainly prose and. As I mentioned at the beginning of this paper. in the imagined situations in real spaces like Nordkapp. over the entire surface of the page. On the other hand. In fact. stranger!. at poets like Cărtărescu. the author takes a total freedom in elaborating the poem. icons from the doors of toillets. The main stream is what Leac’s calls “the deep. Like Dimov.Literature. features which can be found at Dimov. Leac has in common the usage of different icons in the poem: a dog. The oniric roots can be found. On the other hand.”10 In his most recent book of poetry published in 2010. The surrealist features can be found at the level of poetic imagery. In fact. At both Vancu and Leac. Communication. Toţi sînt îngrijoraţi (Everybody is worried)11 V. Leonid Dimov. developing it at the border between poetry and prose. Nobody can say until when. poetry. The quality of their poetry can make them become central at any moment. oniric. all the three parts of the book offer different approaches to poetry.12 Radu Vancu and Vasile Leac continue the postmodern Romanian poetry adding new approaches. but also. Leac speaks about Becket. on the other hand. both Radu Vancu and Vasile Leac are eccentric in the so called generation of the 2000. a pair of gloves. One of the earlier volumes of poetry written by V. No signal and Hei. Mircea Cărtărescu or Cristian Popescu. “ whom I like very. poets who connect. probably a student in marine biology. 51 . Interculturality literary models. ludic. for instance.9 We can find common features between Leac’s and Vancu’s cultural models. ironic. as literary models. they are. Confessional.Leac is intitled Dicţionar de vise (Dictionary of Dreams) a title which is a cultural echo of the famous Cartea de vise (The Book of Dreams) by Leonid Dimov. then Mircea Ivănescu and Cristian Popescu. new poetic ideas. Both the oniric and the surrealist aspects are filtered through a strongly confessional voice. Radu Vancu and Vasile Leac are still. for ludic and for irony. In the far north of Europe. believing in the art of poeta faber. Iaru. This voice is structured in a postmodern manner. But apart from it. Leac imagines the life of a scholar. this form of the poems is misleading because Leac’s poems develop as an original combinations of onirism. surrealism and postmodernism. traditionalist poets. with connections to the biographic poetry specific for the main stream of the 80’s generation. Alexandru Cistelecan defined the art of the “douămiist” poets as „neoexpresionist and not postmodernist”. even though important poets.” I think that we can assimilate the term “traditionalist” with the term “neoexpressionist”. like Vancu.

p. Bucureşti. 2000 Vancu. In the same field of the definition of avantguard. 2000 7 “Intenţia mea a fost să-l fac pe cititor să surâdă” un interviu cu Vasile Leac de Ecaterina Pavel. Sebastian în vis ( Sebastian in Dream). p. Expresionişti după expresionism.of the dossier of a cultural „battle”. 2010 Ilie.liternet. Avantguard poetics in the romanic world) Braşov. 2/2011. Daniel Puia-Dumitrescu şi Dan Ţăranu. Manifestul literar. Moarcăs. Interculturality BIBLIOGRAPHY: Ispas Cristina. Fenomenul poetic românesc postdecembrist (teză de doctorat). Rodica Maria. Daniel PuiaDumitrescu şi Dan Ţăranu în „Corpul T” nr2/2011 8 idem. 2009. Urmuz. “din dosarul unei bătălii culturale”. Tracus Arte. Ion Bogdan. Universitatea din Bucureşti.din dosarul unei „bătălii culturale” (Postmdoernism. Lefter. 2009 4 Radu Vancu. (The literary Manifesto. ed Universităţii Transilvania.p.281. Ed . Douămiism şi 52 . „Corpul T” nr. Vasile. ed. „Corpul T”.3/ 2011 6 The idea of an extended postmodernism is one of Ion Bogdan Lefter basic ideas în Postmodernism. p. Fenomenul poetic românesc postdecembrist (The Romanian Poetic Postdescmbrist Phenomenon) (teză de doctorat). Communication. Expresionişti după expresionism (teză de doctorat).64 9 idem. Adrian L ăcătuş. Toţi sînt îngrijoraţi ( Everybody is worried). Tracus Arte. Ed. Piteşti. 2010 Leac. 2010 12 Al Cistelecan în www. Postmodernism. B: Literatura . 48 5 „Scrisul trebuia să mă scoată dintr-o problemă existenţială şi şi-a făcut treaba” interviu cu Radu Vancu de Ecaterina Pavel. Paralela 45. (Expressionists after Expressionism). 2009 3 Andrei Bodiu. Notes: 1 Cristina Ispas.64 10 Rodica Arte. Paralela 45.Literature. Univeristatea din Bucureşti. „Vatra” nr. Georgeta . Ed Univeristăţii din Braşov. 2009 2 Georgeta Moarcăs. 2008. Radu. (teză de doctorat). Bucureşti. Braşov. Universitatea din Bucureşti. Univeristatea din Bucureşti. 3/ 3009. 2009. „Corpul T” 3/2011. 2008. Poetici ale avangardei în spaţiul romanic . Manifestul literar. Piteşti. Analele Universitatii "Stefan cel Mare" Suceava serie Filologie.2002 11 Toţi sînt îngrijoraţi. Poetici ale avangardei în spaţiul romanic. Bucureşti. www. atelier. atelier.

dans l’anéantissement des influences de l’idéologie. de la morale. la littérature a été considérée. des habitudes héritées de l’ancienne société »1. banals des existences consommées au bord de la société. aussi bien que ceux qui deviennent « les prisonniers de leur propre imagination maladive. dans tous les discours qui vont suivre). En ce sens. qui ne peut donner naissance qu’à une littérature stérile. qui est une période d’autonomisation de la littérature. focusing on the deep felt need to reorganize its status. après une période de libéralisation relative. et même un des plus importants. d’après le modèle soviétique. dans ce qui est appelé (selon une terminologie politique) une étape de gel . Nicolae Ceauşescu dit d’un ton ferme : « L’art doit servir à un seul but : à l’éducation socialiste. Self-culture. Dans les soidisant Thèses de juillet (deux discours prononcés au cours de l’été 1971 et par lesquels. Thus. fantaisie et inspiration au service de la création de l’homme nouveau de l’époque du socialisme et du communisme ! ». Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej dit dans un discours de 1961 : « Étant un genre de la création artistique. Une année plus tard (comme. d’audience auprès du grand public. dans des cafés. Pendant le régime communiste. elle est plus faible pendant la période 1965-1971. qui n’est pas utile à l’homme. grâce à la grande puissance d’influence qu’elle possède. d’ailleurs. dans un discours prononcé à la Conférence Nationale des Ecrivains. Communication. un domaine de l’idéologie. institué en Roumanie en 1947 sous la forme d’une république de démocratie populaire (à la place d’une monarchie constitutionnelle). le chef de l’Etat souligne le rôle magnifique de l’écrivain : « Quel but plus élevé. sont critiqués les écrivains insensibles à cett e cause grandiose et qui cherchent leurs sujets « dans des évènements insignifiants. une forme de l’idéologie et un moyen de propagande qui se subordonne au politique. une littérature officielle. personal histories. Interculturality SANDA CORDOŞ Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca La littérature roumaine d’après-guerre. The article also drafts the biography of the Post-Communist Romanian literature. s’est trop peu 53 . communiste »2. en même temps. dans l’atmosphère de la vie de boulevard ». à son bien-être ou à ses bonheur et élévation spirituelle »3. vision and themes. le nouveau chef du Parti. Notre littérature est appelée à avoir un rôle d’autant plus actif dans la formation de la conscience socialiste. languissante. Une partie des écrivains assument ces directives politiques et ce sont eux qui réalisent en Roumanie la littérature de propagande. Une ébauche The article “The Post-War Romanian Literature" seeks to clarify the main features of the Romanian post-war literature in terms of its relationship with the Communist authorities and their directives. Elle est souveraine de 1947 à 1964. dépourvue de force émotionnelle. Présence constante pendant le régime communiste. elle connaît des étapes différentes. En revanche. la littérature est. pendant laquelle Nicolae Ceauşescu.Literature. quelle mission plus noble peuvent avoir les hommes de la plume que ceux de mettre leurs talent. il se produit un retour vers la doctrine jdanovienne et staliniste sur la littérature). one can distinguish between a type of literature that turns into propaganda and a type of literature that attempts to circumvent the political and preserve individual values such as: memory.

Cette manière d’assumer le rôle peut être trouvé non pas seulement dans les pages publiées dans le postcommunisme. et qui. une énorme inflation de souffrance.Literature. en 1989) un langage hypocrite. une littérature alternative. Pourtant. courageux. quand la littérature de propagande se manifeste surtout par la participation au culte de la personnalité. a offert la chance d’une résistance contre celle-ci. Malgré tout cela. Par contre.. chez nous. par ses écrits. Sîrbu (l’un des rares écrivains qui a écrit quelques livres destinés au tiroir) s’adresse à un ami dans une lettre de 1987 : « Mais. dans l’œuvre d’un même écrivain. non pas d’un présent héroïque. publiés par des rédacteurs. même les pages les plus héroïques. les écrivains parlent dans leurs œuvres non pas d’un passé glorieux. Ainsi. Marin Preda considère que l’écrivain doit « donner voix à l’inquiétude morale des masses » et rester du côté non pas de l’Histoire (l’un des grands principes souverains de l’idéologie communiste). à la suite des luttes épuisantes et prolongées ». notamment dans ses ouvrages fictionnels. Mais pas seulement. mais d’une mémoire outragée. Toute la littérature que j’ai écrite tout au long de ces années pourrait s’inscrire dans la formule de Panait Istrati. Petrescu considère que la littérature de la résistance englobe « les 54 . dans la presse et dans des volumes publiés en honneur du président. l’optimisme officiel pratiqué dans la presse (surtout à l’approche des dates importantes du calendrier officiel) et une inquiétude présente dans ses volumes personnels. une souffrance jamais articulée ou racontée. qui fonctionne à l’échelle nationale. nous n’avons pas le droit de traverser la vie comme des esclaves sans confession. il y a. pendant lesquelles la littérature s’est efforcée de maintenir une certaine autonomie par rapport au Pouvoir. en se demandant. tandis que l’histoire est lente et impassible»5. En se situant du côté de la marche obstinée des gens ordinaires (et non pas du côté de la marche enthousiasmée des grands gens des prescriptions officielles). elle a assumé le risque de renoncer au silence pour rester « toujours à côté des candidats à la défaite »4. une littérature qui a soutenu d’autres valeurs et d’autres sujets que ceux de la littérature officielle. Il y a ainsi dans la Roumanie d’après guerre. jusqu’à la chute du régime. Interculturality intéressé à régler la vie littéraire. et nous nous sentions coupables même pour notre courage. A l’exception de la première période d’après l’institution du régime communiste (en particulier les années ‘50). dans des formes de plus en plus dégradées. celle-ci a essayé de se soustraire au triomphalisme spécifique de l’homme nouveau et de parler le langage beaucoup plus riche de l’homme de toujours. en sachant que l’homme n’a qu’une seule vie à vivre. On retrouve ainsi. Dans un article paru après 1990. Ion D. Communication. Nous écrivions des œuvres courageuses. dans les périodes qui ont suivi.. appelée par certains commentateurs littérature de la résistance. mais de l’individu. Il se développe de plus en plus pendant cette période (qui dure. à côté de la littérature de propagande. mais d’un présent inquiétant. Ioana Em. Constamment. dans un article de 1990. Ana Blandiana avoue le dilemme qu’elle a vécu pendant la période totalitaire : « si ce n’est pas par hasard plus honnête de ne pas du tout publier. par conséquent. [. mais aussi dans quelques professions de croyance parues à l’époque. elle revêt de nouvelles formes après 1971.] c’est-à-dire : Les confessions des vaincus ! »6. «quel est le destin de chaque homme séparément. parce que nous n’étions pas sûrs que ce courage ne serait pas manipulé et utilisé comme un argument pour démontrer une liberté d’expression qui au fond n’existait pas et qui pouvait être seulement de temps en temps réalisée par le risque des individualités séparées et des solidarités tacites. à leur tour. dans les conditions dans lesquelles nous publiions.

attentive (les livres dignes d’être lus. pensées. aujourd’hui cette culture tolérée a l’air de se suffoquer. elle n’est pas ni une culture alternative . la dramatique histoire du servage de l’académicien David Prodan ou. aussi bien que du rôle assumé (d’une manière atypique) par la 55 . la série „Orientalia”. […] Puissante tout au long des années ’70 et même au début des années ’80. ses désirs. a survécu quand même. une fois avec la dégradation accélérée du système. Qu’est-ce que la littérature a réussi à faire pendant toute cette période ? Elle a réussi à remplir. l’acte culturel fondamental de récupération – soit-elle tardive – de la philosophie grecque. Et. intensive) et projective – dans le sens que le lecteur projette dans le texte ses propres aspirations secrètes. je veux dire. parus à grande peine. mais aussi progressivement limitée. toujours ajournés. observe Marin Preda : « Qu’on demande souvent à l’écrivain roumain de faire un travail d’archiviste. relativement peu nombreux. d’une manière dont elle n’a pas été capable de survivre dans les décennies 5-6. une fonction de mémoire communautaire dans un régime caractérisé – selon le politologue Vladimir Tismăneanu – par « amnésie et viol psychique »10. Mircea Iorgulescu considère que la littérature participe plutôt à une culture tolérée : « il y a en Roumanie. Cette culture tolérée prolonge les élans démocrates et libertaires de la fin des années ’60. toutes ces mesures qui ont été menées les dernières années contre la culture tolérée montrent que le pouvoir tend maintenant de l’annuler. L’importance et le mécanisme de la lecture sont expliqués aussi par un théoricien de la relecture . de politologue. le degré de tolérance a beaucoup baissé. Cette littérature a joué un rôle très important dans le totalitarisme. fait extrêmement important. Son existence en Roumanie n’a pas rendu possible l’apparition d’une littérature et d’une culture de type „samizdat”. elle est une culture autonome. Quoi d’autre sinon une admirable „littérature de la résistance” signifient non pas seulement le roman politique des 15 dernières années. qu’il n’est plus disposé à l’accepter »8. l’explosion des années ’80 ? La culture roumaine majeure. des revues dont le tirage est interdit à la diffusion et brûlé. À son tour. des livres en cours d’impression qui ont été retirés et fondus. authentique. un travail de sociologue. Sur la base de cette fonction. une autonomie bien sûr limitée. peu nombreux. émigré de Roumanie dans les années ’70. L’intérêt pour ce type de lecture dérive de la tension entre l’attention et la projection. à l’autre pôle des âges. souvent mutilés. C’est justement pour cela. outre la culture officielle.Literature. une culture tolérée aussi. même si partiellement. La lecture qui en résulte est en même temps rigoureuse. Des revues supprimées. d’historien. lourde et proclamée dans une époque où le verbe „professionnaliser” est apparu comme synonyme avec une accusation politique. entre le respect pour la lettre et la tendance de voir dans le texte une expression allégorique du drame du lecteur»9. Matei Călinescu note dans son autobiographie : « Lire dans un monde totalitaire est presque identique à lire dans la prison – quand les gardiens vous le permettent. sont soumis à une lecture profonde. avant de passer à la rédaction d’un livre sur des sujets d’histoire contemporaine »11. dont l’existence est formellement acceptée par le pouvoir. théories. Interculturality livres. Elle n’est pas une culture parallèle . mais par une métamorphose qui à long terme conduit à l’asphyxie. Communication. et une des explications de l’augmentation du nombre des écrivains qui ont pris position par rapport à la politique du régime est la suivante : la limitation drastique de l’autonomie dont ils s’étaient réjouis. son public a survécu aussi »7. mais depuis quelques années. les essais d’Anton Dumitriu. mais jamais pervertis dans leur vérité. mais aussi les écrits de Constantin Noica et de son école.

La façon dont on vivait alors. la scission. Bunavestire. car – selon Gabriela Adameşteanu – « A cette époque-là. d’intimité » se produit dans un des plus intéressants écrits autobiographiques : Supravieţuiri (vol. la récupération de son intériorité qui à cette époque-là « n’avait pas de biographie. aussi bien qu’une riche thématique religieuse. est condamnée et interdite. au seuil de l’Apocalypse. des mondes rongées par le mensonge. Cel mai iubit dintre pămînteni). trahisons. Dans la période des années ’50. et ça fait beaucoup quand même – je n’ai jamais demandé d’avantage d’un livre »12. les livres ne pouvaient rien changer. Vlad. de dévoiler la vérité communautaire. l’aliénation. développée notamment dans le roman. de son rapport abusif avec l’individu. Un rôle très important dans cette culture du moi este joué par la poésie. Tia Şerbănescu (Femeia din fotografie). une intéressante prose psychologique. Al. le fait banal. dans ces années-là. précisément parce qu’elle indiquait une problématique du pouvoir politique. dans des romans tels În absenţa stăpînilor. de culture. des émotions individuelles. Mais plus tard. il s’est développé toute une orientation de la prose littéraire : la prose de l’obsédante décennie. Changer. I-VI. défaites. Il se développe. Florenţa Albu (Zidul martor). la culpabilité ont été construites. par conviction. Livius Ciocârlie (Paradisul derizoriu). de racine. Un écrivain comme Radu Cosaşu exécute. Vînătoare regală. la soi-disant poésie intimiste. Interculturality littérature. Orgolii). la haine. 56 . qui cherche à investiguer les psychologies des vaincus. Muşina). Selon Herta Müller. Dumitru Radu Popescu (en particulier le cycle F duquel font partie les romans F. tout comme la littérature du quotidien est un vrai programme littéraire de la génération des années ’80 (Mircea Cărtărescu. S’inscrivent ici – comme sommets esthétiques – les romans de Marin Preda (Moromeţii. Dimineaţa pierdută. Une autre fonction assumée par la littérature a été de préserver une culture du moi dans une société qui se propose la dissolution de l’individualité et son absorption dans un nous exprimé seulement par le truchement de l’idéologie officielle. Elle réussit à exprimer les sujets de la sensibilité contemporaine : la solitude. dans la littérature. aujourd’hui ressemble à un document »13. Mircea Nedelciu. Elle l’écrit elle-même dans un roman exceptionnel. Constantin Ţoiu (Galeria cu viţă sălbatică).Literature. O bere pentru calul meu). de naissance d’un moi. Cette orientation a été aussi appelée à l’époque une orientation du roman politique. Il s’agit des écrits dus à Mircea Zaciu (Jurnal). respectivement dans les journaux et les lettres qui paraîtront seulement après 1989. en esquissant l’image d’une Roumanie exaspérée. Le représentant le plus important de cette orientation est Nicolae Breban. Il est noté ici le processus douloureux. cette exigence. qui cherche à parler d’inadaptation et d’échec. au niveau „ du détail”. Al. Communication. Ne serait -ce que ça. de l’abysse intérieur. Cette réalité devenue subversive à cause du gri (mais aussi de la famine et du froid) qui l’éloignait de plus en plus du rose des documents officiels est présente aussi dans la littérature souterraine. Une autre fonction assumée par la littérature est de consigner (en particulier dans les années ‘80) la réalité immédiate. II. passé par des doutes. 1973-1989). Constamment placées dans les années ’50 (l’obsédante décennie). Gh. officiellement interdite aussi dans un régime déclaré (et militant) athée. les livres – lus sans cesse et assidûment discutés avec les amis – « t’aidaient à ne pas rester muet devant toi-même. Îngerul de gips. par la fiction. Adina Kenereş. le quotidien était déjà entré dans la zone interdite. Victor Felea (Jurnalul unui poet leneş). Crăciun. ils décrivaient seulement comment c’est l’homme quand il n’y a aucun bonheur possible. Ioan Groşan. Bujor Nedelcovici (la trilogie Somnul vameşului). Augustin Buzura (Feţele tăcerii.

Un autre critique. accaparante. on n’a aucun moyen de salut. participe à un phénomène littéraire que j’appellerais la détabouisation de la Roumanie. leurs lecteurs) que ce monde s’éclaircisse.Literature. n’écrivent plus (pour longtemps) de littérature. déboussolée. On n’est que des larves paresseuses . Une partie de l’imaginaire de ces prosateurs qui proviennent des générations et poétiques différentes présente certaines ressemblances. sera submergée ». La position et le prestige de l’écrivain dans le régime communiste disparaissent après 1989. mémoires. Bogdan Suceavă. Florenţa Albu écrit : « Dans la réalité historique donnée – un seul courant s’unit : l’apocalyptique »16. ne serait-ce que dans son désordre et cauchemar. Une fin sans fin du monde »14. Petre Barbu. Bien des écrivains de première importance de la vie littéraire d’avant 1989 entrent dans un cône d’ombre. Cistelecan: « Bien sûr. souvent insupportable. Liviu Ioan Stoiciu (Jurnal stoic din anul revoluţiei). croit (en 1990) que « la littérature. notre paradis artificiel par lequel on a traversé autant de saisons en enfer. sinon séduisante. Dan Lungu. la réponse artistique apparaît plus difficilement. Par contre. Tia Şerbănescu se place là aussi : « C’est une chose faite. […] Il y aura une faim terrible pour des témoignages. on a renoncé à réfléchir. arrivée au bout de ses forces intérieures. photographies. La littérature accuse donc. les livres de ces 57 . Dans les pages des auteurs tels Gabriela Adameşteanu. de sorte qu’un retour intéressant de ces écrivains ne se produit que vers la fin de années ’90. afin de donner une réponse immédiate à la réalité kaléidoscopique et. Petru Cimpoeşu. Sîrbu (Scrisori către bunul Dumnezeu). Stelian Tănase : « Une respiration dans un espace sans dimensions. par contre. à coup sûr. Dan C. Effrayée par « les pogromes roumains contre les Roumains ». voilà ce qui était consigné dans ces écrits personnels. pour des statistiques. Interculturality Liviu Antonesei (Jurnal din anii ciumei: 1987-1989). Seulement une respiration. d’un genre littéraire qui comprend les mémoires historiques de récupération d’un passé interdit qui a dans son centre l’expérience de la prison . Selon le critique Al. peut-être. on a renoncé à discerner »15. Ion D. Stelian Tănase (Acasă se vorbeşte în şoaptă) etc. Les écrivains ont attendu (tout comme. Adrian Oţoiu. par le bon fonctionnement des maisons d’édition telles Polirom. la publication des œuvres autobiographiques. dans le postcommunisme. L’explication du critique mérite d’être retenue : « Après avoir consommé cette première étape de notre convalescence. il n’est ni agréable ni facile pour un écrivain qui a vécu le vertige de son propre classicisme de devoir maintenant ne pas confirmer qu’il est un „classique”. inintéressants. de confirmer qu’il est un écrivain »17. Radu Pavel Gheo ou Florina Ilis est présentée une Roumanie de nos jours. de nouveaux phénomènes : la réintégration dans la littérature de Roumanie (avec droit de circulation et de discussion publique) des écrivains exilés . Humanitas. Paralela 45 etc. la fin du monde nous trouve plus prêts. Par le destin des personnages. Toujours à cette époque-là on peut parler d’une stabilité du système éditorial. Communication. enquêtes »18. entrent dans la politique ou dans le journalisme. terrifiante. Pour se faire une idée de cette fin des années ’80. Mihăilescu. une crise qui a deux aspects : institutionnel (la littérature doit créer et soutenir ses propres institutions) et scriptural : quelques-uns des sujets. Dumitru Ţepeneag. pour le document nu. le monde voudra deux chose simultanément : comprendre (c’est-à-dire se rappeler) et oublier (c’est-à-dire guérir complètement). Ils s’intéressent surtout aux publications périodiques. Il apparaît. mais. aussi bien que la conception d’avant 1989 deviennent inactuels. mais non pas une vie. plus aptes pour elle que jamais. en échange. Seulement le bruit truqué d’une respiration.

Spaima de literatură. en le rendant – ce qui est de la compétence de l’art – sinon supportable. Dan Sociu. Lucian Dan Teodorovici. 1994. Blandiana. Les écrivains des années 2000 refusent le thème de l’obsédant communisme et proposent leur propre authenticité et leurs propres thèmes : le voyage. Albu. 58 . Zidul martor (Pagini de jurnal). Je ne dirais pas que c’est une génération sans mémoire. social. Bucureşti. Liviu Bîrsan etc. Parmi eux. Alexandru Vaculovski. non ignorables à la question obsédante de la société roumaine de nos jours : qui sommes-nous ? Après 2000. la corporalité. la sexualité. Ionuţ Chiva. plusieurs fois.10-11. En vue de la nouvelle authenticité. ces écrivains lancent des représentations communautaires troublantes. 1994. C’est le cas de certains auteurs tels Florina Ilis. je retiendrais : Cecilia Ştefănescu. Communication. Amintiri în dialog. Dan Lungu. le langage des groupes musicaux. une périphérie des déclassés. Humanitas. Qu’ils font cela parfois avec des moyens de l’anti-littérature. Ioana Nicolae. în “Familia”. Florenţa. oppressive. Al. ne ressentent plus ce trauma communautaire comme étant le leur. Bucureşti. Polirom. Matei. Adrian Schiop. anti-bibliothèque) utilise les formes du livresque. d’autres écrivains. mais plutôt une génération contre cette mémoire confuse et. Gabriela. qui a d’autres thèmes et d’autres préoccupations. Călinescu. Filip Florian. Bogdan Suceavă. En se confrontant avec les thèmes les plus graves de la vie communautaire (la migration. le passage d’un monde à l’autre. Doina Ioanid. de la dictature au postcommunisme. Sous un nom commun. l’inadaptation de type underground. Tout comme je dirais qu’on assiste à un passage d’une marginalité des inadaptés esthètes (qui se retrouvaient dans la littérature des générations antérieures) à un underground véritable. Ce qui me paraît intéressant c’est que. la littérature (ré)essaie des alliances nouvelles et intéressantes : avec le reportage. en mettant en mouvement l’acuité et la profondeur de l’art. on parle de plus en plus souvent de l’apparition d’une nouvelle génération littéraire. Iaşi.Literature. Întîlnirea. Ion Vianu. Iaşi. Cistelecan. Interculturality écrivains réinventent narrativement un pays. 2006. pour elle. BIBLIOGRAPHIE : Adameşteanu. en proposant des réponses substantielles. la crise de la famille. alors intelligible et accessible. mais aussi la force propre à l’épique. le manque de chance et d’avenir. Cartea Românească. des auteurs différents sont groupés entre eux. 2003. le désespoir et la folie). Ana-Maria Sandu. soit qu’il s’agisse d’une mémoire personnelle ou d’une mémoire communautaire. Pour eux. Ana. Pourtant.. Polirom.(anti-culture. plus jeunes de quelques années. Corneliu Porumboiu – qui ont vers les 40 ans) des artistes de la mémoire. la sociologie etc. 1970-1990. nr. en le débarrassant des clichées et des tabous. est fondamental et ils mettent leur propre art au service de cette investigation. 1998. „Istoria a provocat un fel de repetenţie generală a scriitorimii noastre”. Certains d’entre eux continuent d’être (tout comme les cinéastes de la nouvelle vague – Cristian Mungiu. cette attitude anti. c’est un phénomène lui-même bien connu dans la littérature. Ioana Bradea.

Gheorghe. p. Editura Politică. 3 Nicolae Ceauşescu. Bucureşti. Bucureşti. 8. 13 Gabriela Adameşteanu. anul XXIX. Nicolae. în „Tribuna”.. 15. Bucureşti. 11 ianuarie 1990. 2005. Popescu. Bucureşti. édition par Ion Vartic. 2002. în „Vatra”. 2003. anul XXIX. Petrescu. Müller. Cartea Românească. anul XXV. Popescu. Gheorghiu-Dej. 2. 12 Herta Müller. nr. anul II. p. Marin. 8 Mircea Iorgulescu. 51. 5. 2. 4 Ana Blandiana. nr. Regele se-nclină şi ucide. serie nouă. Femeia din fotografie.6 -9. Scrisori către bunul Dumnezeu. édition par V. édition par Ion Vartic. nr. 1964. 2000. Sîrbu. nu?. 1989. édition par V. nr. Tia. traductions et notes par Alexandru Al. Tănase. 15 februarie 1961. Mircea. România – ultima banchiză.. Ion Vianu. Preda. mai. Editura Biblioteca Apostrof. Cuvîntare rostită la Conferinţa organizaţiei de partid a oraşului Bucureşti. Crăciun et C. 2005. Cartea Românească. anul II. Biblioteca Apostrof. pp. Ceauşescu. 1972. Bucureşti. Petrescu. Femeia din fotografie. 7 Ioana Em. p. Scrisori către bunul Dumnezeu. Bucureşti. Şerbănescu. Expunere la Consfătuirea de lucru a activului de partid din domeniul ideologiei şi al activităţii politice şi cultural-educative. 2000. 2006. Compania. în „Viaţa românească”. Arheologia terorii. serie nouă. 11 ianuarie 1990. Regele se-nclină şi ucide. Dosar & Jurnal din anii tîrzii ai dictaturii. pp. Legea pieţei. Acasă se vorbeşte în şoaptă. Şahighian. 13 aprilie 1990. Bucureşti. Bucureşti. Marin. Creaţie şi morală. Notes : 1 Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej. Cluj. 15. Polirom. în „Tribuna”. nr. Jurnal 1987-1989. 166. Dosar & Jurnal din anii tîrzii ai dictaturii. în „Viaţa românească”. Cartea Românească. 1989. nr. august 2001. Herta. 6 Ion D.Literature. 15 februarie 1961. 5. Amintiri în dialog. nr. în „22”. Iorgulescu. Editura Compania. Cuvîntarea la Conferinţa Naţională a Scriitorilor din Republica Socialistă România. Literatura “rezistenţei”. Bucureşti. 193.21. 1998. Şahighian. Iaşi. p. 519-520. 114. 14 Stelian Tănase. Editura Polirom. p. Editura ALLFA.11.. Stelian. 1 şi 2. nr. Compania. Creaţie şi morală. p. Iaşi. Polirom. Cuvîntare rostită la Conferinţa organizaţiei de partid a oraşului Bucureşti. pp. Communication. Acasă se vorbeşte în şoaptă. raport republicat în „Vatra”.305-306. 8. Ion D. pp. Literatura “rezistenţei”. Polirom. Crăciun et C. în „Contrapunct”. Preda. 24. Imposibila întoarcere. Bucureşti. august 2001. Spaima de literatură. 43 şi p. 59 . Ioana Em. 13 aprilie 1990. Cuvîntarea la Conferinţa Naţională a Scriitorilor din Republica Socialistă România . 1998. 5 Marin Preda. în „Contrapunct”. 30 martie 1990. Iaşi. Bucureşti. Cartea Românească. pp. Expunere la Consfătuirea de lucru a activului de partid din domeniul ideologiei şi al activităţii politice şi cultural-educative. 2002. Compania. Imposibila întoarcere. Editura Politică. nr. mai. 11 Marin Preda. Dan C. 1998. 10 Vladimir Tismăneanu. anul XXV. p. 179. Jurnal 1987-1989. 1971. p. postface à Întîlnirea. Bucureşti. 306. Mihăilescu. Interculturality Ceauşescu. 2 Nicolae Ceauşescu. 1972. 1964. Iaşi.42 -44. p. Cluj. 1971. traductions par Alexandru Al. România – ultima banchiză. 90 15 Tia Şerbănescu. Sîrbu. 9 Matei Călinescu. Editura Humanitas. Nicolae.

Zidul martor (Pagini de jurnal).Literature. Legea pieţei. Interculturality 16 17 Florenţa Albu. Communication. p. 1970-1990. în “22”. nr.Cistelecan. “Istoria a provocat un fel de repetenţie generală a scriitorimii noastre”. p.4. Cartea Românească. în “Familia”. Al.11. nr. 30 martie 1990. Bucureşti. 358. nu?. 18 Dan C. 60 .10-11. octombrie-noiembrie 1994.Mihăilescu. p.33. 1994.

written by Wellek himself. One type is not a history of art. although – strangely enough – Wellek himself had delineated clearly the criticism from the literary history and theory. we will detect here a similar dilemma. Almost seven decades ago. such an approach is obviously restrictive: it is as if we condensed the history of poetry to the history of artes poeticae. For this purpose. between the ‘pure’ theory and the ‘applied’ commentary.”1 The consequences of this statement are generally known: a great part of the contemporary literary historiography still lives in the shadow of this paradox. not a history of art. However. First. most literary criticism historians take into consideration the Theory. Several hypotheses The consequences of this state of things are by no means auspicious. whose reception was carried out. many historians ignore frequently an ordinary aspect: the reality of the reading announces recurrently the critics’ theoretical intents. Communication. Interculturality ANDREI TERIAN Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu Toward a History of Critical Reading This paper proposes the plan of an alternative history of literary criticism. Our hypothesis is then checked by the analysis of the readings dedicated to the Romanian writers Ion Creangă. the American critic failed to note that these issues are not raised only by literature as such. we advance the hypothesis that. which should be able to avoid both the mere succession of theories and methods in the traditional historiography and the simple registration of the succession of representations of the works and authors. in its ‘phenomenal’ incarnations. Mihail Sadoveanu and George Bacovia. there is an intermediate level. seeking to reconcile successfully the criticism and the ‘general’ history. could be an exception: essentially. In the act of reading. For example. Then. histories of literary theory in which the authors attempt to reconstruct from the shards of the analyses the grand mirrors of theories and methods. if we consider the literary criticism. and certainly not The History of Romanian Literary Criticism. the 61 . The conclusion of this paper is that such a history of critical reading provides us with the opportunity of considering in a unified manner the literary paradigm shifts and. it is a history of literary theories from neoclassicism to the Second World War. considered by the ‘aesthetics of reception’. In other words.Literature. René Wellek put across a famous aporia of the literary history: “Most leading histories of literature are either histories of civilization or collections of critical essays. A conclusive aspect in this direction: the only history of this genre existing in Romania – Florin Mihăilescu’s2 – is called Conceptul de critică literară în România [The Concept of Literary Criticism in Romania] . the level of the categories that govern the interpretation and the valuation of works during a certain period. Most histories of literary criticism are. rather than the Criticism seen as an autonomous set of heterogeneous practices. but also by the manner of commenting it. thus. throughout the 20 th century. along the ‘natural’ – ‘artistic’ (‘artificial’) – ‘bookish’ (‘livresque’) axis. in fact. to reintegrate better the history of literary criticism in the history of literature as a whole. But not even the monumental History of Modern Criticism3. the other.

However. the important aspect is that regularities exist and that they can be described. the empirical behaviour determines the theory and not the other way around. When discussing Borges. a sociological one. regularly ignored until now: the reading. Certainly. another obstacle is seen here: could we cut satisfying paradigms in the heterogeneous field of the critical readings? As far as I am concerned. the essential problem lingers: is an alternative history of criticism possible. ever since the structuralism.S. I will attempt to further draw a small theory on this phenomenon. similarly to how the poets comply with the promises they make in their artes poeticae. this idea originates in an older essentialist (even metaphysical) preconception.Literature.e. As it may be easily guessed. but I see no impediment in using this model in order to describe the position of the interpretations in relation to a literary work or paradigm. certainly. the reality is completely different. All the more so as. Like a pupil who cannot use his spelling book without help from the teacher. many times. with respect to the precedence of theory over practice.. Therefore. whereas the works as such are present only in the conceptual glasshouse painstakingly built around them by the critics. I believe that the diversity of the critical readings is not substantially different from the diversity of the literary creations. On the other hand. I cannot see a more appropriate metaphor to describe this clash of interpretations than the image of the ‘field’. it does not lack signification. criticism can only build on the ruins of former structures. However. it is undeniable that two different readings of the novel Madame Bovary share more common notes than. We only need to find the appropriate concepts. likewise. no matter how spread in time they are. in T. one that could see in the evolution of the genre something different from a mere succession of theories? The alternative could be given only by shifting the problem to another level. Interculturality critics often move away from their assumed method. While it is homogeneous at the level of the object. and literary history is at least as much the history of the way and the reasons for reading as it is the history of the ways or the aims of writing. which can only be dreamt of by the ‘regular’ criticism. Gérard Genette explained. the differences are as important as the convergences. Rome’s expansionism could only manifest fully once the ground on which once stood Carthage was ploughed. even if we were to surmount such a preconception. since metacriticism enjoys a consistency of its own object. ‘A literature differs from another less in the text than in the way it is read: if I could read any page written today – such as this page – as it will be read in the year 2000. such an observation is embarrassingly commonplace. in several sentences. Pierre Bourdieu uses it often7 in order to illustrate the arrangement of agents in the social space. Which of these coordinates determine the other – this is an issue I’m not interested in here. exist. His perspective is. too. the works. here. However. Communication. Irrespective of how challenged the concept of ‘literary work’ may have been. in a simultaneous “ideal 62 . Madame Bovary and Le Rouge et le Noir. the relation between these two plans: “Each book is reborn in each reading. Eliot’s words. the critical reading is necessary polemic. Nevertheless. works commented on). irrespective of whether we label it ‘unfaithful’5 (Nicolae Manolescu) or ‘antithetical’6 (Harold Bloom). as well as their readings. Certainly. for. for instance. I would know the literature of the year 2000’”4. but they always intersect on an empirical field (i. there is a coherence of the readings of an era as there is equivalence between these readings and the works that determined them. the critic should follow the advice from the theoretician meant to alphabetise him. Readings are heterogeneous.

in which Creangă was seen as “a bookish author”. Finally. Interculturality order”8. of paradigms) by the weakening or. a “great talent”. More precisely. ‘national’) literary material from the (individual and original) literary form. often eluded by literary theorists. Călinescu’s interpretation closes thus a loop: during one half of a century. Bourdieu’s model has three major advantages. the reading of three important Romanian writers (Ion Creangă. Creangă. they allow a more comprehensible development of the process occurred in one of the ‘subfields’ mentioned. his tone. the inspired fact of having stayed close to the people’s heart. of turning it into ‘art’. Several examples However. original owing to “his sensitivity. I will refer to the manner in which. because of its polarisation (positive and negative). the chart is complex enough so as not to mutilate the corresponding empirical reality. Creangă becomes a “fine” writer. This ‘popular’ stereotype will only be rectified by Ibrăileanu’s studies – Povestirile lui Creangă [Creanga’s Stories (1910)] and I. Beyond this. However. throughout the 20th century. Ţăranul şi târgovăţul [I. but also because. or briefly. when he has placed Creangă’s writing in the category of the ‘popular novel’10. a scaling reduction for a series of ‘subfields’ that coexist and whose tectonics determines the system’s general variations. in its turn. It is not the ‘nature’ (material) of the prose that matters now. in order to exit this arid ground of discussion. In this new critical representation.Literature. collective. given the extensive process of their reception. The prose writer is placed here in the sphere of ‘learned’ literature and. was stating that the prose writer’s works “act only in the direction of rendering to us. Titu Maiorescu himself had anticipated it in Literatura română şi străinătatea [The Romanian Literature and the Overseas (1882)] . Second. noting only one aspect: the writer proves his skill in the area of popular culture and not in the space of modern literature. Creangă’s creation had walked the way from the ‘natural’ to the ‘bookish’ (via the ‘artistic’). it is a dynamic model that explains the changes within the (succession of movements. eventually an artisan11. a true artist. which dissociate the (anonymous. I would better use several examples that can illustrate more compellingly what was said. unspoiled by foreign tendencies and neologisms in vocabulary and syntax. but the author’s ability of processing it. First. Iorga affixes here the well-known image – later turned into a preconception – of Creangă’s ‘popularity’. by the intensification of the forces claiming the field. Shortly after Ion Creangă’s death (1839-1889). I am talking about the ‘natural’ – ‘artistic’ – ‘bookish’ axis. and came to attain diametrically opposite significations to whose attributed to it in the starting point. even more. Briefly. in short. the thesis was already commonplace in the epoch. his turn of phrase”. This happens because Bourdieu’s field is. one of his first commentators. which reveals one of the most important polarities of the critical reading. “an erudite” and “an aesthete of the philology”12. N. whose main merit seems to have been his artlessness. Communication. The Peasant and the Town Dweller (1924)] –. But the preconception of the ‘people’s writer’ was definitively shattered only by Călinescu’s monograph. on the contrary. Mihail Sadoveanu and George Bacovia) evolved. Călinescu deems him a downright intellectual author. the authentic spirit of the people from whom he learnt his writing craft and who placed on this vivacious and sturdy temperament their indelible seal”9. Iorga. it also includes an axiological perspective. Creanga. of formulas. their ‘cases’ are relevant first of all owing to their ‘canonical’ status. During the 63 .

However.]. so to speak. bearing no resemblance with its partial sources”17. He will bring it by using one of Ibrăileanu’s preferred arguments: the language.”18 In this manner. Paleologu. rural. However. The specificity of the novelist’s work is described here in several sentences that will become famous in the Romanian criticism: “The World and the Book face each other relentlessly: and their relation is the most profound concern of Sadoveanu’s last works. Transylvanian and even Wallachian speech. instead it is handed as a necessary result. but not in this line of argumentation. both of them share the same common image of the work. Interculturality immediately following epoch. Ibrăileanu will seek to prove the writer’s capacity of ‘creation’.. The imaginary universe of the literature is the sacred cave in which the writer shuts himself. Constantin Ciopraga. and as the intimacy with the physical or moral ‘nature’). Communication. By considering the 1930s histor ical novels “the writer’s most valid work”. sentencing the future readings – even those made by skilled exegetes such as Al. like Breb. a surprise came from a young critic who considered that “everything was said about Creangă. last Deceneus of a serene and morally uplifting art. the polemics between the two critics is significant for a specific mentality: none of them challenges the other’s interpretations. for a long time. all the semantic alternatives had already been exhausted. Sadoveanu’s readings will be marked by ‘naturalism’ (doubly understood: as the historical movement founded by Zola. For several decades. Călinescu remarks here Sadoveanu’s “maturity of the verbal means”: the language is “unreal [. it is impossible to say something absolutely new” 13. “New (absolutely new?) things” have been said ever since. Ion Vlad or Monica Spiridon – to enter a fortiori an epigone corridor. they close the circle of the interpretation. to a certain extent: in the ‘subfield’ we are discussing here (which was.. an original blend of Neculce’s. Therefore. In his 1906 academic report. but this time his demonstration remains in the sphere of the general ideas 16. somehow similar to a natural law”14. asserted by Nicolae Manolescu in his 1976 monograph. Lovinescu locks the novelist in the formula of a “lyrical materialism: life is sung depending on its elementary functions. This also explains why the ‘artistic’ proof of Sadoveanu’s work will be brought only later by Călinescu in his 1941 Istoria literaturii române [History of the Romanian Literature] . the dispute between ‘natural’ and 64 . Nicolae Manolescu was right. on bestiality. Particularly that the author of this statement was himself a follower of Călinescu’s style and of the unrestricted re(invention) of the creation. learned language and religious language. but merely his value judgments. in the definitive edition of the first volume of Critice [Critical Essays (1925)] . but each of them assesses it differently. but of two ideologies. lacking ideal preoccupations”15. Several years later. this perspective will be substituted by the image of an erudite and intertextual Sadoveanu. a utopia of the book. “everything was said”. the core of the critical concerns on Creangă). Hence. this is not a clash of two systems of reading.Literature. Things were different with the reception of Mihail Sadoveanu (1880-1961). The beautiful Book prevails over an ugly World. Conversely. depending on instincts. The space of the possible interpretations had become saturated. A quarter of century later. With respect to George Bacovia (1881-1957). Titu Maiorescu notes the “simplicity” of the characters’ speech (“each according to his special nature”) an identified the “highest merit” of Sadoveanu’s story in the veridical culmination of the action: “The denouement is never strained. the ‘natural’. therefore. The rehabilitation he had managed to perform for Creangă will fail in Sadoveanu’s case.

reverses the meaning of the bookish metamorphosis: from mimetic (at Călinescu). Maniu). In other words: “Only now can we talk about a total indiscernible nature between poetry and existence”24. but at the other extremity of the interpretation: “G. The tone of the new perception was set by Ion Bogdan Lefter. just as dampness is the tear of damp walls. halfway through the 1980s. Thus.”21 Therefore. In fact. the tone of sarcasm in the voice or in the manner of installing images which indicates – in an excessive manner or purely devoid of intent – the parody of decadent symbolism. One of them is the 65 . scrape kinaesthesia. who.”23 Such a reading moves away both from Lovinescu’s interpretation (this time. it is not rationalised. as a simple. At another end. Several conclusions The previous examples lead us to several important conclusions. which is not intellectualised. a disintegration of the language takes place. anti-metaphorical nature of Bacovia’s last volumes. of the rains and of the snow with which it blends.. in modernism) is challenged. but the author’s verse is increasingly praised for his last volumes. through syncope. and concluded that the poet “has travelled the road of the transition from modernism to postmodernism”22. it did identify. nonetheless. this contextualisation will be radicalised. Călinescu. rejected bluntly or simply ignored by the previous critics.. A. it is the poetry of the inert. sometimes bordering on pastiche.] a path is travelled. it involves an important existential value). artless poetry (E. it is a relocation. Lovinescu. it becomes purely polemic. it is not spiritualised. who emphasised the prosaic. the former placed Bacovia in the category of “poetry of atmosphere”. which would mean. Without being exclusively revealed in the polemics between E. kinaesthesia that does not differentiate from the putrid nature of autumn.-V. Not only that the poet’s integration in symbolism (or. and leading to the wrecking of the formula rather than to its accomplishment: “At Bacovia. Apparently. Moreover: “Bacovia’s poetry is the expression of the most elementary of the soul states. according to the critic. But it’s precisely the artifice that strikes you and definitely builds its value. intensely beastly kinaesthesia. Gheorghe Crăciun will see in G. Communication. an interesting phenomenon is seen in Bacovia’s case. Nevertheless. generally. The grin.Literature. Bacovia’s poetry was strangely seen as lacking any poetical artifice. Interculturality ‘artificial’ polarised the field of the inter-war Romanian reception. on the whole. with the dispute between the two critics. there’s nothing new. we may see an authentic anti-symbolism.”20 Like with Mihail Sadoveanu. with the difference it’s made on the temperament of a Traian Demetrescu. secretion of a diseased body. symbolist poetics is overbid and sometimes compromised by the pathetic.”19 G. by Nicolae Manolescu. through the choice of deliberately prosaic and unarticulated forms. Bacovia the first indicator of the Romanian ‘transitive’ (non-metaphorical) poetry: “Between the learnedness of the artificial. Along the same line. of French symbolism. however. “the removal of any artifice”. which is the path of the (post)modern poetry itself. the evolution in the reception of Bacovia’s poetry follows the same line of the interpretation (‘natural’ – ‘artistic’ – ‘bookish’) noted at Creangă and Sadoveanu. Lovinescu and G. paroxysmal lyrical attitudes in the first two volumes and the biographical unaffectedness of his speech in Stanţe [. several decades later. Călinescu’s reply gravitates round the same orbit. At one end of his poetry. the ‘unaffectedness’ of the discourse is the outcome of an aware embracing of the formula) and from that of Manolescu (prosaism is not only a polemic strategy. in Poezia nouă [The New Poetry (1923)] .

whereas the resurrection of the ‘natural’ in the literature of the last two decades can be correlated with the ‘biographist’-postmodern Romanian literary revolution. the most important consequence of this perception is the possibility of considering in an even manner the picture of the evolution of the literary genres. in E. I believe that the perspective described here can validate an alternative history of literary criticism. in order to provide a more authentic image of the diversity and complexity of the ‘subfields’ that divide the space of the critical reading. because of the opacity of one or another of the categories mentioned. each era (re)creates the literature of the past in its image and likeness. if not even triggered by the transition of the Romanian literature from neo-modernism to postmodernism. Furthermore. at the inter-war critics (particularly Lovinescu and Călinescu) – the ‘artificial’. ever since Tudor Vianu. able to indicate both the unity and the specificity of the readings carried out by a certain critic25. Petrescu). we can note easily that. perfectly synchronous with. such a distribution is not without a tie to the evolution as such of the Romanian literature during the last century: the ‘natural’ – ‘artistic’/‘artificial’ – ‘bookish’/‘livresque’ axis is surprisingly matched by the sequences ‘Doric’ – ‘Ionic’ – ‘Corinthian’26 (in prose). Obviously. and at a Nicolae Manolescu – the ‘bookish’. Certainly. Obviously. the ‘vertical’ vision approached in the above presentation (‘how did critics read the author x?’) ought to be supplemented by a ‘horizontal’ description (‘how did the critic x the authors on whom he wrote?’). but in any case rectified by a proserendering tendency claiming to be ‘natural’. At a somewhat higher level of analysis.e. concerning certain delays. but from the point of view of the reading and of the options undertaken de facto on the field of the analysis. It is not by accident that I’ve insisted on the turn registered during the 1980s in the interpretation of Bacovia’s poetry: it is. The three concepts used for illustration can be. if we follow the dispersion of the above three categories in the discourse of the most important Romanian critics. This statement is confirmed by two other examples at hand. Thus. respectively (post)romanticism – modernism – neo-modernism (in poetry). there are more complex situations (for example. this time not written from the standpoint of theories and methods. at Maiorescu the ‘natural’ prevails. in the ninth decade. Communication. Second. the ‘natural’ – ‘artistic’ – ‘bookish’ axis) may be a relevant operator in the description of the evolution of critical readings in the Romanian literature of the last century. Lovinescu’s study Poezia nouă). as there is partial obscuring. whose detailed discussion goes beyond the intent of this article. certainly. not necessarily annihilated. However. Interculturality fact that the ‘subfield’ analysed above (i. who was read almost exclusively by applying the ‘artistic’ grid (all his monographers. the literary paradigm shift explains the critical paradigm shift. such an – regrettably schematic – representation requires various detailed discussions. accompanied by many other ones. have done it) or the ‘bookish’ one (Marin Mincu and Ioana Em. we think that.Literature. distortions and substitutions. in the interpretive and evaluative practice. Eminescu or Arghezi). we can identify certain elements of an implicit ‘naturalisation’ (for example. Even at Ion Barbu. Nevertheless. Ultimately. it renders a plausible image of the dynamics of the Romanian literature during the last century and that such a method of analysis could be 66 . First. as it can be checked easily. But we could hardly find examples from which any of these paradigms is utterly absent. the ‘bookish’ vision (broadly used by the ‘reflexive’ and mannerist Romanian literature of the 1960s-1970s) is. from which criticism has often been excluded or discretely marginalised. along its main lines.

G. LOVINESCU. Stanford University Press. Communication. Gheorghe CRĂCIUN. “Literary History as a Challenge to Literary Theory” [1967]. IORGA. 1966. Minerva. Aisbergul poeziei moderne [The Iceberg of Modern Poetry] . Ancora. Editura pentru Literatură. Opere [Works] . 1997 [1973]. Interculturality applied successfully in the study of other literatures as well. NISBET and Claude RAWSON (eds. II-III. B. Prose] . Bucharest. Ion Creangă: Viaţa şi opera [Ion Creanga: His Life and Works] . Poezii. Paris. ClujNapoca. foreword and bibliography by Barbu Theodorescu. Vol. Pierre BOURDIEU. Ion Bogdan LEFTER. in New Literary History. 1989-2005. Hans Robert JAUSS. T. 2002 [1976]. G. No. Bucharest. Gérard GENETTE. Nicolae MANOLESCU. 2004. 2007 [2002]. Arca lui Noe. Piru and Rodica Rotaru. in G. Cambridge University Press. Critice [Critical Essays] . Lecturi infidele [Unfaithful Readings] . Dacia. 1992. Piru. Stanford. pp. pp. 9 vol. Proză [Poems.. The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature. Editura pentru Literatură. 100+1 Gramar. H.Literature. IX. CĂLINESCU. Bucharest. 1974. IBRĂILEANU. critical edition by Al. 1966. Bucharest. The Anxiety of Influence. Foreword by Al. Peter BROOKS. New York/ Oxford. with an “Argument” from the author. Figures I. Cambridge/New York. “Postfaţă: Bacovia – un model al tranziţiei” [“Afterword: Bacovia – a Model of the Transition”]. 1941. 67 . afterword by Mircea Martin. London. Pierre BOURDIEU. Fundaţia Regală pentru Literatură şi Artă. LOVINESCU. The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism. E. 1993. Autumn 1970. S. vol. Paralela 45. Eseu despre romanul românesc [Noah’s Ark.). Pagini de tinereţe [Youth Writings] . Piteşti. edition by Maria Simionescu and Alexandru George. New York. Bucharest. I. edited and introduced by Randall Johnson. Paralela 45. Editura pentru Literatură. Nicolae MANOLESCU. 7-37. Bacovia. Sadoveanu sau Utopia cărţii [Sadoveanu or the Utopia of the Book] . CĂLINESCU. definitive edition. Opere [Works] . Bucharest. vol. 1. Editions du Seuil. Oxford University Press. 1987. 1996. E. ELIOT. Critica ideilor literare [The Criticism of Literary Ideas] . Minerva. vol. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Harold BLOOM. G. 203-242. Selected Essays. edition. notes by Alexandru George. 1948. N. Minerva. Bucharest. Istoria literaturii române de la origini până în prezent [History of the Romanian Literature from Its Origins to the Present] . 1925. vol. A Theory of Poetry. Faber & Faber. 1975-1976. Essay on the Romanian Novel. 1964. I. Nicolae MANOLESCU. Bucharest. 1980-1983] . Piteşti. Bucharest. The Rules of Art: Genesis and Structure of the Literary Field. Adrian MARINO. afterword by Mircea Martin. second edition. Columbia University Press. 2. 1968.

321. Communication. 558. notes and commentaries by D. 7. 16 G. introductory study by Eugen Simion. Stanford. New Haven. Conceptul de critică literară în România. 1975. Minerva. 2005. 187. The Anxiety of Influence. The same situation is also seen in Peter Brooks. Iorga. Minerva. New York.. Lovinescu. Editions du Seuil. René WELLEK. in Pagini de tinereţe. Notes: 1 René Wellek and Austin Warren. Editura pentru Literatură.. 1993. p. 2 vol. Minerva. 1906]. Interculturality Titu MAIORESCU. 19551992. Fundaţia Naţională pentru Ştiinţă şi Artă – Univers Enciclopedic. 13 Nicolae Manolescu. 178-187. ed. cit. Faber & Faber. chronology. 53. Florin MIHĂILESCU. p. 1910]. Harcourt. 2 Florin Mihăilescu.. “Povestirile lui Creangă” [“Creanga’s Stories”. 93-96. 556. notes and commentaries by D. Bucharest. 1976. foreword and bibliography by Barbu Theodorescu. 1941. Sadoveanu” [“Mr. Vatamaniuc. 130.. René Wellek. Fundaţia Naţională pentru Ştiinţă şi Artă – Univers Enciclopedic. in Opere. Critice. Ancora. 1966. 1882]. Yale University Press. Istoria literaturii române de la origini până în prezent. Editura pentru Literatură. 1966. Lecturi infidele. 1968. René WELLEK and Austin WARREN. p. “Literatura română şi străinătatea” [“The Romanian Literature and the Overseas”. A History of Modern Criticism: 1750-1950. Minerva. Oxford University Press. Note pe marginea unor cărţi” [“Creation and analysis. I: Critice. in Opere. definitive edition. chronology. 7 Pierre Bourdieu. p. I. 1948. vol. “Povestirile d-lui M. Paris. A History of Modern Criticism: 1750-1950. A Theory of Poetry. vol.Literature. 1949. p. New York. 9 vol. Bucharest. vol. 1964. Bucharest. which sponsored this research as part of the Project code PN-II-RU-PD676/2010. 6 Harold Bloom. pp. critical edition by Al. The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism. 4 Gérard Genette. Opere [Works] . edition.S. in Opere. New York/ Oxford. 11 G. 1976-1979. in Opere. edition.. edited and introduced by Randall Johnson. vol. 17 G. B. 3 Cf. Fundaţia Regală pentru Literatură şi Artă. Bucharest. 14 Titu Maiorescu. Figures I. pp. 2 vol. Piru and Rodica Rotaru. 5 Nicolae Manolescu. Cambridge/New York. critical edition by Al. Bucharest. 68 . p. “Creaţie şi analiză. vol. Theory of Literature. second edition. Vatamaniuc. in Selected Essays. 199-245. foreword by Al. Ibrăileanu. H. 264. I: Critice. edition. I: Critice [Critical Essays] . 1949. Editura pentru Literatură. Theory of Literature. Ibrăileanu. “Ion Creangă” [1890]. Stanford University Press. Ion Creangă: Viaţa şi opera. 1997 [1973]. Călinescu. 1976-1979. p. p. 8 vol. II.). vol. 1926]. 1925. Bucharest. 764. Bucharest. 1955-1992. cit. Brace and Company. introductory study by Eugen Simion. pp. Bucharest. Lecturi infidele. Eliot. Harcourt. Bucharest. Bucharest. Sadoveanu’s Stories”. Piru. pp. see also The Rules of Art: Genesis and Structure of the Literary Field. Columbia University Press. Nisbet and Claude Rawson (eds. ed. “Tradition and the Individual Talent” [1919]. London. vol. 15. Bucharest. foreword by Al. Cambridge University Press. Piru. 8 vol. Călinescu. III. p. 15 E. Brace and Company.. Conceptul de critică literară în România [The Concept of Literary Criticism in Romania] . 1989-2005. p. 8 T. 10 Titu Maiorescu. Acknowledgements We express our gratitude to the Romanian National Research Council (CNCSUEFISCDI). Yale University Press. 12 G. Piru and Rodica Rotaru. New York. The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature . 1996. New Haven. 2005. 9 N. 206. Notes on Books”.. I.

Paralela 45. Lovinescu. 7-37). 23 Gheorghe Crăciun. No. 1987. the ‘history of critical reading’ resembles to a greater extent to what Adrian Marino called ‘the criticism of literary ideas’ (cf. p.Literature. unlike Marino’s ‘ideas’. the invariants that define a certain critical (and. Piteşti. Communication. Vol. Critica ideilor literare. through an inductive method. 26 The concepts ‘Doric’. Bacovia. cit. in G. IX. the ‘psychological’ novel inspired by Proust’s model. 69 . Minerva. from the ‘applied’ criticism.. 22 Ion Bogdan Lefter. 1992. 1974). with the essential difference that. in New Literary History. but to extract. Autumn. Proză. cultural) paradigm. “Poezia nouă” [“The New Poetry”. 19 E. in Opere. 1923]. Bucharest. p. from the ‘applied’ interpretations. Minerva. 321. Bucharest. the ‘social’ novel that adheres to Balzac’s model. Paralela 45. by extension. cit. p. our categories are not borrowed directly from the theoretical discourse. 1970. Dacia. Cluj-Napoca. 2. 2007 [2002]. p. Poezii. Interculturality 18 Nicolae Manolescu. the concept of ‘history of critical reading’ that we tried to develop in this paper shares a series of notes with the well-known ‘aesthetics of reception’ theorised by the ‘Konstanz School’ (see. From this point of view. ‘Ionic’ and ‘Corinthian’ were theorised by Nicolae Manolescu in his Arca lui Noe. 25 As it can be seen. Sadoveanu sau Utopia cărţii. 20 G. afterword by Mircea Martin. with an “Argument” from the author. vol. broadly. 21 Nicolae Manolescu. 139. “Postfaţă: Bacovia – un model al tranziţiei”. Bucharest. Eseu despre romanul românesc (100+1 Gramar. pp. “Literary History as a Challenge to Literary Theory” [1967]. edition by Maria Simionescu and Alexandru George. Aisbergul poeziei moderne. 627. Piteşti. ed. Călinescu. p. However. respectively the metanovel. 24 Idem. 2004) and they match. 219. 1. the main purpose of our project is not to follow the empirical variation in the reception of the works. ed. Lecturi infidele. afterword by Mircea Martin. notes by Alexandru George. 2002 [1976]. 73. but extracted. for instance.. p. Hans Robert Jauss. 241. Istoria literaturii române de la origini până în prezent.

Literature, Communication, Interculturality

DORIN ŞTEFĂNESCU Petru Maior University of Tg. Mures Georges Bernanos ou la pensée en quête de quelle vérité ?

The interpretation points out one of the main theme of Georges Bernanos’ novels: the thought in its quest of the truth. It represents a fundamental hermeneutic nexus, stating a third dimension of the significance, as a trans-figurative level of the living which illuminates an original existential scene. The strictly rational objective thought, whose anxiety in face of the incomprehensible is the sign of a sterile abstraction, is constantly transformed by the revelation of an ascetic thought. Transpierced by the light of the Truth which is the Way and the Life, it is nothing more than an ardent witness, a trans-lucidity eternally creative hic et nunc.

« Nous sommes à quêter la vérité ; il appartient de la posséder à une plus grande puissance » Montaigne

Dans sa préface aux Œuvres romanesques de Georges Bernanos, Gaëtan Picon affirme la présence d’une « troisième dimension » qui sous-tend la linéarité événementielle du discours narratif, en le projetant dans l’horizon d’une ambiguïté féconde. Mais, se demande-t-il, « l’ambiguïté est-elle le moyen de suggérer cette troisième dimension ? Elle surgit chaque fois que la psychologie ordinaire atteint ses limites, chaque fois que l’événement ne se laisse pas réduire à l’explication naturelle ».1 Ambiguïté éloquente mais pas suffisante pour imposer une profondeur, puisque « éludant le sens immédiat », elle pourrait déboucher sur une absence de sens, n’étant elle-même, parfois, que l’ébauche du réel, la vaine postulation d’un désir. « La troisième dimension, poursuit Picon, vient non de l’absence de sens, mais de la signification secrète par laquelle la signification apparente este portée et comme doublée »,2 vu que l’image est approfondie au-delà de sa signification manifeste (visible) dans un autre ordre de la signifiance, en s’ouvrant vers « une autre ligne d’horizon ». L’image et sa signification apparente – celle qui apparaît en tant que fait d’apparaître de l’événement dans le cadre narratif d’un champ textuel – sont « mises en abyme », occultées dans les plis de l’ambiguïté, de sorte que ce qui se profile, au-delà du contour de la facticité, c’est le sens virtuel ou la possibilité d’une signifiance portée à l’acte justement par ce qui crée le passage vers une fertile multiplicité sémantique. Si, en effet, « l’image qui se dessine à la surface du récit, hic et nunc, cernée par son actualité et sa localisation, s’évade dans une ombre où le regard qui la perd la sent infiniment multipliée », c’est que, par une sorte de réduction phénoménologique, « la signification apparente s’égare, s’occulte et, à la place de la scène que les personnages, hic et nunc, sont en train de vivre, se profile la scène originelle dont elle est la répétition ».3 L’image superficielle, actualisée à la surface de l’événementiel narratif, « s’évade » comme minée par une autre dimension, tout comme la signification apparente, constitutive pour le réseau textuel porté à la vue de la 70

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lecture de première instance, « s’égare » dans le lointain originel d’un sous-texte invisible. Elles témoignent de l’inconsistence de ces « ombres » et de ces « reflets » platoniciens dont la vocation n’est que de répéter (mimétiquement, voire symboliquement) la lumière du premier principe, pâles répliques – tautégoriques, selon le mot de Schelling – d’un modèle originel vers lequel est orientée leur référence cachée, et dans lequel elles s’enracinent comme dans leur propre possibilité génératrice. Ce qu’il faut ajouter, c’est que la fonction déictique du discours ne se rapporte pas seulement à la contextualité référentielle et à la situation communicative (au pur donné et au déjà atteint, ce qui prouverait l’insuffisance de l’ici et du maintenant), mais le hic et nunc a pour tâche d’actualiser et de re-créer dans une présence de chaque instant un sens profond, de manifester la perpétuelle nouveauté du sens spirituel dans la vétusté de la lettre. Or, « cette nouveauté s’évanouit, si elle n’est pas nouveauté quotidienne, si elle n’est pas neuve hic et nunc ».4 C’est que le sens spirituel – l’éternité du principe originel – , en se montrant dans un événement temporel, en dévoile le sens existentiel, fruit d’une tension féconde « entre les deux pôles de la vérité éternelle de son objet et de la situation temporelle dans laquelle cette vérité doit être reçue ».5 Pareillement – dans ce nœud herméneutique fondamental – la langue est révélée dans la parole qui l’insère dans l’acte vivant d’un appel kérygmatique : « la parole est ce qu’elle est, c’est-à-dire révélation, non d’après son contenu intemporel, mais comme l’interpellation qui nous est adressée hic et nunc ».6 Or, cette mise en abyme est en même temps une mise en question (et bientôt en valeur – une remise en lumière en fait) de ce qui fait l’objet d’un choix et qui réalise de cette manière – au-delà de la contingence empirique mais en-deçà d’une certaine illusion métaphysique – la rencontre existentielle d’un instant transcendant. Instant d’un signifiable qui appelle – et interpelle – le soi du moi-même, qui réclame – et pro-clame – une situation concrète de sa manifestation, situé comme il l’est sous la lumière de la grâce qui resitue le sujet du choix : « Du fait que chaque instant me met en question et exige ma décision, il m’apporte pour ainsi dire la possibilité de réaliser hic et nunc mon Je authentique et transcendant ».7 « Cette constante référence à un archétype sacré »8 fait que la troisième dimension de la signifiance soit une « dimension transfiguratrice » du vécu, par laquelle s’illumine un paysage existentiel originel, tel que celui – fort spiritualisé – de la pensée en quête de la vérité, qui témoigne d’un véritable pèlerinage spirituel du sens lui-même, entre l’angoisse et l’ascèse. * « O fous que nous sommes de ne voir dans notre propre pensée, que la parole incorpore pourtant sans cesse à l’univers sensible, qu’un être abstrait dont nous n’avons à craindre aucun péril proche et certain ! O l’aveugle qui ne se reconnaît pas dans l’étranger rencontré face à face, tout à coup, déjà ennemi par le regard et le pli haineux de la bouche, ou dans les yeux de l’étrangère ! » (SS, 163).9 Tout comme le regard présentatif qui identifie et déchiffre le concret du monde, la pensée est un être vivant, une présence presqu’autonome par rapport à celui qui la pense. L’abstrait est illusoire car incapable de « voir » et de « com-prendre » l’existence qui ne 71

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signifie que dans ce qui existe en tant que pulsation et énergie, de même que l’aveuglement qui ne « re-connaît » que l’absence du concrète. On se trouve, dès maintenant, dans le monde des postulables déterminés rationnellement. Mais le postulat, indémonstrable par définition, est l’abstraction même, le réel figé dans un concept forgé par le cogito. Or, le réel ne saurait pas être démontré dans ce qui l’enferme dans le rationalité d’une logique axiomatique ; sans se laisser dé-montrer, il se montre dans son existence vive. La monstration révèle donc d’une double apparition : ce qui aparaît en tant que sens postulable, thématisable et compréhensible dans une cogitation, mais aussi le fait d’apparaître d’un signifiable non-affirmable comme tel, car il n’est pour l’instant, vu en soi, que la possibilité originelle d’un cogitable incarné dans l’acte même de sa constitution, de son pouvoir-être. La pensée est impliquée dans la vérité dont elle jaillit, mais elle y est impliquée comme à la recherche de quelque chose qui la rend possible et qui pourtant lui échappe. Ce qu’elle recherche, elle le trouve dans une dé-couverte de chaque instant, un hic et nunc de la vérité qui ne saurait être surpris (et compris) que par la bonne pensée, par une conscience lucide et clairvoyante qui « voit » plus qu’on ne lui donne à voir. Ce n’est pas la conscience cartésienne du « clair » et du « distinct », qui reste dans les limites du cogito, mais une sorte de lucidité poétique dont le paradoxe est poignant : « la certitude de traduire par l’écriture une vérité qui dépasse de loin les contenus de la conscience claire, et le doute, l’interrogation, jamais apaisée de l’écrivain sur la part de mensonge inhérente à son art ».10 L’autre pensée, la mauvaise, reste la prisonnière de sa propre démarche postulante, surplombante, subordonnée au thème objectivé de sa visée abstraite, enfermant le monde dans un sens qui, tout en essayant de le dé-finir, l’anéantit dans ce qu’il a de plus profond. Situation dans laquelle l’être devient « un misérable prisonnier d’une seule et constante pensée » (SS, 136), d’une pensée qui se pense sans pouvoir déceler la raison existentielle de sa démarche, en encerclant, stérilement, l’objet de son action. « La pensée tourne en rond, de plus en plus vite, ainsi qu’une grosse mouche » (MO, 1455), ou bien « sa pensée tourne sur elle-même, ainsi qu’un rat dans une trappe » (MO, 1478). Mouvement circulaire qui engendre cette rumeur indisctincte des idées qui se heurtent les unes aux autres dans une confusion totale de la vérité : « La rumeur des idées dans sa cervelle l’étourdissait ; mille mensonges, une infinité de mensonges y bourdonnaient comme une ruche » (SS, 89). L’étourdissement ne vient pas de la pensée elle-même, mais du doute dont il a été question, doute et interrogation, ambiguïté et dérision du mal qui la fait tourbillonner. 11 Même si cette rumeur se tait, le silence qui prend sa place est vicieux, impur, car c’est le silence de l’illusion, du mensoge camouflé dans une image de la mesure – et de la censure – rationnelle :12 « La petite rumeur du cerveau s’était tue. Des pieds à la tête, il n’était plus que silence, entêtement, patience obscure. Toutes les images de malheur dont le nombre et la diversité avaient affolé un moment ses nerfs, s’étaient fondues en une seule, élémentaire : celle d’un obstacle, d’une masse inerte contre laquelle il appuyait le front » (MO, 1461). C’est l’image même de la démarche stérile, et bien plus que cela, de la démarche coupable d’avoir choisi la voie de la pensée seule,13 au cœur de laquelle pousse la fleur décolorée – sinon impure, voire démoniaque – de l’angoisse,14 le péché de la logique de serre : « Une idée seulement traversa toutefois sa cervelle, mais qu’il ne put fixer, et dont il ne sentit que l’angoisse. Entre deux routes offertes, il eut cette impression vague d’avoir 72

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choisi la mauvaise et de s’y être engagé à fond, irréparablement » (SS, 66). L’effervescence incontrôlée de la pensée abstraite objectivante, incapable de bien choisir et de garder intacte la vie des choses, engage l’être sur une voie au bout de laquelle l’horizon se lève sur la présence d’un mal irréparable, puisqu’il dé-finit éternellement le fini lui-même, la faute originelle du choix, reprise sans cesse jusqu’à la consommation de la liberté : « L’effrayante aurore, qui se lève au-dedans de l’homme, donnera à la pensée la plus secrète sa forme et son volume éternels, et le cœur double et furtif ne pourra même plus se renier...Consummatum est, c’est-à-dire tout est défini pour toujours » (SS, 234). Or, ce mal « vient du cerveau toujours en travail, l’animal monstrueux, informe et mou dans sa gaine comme un ver, pompeur infatigable » (MO, 1461), artisan de l’angoisse blottie au sein de la logique la plus serrée. Il y a un certain isomorphisme entre l’animal monstrueux de la pensée angoissée et la matérialité déchue du corps ; la pensée et la souffrance confondues dans la même plaie d’un monde saignant : « souffrir et penser, pour lui, ne font qu’un. Toujours il a fallu au travail de son cerveau l’accompagnement de quelque blessure, volontaire ou non, de sa chair » (MO, 1472). C’est le même péché de l’abstraction, et bien davantage, celui de la relativisation des données du réel opérée par un esprit qui, dans le sens le plus propre du terme, abstrait du champ de l’existence des qualités générales, indépendamment de ce qui peut en être le sujet, en un mot, les isole dans une fière insularité de la pensée pour en faire ses objets et leur attribuer un corps artificiel.15 L’existence est formalisée de sorte que la vérité demeure au-delà du compréhensible du point de vue de l’existant, comme immobilisée par une pensée qui sait mais qui ne comprend pas : « ce n’était pas la vérité qu’il souhaitait d’atteindre au terme de ces formules abstraites, d’ailleurs presque toujours incompréhensibles, car il ne se sentait nul appétit de vérité, quelle qu’elle fût » (MO, 1472). Identité qui s’appuie sur un paradoxe : d’une part la pensée qui vise à l’abstraction, et d’autre part la souffrance concrète de cette pensée. Mais ce paradoxe ne s’éclaire que dans l’identité même : la pensée rationnelle, abstractive, est souffrance parce qu’elle n’aboutit pas à une vérité signifiante ; de même, la souffrance est le signe d’une pensée infirme, écoulement d’énergie vitale. Si la pensée est identifiée à la souffrance, il est bien légitime de se demander : « à quoi bon penser ? » (MO, 1461) et de répondre : « Comme c’est donc bête de penser » (MO, 1474). La souffrance de la pensée est, en d’autres termes, « la peine de réfléchir » (JC, 1115), qui met un écran entre l’esprit en quête de la vérité et le sens d’une transcendance qui refuse de s’offrir.16 D’une part, « dès qu’on y réfléchit un peu, la chose paraît certaine, évidente » (JC, 1115), d’autre part « la réflexion n’est trop souvent qu’un alibi, qu’une manière sournoise de nous confirmer dans un dessein. Le raisonnement laisse aisément dans l’ombre ce que nous souhaitons d’y tenir caché » (JC, 1034). Or, la certitude et l’évidence sont – au terme de leur statique – les masques du signifiable dynamique qu’elles cachent17 ; elles ne confirment pas une présence qui les transcende, afin de déstabiliser ce qui est stable, mais un substitut de celle-ci, l’ombre d’une illusion. Ce n’est que cette illusion qui est certe, ce n’est que l’absence qu’elle désigne qui est évidente.18 Il n’est pas donc surprenant que dans cet espace de l’évidence ambiguë la « pensée hésite, recule, avance de nouveau » (SS, 266), ne sachant pas où se fixer et quoi comprendre. Ce n’est pas le dérèglement d’une pensée désaxée (affranchie de tout accrochage à l’axe), confrontée au sens transcendant d’une vérité qui la dépasse, la met en branle et l’affole.19 73

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C’est un délire de la connaissance stérile, un pur connaître pour connaître, mais aussi pour détruire ce qui saurait être connu : « [...] ce délire de la connaissance qui perdit la mère des hommes, droite et pensive, au seuil du Bien et du Mal. Connaître pour détruire, et renouveler dans la destruction sa connaissance et son désir – ô soleil de Satan ! – désir du néant recherché pour lui-même, abominable effusion du cœur ! » (SS, 237). Délire de la connaissance qui ne peut plus distinguer entre le Bien et le Mal, désintéressée et au-delà du Bien et du Mal, car ce dernier est à la racine du connaître désolidarisé de l’être, le seul qui « sait », qui nourrit une science sans conscience ou privée du sens éthique.20 Aspect qui situe le problème de la vérité dans le champ moral ; la connaissance cogitante reste impure puisque son délire est en réalité un désordre de la conscience rongée par le mal : « Une à une, les images épuisent sur nous leur venin, puis, en plein désordre de la conscience, la raison vient qui nous achève. Autant que l’instinct même, la haute faculté dont nous sommes fiers a sa panique. Le curé de Lumbres l’éprouve ; il consomme la pensée qui le tue » (SS, 263-264). L’image de l’animal immonde qui représentait allégoriquement la pensée est remplacée par l’image venimeuse de la raison criminelle. La haute faculté n’a pas de si hauts desseins ; si la pensée consomme le sens du réel, en le dé-finissant dans ses propres limites, elle finit par anéantir la conscience du penseur, c’est-à-dire par l’abandonner à l’absence du sens et à l’incompréhension, à un savoir qui manque de voir.21 Mais ce qui semble être plus grave encore, c’est que cet abandon (quelle pourraient être sa « logique » et sa « raison » ?) atteint la pureté de l’âme et finit par la corrompre. Voilà pourquoi « la réflexion [...] est devenue si pénible » (JC, 1171) ; parce qu’« aucun raisonnement au monde ne saurait provoquer la véritable tristesse – celle de l’âme – ou la vaincre, lorsqu’elle est entrée en nous » (JC, 1183). Au-delà de l’univers postulable de la pensée, au-delà de la vérité logique objectivable, il y a l’univers de l’âme solitaire, de l’existence concrète et transcendante à la fois. Il s’agit d’une vérité que l’on ne peut plus réfléchir, connaître comme telle par l’entremise des seules lumières de la raison pure, mais saisir en action, dans l’instant même de sa signifiance surgissante, par une sorte de lucidité surnaturelle ou d’arché-compréhension qui serait en mesure d’« ausculter » la sur-signification qui s’incarne dans sa propre révélation de soi. * « On répète donc volontiers qu’il ne ne ‘faut pas chercher à comprendre’. Mon Dieu ! mais nous sommes cependant là pour ça ! » (JC, 1033). Phrase qui repose sur un malentendu : il ne faut pas chercher à comprendre le vrai dans l’ordre de la nature par l’entremise de la pensée naturelle, mais bien à l’aide d’une compréhension surnaturelle. Il y a entre les deux ordres – naturel et surnaturel – une intime correspondance ou une analogie 74

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inverse, en vertu de laquelle ce qui se manifeste comme vrai dans l’ordre naturel ne l’est réellement qu’en rapport avec un Vrai d’autre nature qui le surplombe infiniment (puisque c’est l’infini dans le fini)22 et qui en est en quelque sorte une essence génératrice.23 Les données métaphysiques de l’existence participent au monde en lui conférant une autre dimension qui est du domaine du méta-logique ; voilà pourquoi existence et transcendance n’en font qu’un ; voilà la raison de ce refus de la réflexion rationnelle insuffisante, remplacée par une compréhension lucide et clairvoyante. « Je ne voulais pas trop réfléchir » (JC, 1194) devient « j’essaie de comprendre » (JC, 1148), puisque ce qui se révolte, au sein d’une conscience désorientée, c’est la pensée mise en branle, qui reconnaît ses limites, la pensée arrivée au terme de son horizon et de son action. Elle se confronte à une vérité incomparable, incompréhensible parce qu’impossible à comparer à quoi que ce soit au niveau des choses sûres qui rassurent. Par conséquent, « la révolte c’est de ne pas comprendre » (JC, 1166), donc un scandale herméneutique, une pro-vocation du connaître signifiant qui « révèle » la signification de l’existence en tant que transcendance, tout en « interprétant » la portée signifiante de sa propre démarche.24 On a vu que la pensée sans vérité n’était qu’angoisse, souffrance de l’âme incomprise, douleur presque physique provoquée par un mal inconnu. Le désir secret de cette pensée est de détruire non pas le mal manifeste, mais le principe même du mal, or elle le cherche dans cet effet illusoire qui est la chair – théâtre d’un combat sans merci – , afin de l’objectiver et neutraliser son action : « Sa pensée, comme engourdie par l’excès de la douleur physique, ne se fixait plus et il ne formait aucun désir, sinon d’atteindre et de détruire, dans cette chair intolérable, le principe même de son mal » (SS, 149). Mais le principe ne peut être atteint dans sa manifestation sensible, et surtout pas à l’aide de la pensée seule qui ne pourrait détruire la souffrance qu’en la remplaçant par une autre. Loin de penser le mal, il faudrait le comprendre par un amour surnaturel, une intelligence par amour à l’encontre d’un « savoir sans amour ».25 On devrait donc « épouser » le mal, le com-prendre par un jugement lucide qui révèle sa vraie portée symbolique. « Qui juge la faute ne fait qu’un avec elle, l’épouse » (JC, 1139), assume sa condition privative, car la force du mal consiste justement dans le fait qu’il ne signifie pas, qu’il est l’absence même du sens, une vérité à laquelle la pensée ne pense pas.26 C’est qu’elle ne peut pas penser ce qui la nie, la met en doute et en question, bien qu’elle essaie de projeter ses lumières sur l’être d’ombre tant redouté.27 Ce n’est que l’acte compréhensif de la prière qui y a accès28 ; voilà pourquoi « une pensée, même déchirante, n’est pas, ne peut pas être une prière » (JC, 1117). Elle ne peut aboutir qu’à des concepts qu’elle défait ou à des idées, or bien que « des idées, ça ne porte tort à personne », « l’idée [...] c’est féroce ! Une supposition que tu sois sale, tu te laves, il n’y paraît plus. Mais contre l’idée d’être sale – l’idée, comprends-tu ? – eh bien ! contre l’idée, il n’y a rien » (MO, 1439). L’idée est intouchable, hors de la portée de la compréhension existentielle ; elle n’existe pas comme présence incarnée du réel, mais comme abstraction pure dans l’ordre de l’esprit dont le savoir est un pouvoir-être détaché de ce qui est.29 De même que « l’idée du divin » ne saisit pas la présence du divin, « l’idée de la mort, c’est comme un mort, c’est point touchable » (MO, 1511). Tout comme la raison criminelle qui consomme le sens du réel par l’incompréhension, l’idée consomme l’être de l’âme même, sèche et évapore son énergie vitale dans la combustion obsédante de l’abstraction : « l’idée qui s’est peu à peu emparée de


Literature, Communication, Interculturality

son âme est momentanément cette âme même, flamboie dans chaque cellule nerveuse, règle chaque poussée de sang dans les artères, ainsi qu’un autre indomptable cœur » (MO, 1417). La pensée, même quand elle ne se raidit pas et ne se fixe pas dans une idée, bien qu’elle soit mobile, n’est pas en mesure de saisir ce qui est au-delà de son empreinte cogitante qui donne corps aux choses pensées. Son dynamisme est l’hésitation, le mouvement incontrôlé d’un désir d’explication réductrice qui, se privant d’une source fondamentale de la compréhension, empêche le dévoilement de la vérité, une effervescence chaotique qui trouble le surgissement du sens, pareille à la surface d’une eau fouettée par le vent et la pluie30 : « L’agilité de sa réflexion était telle qu’il en éprouvait comme une impression physique, cette excitation à fleur de peau, le besoin de dépenser en activité musculaire un trop-plein de pensées et d’images » (SS, 164). Déconcertée et décentrée, la pensée se voit soumise à une épreuve qui l’écarte de sa voie habituelle ; elle devrait trouver la ténacité de l’attention et le répit de l’attente pour se recentrer et se concentrer, véritable miracle de la patience et non pas la curiosité fébrile, qui puisse la « fixer », l’arrêter sans moyen de salut, éblouie devant ce qui se donne à voir.31 Cette « ténacité d’attention [...] comme un miracle » (SS, 135) est une permanente tension de l’esprit partagé entre l’apparaître d’un sens incompris par la pensée seule et la sensation que ce sens puisse se dévoiler par une sorte de lucidité surnaturelle : « cette continuelle tension de l’esprit jointe à une espèce de résistance intérieure, la mise en garde instinctive d’une imagination déjà surmenée, détournait sa pensée d’une certaine sensation nouvelle, indéfinissable, qu’il eût été bien en peine d’analyser » (SS, 186). La pensée détournée de ses prémisses, détachée de ses qualités définitoires qui inhibaient son action cogitante, se rend compte qu’elle ne saurait pas analyser ce qui est in-définissable. Ce qui résiste, c’est le déjà-vu et le déjà-connu, la certitude éprouvée – imaginée – d’un « cerveau terriblement lucide » (JC, 1140). Mais ce qui résiste n’est pas ou, dans le meilleur des cas, n’est que l’empreinte encore agissante d’un cogito peu enclin à lâcher prise. La sensation nouvelle qui s’y superpose est justement ce qu’il ne peut pas analyser et définir, l’in-définissable inépuisable, incomparable et inégalable, pour lequel il faudrait avoir une clairvoyance surnaturelle, « une céleste lucidité » (SS, 187). « Rien ne ressemblait moins à la lente investigation de l’expérience humaine, quand elle va du fait observé au fait observé, hésitant sans cesse, et presque toujours arrêtée en chemin, lorsqu’elle n’est pas dupe de sa propre sagacité. La vision intérieure de l’abbé Donissan, précédant toute hypothèse, s’imposait par elle-même ; mais, si cette soudaine évidence eût accablé l’esprit, l’intelligence déjà conquise ne retrouvait que lentement, et par un détour, la raison de sa certitude. Ainsi l’homme qui s’éveille devant un paysage inconnu, tout à coup découvert, à la lumière de midi, alors que son regard s’est déjà emparé de tout l’horizon, ne remonte que par degrés de la profondeur de son rêve » (SS, 193). Cette vision intérieure qui impose sa présence est celle-là même de l’identité entre la pensée qui observe et le fait observé, l’analogie profonde qui s’établit entre une soudaine évidence et une certitude impliquée. C’est la vision d’un éveil et d’un refus à la fois, la vision d’un paysage illuminé, d’un regard qui s’empare de l’horizon, l’accès à une autre dimension de la reception compréhensive du réel. C’est tout d’abord le refus de la morale rationnelle, impérative et normative,32 prêchée d’un point de vue strictement psychologique et 76

dont l’image forgée par la pensée trahit l’essence originelle qu’elle présente dans une sorte de réflexion inverse. 77 .. Il ne s’agit pas d’un refus de la pensée proprement-dite. c’était l’ensemble et le détail. obscurcit au lieu d’éclarcir. Communication. que surprendre un seul aspect et non pas les correspondances qui relient les éléments au niveau d’une synthèse cohérente. une étrange paix.Literature. 135) entre « l’élan de tout être » et son écartèlement. Interculturality explicatif.33 C’est envers ces petits « professeurs » de morale dont le prototype est Monsieur Ouine – « Je n’ai jamais pu. À peine rendent -ils ainsi compte des épisodes les plus vulgaires du grand combat livré en nous. avec leurs racines. la lutte intérieure qui déchirait l’être connaissant devient une étrange paix. inauthentique39 : « Que m’importe de me connaître ? L’examen particulier.]. les moindres vibrations de son vouloir » (SS. étrange parce qu’elle seule est insondable par le regard de la logique. dans sa suffisance logique. En quelques semaines l’effort de cette volonté que rien n’arrêtera plus désormais commença d’affranchir jusqu’à l’intelligence » (SS.. cet homme moyen rencontré nulle part ! » (SS. 181). et s’y déployait. qu’observer les faits qu’elle subordonne à son désir de curiosité analytique37 : « L’observation la plus sagace. 1359)34 – que s’érige l’abbé Menou-Segrais : « Que font-ils de la vie intérieure ? Le morne champ de bataille des instincts. toute image illusoire pour aller droit vers le sens qu’elle dévoile. mais de cette connaissance sans lumière38 qui. déversée en même temps à l’extérieur jusqu’à l’affranchissement d’une vision surnaturellement compréhensive : « Dès lors. il semble ne s’intéresser qu’au problème moral » (MO. Chaque obstacle. Bon pour l’homme abstrait des livres. 134-135). L’homme est censé ne rechercher que l’agréable et l’utile. dans le meilleur des cas. Et ce que découvrait le futur saint de Lumbres. n’en saisit qu’un aspect à la fois. la connaissance aléthique ignore tout obstacle sensible.. et qu’il n’osa d’abord sonder. déployée au dedans jusqu’aux profondeurs impensables. pliait sous lui. La grâce n’est plus qu’un raisonnement juste qui sollicite l’intelligence. l’abbé Donissan connut la paix. leurs prolongements. abordé de front. la conscience guidant son choix.]. l’infini réseau qui les relie entre elles. à ce moment.35 Bien que ce soit en fin de compte un combat entre le bien et le mal. Dans cette révélation de ce qui se donne à la compréhension d’une autre lumière. obtenir de sa courtoisie une parole pour ou contre la religion. entre « l’effusion d’amour » et le renoncement et la défaite. Les mille liens qui retiennent ou ralentissent l’action s’étaient brisés tous ensemble : l’homme extraordinaire. [. la tentation un appétit charnel qui tend à la suborner. 180). sans autre lumière. ses pensées. De la morale ? Une hygiène des sens. tournée vers l’univers intérieur. 221). elle ne peut. suffit à un pauvre pécheur » (SS. libre de toute tentation. Par contre. C’est une connaissance icônique. trouvait enfin devant lui le champ libre. il n’a pas lieu selon les normes éthiques36 . la pensée morale ne peut pas en rendre compte.. Il s’agit de « cette lutte intérieure » (SS. [. entre la vérité et la souffrance de sa quête.

Paris. 1971. Éditions du Seuil. au fond de la mer. JC. Henri. BIBLIOGRAPHIE : Bernanos. Heidegger. débordant de vie et de lumière. Il ne reste à l’autre pensée – « lucidité farouche. d’une part une lucidité souveraine et volontaire puisqu’elle est naturellement humaine. mais d’autre part surnaturelle. Œuvres romanesques. elle subit l’épreuve de l’agonie de son angoisse. Seuil. 151). 1988. elle donne un sens à tout ce qui n’en paraissait pas avoir43 : « À présent. trans-lucidité éternellement créatrice dans l’ici et le maintenant . Communication.40 En route vers la terre promise de la joie pascale. Albert. et pourtant retrouvé dans sa manifestation sensible et reconnu dans sa ressemblance profonde avec ce qui le rend possible. Bultmann. Préface par Gaëtan Picon. Questions I. Parole et Silence. mais qui féconde la stérilité de sa « science » obscure : « Je n’irai plus au-devant de rien. car le réel n’est pas mis entre paranthèses . la demi-torpeur du réveil. Hans Urs von.. Il est là. Neuchatel. Foi et compréhension. elle doit cependant faire l’expérience du désert. Comme ces gelées vivantes. aspiré vers une autre dimension. Interculturality C’est plus qu’une réduction des données immédiates de la conscience. Seuil. L’énergie spirituelle. Martin. Bernanos par lui-même. reflet de l’enfer » 42 – que de flotter au-delà de sa raideur crispée. car – loin d’être souffrante et angoissée – elle est maintenant apaisée. Paris. c’est plutôt une conservation et un dépassement. s’observant d’une conscience claire et active. 1368). Avant de se laisser pénétrer par la Parole qui donne vie. il se retrouvait lui-même. absorbée par ce qui la transcende absolument. Bergson. sa pensée flottait au-delà dans une lumière si douce ! Il la sentait plus calme. Eschatologie et démythologisation. Georges Bernanos.41 C’est une pensée ascétique consciente de sa vocation transfiguratrice (« une telle pensée m’a été un soulagement ». puisque le réel est préservé et transcendé à la fois. Transpercée par le rayon d’une Vérité qui est à la fois la Voie et la Vie.U.Literature. qui est le silence de Dieu. plus lucide qu’à aucun autre moment de sa vie. 1969. Paris. Ce n’était dejà plus l’accablement. Éditions de la Baconnière. Notes par Michel Estève. Paris. soumise à la volonté qui l’achemine vers la vérité. mais avec un désintéressement surhumain » (SS. absorbant à son tour une lumière qui ne lui appartient pas. une authentique Aufhebung phénoménologique. 1968. engagée sur une voie qui hausse la ligne d’horizon au-dessus de ce qu’elle ne s’était jamais doutée. 78 . * Balthasar. mais inexprimablement détachée du passé. Texte et variantes par Albert Béguin. 1985. Gallimard. elle n’en est plus que le témoignage ardent. 1949. Les derniers voiles étaient effacés. 2004 Béguin. La pensée elle-même subit la loi de cette transformation. je flotte et j’absorbe » (MO. Rudolf. Essais et témoignages réunis par Albert Béguin. Gallimard. Le Chrétien Bernanos. Paris. 1195). Quadrige / P. mais sans son horizon étroitement mondain.F. Paris. par ce qui lui est donné à comprendre.

5 Paul Tillich. 12). Emmanuel Lévinas. 209). en schèmes intellectuels . ceux qui marquent la pureté de l’enfance. Seuil. p. 1997. Paris. s’effrayent les uns les autres par le carnaval de leurs mensonges » (Emmanuel Mounier. 1987.U. 10 Albert Béguin. Emmanuel. L’Existence. Eschatologie et démythologisation . la proie qu’ils se jettent en rempart l’un contre l’autre » (Emmanuel Mounier. Jean-Luc. 91. 230). 1974. 198. un démon impur » (JC. Paris. XXX. p. Paul. Paul. Éditions du Seuil. Paris. 1969. XXX. cit. 1107). Neuchatel. P. Bernanos par lui-même. p. Paris. p. Essais d’herméneutique. Berlin . Søren. Paris. Berlin. op. Essais et témoignages réunis par Albert Béguin. MO (Monsieur Ouine). Paris. 7 Ibidem. Paris. » (Walter Warnach. Lévinas. 3 Ibidem. II. Éthique et Infini. les êtres vivent fermés les uns aux autres par toutes les illusions de l’idée claire. Fayard. Vrin. 1969. Seuil. Dieu sans l’être. Moeller. la plénitude de l’existence n’est plus que force ab straite. au cours d’une progressive dématérialisation. L’Espoir des désespérés. 1974. Paris. Le conflit des interprétations. p. Paris. Marcel. p. Seuil. cit. Éthique comme philosophie première. op. Lévinas. une quête métalogique. 15 C’est en fait l’affreux reniement d’une sorte de désincarnation ou d’une « inversion démoniaque du mystère de l’Incarnation ». Autrement qu’être ou au-delà de l’essence. Emmanuel. 152). p. 4 Paul Ricœur. p. nous assistons à son contraire : la réalité devient relativité. 79 . Seuil. Préface par Gaëtan Picon. Paris. Paris. étant opposée « aux prestiges et aux mensonges » (Albert Béguin. p. Lévinas. p. nous utiliserons les si gles suivants. 1953. en marquant après le numéro de la page de l’édition mentionnée : SS (Sous le soleil de Satan). aussi : idem. Interculturality Kierkegaard. Littérature du 20e siècle et christianisme. in Georges Bernanos. 1987. p. 6 Rudolf Bultmann. la vie se transforme en énergie physique. l’homme n’est plus que le tourbillon de leur lutte. existentielle. 1127) . in op. Casterman. Emmanuel.F. 17 Comme d’ailleurs la fausse clarté : « Au plan de la conscience. 1988. Le conflit des interprétations. Pensées. Silence de Dieu. Paris. New York. 1997. 149). 1988. I. « Notes sur Bernanos ». JC (Journal d’un curé de campagne). Éditions de la Baconnière. cit. Foi et réalité.. 2002. p. Emmanuel. Emmanuel. 123). 13 Versus « la poursuite passionnée de la vérité ». « Un surnaturalisme historique ». Tillich. édition de Michel Le Guern. ed. 1949. Quadrige / P. 1998. Charles.F. Walter de Gruyter & Co. 9. 1967.. Paris. p. Ricœur. Mounier. 1965. dépouillé de toute hypocrisie. Pascal. p. Martinus Nijhoff. est justement celui de l’angoisse » (JC. Martinus Nijhoff. Communication. 8 Gaëtan Picon. ce qui signifie que « l’existence corporelle habitée par Dieu est transformée. 9 Pour les citations tirées de l’œuvre romanesque de Bernanos. Cf..Literature. Marion. in L’Espoir des désespérés. 11 « Resserré entre Dieu et Satan. Seuil. Essais d’herméneutique. XXIX. pp. 14 « Le masque du plaisir. 1971. Foi et compréhension. Lévinas.U. Blaise. Tournai. 1998. Autrement qu’être ou au-delà de l’essence. Aubier-Montaigne. p. il n’en reste qu’une formule abstraite selon laquelle l’homme se croit capable de manier les leviers de la matière et de l’esprit. 12 « La vérité inattaquable des rêves premiers ». cit. 66. Systematische Theologie. 2 Ibidem. New York. qui est « une voie de perfection » (Carlo Bo. 70. Gallimard. Gallimard. in Georges Bernanos. 1953. Notes par Michel Estève. XXX. 47. Paris. dans l’univers de Bernanos. 377. Éthique et Infini. De Dieu qui vient à l’idée. Fayard. Le Mystère de l’être. Paris. I / II. Gabriel.. I.. 16 Un connaître qui reste « la norme du spirituel » en excluant la transcendance (cf. Systematische Theologie. « le démon de l’angoisse est essentiellement. Notes : 1 In Bernanos. Œuvres romanesques. Au lieu de l’incarnation de l’esprit prescrite par Dieu. Walter de Gruyter & Co. 1969. Paris.. Payot & Rivages. Texte et variantes établis par Albert Béguin. Paris.. je crois. I / II. XXIX. « Un homme de chrétienté ».. Seuil.

. 277). Kearny ». qui n’y a point de part. si ce n’est de la foi. revenir à l’énorme charge de sens contenue dans des ‘symboles’ pré-rationnels » (Paul Ricœur. « La symbolique du mal interprétée ». Éthique comme philosophie première. impensable » .. cit.. fr. 1967.. ed. car « rien n’est plus aisé que de raisonner géométriquement. l’ambivalence. Hans Urs von Balthasar. op.Literature. 26 Si elle y pense. qu’elle précède ou suive. in Éthique comme philosophie première. essaie de les combattre » (Blaise Pascal. in op. puisque l’on n’est instruit d’une réalité historique qu’après l’avoir ramenée à la possibilité. et dans la foi » (Emmanuel Mounier. 21 Un savoir dans lequel sum est identifié – assumé. cit. 45). mais de nous assurer pourquoi il n’y a pas d’assurance. La pensée pure est un fantôme » (Søren Kierkegaard. il devient lui-même libre de tout sens. fait une pause ou revient sur ellemême » (Henri Bergson. Voilà pourquoi chez les personnages bernanosiens « la passion des âmes était l’unique source d’une lucidité dont l’objet n’est pas une explication des actes. De Dieu qui vient à l’idée.. Vrin. 1988.. absorbé – par le cogito : « Ce qui marquera dès lors la modernité. c’est de pousser l’identification et l’appropriation de l’être par le savoir. cit. cit.. « Dieu se manifeste comme paradoxe des âmes plus que comme lumière des esprits. « Dimension de la raison ». cit. 154). Si la théologie a dans notre monde d’aujourd’hui une vocation spéciale. Le Chrétien Bernanos. op. P. 22 N’est-ce pas déjà la rupture de l’immanence et de l’actualité de la pensée.. mais sa ténébreuse richesse analogique. pp. comme Scandale plus que comme Pensée. le désarroi. insensé. 31). pp. 266. 77).. [. 101. p. L’énergie spirituelle. l’obscurité. op. aliéné à et par un sens non seulement inconnu. pour autant qu’il se donne pour une certitude de la réalité. p. c’est qu’elle fait du mal. Quadrige / P. Le symbole rationnel est une synthèse analogique entre le concept sans consistance propre et des expressions pré-rationnelles marquées par un excès de signification. mais la mise en évidence d’une situation surnaturelle » (Albert Béguin. 156). 29 « L’illusion de la connaissance définitive » conduit « à une idée à peu près vide ». Paris. I. 19 Situation qui reprend le rapport entre l’étant et l’Être : « L’étant s’affole. 2004. « Entretien avec R. 73). édition de Michel Le Guern. in Kierkegaard. 134-135). l’insécurité de l’esprit et du cœur. ce n’est pas de rassurer. mais par la simple soumission de la raison.] L’abstraction est la possibilité. viennent à nous l’ignorance. 30 « Les mouvements de l’âme cachent l’âme. Paris.U. 80 . 1981. 104). mais surtout inenvisageable. cit. au lieu de continuer son chemin.] . Paris. mais tout autre que celle qui se structure comme compréhension du cogitatum par une cogitation » (Emmanuel Lévinas. chap.F. p. 24 Pour Bernanos... 1985. p. pp. Foi et réalité. cit. p. Post-scriptum non scientifique et définitif aux Miettes philosophiques. que nous pouvons véritablement nous connaître » (Blaise Pascal. le désolidariser de l’Être » (Jean-Luc Marion. p.U. « affoler l’étant signifierait donc rien de moins que : le rendre fou en le rendant libre de l’Être. là où la prière est pure « elle ne peut pas se concevoir comme restant sans réponse ». ce n’est pas sa fausse clarté. Payot & Rivages. op. au lieu de suivre les contours sinueux et mobiles de la réalité ». 20 Or « la subjectivité réelle n’est pas celle qui sait.F. op. 1998. 105) ? 23 « Ce qui est vrai dans l’ordre de la nature l’est infiniment dans l’ordre surnaturel » (Walter Warnach. op.] mais cette rigueur vient de ce qu’on a opéré sur une idée schématique et raide. jusqu’à l’identification de l’être et du savoir » (Emmanuel Lévinas. 2002.. « mise de l’Infini dans la pensée. p. un « symbole rationnel » . 28 Accès hyperdoxal à une vérité métaproblématique qui se donne comme réponse. L’Existence. Gallimard. C’est de cette dernière sorte que nous connaissons les premiers principes et c’est en vain que le raisonnement. Parole et Silence. [. et que « celui qui prie se pense lui-même comme incertain quant à la réponse qui sera faite à sa prière ». pp. c’est-à-dire sans l’exigence de transcendance qui instaure une voie intermédiaire dans l’esprit de prière (Gabriel Marcel. Le Mystère de l’être.. 27 « La raison n’est jamais plus versatile que quand elle se met en question » (Emmanuel Lévinas. de sorte qu’il faut défaire le symbole pour récuperer son sens. Paris. [. Paris. 122). retrouver le sens droit. Interculturality 18 « La certitude dont se prévaut le savoir historique n’est également qu’illusion. « Nous connaissons la vérité non seulement par la raison mais encore par le cœur. p. Dieu sans l’être. Partout où Il est en vérité. 1998. cit. vrai symbole de quelque chose qu’il est seul à pouvoir transmettre ».F.. p. 31). Paris. selon l’expression de P.. elle naît quand la pensée. Pensées. Paris. Communication. 1981. fr. Il faut dès lors rebrousser chemin : au lieu de s’enfoncer plus avant dans la spéculation.. elle est celle qui existe sur le plan éthique » (Kierkegaard. 3. p.U. 122. démarche critique selon laquelle « le faux savoir est en même temps vrai symbole. Quadrige / P. « Ce qu’il faut donc sonder dans le concept de péché originel. Or « l’idée est un arrêt de la pensée . 115). Aubier-Montaigne. Ricœur. II. comme provocation plus que comme explication. parce qu’au lieu de marquer le sens. 207). 22). l’explication des êtres fait oublier leur vérité » (Emmanuel Mounier. sur des idées abstraites. 31 « Ce n’est point par les superbes agitations de notre raison. p. le désaxer de l’Être. Car si « le propre des choses consiste en effet à ne pouvoir rien me présenter jamais qui se laisse assimiler à une réponse ». 97.. 25 Cf.

81 . cit. « De l’essence de la vérité ». cit. celui qu’on n’a ni payé ni garanti du prix de son existence et de sa peine. p. les chances de salut ou les risques de perdition. « sur ce plan. p. p. cit. cit. 1779 (Bernanos passe « sans cesse du registre de la psychologie à celui de la métaphysique. cherche à exercer non pas l’analyse du psychologue mais une connaissance qui ressemble bien davantage à celle dont il a doué ses prêtres ») . elle dissipe le besoin de connaître » (Emmanuel Mounier. le 15 septembre 1939. Il n’y a d’ailleurs rien à expliquer. 1926. 41 « L’agonie est une mort vivante. c’est une pure curiosité. refus ouverts sur un dépassement du refus ») . le 31 juillet 1925. Le bien ? le mal ? Dans l’univers surnaturel ils sont indétachables de la foi et de ses mystères : cette parenté tragique empêche à jamais que nous en dressions un savoir. Œuvres romanesques. 149 (« C’est à peine forcer les mots que de parler chez Bernanos d’un triple refus : de la psychologie. cit. op. op.. cit. Refus tout provisoires. qui n’est plus objet de connaissance mais de croyance. I. « Notes et variantes ». op. or.. cette impatience de celui qui brûle de posséder dès à présent. « Notes sur Bernanos ».. 37 « Une curiosité sans amour » qui devrait être remplacée par « une passion de l’âme humaine qui est plus proche de la charité que de la curiosité intellectuelle » (ibidem. in Albert Béguin. ed. 43 « Ce complexe rapport entre les puissances qui sollicitent la créature se retrouve dans l’analogie de la clairvoyance sacerdotale opposée à la lucidité psychologique. mais les ressorts psycholog iques. cit. le 17 décembre 1926. 77 (« le romancier Bernanos. p. in Albert Béguin. op. op. 221) . 34 Cette connaissance est d’une toute autre nature que la connaissance sacerdotale : « Il n’aperçoit pas. 229). Bernanos donne à ce dernier concept son contenu théologique. in Questions I. L’angoisse de la mort. 108). spiritualité négative greffée à la tradition mystique. p. les manies et les routines. p. p. 153). retentit l’écho de la perpétuelle défaite du mal. Ni l’analyse logique ou psychologique. 114). p. 76). 76). p. Tournai. cit. cit. p.. 387). une claire conscience où ils se révéleraient avec la netteté de l’évidence » (Emmanuel Mounier.Literature. I.. p. cit. 38 Car « sans la lumière de Dieu. p. un grand pas est déjà fait dans la connaissance de la vérité » (Carlo Bo. on ne saurait parler d’explication. p.. Ce n’est que dans « cette angoisse essentielle et fondamentale » (Bagnères. Paris.. ed. « Dialogue ». op. 40 « Une pensée enracinée dans la réalité et tournée vers elle doit tout de même tendre. in Georges Bernanos. 76). Michel Estève. op. p. Aucun objet de connaissance n’est offert à la curiosité du lecteur. cit. défini ainsi par Hans Urs von Balthasar : « un savoir sans amour. l’auxiliateur ». 161). le jeu compliqué des forces. op. in Georges Bernanos. cit. p. Interculturality 32 « Bernanos ne s’arrête pas plus à l’étage moral qu’il n’a accepté de s’arrêter à l’étage ‘objectif’ de la psychologie. l’habitude vicieuse et la puissance suggestive des rêves. 42 Mots écrits par Bernanos dans une lettre expédiée de Verdun.. op. cit.. 149). Casterman. cit. à instaurer. et quand elle nous frappe. cit. in Georges Bernanos.. il n’est pas de connaissance de soi . 77). cit. des passions. 112) qu’est possible le saut vers l’ascèse aléthique. nous sommes au plus profond du silence de Dieu » (Charles Moeller. « Georges Bernanos. 1965. 35 « Si dans notre for intérieur se livre une telle guerre entre les voix du bien et celles du mal.. traque les chrétiens fervents que Bernanos décrit. op. Gallimard. cf. Littérature du 20e siècle et christianisme. Lorsque Bernanos déclare dans sa correspondance : « Je ne crois plus qu’à la vérité » (Pirapora. la vérité réelle » (Martin Heidegger. Communication. Albert Béguin. de la dérision sous laquelle ne manque jamais de succomber l’Ange de dérision » (Albert Béguin. « la recherche d’une vérité plus urgente et plus profonde » (Lettre à Frédéric Lefèvre. Le paradoxe de la vie chrétienne est ici à son comble . ed. sous toutes ses formes. en autrui.. donnant une évidente dimension métaphysique à ce qui est très souvent étudié sous le seul angle de la psychologie »).. 1968. Il s’agit d’une « ambivalence transportée du plan psychologique sur le plan surnaturel » (Guido Piovene. ed. p. p. la première étant souveraine parce que l’amour l’inspire. incapables d’ignorer absolument et de savoir certainement » (Blaise Pasal. de l’éthique et de la théologie. p. une vision que seule peut accorder la grâce divine » (op. in Albert Béguin.. c’est à cette vérité profonde qu’il pense. Silence de Dieu. op. p.. Emmanuel Mounier. 154). 39 « Nous sentons une image de la vérité et ne possédons que le mensonge.. comme un fruit défendu. 36 « Et à travers toute l’œuvre de Bernanos. in Albert Béguin. Refus qui place les romans bernanosiens « à l’antipode du roman psychologique » (Emmanuel Mounier. 154). p. la seconde restant insuffisante et grimaçante parce qu’elle n’est que curiosité de l’intelligence seule » (Albert Béguin. cit. Car la source de sa clairvoyance n’est pas l’amour passionné des âmes et l’anxiété de leur sort éternel . 112. cit. 122. une curiosité sans amour » (Albert Béguin. Paris. op. 33 Sur le refus de la connaissance psychologique. in Bernanos.. si souvent interprétée à tort dans le sens d’un manichéisme. op. contre la confusion des opinions et des calculs. vis-à-vis de ses personnages. 78). en premier lieu et sans détours. p. des désirs. fr. 131). ni l’exégèse morale ne trouve là matière à s’exercer » (Antoine Giacometti..

and which does not forge a new literary career from the very ground. valuable writers. The real career of Monica Lovinescu and Virgil 82 . One might even say that. with the notable exception of Paul Goma. in December 1989. and of course of some other. strengthen it from the outside. a “front” criticism. decisively. decisively. are lost in the condition of obscure exile. the evolution of the cultural policies and policy itself after the collapse of the regime. Interculturality NICOLETA SĂLCUDEANU Institute for Social-Human Researches Gheorghe Şincai. by their authority and competence. These circumstances are best summarized by someone who closely knew them. as we have seen. for a time. the evolution of the cultural policies after the collapse of the regime. A thorough reconstitution of those days could reveal a true and continuous pilgrimage of writers and critics from the country. It is the critic and literary historian Mircea Iorgulescu. producer of radio shows and. a real military staff for the inside Romanian literary movement. in the management of Radio Free Europe Romanian section. So an authoritative source. is indisputable that. ideologically hatched in the colors of anticommunism. Through their authority and influence the two Parisian critics represent the turning point that will influence not only literary criticism during communism. shared their career. They have assumed the condition. did not contribute to increased quality in Romanian literature. imposed itself and made itself accepted even by the communist regime. in December 1989. and so the Parisian nucleus became a veritable dispatch. It is almost inexplicable that huge capital of influence. very few. Through their authority and influence the two Parisian critics represent the turning point that will influence not only literary criticism during communism and after. were resigned to it. The martial expression is not exaggerated considering the fact that both of them practiced a militant criticism. but suddenly became the protagonists of unexpected circumstances. but. a “front” criticism. exile literature meaning not more than a province of the national literature. Both of them practiced a militant criticism. for a period. but. knowing that writers in exile not separated from their mother tongue.Literature. the most authorized critical voices in exile belonged to Monica Lovinescu and Virgil Ierunca. The “pilgrimage” became possible with the ideological “thaw” which began in the mid ‘60s. the most authorized critical voices in exile belonged to Monica Lovinescu and Virgil Ierunca. Someone who knows from personal experience the mechanism. If exile literature. through the microphone of Radio Free Europe. Communication. even more. by their authority and competence. as happened with most of them. contributing directly to the scale of values which. as evidenced by their testimony. called by the two Parisian critics “clandestines” because they kept secret their visits in order to protect the writers and thinkers from the county. ideologically hatched in the colors of anticommunism. and. they represented the coagulation factor and direction of the entire Romanian literary criticism. without any influence upon their native literature. They were the correction in the mirror of critical action in the country but. as well exceptional journalist. of Romanian Academy Revisals and Revisionism in Postcommunist Literature It is indisputable that.

until the eve of departure from Munich. that beyond the prosaic data.Literature. but the Director. But one thing is certain. as states Mircea Iorgulescu. knowing to persuade and mobilize. and in exile. Communication. Arendt. and not by their journalistic performance”. with sections devoted to Romanian literature – Mircea Iorgulescu says. passionate. although of secondary importance in channel strategy. in the part of Germany occupied by the Western allies. Two are the most obvious explanations for this dramatic change (by then the audience and popularity of Radio Free Europe in Romanian had been rather modest). financed much of its activity by the CIA. exerts its influence through anticommunist propaganda directed against the countries beyond the Iron Curtain. from the second half of the ‘60s and until the fall of the regime in Bucharest. as documenting the British researcher Frances Stonor Saunders. “It made the Romanian department. not foreign to the concept of Cultural Cold War. Not only «in itself». received funds from CIA – from Raymond Aron to Athur Koestler. developed by the CIA. Another explanation is related to the bold change programs. could not be alien to the cultural cold war strategy3. a genuine and long lasting exception. but also by the simultaneous massive introduction of «culture» in programs” and. culture being considered one of the most powerful weapon in the media war against the governments of the communist bloc countries. The share of various radio services – Mircea Iorgulescu says – “was and is determined by the geopolitical importance of the target countries. more efficient and easier to move. as results from the memoirs of Monica Lovinescu 4. Igor Stravinski and many others. from this point of view. However. that culture was transformed into a weapon of war. It is understood that American radio Free Europe. as claimed Mircea Iorgulescu. he was “a shrewd man. an extraordinar y audience”. Left to wonder is if it was only the merit of Noel Bernard. 83 . In the subsection entitled “The Magic Microphone”1 of his book Tangentiale. Noel Bernard. the only one in all Radio Free Europe what was up late. great personalities. in December 1989. In the spirit of essential truth. as entered and set in Romanian consciousness. somewhat atypical. especially with leftist political orientation. Without the free gallery provided by this radio station they would not have been less obscure than other exiles. the Romanian department has enjoyed a privileged position and. had the intuition of the extraordinary potential represented by Monica Lovinescu and Virgil Ierunca. Hannah. One consists in improvement of listening conditions by reducing or even ceasing interference and by the appearance of the transistor radios. seminars. It “had. associations. The radio station. Noel Bernard had a remarkable personality (“so rapid that there was no way to finish a phrase – he knew the answer before”) or. to increase their credibility. or station policy was rather decisive. through foundations. once the Cold War began. German or French. both in country. the largest and most significant cultural programs throughout the institution”2. George Orwell. established by the United States to Munich. the new communist countries. in o book published in 1999 and translated into several languages like Spanish. Interculturality Ierunca begins with employment of Monica Lovinescu at Radio Free Europe and the moment when Virgil Ierunca becomes a permanent contributor. because “Radio Free Europe have always addressed solely those inside the country”. He. congress. entering suddenly in action. that is the work of a director who is providential: Noel Bernard. It is about a secret program of anti-Soviet and anticommunist propaganda. Noel Bernard was not a director. Directly or indirectly. we have a detailed description of the circumstances. is that. a very important thing. he has created Radio Free Europe in Romanian.

I played a few years also the role of the operator. but was the very reason d’être of the station. The direct reluctance to the regime in Bucharest. to record the chronicles. Because since then the «heart» of the Romanian department of the radio station located at Munich moved. because chance brought in the editorial and in programs other excellent radio journalists. but deeply. in fact. “ In the ‘70s and the ‘80s Monica Lovinescu and Virgil Ierunca become the informal. it belongs 84 . will be there. suppression of jamming foreign stations in Romania. when I went to the studio. Radio Free Europe. supported by Bernard in front of the American management. It can not be known if then. and Monica Lovinescu. (…). These were the circumstances that have favored the chance. in addition. Through their voices and through their texts”. was designed by herself). by the Americans. And it is hard. must not be neglected. popularity including among opponents. to mix the tapes already prepared with the voice of the speaker». with the revelation of the formidable journalist that was Monica Lovinescu (otherwise the project of the new cultural programs. sometimes talks and even round tables. says Monica Lovinescu. from inside the country or from the exile. into the literary and cultural life of Romania. is beyond any doubt that. this Romanian specific version to communism. in 1967. demanding and animated by a never forgotten sense of duty”. As journalists at the French radio (RFI) they were not allowed to make policy. made Monica Lovinescu and Virgil Ierunca “the most formidable enemies of the regime in Bucharest”. RFI or Deutsche Welle). 8 Without understanding the huge influence they had upon Romanian culture in communism. programs of Virgil Ierunca. but the more formidable. A house became. to do the installation (the only activity that causes me a characterized vanity crisis). Also Ioana Măgură Bernard talks about their cultural popularity and authority in the book made in memory of Noel Bernard 7. once a week. almost impossible to understand – states Mircea Iorgulescu – the echo of the broadcasts made by Monica Lovinescu and Virgil Ierunca without taking into account that enormous and constant creative passion invested for years in a devoted work. In this context. in 1975. the Romanian department. where the anticommunist attack not only was not prohibited. to be involved from a distance. Talk story and The Chronic of the Pessimist. openly leaders of the opposition to “ceauşism”. me that I sinned by clumsiness. if the two of them haven’t exist. for the two critics. taking into account the distinct case of RFE (in comparison with BBC.Literature. Communication. in the late ‘60s. “the broadcasts made by them for a quarter of century were made in their house. at Paris 5. even in draft stage. when Bernard proposed and obtained the authorization from the administration to establish Theses and Antitheses in Paris and Romanian Cultural News presented by Monica Lovinescu. I have learned. They would not have happened without their outstanding dedication. The nowadays cultural and literary hierarchy is their work. is expressed through their voices. All these and. the image of transformations to come. and Virgil Ierunca. and. Instead at Radio Free Europe they have been given a free hand. the hypothesis of launching. of the cultural cold war. 6 So the great intuition of Noel Bernard – will be only his intuition?! – that the great battle of the cold war was mainly the cultural one. And also states Mircea Iorgulescu: “Without anyone to minimize. bear witness to the huge influence of the two. As Mircea Iorgulescu reminds us. «a professional laboratory to copy music from discs on tapes. Interculturality He. would never have been what it was until May 1992”. we will never understand their enormous influence in the cultural and political life in post-communism.

2. Who Paid the Piper?The CIA and the Cultural Cold War. Monica. Editura Retromond. II. Editura Humanitas. Editura Polirom. II. Editura Retromond. Iorgulescu. Interculturality to them. Spiritul nesăbuit. Granta Books. 124-125. La apa Vavilonului. Monica. London. Etica neuitării. London. 85 . Jurnal indirect. Stonor Saunders. Monica. 2005. 1999. Bucureşti. Postfaţă de Adrian Cioroianu. Directorul postului nostru de Radio. 1999. Lovinescu. 2007. 2007. M. Unde scurte. 2001. 6 Ibidem. Lovinescu. Bucureşti. Tamás. Bucureşti. Ioana Măgură. Lilla. Dr. p. now in progress.4. Bucureşti. Diagonale. 2008. „This paper is suported by the Sectorial Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD)..Literature. 132-133. 5 Mircea Iorgulescu. Bucureşti. Bucureşti. Studiu introductiv de Sorin Antohi. Lovinescu.122-124. reedit. Curtea Veche. Madrid. Jurnal. Tangenţiale. Editura Humanitas. vol. Editura Institutului Cultural Român. financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number SOP HRD/89/1. Tangenţiale. pp. Monica. In jurul unei scrisori de G. Lovinescu. volum coordonat De Mircea Vasilescu. Editura Humanitas. Univ. Intelectualul român faţă cu inacţiunea. Edititura Universităţii din Bucureşti. are the result of their efforts. reedit. Ibidem. Literatura şi politicul. Bucureşti.. Bucureşti. 1978. 1990-1996.5/S/59758” Notes: 1 2 Mircea Iorgulescu. Monica.123. Intelectualii în politică. Intelectualii şi regimul comunist: istoriile unei relaţii. pp. Mircea. Bucureşti. Curtea Veche. Idem. Editura Institutului Cultural Român. 7 Ioana Măgură Bernard. 2002.5. 1994. 2004. Bucureşti. Directorul postului nostru de Radio. Granta Books. 2008. vol. Editura Humanitas. Editura Humanitas. Editura Humanitas. Mark. 1-6. under the appearance of a new cultural cold war. IV. Also the cultural and ideological policies. Editura Curtea Veche. vol. 2010. 2001. 3 Frances Stonor Saunders. Communication. 8 Mircea Iorgulescu. 2002-2006. Who Paid the Piper?The CIA and the Cultural Cold War. La apa Vavilonului. 2010. BIBLIOGRAPHY: “Anuarul Institutului de Investigare a Crimelor Comunismului în România”. Monica.6. pp. 2004. editor Prof. Mircea Anghelescu. Bucureşti. Frances. Bernard. vol. 4 Monica Lovinescu. 1994. Lovinescu. vol. Iaşi.3. Lovinescu. 1. Idem. Bucureşti. Editura Limite. Unde scurte.

able to capture the nuances. an analysis of the “syntax of the imaginary” in Eliade’s works must deal with two dominant sides: the scientific discourse and the literary discourse. Nicolae Sera. not only in the field of fiction but also in that of the erudite text: “Scientific imagination is not far from artistic imagination. “the synthesis in an organic entity of erudition and sensibility”. It may be considered that Eliade’s syntax of imaginary is marked by two axes. as the subjective text conciliates the diurnal writing and the nocturnal one. the symbols. The analysis of such a “hybrid discourse” should be accomplished by a double perspective. if not completely separated. the representations and figures that are privileged in this 20th century modern work of art. The two types of discourse should not be seen in dichotomy. these texts reveal essential stages of his spiritual becoming. opening itself to a plurality of interpretations. with obvious results on the level of the literary works and. a synthetic. materialized in the scientific texts and a nocturnal one. as between them numerous translations and combinations may be noted. Mures Mircea Eliade – Meanings of Autobiographical Discourse The function and finality of Mircea Eliade’s autobiographic works is multiple: on one hand. featured by the works of fiction. its two fields – the scientific one and the literary one – being. By such a dual. Mircea Eliade’s works were investigated th rough a dichotomist perspective. Interculturality IULIAN BOLDEA Petru Maior University of Tg. But imagination also has a very well defined congnitive function. paradigms and revelations of Eliade’s works. denies a univocal interpretation. the mechanisms of Eliade’s writing are revealed. sometimes even in the same text. the two registers of Eliade’s discourse. in Edgar Papu’s terms. The two tendencies conciliate very well in my ego”. doubled by a an encyclopedic spirit. due to its complexity and profundity and to the various fields of approach and manifestation of the imaginary. In the structure of Mircea Eliade’s polyvalent work. to polyvalent readings. following the glides of the diurnal discourse in the space of the literary work as well as the avatars of the nocturnal discourse and its translation in the scientific text. but as complementary ways of manifestation of the creative spirit. which may be integrated into a unitary interpretation by assuming a transdisciplinary method that would favor. mirror-like approach of the text. We may say that. therefore lacking the benefits of a synthetic principle. On the other hand. two dimensions: a diurnal one. a fact noted by a young researcher of Eliade’s work. My scientific books are almost always books that express the real dreams of humanity. considering the features and formal paradigms of this type of discourse. It is certain that Eliade himself appreciated the role played by imagination in his creative system. the autobiographic writings have a very special place. at least subjected to a distinct analysis. Communication. resulting in an efficient description of the dimensions. Eliade’s writing variety. allowing it to configure a 86 . several times.Literature. A hermeneutical perspective on Mircea Eliade’s works implies certain risks and difficulties. on the other. integral perception may be achieved.

From this point of view. in an uncertain space where confession and objectivism. live together beneficially. the exit from the self. Undoubtedly. as the impressions. 87 . Through such a methodic perspective on the interferences. The freedoms and servitudes of the autobiographical discourse result exactly from these difficult relations between interiority and exteriority. the texts with autobiographical features play a mediating and integrating role. an invocation of an ideal image rather than the evocation of an ego that restlessly seeks for the degraded contour of its personality in the latest drawn figure. we must underline the fact that the speculation and self-speculation are “immediate” data of autobiographical writings. connections and filiations of the two voices of Eliade’s writing. Thus. Interculturality type of analogic knowledge. and that it has favored the representation of events. facts and even revealed the mysterious side of famous works. while it imposes a central figure.Literature. in their direct reference. a certain distance from itself and a tendency of no longer recognizing itself in its own past or in its own text. in a direct relation to the lucidity of the writer. “presentified”. of a mythical projection of the personal ego. to a scenery of the present. as between the moment of confession and the moment of the transposition of the contemplation there is an interval of reflection. the imposture of the narrative-self. able to easily follow the paradoxes and diversity of the universe. physiognomies. The diary. a conventional. artificial aspect. it may be said that an ego that continuingly contemplates itself in the mirrors of the autobiographical text receives. On the other hand. but the evocation of an ego that restlessly searches its own identity. lacking prestige. by the very act of reflection. where the echoes of the world. the autobiographic discourse is at the same time a document. A few considerations on the status and finality of the autobiographical texts must be made. between the time of confession and the time of existence a relation of inner-determination and even disruption is established. so to say. appearing as spaces of confluence. as these texts are part of a hybrid literary genre. of a de-doubled writing in which the world. defined by its condition of authenticity and sincerity that has a somehow decorative form. meet the subjectivity of the one writing himself in the most direct way. a “frontier” genre. We must also underline the fact that the autobiographic text represents an ambiguous literary genre. From this perspective of revelation.builds itself. with its polymorphic landscape. being. autobiographical writing is not the invocation of an ideal image. when random gestures are reorganized. In other words. as well as the other forms of autobiographical discourse have. Communication. the autobiographical text produces a dual effect – both mystifying and unmystifying – because. from the unstable balance on which the autobiography – an impure genre. of intersection. autobiography is more of an attempt of purification than a genuine self-portrait. the memoirs. reducing to their true dimensions its gestures and experiences. From this point of view. becoming the witness of its own role – the subjective writing nevertheless reveals. a more supple and dynamic knowledge. meets the subjectivity of the writer. It is obvious that this type of literature has decisively contributed to the revelation of the hidden face of artists. sensations and perceptions are permanently subjected to a “direction”. beyond any doubt the status of a document. a character – the ego that objectifies its desires and frustrations. a writing with depositional features.

he meets with a car and then with a girl. In this particular night. This process of styling is. etc. But why is it so important for us to know what is happening.Literature. All these were an enigma for me. We are not like rocks. Communication. prolongs the great tales narrated by the myths that explain how the world was born and how our condition has become the one we know today. in its structure. sensations. step by step. in the contracted lines of his expressions. Su bjective literature always focuses. The impressions. on the fragility of minor notations and on the benefits of an essential utterance of the self. with or without its author’s will. psychological dynamics. their various attempts. to know what happens to the lady having her tea at 5 o’clock? I think that every story. giving them an idealizing contour. Eliade refers to the components of narrativity. Mircea Eliade attempts to draw the generative nucleus and. a landscape or a dialogue. I discover the events and the web of the novel or the short-story. We must also underline the fact that this mirror often lacks harmony and utopia. a novel he considered his masterpiece. motivates or redraws the facts. the danger faced by any diary. perceptions of the past are subjected to a direction of the present of writing that distorts.). In the forest. Who was the girl? And why was the character walking through the woods looking for a car near the girls? Slowly. I see the beginning very clearly. any autobiographical writing proposes an image of the ego and of the world that is altered by the auctorial intentions of the writer. the evolution of consciousness) as well some esthetic exigencies (style. the first image was the main character. unmovable. manner of portraying characters. the adventures. documents and substitutes of real and personal life. is the daughter of mythology and has inherited some of its functions: to narrate events. what people have accomplished and what they are able to do: the risks. Autobiographical writing is meant to satisfy some documentary exigencies (about the literary life. Interculturality By gathering speculation and self-speculation in a point of convergence that is somehow transfiguratory. as if I had dreamt them… I was not interested only in the religious symbolism of the solstice. in fact. during work. In Claude-Henri Rocquet’s book of interviews L’epreuve du Labyrinthe (The Trial of the Labyrinth). the sky opens and one may see the world beyond and disappear in it… If somebody sees this mysterious vision. the lives of which are pre-defined: we are human beings formed by happenings. We may even consider that these works are also meant to be mirrors of the exterior and interior existence. For Noaptea de Sanziene. And the man will never give up listening to stories”. the political system. Trying to decipher the plans and dimensions of his own literary writing. oral or written. I believe that our interest in the narrative is part of our way of being in the world. but also in the images and themes of Romanian and European folklore. Here is how he explains the generative mechanisms and the fictionalizing models of real in Noaptea de Sanziene. to the particular way of structuring in his texts. by events. the mechanisms on which literature relies and its role in the configuration and revelation of human essence: “It is known that literature. We have here. It answers our need of hearing finding out what happened. I found out who the girl was. insects. that somebody steps out of time and space. or like flowers. to narrate something significant that has happened in the world. It is a broken mirror. But it all initiated in some sort of vision. He will 88 . at the same time. I saw all of these. even the story of a common fact. The work always appears around a vision. about the midnight. sometimes the end and. I knew all her story. revealing the most contradictory features of the being and of reality. being lucid and fragmentary. He was walking through a forest near Bucharest. a Poetics of Eliade’s prose: “I am unable to make a plan.

It must me added that life is not made of a single labyrinth: the trial is renewed… Not once I was 89 . In this novel that complies to all the rules of the Romanesque novel of the 19th century. This is not an evasion. I think that the trans-historic is always camouflaged into the historic and the extraordinary in the ordinary. it was not this meaning of the symbolism that was obsessing me. etc. Communication. that I had found the way. of a treasure. I felt desperate. from a more psychological point of view. that is a feature of Mircea Eliade’s texts. to camouflage a certain symbolic significance of the human condition. Each of us has known this experience. This symbolism is the model of any existence that. in the same dialogues with Claude-Henri Rocquet. Interculturality experience a moment lasting an eternity… Nevertheless. a sign that confers an organic character. since the symbolism does not alter at all the epic of the story. I always try to camouflage the fantastic into the everyday life. I didn’t say to myself I am lost in the labyrinth. the road to the center. under the sign of the labyrinth. The considerations about the dialectic relation between sacred and profane. about the mythical meaning of the hierophant experiences. this everyday reality. camouflages something else. with all the successes and revelations. The symbolic of the labyrinth is of major importance to Eliade’s writing. Like a new axiom revels a new structure of the real. random during a lifetime: “A labyrinth is sometimes the magical protection of a centre. of forgetting and anamnesis. the dream. a theme originating in Nicolaus Cusanus and also frequented by Jung. the labyrinth. parallel universes. the levitation. as it may be seen in the myth of Theseus. of a meaning. I think. Entering it may be an initiation ritual. of the limit and positive or negative utopia. the symbolic of the centre. the narrative develops on several levels. It is certain that this dark real. represent thematic invariants that structure Eliade’s discourse. the sacred time with its specific morphology. by passing through numerous trials.Literature. are mainly based on this duality of hiding and revelation. as historicist philosophers claim. about the symbolic value of the elements acting as vehicles of transition between the sacred and the profane. in other words. but. An extremely important theme of Eliade’s speculative system is that of the coincidence of contraries. This aspect should also pass into the novel-novel. It is my profound belief. because the creation – on all levels and in all the meanings of the term – is a defining feature of the human condition”. The essential feature for Eliade is the theme of the camouflaging of the sacred into the profane. Atman. coherence and integrative vocation to events that appear as neutral. lost… Of course. In fact. referring to it as a visio beatifica: he say the forms and colors as Van Gogh say his famous chair. Aldous Huxley was speaking about the vision provided by LSD. therefore. the myth of eternal return. with various textual avatars and representations: “In my novels. I still had the impression that I had conquered a labyrinth. creates. the theme of the double. Short-stories and novels are seen by the author from the perspective of a dialectics sacred / profane and of some fundamental themes that are iterated with natural nuances in almost all his literary works: the coincidence of contraries (coincidentia oppositorum). the double. The sacred space. This camouflage was successful. of coding and decoding. to use the Indian term… Several times I was aware that I was exiting the labyrinth. approaches its own center. not only in the fantastic one… In all my stories. Before. in order to progressively reveal the fantastic hidden in the everyday simplicity. establishes a new world – fantastic literature reveals. I wanted. the attic. its own self. unknown until that moment – or. but that night itself”. Mircea Eliade considers that his life is placed. at the end.

The stature of Mircea Eliade’s personality may be understood through his double vocation. temporal discontinuity. Communication. in any travel there is the risk of getting lost. for signification or significations that an idea or a phenomena had in time. the presence of essaylike elements. fictional representation of the real or formal expression: the insertion of interior monologue. significant> but life goes on: another labyrinth appears. not only modern man. demonstrative illustration of the scientific ideas. to Ithaca. But Hermeneutics is also the discovery of the more and more profound meaning of religious expressions. nor heroes. On the other hand. but destiny – or the initiating trials he had to go through – always forced him to delay his return home. other trials. the two universes explain and illuminate each other’s meanings and symbols. I recognized myself. First of all. other ways of trial. on another level”. When man reaches his centre he enriches himself. when he will look at some trees. I believe that the myth of Ulysses is extremely important to us. archetypal figure of Ulysses is related to the symbol of the labyrinth. myth. by touching it. Mircea Eliade’s literature contains various modern elements. his consciousness widens. the methodic attempt that is able to decode and understand the meanings in religious symbols. nn. for instance. to himself. the refined dosage of narration and interpretation. that is archetypal to Eliade’s creative effort: the Hermeneutical relation. searching. I learned a lot. I.) and. Then I got lost again. The travel is a road to the centre. “Hermeneutics is the search for meaning. we are neither angels. If you manage to exit the Labyrinth. confessions. We must underline that literature is not configured as a simple. Thus. He will see in 90 . like him. this effort enriches the consciousness and existence of the researcher. On one hand. like in the labyrinth. This is our condition. privileged hermeneutic approaches. it is creative for the Interpreter himself. goal. to find your home. He was a good sailor. From that moment on. in other words. Hermeneutics is. the symbolisms of the cosmic tree – and this is also true for people who are not interested in the history of religions – and thus the reader experiences more than an intellectual delight. on the level of epic construction. and its unifying and integrative function allows the fragments to unite into harmony. The mythical. The effort he makes to decipher the revelation present in a religious creation – ritual. all becomes clear. Each of us will have something from understand its signification. But. trying to get to some place and undoubtedly finding our country. didactic. divine figure… . His adventures at sea may well be assimilated to a symbolic road to the Centre (“Ulysses is for me the prototype of man. He makes an important discovery for his life. the role of the symbol in Eliade’s work is of great importance. Interculturality certain that I had touched it (the centre. always searching for his own condition and spiritual identity. but also the man connected to the future. our home. does not know… Hermeneutics is also creative because it reveals certain values that were not obvious on the level of immediate experience… The Hermeneutic work reveals the latent significances of symbols and their becoming… Hermeneutics creative to the reader because he understands. symbol. a prototype of the politropic condition of the European man. It is an experience that the historian of literatures. for instance. for he is the type of the haunted traveler. as for him the scientific research and literature represented ways of deciphering the signs of the world and of history. then you become a different being”). A history of different religious expressions may be drawn. a generative relation is drawn.Literature. function. I call it creative from two reasons. B. ourselves. for Mircea Eliade. etc. he will see in them the mystery of the cosmic rhythm.

thin and nervous thumbs. a fascinating implication into the universal rythms and into the rythms of his own destiny. The Titu Maiorescu room was full and I had difficulty finding a seat in the back. quite tall. the author also performs temporal interferences and mutations of spatial dimensions that play a contextual role in the narrative. drinks your blood. He had announced a course on “Faust and the problem of salvation”. An strange silence came. in front you. some portraits of remarkable personalities. that each of us was invited to discuss. as well as the detailed description of events that marked the biographic and artistic destiny of the writer. A dark. the essential data of his spiritual 91 . memoirs or his interviews are totally relevant for the stature. digressive style. you knew you couldn’t find it anywhere else. but with an elegant negligence. concise or. We find here. A historic discovery is. as if everybody was holding their breath. and he had the most beautiful and expressive hand I had ever seen. Respecting the chronology of his own life. It was something new. descriptions of spaces familiar to Eliade (the famous attic. Nae Ionescu did not talk like a teacher. for instance). Some interior scenes are also memorable. methods and Poetics of the writer. When he spoke. Writing meant for Eliade a continuous offering. either diaries. by this. on the desk. to confess his opinion at the end of the class. the man discovers a certain position of the spirit in the world”. on the contrary. Communication. pale man. empties your brains. with long. anticipating the difficulties. the spring… This has a totally different meaning than deciphering a Greek or Latin inscription. Interculturality them the mystery of life that is reborn and continues – during winter – the loss of leaves. seen in their essential features. than. Nae Ionescu’s portrait is very significant. with black eyebrows and sad bluish eyes of unusual brightness. The man was speaking to you directly. On the other hand. You felt that what Nae Ionescu was saying wasn’t to be found in any book. rolled his eyes to the back of the room and started to speak. a search for genuine experience („To feel that each written line tears something out of your own life. To feel how writing drains all the substance in your life.Literature. the question marks… He sat on the chair. are extremely interesting. that you had to come here to receive it from the source. a key-concept of his literature. dressed in a sober manner. important. that is textually directed from the dominating perspective of authenticity. if you were interested in this kind of thinking. You had the impression that the whole lesson is only a part of a dialogue. He was thin. he was not holding a lesson or a conference. underlining the nuances. in a fragmentary. his hands were shaping the mind. with exponential gestures and revealing aspects. Eliade’s Memoirs have the fluent form of a story of his own life and destiny. a tension of the understanding and perfomance. opening problems to you and teaching you how to solve them. as if he was telling a story. entered. as he is the philosophy teacher that marked the spiritual destiny of many intellectuals between the two world wars. freshly thought and organized right there. But. The portrait is accompanied by an introduction into the “context” that is revealing for Eliade’s epic talent: “I shall never forget the first Metaphysics lesson I attempted. of course. He had started a conversation and he was speaking to each of us. presenting a series of facts. That is the only way it is worth writing”). when he suddenly looked from a wall to the other he seemed to thunder across the room. forcing you to think”. proposing an interpretation and than waiting for our answers. Mircea Eliade’s autobiographical texts. It was a personal thinking and. The synthetic feature of the “author’s spiritual biography” (Mircea Handoca) is dominant.

1990. Univers : 2003. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Eliade. Bucuresti : Ed. Petru Maior. Targu Mures : Ed. 1992.Literature. Sabina. Polirom. 92 . Interculturality portrait. Mircea Eliade: la philosophie du sacré. 1991. his unique physiognomy. Douglas. Humanitas. Culianu. Adrian. Mircea Eliade et le phénoměne religieux. Călinescu. Marino. Communication. 2006. Maria. 1995. the articulations of his overwhelmingly complex and profound work. Eliade şi Noica. Handoca. Bucuresti : Ed. Matei. Vodă-Căpuşan. the landmarks of his destiny and. Iasi: Ed. Dacia. Nemira. Paris : Ed. Litera. Mircea Eliade – spectacolul magic. Harmattan. Allen. Mircea. 1991. Payot. Handoca. Încercarea labirintului. Eliade. Cluj : Ed. Hermeneutica lui Mircea Eliade Cluj : Ed. Memorii I-II. Eliade prin Eliade. Mircea Eliade. Deprez. Dacia. 1980. Dacia. Culianu şi Mircea Eliade. Cluj: Ed. Stanislas. Ioan Petru. Mircea. Bucuresti : Ed. Despre Ioan P. Mircea. Bucuresti: Ed. 2002. Paris : Ed. 1982. 2002. Finaru. Pe urmele lui Mircea Eliade. at the same time. Mircea.

they attain once more auroral significance. the stereotyped and equalising discourse of the Stalinist ideology had determined the Romanian criticism to ignore completely the reader’s talent or stylistic skills. Călinescu’s criticism. all the active critics at the half of the seventh decade support the key role of the “intuition” and of the “vocation”. “instruments” etc. While the general evolution was set under the model of G. in the same seventh decade. far from being a reliable source of ideological messages. “originality”. “tendencies”. Hence. this mechanism establishes the relation between “talent” and “method”. The trauma of this extremely profound equalisation created. it has been less often noted that the reforming forces that struggled to bring it back to the present also find it necessary. Consequently. While in poetry and in prose the return of originality and subjectivity is accepted somewhat earlier. i. the more or less minimising nickname of essayist. “style” (in other words.Literature. as free as possible. if not of the styles and personalities as such. Throughout the sixth decade. revanchist denigration of the “methods”. individual value). In fact. the ideological campaigns against rendering language “obscure” or “abstract” had become customary. during the 1950s. before long this pattern became rather rigid so as to hinder an authentic transfiguration of the critical language. while an avalanche of professions of 93 . gave Paul Georgescu. during the years of surfacing from Stalinism. but also with the compensatory. it was strictly banned. so that the proof of highest originality was given by the juggling. Communication. the 1960s in our country. particularly since it also represented a firm strategy of “purifying” the criticism from those who “had no calling” (“pseudo-ideologists”. Interculturality ALEX. against the liberation from the Stalinist ideology. at least in a first stage. at least of the adhesions. In the span of nearly two decades. we deal with the praising of everything that is “subjectivity”. as it’s been emphasised frequently. The change of order (but not of direction) in the Marxist-Leninist discourse. an instinctive allergy to any dodging of individuality. as a symptom of the guilty tendency toward “individualisation”. “personality”. as well as the “personalisation” toward the claim of having uncovered single-handedly the realist-socialist truths. Therefore. Almost ten years passed to the retrieval of the idea that. the critic is a man of talent. to plunge into the past. Although the issues of “personality” and “talent” had already been discussed at large in the inter-war period and were no longer on any contemporary agenda. GOLDIŞ Babeş-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca The Side Effects of Călinescianism The study identifies the achievements of the Romanian criticism during the 1960s.e. “The personal note” represented more than an element of evaluation. in criticism. it has an effect comparable to that of an explosion. it does not become a concern until halfway to the seventh decade. socialist realism pushed the conception on literature and criticism several centuries back. Whereas it may be true that. of realist-socialist concepts. in Eugen Simion’s words). “theories”. when it does occur.

These elements can. Interculturality faith exalt the former term to the disadvantage of the latter: “As in literature. undoubtedly. It is easy to note that in the specialisation of criticism Matei Călinescu sees the danger of “dogmatism”. In a continuation of the debates in “Gazeta literară”3. a metaphor. the critic denounces Roland Barthes’ predilection for critical methods such as structuralism or psychoanalysis. some of which were very subtle.. hyperbolised by the apprehension of a reinstallation of the tyranny of methods. it applies particularly to the ideologists. The Calinescian pattern. its unmatched composition are not owed to prosody”2. Therefore.Literature. the verse. irrespective of their position on the chart of critical evolution. the “means” and “techniques” of analysis pertain to a side exterior to the critical act. vocation is key: the technique. However. to the capacity to “re-create” the work in the critical consciousness the value of main evaluation criterion for the criticism of this era. There was only one condition: that they come immediately under the critical talent. the entire critical theory and methodology in the world lacks a significant point” (Adrian Marino). is still as vigorous as possible in the Romanian context. In fact. the meter of poetry. the method in criticism is cumbersome. Communication. the essential moment of the critical activity remains synthetic and it is given by the immediate emotion. “here too. The fear of ideological unilaterality determines the young critics who had risen from under Stalinism to show their equal. the chapter. G. the rhyme. the subject of the novel or of the drama. can contribute to the discovery of the “hidden structure” of the creation (the “ineffable” according to Călinesc u or the irreducible “enigma” in Picon’s system). the critic who restores the status of norm to the reserve toward the “objective. anticipatory of the era’s verdict. if a certain critical method or paradigm began being discussed as such. irrespective of their auxiliary value. this complex elucidates the reserve toward the specialisation of the critical instruments. be analysed. during the epoch. the rhetoric”1. granted to the “talent”. the method-critical talent conflict would be triggered without delay and. “in the absence of critical talent. The antagonism between vocation and method. impersonal and talentless” reader: “Anyone can note the rhythm. the principle emerges at the most “unfaithful” Călinescian of the epoch. a term in itself rather ambivalent. when we see that. N. Manolescu. an image. at least presently. the discussion would end. but which. the structuralist. the method do not create a critic. equidistant openness toward all the instruments and methods. to which the critic later gives a form explained by means that in a final analysis are indifferent and may belong to the literary history. outdated in the Occidental critical debates. as it happens in other genres. The profession of faith representative for this period comes from Matei Călinescu. Călinescu’s 1927 profession of faith: “In reality. no modality of analysis. Ibrăileanu made such technical analyses on Eminescu. thus. for it narrows.. Although they are not rejected in principle. To envisage a specific method in criticism (for instance. Therefore. The origin of the deletion of any scientific or theoretical gist from the field of criticism will be retrieved in Critică şi creaţie (Criticism and Creation). The talent-favouring unanimity drifts to a complex of its superiority over the method. The complex is visible by the postulation of the secondary nature of the methods rather than by the total dismissal of their utility. it simplifies and it equalises the interpretation [. same as the knowledge of prosody does not bestow anything on the untalented pretender” (Eugen Simion). like an overbid” (Al. the abstract 94 . Piru). are not criticism: the tone of Eminescu’s verse. the aesthetics. apart from the critical talent.]. linguistic one) looks.

The powerful anti-theoretical and anti-scientific complex is also detectable in the logic of borrowings and influences. Interculturality openness toward the methods resembles disinterestedness. it. the critic has control of all the methods. as well as its limitation in relation to the critic’s “personality” which represents the specific rhetoric of this period. The one who attempts to test a single method on the creation is not a critic. similarly to any overdose. the frustration and rejection of any debate on methods and critical instruments. to polemics. The consequences are obvious at a succinct comparison with the occidental climate. an inevitable tension arises between the acknowledgment of absolute availability and the reserve of applying it: the equal openness toward methods become the premise of keeping each of them at a corresponding distance. an understandably unlikely phenomenon upon the release from the straps of the only method. a classification of the methods depending on the literary “subject matter” to which they can be applied: while structuralism is a language reserved to the literature of the pre-modern periods (the identification of structures does not need the reader’s participatory act). concerned with the exterior means rather than with the ineffable core. psychoanalysis). believe that the method is indifferent as compared to the critic’s talent. notwithstanding any tensions and quarrels. but approaches the creation as if he had none: “It is normal to near the object of research as if you had no purpose and no specific method.Literature. Although the role of “creative criticism” should not be minimised in order to expand the modalities to approach literature. Ideally. Matei Călinescu dismisses “the simple «methodological» polemics” based on the fact that they ought to “make room to broad polemics of ideas and preferences. A further selection or grading of the methods. Paul Ricoeur. you have at hand all those made available by your moment in time. as modalities of access to the text. a discussion of their value does not take place in the same period in our country. phenomenology. but a limited practitioner. while the France of the same period underwent a competition and trial of the pilot-methods with respect to their possibility of “accessing” and rereading the creation. To make “linguistic”. shows the back side of the reserve toward any “unilaterality” of the critical act. for the unyielding advocacy of talent would require. in your own discipline. but. in our country. “psychological” criticism means to diminish the infinite possibilities of the creation and to “betray” its spirit in favour of an instrumentalist vision on literature. as well as in all the other ones”6. originating in the myth of “total criticism”. The position under the “umbrella” of a method and the espousal of a specialised critical instrument are not deemed openings of the interpretation by the embracing of new perspectives (as in the Occident). implicitly. Instead of paradigms or major theoretical movements (such as structuralism. “structuralist”. “Marxist”. opposed to Gérard Genette. but the dismissal of each method in particular. During the same period. thus limiting the sphere of options. they are deemed contractions of the critical horizon. Therefore. The fact that the methods are not discussed as such. established. Communication. ultimately. whose attempts of explaining the global 95 . For. hermeneutics represents the only modality to approach the recent literature5. instead. The nearly utopian availability. hinders extremely interesting discussions. has side effects on the critical body. since the majority of the debate attendants. It is not the dismissal of methods in general. too. the postulate that all are equally viable or equally wrong depending only on the critic’s talent will discourage any debate from its onset. for example. in fact. but as epiphenomena of the vocation. of personalities and of values”4.

foreword by Eugen Simion. Rigoarea şi poezia criticii (The Rigor and Poetry of Criticism). 6 George Munteanu. BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Gérard Genette. Oana Soare. Opere. 96 . Communication. as stated by Wolfgang Iser in How to Do Theory: “Within the humanities one must distinguish between theories that can be more or less directly applied (these will also differ from one another) and those that have to be converted into a method before they are able to function. p. nr. the overt attachment to a major theoretical doctrine. as well as the coagulation of an artistic direction. How to Do Theory. the Romanian critics chose the “import” of concepts immediately applicable to the text (called by Iser “tools for processes of interpretation”) instead of the borrowing of paradigms such as structuralism. the Romanian criticism adopted critical methods. whereas methods provide the tools for processes of interpretation”7.Literature.. 2006. edition by Nicolae Mecu. translation and foreword by Angela Ion and Irina Mavrodin. but also because of the fear that a strong theoretical principles could result in the loss of the vital relation with the literature/individuality of the creation or would stifle the reader’s “talent”. Blackwell Publishing. The distinction is made between theory and method. notes and commentaries by Nicolae Mecu. 4 Ibid. Editura Fundaţiei Naţionale pentru Ştiinţă şi Artă. p. Blackwell Publishing. 14 October 1966. Bucharest. Bucureşti. notes and commentaries by Nicolae Mecu. 1978. Additionally. Editura Univers. 1966. 184. 2006 Nicolae Manolescu. would have been deemed by the authorities a direct. concepts or languages. selection. Opere. 3. 10-11. Rigoarea şi poezia criticii (The Rigor and Poetry of Criticism). Friday.. in “Contemporanul”. 16 August 1968.] Theories generally lay the foundation for the framework of categories. pp. Friday. 3 Matei Călinescu. Editura pentru literatură. editing. 90. Friday. Matei Călinescu. 41 (1044). Bucureşti. George Munteanu. 7. 5 Cf. Călinescu. foreword by Eugen Simion. 2 Nicolae Manolescu. Interculturality literary phenomenon are distrusted. translation and foreword by Angela Ion and Irina Mavrodin. in Figuri (Figures). Articles in Press I). 33 (1140). 14 October1966. p. [. Bucharest. 90. How to Do Theory. Editura Fundaţiei Naţionale pentru Ştiinţă şi Artă. 1966. Editura Univers. p. editing. 16 August 1968. Articles in Press I). Pavel Ţugui and Magdalena Dragu. Oana Soare. Câteva distincţii de metodă (Several Distinctions of Method). Publicistică I (Works. Lecturi infidele (Unorthodox Reading). 2006. 3. 1978. Editura pentru literatură. nr. in “Contemporanul”. 33 (1140). in „Contemporanul”. Structuralism şi critică literară (Structuralism and Literary Criticism). Câteva distincţii de metodă (Several Distinctions of Method). selection. Friday. Gérard Genette. p. as Marxism-Leninism had done it. 41 (1044). Wolfgang Iser. p. Lecturi infidele (Unorthodox Reading). Călinescu. 7. p. Publicistică I (Works. 2006. phenomenology. Because of the reserve toward subjecting the literary text to coercive categories. Pavel Ţugui and Magdalena Dragu. no. Notes: 1 G. 7 Wolfgang Iser. edition by Nicolae Mecu. existentialism or psychoanalysis. potentially dangerous competitor of Marxism-Leninism. in „Contemporanul”. in Figuri (Figures). Structuralism şi critică literară (Structuralism and Literary Criticism). no.

la consolidation du principal par le secondaire s’effectue en ce que celui-ci s’ oppose à celuilà. Octave Delapierre s’exerce à tracer des limites. Nous nous devons d’en faire un bref passage en revue. celui qui effectue le passage d’un concept abstrait vers les éléments réels. autant sur la relation qui s’établit entre le lecteur et le texte de l’œuvre parodique que sur les compétences nécessaires pour saisir l’intention parodique. Our main interest lies in the way in which. la conception aristotélicienne sur la parodie se superposant à celle que l’auteur entretenait au sujet de la comédie. Pendulant entre imitation et originalité. la littérature parodique munit le lecteur qui veut comprendre la littérature roumaine en ce qu’elle a de spécifique. concluant qu’il s’agirait d’une pratique hypertextuelle. pour la dynamique des principes esthétiques. la nouvelle direction étant donnée par l’Ecole Formelle russe. I. Aussi notre travail se propose-il de surprendre l’évolution de la littérature roumaine au niveau de ses créations parodiques. Arthur Schopenhauer. the parodical text calls the principles of literarity into question. qui se nourrit en parasite à l’ombre des grands modèles. de toutes les informations dont il a besoin. pour les querelles périodiques entre Anciens et Modernes. du grotesque et de la caricature. as manifest in the work of a series of canonical authors. Type de littérature secondaire.. as well as different literary trends or genres. Dans Palimpsestes. la littérature roumaine vit elle-même à l’ombre des modèles offerts par les littératures européennes. Les théories de la réception déplacent l’accent de la définition du spécifique de la parodie. Les théories sur la parodie se modifient significativement au XXe siècle. Quintilien propose une typologie de la parodie . Les études des formalistes (Victor Chklovski. la bibliographie existante étant accablante. Il s’impose ainsi de remarquer le fait que la théorie de la parodie suit de près l’évolution de la littérature. selected from different periods of the Romanian literature. The chronological approach creates the image of a different type of literature history. dans l’article Contributions à la théorie du ridicule. et non pas en ce qu’il accepte de s’y subordonner”1 Nous n’allons pas insister sur la variété des perspectives théoriques sur la parodie. dans Essai sur la parodie. une littérature du secondaire fécond. The targets of the selected parodists are both Romanian and foreign writers. avec ses moments significatifs et ses auteurs de premier ordre. Littérature mineure. Bachtine) convergent toutes vers la présentation de la parodie comme un phénomène inhérent au développement de la littérature. vu que . in various historical ages. Les premières références apparaissent dans la Poétique d’Aristote. Une telle incursion est édificatrice pour la façon dont les modèles littéraires (fussent-ils roumains ou étrangers) évoluent le long du temps. en 1868. à son tour. Tinianov. et en dernier lieu. Dans Institutio Oratoria.Literature. résultat 97 . Boris Tomachevski. le plus souvent. toutefois. Interculturality DANIELA PETROŞEL Université Ştefan cel Mare Suceava Un canon de la parodie secondaire This paper aims at seizing the main features of the forms taken by the Romanian parody. associe la parodie au deuxième type de ridicule. Communication. la littérature parodique voile la théorie de la littérature qu’implicitement elle pratique. pour la marque spécifique d’une littérature nationale. M. Gérard Genette place la parodie dans le réseau des relations transtextuelles. des ingrédients théoriques offerts par un certain moment historique. distinguant la parodie du burlesque. comportant également une forte dimension comique. prenant consistance.

and Post-modern. Combinant l’observation critique grave avec le détournement amusant des éléments du texte cible. de l’horizon théorique de la période prise en considération. malgré leur éloignement et leur classicisation dans le temps. Il est évident qu’il existe beaucoup d’autres titres qui ne se retrouvent pas inclus dans cette présentation. mettant en évidence l’importance de bien reconnaître la cible parodique. Modern. Interculturality de la transformation dans un régime ludique. Les parodies roumaines sont essentiellement caractérisées par un sens anticipatif. la déconstruction du modèle littéraire antérieur suppose une conscience théorique avancée. imitation. la parodie est un produit complexe. Pîlnia şi Stamate. mais contribuent. genre encore 98 . il a le pouvoir de dépasser les conventions qui le limite. (L’entonnoir et Stamate). le parodiste est bien conscient de l’artifice et il n’hésite pas à le mettre bien en avant dans son texte. texte ou lecteur. le plus souvent. la parodie marque une fin d’étape. par là-même. texte qui construit et déconstruit dans le même mouvement le genre de l’épopée. considérant qu’entre l’ironie et la parodie il existe des similitudes de comportement. l’ironie. c’est toute une poétique qui prend contour implicitement. à sa popularisation. par moments. Cette perspective diachronique est juste censée mettre en évidence le fait que l’on ne saurait parler d’une définition généralement valable pour la parodie. l’espace de la parodie est-il un permanent va-et-vient entre le présent et le passé littéraire. les textes parodiques aident à brûler les étapes. elle la rapproche plutôt de l’ironie que du comique. texte qui parodie le roman réaliste. réalise un classement des textes les plus parodiés (parmi lesquels on retrouve les mythes. une prise en charge ludique et un affranchissement programmé des conventions sous-tendant la littérature. à la fois. dans Parody: Ancient. l’auteur détaillant également les relations que la parodie entretient avec la satire. Les différentes définitions dépendent. La nature inquisitrice de l’esprit parodique favorise des re-traitements continuels des textes et des auteurs antérieurs. pourtant. les contes. Même lorsque les parodies sont motivées par des antipathies personnelles. le plus souvent. La capacité de la parodie de mettre dans un dialogue instrumenté comiquement des âges et des textes littéraires différents rend compte de la puissance de l’impact qu’elle a sur le public fidèle à ce type de littérature. Le charme du discours parodique réside dans cette habileté de poser en esclave des artifices de l’écriture dans le seul but de pouvoir mieux les dynamiter par la suite. Si toutes les périodes significatives de la littérature roumaine sont imprégnées. les fables et les tragédies classiques). Plus que les autres auteurs. c’est parce que dans l’espace roumain des lettres la pratique de l’écriture implique également une théorie de l’écriture. La présentation de la chronologie des auteurs rend visible la modification des conceptions sur certaines notions telles originalité. auteur. Ils ne font pas que se distancer du modèle d’une manière humoristique. (La parodie : ancienne. Communication. L’inventaire de la littérature parodique ne fait pas que de mettre à notre disposition une liste avec les auteurs parodiés. Daniel Sangsue. Linda Hutcheon affirme et soutient par là-même la ressemblance entre le postmodernisme et l’esprit parodique. Autant dans A Theory of Parody (Une théorie de la parodie) que dans la Poétique du postmodernisme. dans La Parodie. Dans le même mouvement. habituellement.Literature. Deleanu. c’est le signe qu’un certain type de littérature est tombé en désuétude. et le texte d’Urmuz. à travers le comique. Dans l’espace roumain par contre. Pour Margaret Rose. Nous nous devons de citer au moins deux exemples: l’épopée héroï-comique d’I. la Bible. B. Optant pour une approche pragmatique de la parodie. Ţiganiada (La Tziganiade). résultat de l’entrelacement de la métafiction au comique. moderne et post-moderne). Aussi. de l’esprit parodique. à travers les interrogations auxquelles la littérature se doit de donner des réponses. le travesti et le burlesque. le processus parodique représente.

O cronică de Crăciun (Une chronique de Noël).Deleanu. B. Le premier moment significatif de la littérature parodique roumaine est représenté par le texte d’I. Le texte parodie le genre de l’épopée. Notre attention sera portée sur les éléments relevant de la modernité de son écriture. Groaznica sinucidere…(Le terrible suicide…) . intra-textuel (institué au niveau de la relation entre le texte souce et les notes en bas de page). Le Seau enlevé de Tassoni ou La pucelle d’Orleans de Voltaire. tandis que d’autres tentatives roumaines de créer des épopées héroïques n’ont pas résisté à l’épreuve du temps. à l’abri des poèmes quasi-symbolistes. Force est de constater que. sur sa capacité. en dernier lieu. d’ouvrir son propre texte vers les formes marginales de la littérature: Telegrame (Telegrammes). l’auteur ressentait déjà le besoin de prendre ses distances par rapport à ce type de langage. capable de véritables mutations esthétiques. Dans ces cas. L’auteur déconstruit l’illusion fictionnelle en y insérant des lecteurs feignant d’être totalement innocents et ignares dans les sujets littéraires. sinon tripler.L. Interculturality nouveau à ce moment-là dans la littérature roumaine. Caragiale. Le problème est que ce texte-noyau peut être constitué d’un simple article de journal. mais d’une mise en relation osée avec les modèles littéraire européens. il ne s’agit pas d’un épuisement de styles ou d’idées qui requière l’intervention corrective de la parodie. gagnant en profondeur avec le passage du temps. Toutes ces œuvres culminent dans un carnavalesque littéraire. Il est évident que la démarche de Budai-Deleanu peut être encadrée dans une tradition de l’épopée héroï-comique. dans une tyrannie du mot qui n’est plus fondateur mais aliénant. représentée par la Batrachomyomachie. dans ses tréfonds. non plus. le défilé des troupes. autant le potentiel interprétatif du texte que le nombre des mises en relation parodiques. d’une petite lettre anonyme ou d’un télégramme mal écrit. Puisque notre intérêt porte sur la parodie en tant que formatrice d’esprits. sur le spectacle fascinant de styles littéraire. ses personnages vivant dans un monde texto-centrique (comme le montre Maria Vodă Căpusan). sur le mélange de genres mineurs et majeurs. sur la manière dont le langage ampoulé apparaissant dans la presse ou dans les textes scientifiques est détourné parodiquement dans l’œuvre de Caragiale. tout comme l’humanité désorientée par les promissions du siècle des Lumières. avec une insistance particulière sur le chaos dans le camp des combattants tziganes. Il contient tous les ingrédients connus de l’épopée héroïque. Moyennant cet artifice. Il est bien possible que les formes marginales soient adaptées à l’esprit de la littératures roumaine que les constructions monumentales. dans le même mouvement. etc. La prolifération chaotique des formes discursives est inhibante. nous n’allons pas insister sur les créations poétiques du dramaturge à renommée internationale qui. décidée à abandonner le modèle folklorique. comme l’invocation de la muse. Nous n’allons pas insister. le héros exemplaire. Il reste néanmoins paradoxal que. il arrive à doubler. le jeu compliqué des notes dévoile des notions de théorie littéraire et des courants critiques de premier ordre.Literature. la parodie de l’héroïque ait survécu brillamment. Communication. mais aussi leur revers parodique. choisit de s’en prendre aux premiers signes du modernisme poétique roumain et de ridiculiser le samanatorisme sans dilemmes. D’une facture complètement différente est la parodie dans les textes d’I. Par là-même. la parodie de Caragiale ne 99 . Ce qui initialement avait l’air d’une dégradation éhontée de l’héroïsme avec un „H” devient aussitôt une fine analyse des mécanismes de production de la littérature culte. bien que la littérature roumaine ne fût qu’à ses débuts concernant la constitution d’un langage littéraire. Nous pouvons ainsi y identifier un exercice parodique inter-textuel (entre le texte de la Tziganiade et la matière engendrée par la tradition de l’épopée héroïque) et. Scrisorile unui egoist (Les lettres d’un égoïste). La Tziganiade. Ainsi.

qui présentent des éléments humains. L’entonnoir et Stamate. des vertus didactiques presque inattendues. et le schématisme de la pensée. prosateur et essayiste. exhibant la manière dont ils altèrent la perception sur la réalité. Comme le langage et la pensée sont schématisés. qui n’est pas nécessairement littéraire. sans discrimination. qui fût soigneusement déconstruit d’une manière parodique. dramaturge. végétaux et métalliques. Il en résulte des pages bizarres. Elle porte en elle les sens graves de la crise de communication. tout comme la prévisibilité du dénouement et des personnages. Poète. il s’impose de réaliser une comparaison avec Caragiale: chez Caragiale les clichés de la communication sont valorisés d’une manière satirique. psychologique et comportementale des personnages ne fait plus l’objet de l’attention de l’auteur. mais d’une parodie qui remet en cause la consistance de la réalité et les valeurs humaines. les clichés de la communication écrite ou orale. victime des prédéterminations. l’image globale ne naît plus d’une structuration cohérente des éléments. Dans ses textes. certaines gens se réfugient dans l’espace protecteur du mot servi tout prêt. Nous ne trouverons pas. Les textes de son premier recueil. justement à cause du fait que le ressort parodique est trop visible. dit Urmuz en filigrane. Parodii originale (Parodies originales) (1964). Se mettant à l’abri des clichés. chez lui. mais elle représente en elle-même un moyen de résister à l’invasion du texte. sans réfléchir à leur caractère arbitraire . la parodie est plutôt une conséquence de la lutte contre le figement littéraire. Urmuz attaque les genres canoniques. le narrateur lui-même porte le poids de l’aliénation.). etc. Les détails contradictoires coexistent. des fragments de textes qui relativisent les perspectives et qui suggèrent la possibilité que les contraires co-existent harmonieusement. Al.Literature. que des auteurs (certains plus importants que d’autres) roumains (Tudor Arghezi. du désir de modifier essentiellement la manière de faire de la littérature. Serghei Esenin. Charles Baudelaire. ce sont bien tous les gens qui usent des mots sans conscience. en revanche. le tout culminant dans un comique absurde. qui vont de la satire d’un lyrisme subordonné 100 . Le long de ses nombreux recueils. La négation d’Urmuz vise les formes littéraires. Urmuz cultive une parodie qui porte en elle les angoisses de la conscience moderne. où le développement normal du texte est sous-miné par des retournements de situation. chez Caragiale. ce spectacle sombre du vide de sens étant alimenté d’une ironie grave. automatisés. un texte antérieur qui eût servi de modèle. épopée. il existe. la parodie présente. autant des auteurs étrangers (La Fontaine. etc). par des personnages-automates. tandis que les cohérences physique. Dans une œuvre qui peut être subsumée en entier au genre parodique. de surcroît. il est d’autant plus évident que le langage littéraire porte les marques de cette inauthenticité. Macesonski. Nichita Stănescu. Urmuz n’est pas un parodiste avoué . au-delà de ses manifestations textuelles trompeuses. ce qui est parodié. nous ne sommes plus en présence d’une parodie amusée. Fuchsiade. roman. par l’abolition de la causalité. Interculturality fait-elle pas que de se rapporter d’une manière polémique à un autre texte. Communication. il y a un tropplein de parodie et un manque de poésie. c’est la linéarité du fil narratif. n’ont pas une valeur déterminante. A ce niveau de la relation entre l’individu et le mot. Pablo Neruda etc. Dans le cas du roman réaliste. nous remarquons une évolution des mises en relation parodiques. à travers les époques et les modes littéraires. Marin Sorescu parodie. connus pour la rigidité de leur structure. fable. la parodie n’a pas la gratuité du jeu de styles et d’auteurs. et l’œil vigilent du narrateur vient sanctionner cette déviation. Au niveau de la parodie littéraire. Adrian Păunescu. Chez Urmuz. En attirant l’attention sur les artifices de l’écriture et sur les formes empruntées par la manipulation. François Villon. l’écrivain éduque son lecteur à identifier la réalité. exercice de maîtrise stylistique. chez Caragiale.

Contemplant le spectacle du monde. Le dernier parodiste que nous soumettrons à notre analyse est Cărtărescu. il revitalise le discours lyrique. il trouve un nouveau set de règles apte à l’étayer. Sorescu évite les clichés discursifs et thématiques. s’essaie à des variations différentes sur un même thème. où la dimension qui prévaut est la dimention metafictionnelle et non pas la dimension comique. vitrine. La parodie d’un style ou d’un auteur perd du terrain devant l’ironisation de ses propres conventions. afin de mettre en scène le détail non-héroïque. l’hybridation. L’analyse de la parodie chez Cărtărescu est illustrative pour les sens pris par la parodie dans le postmodernisme. le spectacle des formes littéraires. mais aussi dans Levant. Conscient du fait qu’il est en train d’écrire un texte éternellement amendable. l’originalité même de son discours: lorsqu’il écrit des poèmes d’amour.Literature. Photos). entre la parodie et l’auto-parodie devenant floues. Jouant avec les mots. Le bref passage en revue des moments représentatifs de la littérature parodique roumaine occasionne aussi l’écriture d’un autre type d’histoire de la littérature. disloquant des constructions considérées auparavant comme figées et y insérant un noyau poétique. La partie la plus consistante de la parodie sorescienne épouse. dans son propre texte. En assumant le statut de lecteur dans le palimpseste de la littérature. de temps à autre. Vitrines. le texte se présente comme un perpétuel dialogue. lyrique ou dramatique. l’impureté des codes. démontrant que tout parodiste est également un pasticheur. la guerre. la parodie postmoderne ressent le poids de ses propres artifices. Comportant des fragments de vie socialiste. soit d’émettre des théories en marge de l’acte artistique (leur acte ou 101 . Et puisqu’il se déplace plein de désinvolture à travers le monde des modèles littéraires. d’une manière démonstrative. Beaucoup des traits définitoires du postmodernisme. une histoire écrite non pas par les critiques. à distance et avec une ironie bienveillante. Et à l’abri de la création sérieuse. mais magistralement déguisée sous les voiles du comique. il renonce à la construction monumentale. il cite son propre nom: il devient un modèle pour le poème érotique ou donne des conseils à Shakespeare (Vărul Shakespeare) (Le cousin Shakespeare). la parodie de Cărtărescu (le cycle Georgicele – Les Géorgiques) sert aussi à tracer les contours d’un monde kitsch. la parodie n’étant qu’un moyen de contempler. la démarche parodique n’est pas motivée par des complexes de supériorité ou d’infériorité. officielle car « voilà comme doit être la poésie. devenant une forme subtile de méditation politique. fotografii. l’ironie. car avant de railler l’artifice des autres. Les thèmes capitaux de l’existence. il revient à des textes plus anciens. la mort. (Poèmes d’amour). Sorescu parodie le rhétorisme et la surcharge stylistique. sont passés en revue à travers le filtre parodique dans une tentative désespérée. mais par les auteurs qui choisissent soit de consolider des créations antérieures. sans pourtant oublier d’en souligner le côté artificiel. Interculturality à la politique. qu’il insèrera toutefois. elle ne se permet pas de friser l’humour (sic!) ». le recyclage. Communication. d’offrir des modèles valides d’existence dans le monde. la décanonisation. tel qu’il apparaît dans le cycle La Lilieci. les frontières entre le modèle et sa parodie. optant pour un lyrisme qui n’a rien de solennel en lui même. au développement de vastes théories métafictionnelles. Sorescu cultive une ironie synonyme de l’étonnement devant les mystères de l’existence. (Phares. Poeme de amor. Quand il écrit du théâtre historique. Les modèles antérieurs ne sont plus inhibants. composent le portrait de l’esprit parodique. joue avec les styles et les époques littéraires. en fait. Totul (Tout). les transpose dans des genres différents. un auteur qui. l’amour. surtout dans ses poèmes (les recueils Faruri. sérieuse. De cette manière.

Poetica (La Poétique). (La Rhétorique de la parodie) Bucureşti. Interculturality celui des autres). Bucureşti. BIBLIOGRAPHIE: Aristotel. Editura Dacia. Editura Univers. O teorie a secundarului (Une théorie du secondaire). index par Maria Hetco. (L’art oratoire) traduction. Des auteurs qui décident d’amender les formes littéraires désuètes (ou trop novatrices à leur goût). Schopenhauer. Petroşel. Virgil. The Teachings of Twentieth-Century Art Forms. 2006. Paris. Pippidi. Fabius. Arta oratorică. Editura Univers.Literature. Arthur. traduction et commentaires par D. Bucureşti. La littérature parodique est une forme de communication interculturelle. Ce este literatura? Şcoala Formală rusă. Notes: 1 Nemoianu. Bucureşti. Daniel. Cluj-Napoca. C’est l’espace où les ruptures (de style. Daniela. 126. Despre Caragiale (Sur Caragiale). 1997. Quintilianus. O teorie a secundarului (Une théorie du secondaire). Bucureşti. La Parodie. de pensée esthétique) sont exploitées d’une manière créatrice tandis que les principes qui sous-tendent le fascinant territoire de la littérature deviennent partie prenante d’un scénario comique et métalittéraire. Căpuşan. Cambridge University Press. Margaret A. (Qu’est-ce que c’est que la littérature ? L’Ecole Formelle Russe) antologie et préface par Mihai Pop. p. Poetica postmodernismului (La poétique du postmodernisme). 1982. modern and post-modern. Linda. Genette. Ed. Gérard. 1965. M. Palimpsestes. R. Rose. Editura Univers. Tănăsescu. Academiei R. 1974. 1983. Bucureşti. 2002. 1974. New York and London. Sangsue. 1997. Retorica parodiei. Nemoianu. Studii de estetică. Hutcheon. 1995. entre cultures majeures et cultures mineures ou bien entre des moments différents de la même culture. Hutcheon. Editions du Seuils. Bucureşti. ou qui attirent l’attention sur les formes perfides par l’intermédiaire desquelles la littérature peut manipuler. Maria Vodă. 1985. P. Editura Ştiinţifică. 1997. usant des instruments dont ils disposent : leurs propres textes. étude introductive.. Tertulian. Communication. notes. Editura Ideea Europeană. (Etudes d’esthétique) étude introductive par N.. Parody: ancient. 1994. d’un texte de date récente avec un noble (et souvent accablant) modèle antérieur. Virgil. 102 . A Theory of Parody. M. Linda. Methuen. Tout texte parodique est un point de rencontre du secondaire avec le principal. traduction et notes par G. Bucureşti. Editura Univers. étude introductive. Editura Minerva. Hachette.

theatrical and philosophical writing. so to say.didactic one. Cornel Moraru in his newest monograph of Blaga published in our country. perhaps the most refers in fact to a consubstantial reading of Blaga’s 103 . when Blaga was manicheically read. without any real hermeneutical contribution . because of the fact that some sets of metaphors had the same semantic structure as some philosophical concepts and viceversa. not only regarding the hyper-symbolic characters but also the scenarios worked directly from the native mythological “clay” . probably representing a sort of an axiomatic criterion with the same basic substance as all the metamorphosis of the creative personality of the Lancrăm writer. his philosophy was seen as a taboo by the official Marxist-Leninist ideology which transformed the reception of his work into an easy. pseudo. and there are some published PhDs theses which dealt with this monographic perspective. a dramatic archetype. using strong arguments. “convergence between the poet and philosopher”. but about the convergence. just as other ideas.Literature. The Issue of Mystery The paper attempts to draw some of the significant lines of Lucian Blaga’s critical reception regarding the problem of mystery.were to be recognized inside the language and the imagery of the poems.these are the fields in which the major roles are played by mystery and its explicit poetry. because in the meantime. being himself a partisan of balance and an referee of tempered comment. its limits.stylistic experts. in the first place. showing the major trends recorded since the publication of his first books and suggesting that his creative personality should be defined in the convergence of poetical. that have poetic structure regarding the typology of knowledge.positivistic key (first named so by Vasile Băncilă). by semio. Communication. as a first rate poet and play-writer yet negligible philosopher. The latest traditional. the diachronic ways of the creation .the separation of the concepts and their wording being subsequently realized after their initial establishment in the poems. giving. in fact. Interculturality DUMITRU-MIRCEA BUDA Petru Maior University of Tg. the ontological meaning of the mystery itself or the approximation of the transcendence . operating in the plays. the already mentioned excesses. Those metamorphoses which the criticism has abusively and dogmatically separated – as had already happened in the first two decades of Communism. regarding the Blagian philosophic concepts. A major area of philosophical exploration.aesthetic monograph. The solution advanced by Cornel Moraru is a hermeneutical convergence .Blaga being behold either as the “poet-philosopher” or as the “ philosopher-poet”. wrote. Cornel Moraru disclaims. taking into consideration his double formation. a method that ignores. a structural obsession in the universe of the poems (at least referring to the most privileged section of his work by critics). as an example of this kind of abuse. famous and mythologized already. Not just about this consubstantiality. the readings of some poems through the autognostic. Blaga began to be studied by the poststructuralist critique. that had been approved and authorized from the 70’s of the last century by Alexandra Indrieş or Maria Carpov. Mures Ways of Reception Regarding the Works of Lucian Blaga.

Poetry. Lucian Blaga. A literary philosophy. primitiveness.the dramatic myth. As I was saying. may prove the most updated and beneficial way of understanding the work of Lucian Blaga either as a whole or divided into separate sections. as the philosophy of Blaga is advantaged and doomed at the same time because of its condition. This consubstantiality that we are talking about (with reference to all his literature) prevents his philosophy to expand itself into a strong thinking system. the former being resumed and revised in the most recent volume of this critic Lucian Blaga. despite the fact that this segment of Blaga’s work should have been studied by the actual philosophers. the result of what Ov. where there are no rigid or complex boundaries between an hermeneutical.The genesis of the inner worlds (Lucian Blaga. there may be highlighted some ways of investigation proposed by Corin Braga. even at the Academy awards with the Adamachi prize. having as a reverse the aversion that he (the writer) feels against the cold. when the Light Poems are accompanied. and there is but a slightly breakthrough in the Western culture. the mystery could be that consubstantial criterion. the declension of the assertive Western society and the crisis of reason’s authority.Literature. with more convincing results as those of Eugen Todoran. judicious and mechanical civilization. Crohmălniceanu called “the taste of this naïve. the discussion about the poetic mystery and the poetic universe encountered in the Light Poem’s author work turns out to be inevitable. one by one or simultaneously. after the author of the famous work “Romanian literature and expressionism” declares himself assured that “Blaga’s literary and philosophical work grew up together in a perfect osmosis. Poetic Myth. dramatic vision and the philosophical system. as a literary theme and concept. by some reflections that can be found in another volume 104 . Communication. although expressive.the poetic myth and Lucian Blaga. But this is not a tragic thing. tale figment like.” All this considered. with whom Blaga’s thought and expressionist sensibility shares so many common points but also Oswald Spengler or Ludwig Klages. being. the poetic imagery. a European rehabilitation of Blaga’s philosophy being a part of the so called “philosophy of existence” at the beginning of the 20th century (Lebensphilosophie). highly poetic and thereby not sufficiently stable (hence untranslatable). the possibility of making Blaga’ s work more contemporary. the term should be acknowledged without derogatory connotations. in his way to adhere to the philosophical trend that foreshadowed. poetry and theatre promoting the philosophy and theatre . but also older approaches. Interculturality philosophy.Geneza lumilor interioare) a truly remarkable psycho-critical essay. There are two counterarguments that can immediately be seen: on the one hand there is his conceptual language.all those metamorphoses that were disadvantaged by the previous contexts and in which the critic sees the update potential. From a more personal point of view. not only referring to Nietzsche. which touch the issue of the access at the consubstantiality of Blagian work. It is not at all adventitious. We believe that a multidisciplinary reading. the mystery being the central point of his writing even from his double debut in 1919. philosophical or dramatic approach. Myth. Located on this premise. and on the other hand there is the interest of many literary critics regarding the Blagian philosophy. S. there are some reluctances regarding the chances of a massive rediscovery in the present day.” This sympathy for mystery can be seen probably as a compensatory reflex of Blaga. on the contrary. Thus. being able to finally reveal an original creative archetype from which emerges. in his work entitled Lucian Blaga. or paraliterary. in those times.

to be re-edited in 1920 at Romanian Book Publishing house. primarily because now Blaga seems to be in some sort of contrast with the new trends of the epoch (Transylvania is still manly traditionalsămănătoristă) because of the fact that he adopted the modern expressionist formula/way of writing (Iorga . the mystery under the transparency”. of Blaga’s work. “the key for the man and work”. Or. Interculturality Stones for my temple.characters by themselves. Heathen mystery. inside the poetic universe.” Paradoxically. if it cannot be divided using rational means. in a special number of Gândirea in December 1934. Communication. where the evolution starts from the “metaphysical gloominess of the problematic human being that has been alienated from the secrecies of the universe and is now striving to retrieve the original balance. “mystery. so to say). the metaphysic of the mystery functions as a reflex of vitalism. where the new Arcadia. Future opponent. It takes about a decade until the reception of Blaga begins to follow a normal path and this mystery issue is now. as remarked by Ion Pop in the poems that compose the volume Pasii profetului / Prophet’s steps. Nichifor Crainic has. the next year in which two more volumes appeared. the reception. Cioran says. Ion Pop calls them “stylized generics.centrism illusions. Mister păgând / Zamolxe. Emil Cioran’s article on “Blaga’s interior style” stands out talking about “a serenity in chiaroscuro”. it cannot be ignored that there is an overwhelming difference between the 1934 moment and the later minimizing and trivialized attacks of his theoretical concepts. can only be an implicit opening to his reception (a section in the history of his reception. moreover. that began in the latest years of the inter-war 105 . a Dyonisian experience of the world. it can be ecstatically lived through religion or embodied in a mythical formula through art. in the terminology of Klages. Cioran adds more poignant “Blaga would not have reached the issue of ecstatic knowledge if he had not had the intimate experience of mystery” and. be it thematic or conceptual. Here. under the symbol of a reintegration myth”.“to the devitalizing force of the spirit (Geist). The thematization of mystery becomes even more significant in 1921. both in poetry.Literature. “the intensity of the rupture increases with the extent of mystery. in the same anniversary number of Gândirea in 1934. Naturally for Crainic. from which he has not quit yet due to the doctrine incompatibility. and in theatre . opening “the hidden rooms of the soul” and revealing “the fear under the quietude. Both books were. is significantly restrained in 1921. Blaga opposes the metaphysic of mystery because precisely the presence of the mystery in the world is the one that limits the destructive action of the intellect and also exposes the logo. marked by the individual consciousness and the exclusion from the initial paradise. a form of art and th inking. for the first time acknowledged as being a fundamental element in his writing.and we could also add mystery. Besides.” Because any approach.” We could add that. which was truly enthusiastic in the year of his debut 1919."the poet prophesies meaningless things").” Cioran practically supported our previous statement regarding the compensatory nature of mystery for the agony of the modern world. along with the “folklore myth”. the eternity under the shape. in fact. an interesting intervention. because of the same point of view regarding the “religious mystery” which he believes to be. Ion Pop suggests that the mystery is the original point of Blaga’s mythological geography.the critic seeing the plays as dramatic poems and being interested in “the powers that are hidden in the night and in the ethnos sleep with which the characters identify themselves”. is doubled by the poematic drama regarding the pre-Christian saintliness of Dacians illustrated in Zamolxe.

the mystery pictured as a “germ cell”. being a very close friend to Drimba. The issue of mystery is no exception. A concept. respectable ones like D. as Crohmălniceanu says. regarding the imposing of the idea of mystery as an essential axis. The poems. referring to the persuasive approximation of his concepts.for example N. they are still important and notable.having a monographic perspective. As conclusive. Fortunately.knowledge” or. Van Gogh. he had been conquered. and.Literature. The poet of mysteries is seen as an ultramodernist: “the expression of poetic configuration of a new meaning” and maybe. The poetry of Lucian Blaga and the mystic thinking. Mysteries require protection and enhancement. however. Communication. by his contemporaries. as the same critic suggests. but it is supplying. is the third monograph belonging to Constantin Fântâneru. by the “minus. later on. the fact that Blaga was seen for a while as an “vanguard”. Brâncuşi. Stăniloaie. the paradoxical revelation by deepening them more and more into the abyss of the unknown. in Edvard Munch. most of the poems from the beginning volume and it is shaped in the form of the poetic of vision even after the “end of the Eden age” announced by Ion Pop. by the European expressionism during his studies at Vienna. and continually pertaining to it “not as an unattainable threshold of knowledge or as a mere metaphysical hypothesis. 106 . on the one hand. in 1937 about the centrality of the mystery idea in Blaga’s gnoseology and about his so called “estatic rationalism. Romanian energy written by Vaile Băncilă (the first monograph). where there are two chapters about the influence of Blaga over the poetry written by the young generation of the time. previous to the philosophical trilogy thematization. on the other hand by the proletcult propaganda. there are some notable exceptions among these two extremes. in fact. where there are no distinct limits between Blaga as a writer and Blaga as a critic (this work was somehow written by two hands. at least. read his writing and personally subedited it. in fact. because Blaga. in the well-known condemnation made by theologians. this concept of mystery lays at the foundation of his knowledge theory and poetic sensibility. the secret is expended." because "the cognitive structures are also shaped by this original ontological framework " as he is memorably described by Cornel Moraru. For a man that has been “hypnotized by the mystery”. of its uncharming effect (using the original meaning of the word proposed by Max Weber). Blaga is. The comprehension point up to which the writer brings the mystery may be due to that atmosphere of indecision that governed in that period.” There are two more critical approaches. being a much more mimetic writing and up to Ovidiu Drimba’ s The philosophy of Lucian Blaga. being interested.) In any case. that has already been regarded as a cliché and which the poems vitally and obstinately proclaim as a counterpart for depleting the miracles of the world. a zealous when referring to the thinking method used in connection with mystery. Interculturality period and would eventually grow to a full extent during the “obsessive decade” because of the official ideology promoted in those times. talking. even though slightly different. comprise. because of the fact that the cultural innovations came from those modernists prepared inside traditional circles and viceversa.Lucian Blaga. luciferical knowledge” and although the lyrics are full of “light” the mystery is not revealed but it happens quite the opposite. This concept is not just highly visible but is also encrypted (almost explicitly) in the imagery of the famous Ars poetica entitled Eu nu strivesc corola de minuni a lumii / I do not crush the wonders corolla of the world. Or.from this derives the overused appellation “mystic”. Bagdasar. implicitly. is not just a simple detail because. Barlach or Arhipenko.

the night and sleep being updated romantic sites.a somehow secondary theme in Blaga’s poetry and with the reiteration of the primordial mystery theme. Finally. which tends to its original fragment. Only during the night or while sleeping. to capture something of the original moment’s resonan ce. Between these volumes. a m old that can be easily seen by psycho. As each item. sensing it. the product of the rupture from the cosmic All and it enters in the composition of the heart rending lamentation regarding the alienation of the human being. The semi-Eden like age of the world is restored and the being is reintegrated into the cosmos. as it is in one of the most beautiful poems ever written in Romanian literature – Marea trecere / The Great Transition. trying. as it is above mentioned. it seems worthy to pursue. it is a part of the Great All. It is impressive how the entire poetic universe of Blaga lodges. creating an imaginary populated by totemic figures such as the stag and its "lost in death" hind. the effects of its visionary inside the poem. concurrent with its conceptual definition in Blaga’s philosophy. the solving itself being as a kind of pattern too. heartbreakingly reclaiming it. Communication. and is undoubtedly an expression.critics. the issue of mystery. Along with the reinvestment with meaning of the eros . being now in an indestructible solidarity with it. that is not different. being under the guilt-ridden isolation (the murderer of mysteries) and away from the dark forces that disturb the initial order of the universe. the symbolic originally couple from ancient world. The mystery has the same status as the light. where there is the echo of an overwhelming call that crosses the geography of a fairy forest. without success. In the next volumes Marea trecere / The great transition and especially in Lauda somnului / The Praise of Sleep. regarding the exerted hypnotic power. highlights other poetic motifs such as the cycle of the phenomenal world or the native places. this are the only sites in which Blaga’s poetry can still fascinatingly relate with mystery. acts like an operating vehicle and a catalyst for the vision that can be found in all Blagian spaces and times. Blaga acts here through a filter. through regression. as an essential condition for their sustainability. is fulfilled and along with it. to “the source of all things”.Literature. Interculturality in the series of Moartea lui Pan / The Death of Pann. and is now more fertile than ever: the security of the world’s secrets. earth. sky or water. the golden age of mystery is restored in the poems belonging to the volume “At the court of longing”. or of a beginning that in the real life turns out to be irrecoverable and unrecognizable. at least from a multidisciplinary perspective approach. But the same fruitful fulfillment is obvious for the philosophical and drama myth also. as the volumes are beginning to be more and more occluded because of this inability to decipher the thing’s transcendence or the heartbreaking nostalgia of a beyond thing. and even more decidedly in the volume “Unsuspected steps” where the lost harmony is retrieved and the entire blagian poetry changes in the end. The poetic pattern of mystery is practically solved in all Blaga’s creative books. whose recovery is denied 107 . Along with its more or less objective predeterminations with Blaga’s philosophy and destiny. the volume Patria Mumelor / The Land of the Mothers. there is also the complete Blagian poetic myth that all the exegetes talk about. as it also happens with the uprooting element that has an obvious Transylvanian lineage. the mystery is illustrated as a fatal thing. as Cornel Moraru says “under the magical power of mystery”. to take over Eugen Todoran’s terminology. to engage a response from the entire disappeared human race and. a demonic temptation – an element that cannot be separated from the whole imagery of the mystery. from the cosmic elements. this is the last point of Blagian poetry that also coincides with the grate concluding remarks.

an all his work and destiny. Constantin Fântâneru. desecrated knowledge. but for which the art can still serve. Anul XIII . The forest. Prefaţă de Nicolae Balotă. Editura Grai şi suflet Cultura Naţională. Lucian Blaga. mythical one. be it cultural. financed under the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development 2007-2013. Bucureşti. The mystery that is still hiding from the thought. Interculturality because of the modern time. Kantian “thing in itself”. with Alexandra Indrieş. Iaşi. with amazing results regarding Blaga’s exegesis. Poezia lui Lucian Blaga şi gândirea mitică. Institutul European.Literature. precisely because it is brought under the attention of modern. 1975. not in some abstract ones because. In fact. Timişoara. 108 . 1938. artistic. that goes without saying. Blaga’s philosophy reclaims the mystery giving it a new meaning (it was assimilated. remaining. E. Bucureşti. may be extended. because here mystery refuses to inexhaustibly devote itself in meaning. Ediţia a doua Timişoara. Corin Braga. 8. Alexandra Indrieş. deep inside. decembrie 1934. and not just once: “We theorize in this way because we are under the influence of mystery”. 1940.POSDRU/89/1. and has already replaced the initial. being beyond the limits of human knowledge. or the “absolute spirit” of Hegel. de arte grafice şi editura "Bucovina" I. Mit poetic. Editura Eminescu. Editura Marineasa. reiterating its fullness. Poezie. that has an eschatological orientation. is therefore tangible only if we are speaking about its poetic or metaphysical sense. or with sin by the Christians) in such a persuasive and centrality degree that becomes a creative obsession. Maria Carpov. Eugen Todoran. and it can be said that this confession like statement. Geneza lumilor imaginare. 1995. by the Greeks. 1997. Vasile Băncilă. energie românească. Mit. Torouţiu. 1987. Bucureşti. Captarea sensurilor. with its springs’ murmur that imperceptibly rhyme is the silent announce that there is “the great transition”. Editura Minerva. Communication. reshaping it. Coordonate stilistice. or seen as a the reflection of cosmic creation. Bucureşti. the mystery can strictly be revealed in terms of life. 1981. 1998. Verbul în poezia lui Lucian Blaga. Aknowledgement: This paper is a result of the project `Transnational Network for Integrated Management of Postdoctoral Research in Communicating Sciences. keeping it. Inst. It is perhaps the most dramatic of all the hypostases regarding the relationship with mystery. Sporind a lumii taină. a more philosophic equivalent to the Platonic “idea”. Tipografia Cartea Românească.5/S/63663. Lucian Blaga. and this forest can neither be “the garden from the other world”. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Gândirea. the right path is the creation itself. Corola de minuni a lumii. Interpretare stilistică a sistemului poetic al lui Lucian Blaga. nor “the lost paradise”. Cluj. Editura Facla. Lucian Blaga. Blaga himself stated. Institutional building (postdoctoral school) and fellowships program (CommScie)" . Moreover.

2004. Editura Univers Enciclopedic. Lucian Blaga. Aurel Sasu). 2000. 109 . Dictionarul General al Literaturii Romane (A/B) – volumul I. Bucuresti. Interculturality Dicţionarul esenţial al scriitorilor români (coordonatori Mircea Zaciu. Bucureşti. Cornel Moraru. 2005. Communication. Marian Papahagi.Literature. Convergenţe între poet şi filosof. Editura Albatros.

Europe. and knowledge of the human beings in their elementary interactions. Their underlying element. and The Song of Los form an independent whole. The Song of Los1 My paper focuses on William Blake’s America. Europe and The Song of Los. America (1793). Communication. the poems record events which involve real history. only one is extant. Europe (1794) and The Song of Los (1795). the aforecited ‘minor prophecies’ constitute an allegorical outline of social history. was in fact one long established in the rhetorical resources of the popular culture by the time Blake wrote’ (28).’ i. Orc indeed embodies Blake’s idea of Revolution in the perishable universe. in my opinion. Interculturality CĂTĂLIN GHIŢĂ University of Craiova William Blake’s Social Vision: America.6 One can neither reason with nor tame Los’s son. they ‘seem to be preludes to unwritten prophecies’ (Prophet against Empire 258). for the latter is spontaneous. since this is the ultimate ferment of social evolution. According to Erdman. the first (Africa) and the fourth (Asia). narrating related and even consecutive events. As I have just stated. As a fomenter of rebellion.Literature. expressing social grievances and utopian visions in terms of biblical paradigms of Babylonian oppression and millenarian expectation. My idea is not unique in this context. as Jon Mee convincingly points out: ‘The prophetic platform. Thus. the expression of his creator’s Zeitgeist. amongst others. the three prominent features of any social uprising.4 The French Revolution (1791) may also be treated as a textual application of the same idea.3 Their basic conceptual element is revolution. Briefly. Orc is. and rule-challenging. and from this poetic conviction springs the former’s uncontrollable character. an age obsessed with pseudo-religious formulae. My purpose in this essay is to demonstrate that at least these three of William Blake’s ‘minor prophecies. Stephen Behrendt.5 The paradigmatic figure of the revolutionary cycle is Orc. set on the stern and immutable principles of revolution. is represented by the powerfully Romantic idea of Revolution. Europe and The Song of Los Blake reconstitutes the history of the human world’ (105). these being. all this in spite of Blake’s characteristically heterogeneous description of historical experience. which is converted into a genuine textual catalyst. or the reading of reality in concrete terms. Symbolically. they may be grouped under the aegis of single vision.e. more than any other Blakean figure. defending a related thesis: ‘In America. devastating. Europe. whose role is that of an action catalyst.2 constitute a poet’s critical examination of the social realities of his time. Damon writes that ‘Orc is Revolution in the material world’ (Blake Dictionary 309). but the formula is incomplete. aiming to point out that these three ‘minor prophecies’ encode the poet’s reading of the social realities of his time. but I preferred to leave it aside for two main reasons: (1) It is incomplete (of the intended seven Books. The Song of Los contains two sections. the other six having been lost) and (2) America. Harold Bloom adds that the poem is the weakest of all Blakean revolutionary 110 .

In my opinion. comprises a Preludium and A Prophecy. ‘red eyes’ (E 51). I am of the opinion that the mere ‘pedestrian’ character of Africa is yet another rhetorical device employed by Blake for the sole purpose of demonstrating the intellectually castrating feature of single vision. The end of the Preludium brings about one of Blake’s favourite contrasts of elementals: fire and frost mingling ‘in howling pains. suggesting their petty role in the course of the forthcoming events. Simultaneously. ‘dark death’ (E 52). ‘darkness of Africa’ (E 52). ‘dark virgin’ (E 51). the elements in the fallen. and oppression. The African continent is carefully translated into a metaphor for seclusion. In fact. ‘black cloud’ (E 52). ‘dark limbs’ (E 51). All these textual elements are symbolic of primary perception. these are the first lines of what will prove to be an exquisite account of intellectual architecture in Europe.8 the poet intentionally describes the whole plot and its corresponding atmosphere in fading contours. The Preludium deserves a brief analysis. whilst fending off the question of spiritual communion which alone guarantees liberty: These were the Churches: Hospitals: Castles: Palaces: Like nets & gins & traps to catch the joys of Eternity And all the rest a desart. ‘forms of dark delusion’ (E 67). ‘dark air’ (E 51). of delusion generated by the singularity of perception: ‘Noah faded! Black grew the sunny African’ (E 67). ‘tenfold chains’ (E 51). ‘cups of iron’ (E 51). At the same time. ‘Noah shrunk’ (E 67). ‘iron baskets’ (E 51). and the characters’ movements are leaden.7 whose fallacy resides in that it focuses on man’s outer interactions (the social layer). ‘struggling afflictions’ (E 52).Literature. ‘fathomless abyss’ (E 51). for the action unfolding on the material layer is doubled by an increasingly developed plot on a superior scale. this whole piece constitutes Blake’s response to physical-eye vision. ‘iron tongue’ (E 51). and epithets) which evoke blood: ‘red Orc’ (E 51). ‘wrists of fire’ (E 52). Communication. as the ultimate form of domination. The lines are suffused with dark tones. ‘silent deep’ (E 52). Till like a dream Eternity was obliterated & erased (E 67). imperialism. the section dedicated to Africa points out that the latter stands for the supreme expression of conservatism. and conflict: ‘struggling womb’ (E 52). material universe are gradually diminishing. metonymies. Interculturality prophecies. 111 . America. There is also a hint of derision. ‘as they fled they shrunk’ (E 68). and to its inevitable intellectual errors. ‘The human race began to wither’ (E 67). ‘because of the merely pedestrian Africa section that begins it’ (E 905). There is a series of nouns. and verbs which make up a picture of extreme uncertainty. in furrows by thy lightnings rent’ (E 52). not through it. there can be encountered certain tropes (metaphors. which renders reality incomprehensible. Pedestrian though it may be. evoking at once a narrow perspective and spiritual fallacy: ‘dark abode’ (E 51). ‘two narrow doleful forms’ (E 68). adjectives (usually used as epithets). being constructed in a manner similar to Europe. if not absurd. in its gratuitous violence. since it embodies slavery. As ‘Newton’s sleep’ is elsewhere defined as seeing with the eye. The second part. due to the influence of a heavy materiality. involving supernatural agencies. ‘closing and restraining’ (E 68). ‘nether deep’ (E 52). as Blake amalgamates here all his ingredients of an extreme social revolt.

On the other hand. Not only America. The third piece. ranging from the historical sphere to the political one. Fainting upon the elements. Orc’s omnipotent revolutionary force grips Europe.Literature. the Preludium deserves a concise analysis. The prophecy is fulfilled: the American Revolution prevails. The lyrics are infused with numerous phrases evoking consumption: ‘first born & first consum’d’ (E 60). Christine Gallant believes that both America and Europe ‘are intensely topical poems. sexual in nature. revolving around Orc’s menacing silhouette: Stiff shudderings shook the heav’nly thrones! France Spain & Italy. Communication. America ‘maintains a relatively straightforward optimism about the birth of a new global political order. crammed with political allusions to an extent that makes it worthwhile to consider Blake’s artistic purposes in using such materials’ (26). constitutes a social allegory. Just as in the case of America. but also the entire poetic triptych successfully instantiates the fallacy of social representation: the individual fails to account for the obvious errors in the concrete universe by stubbornly resorting to empirical senses in order to inform his own intellect on the apparently haphazard transformations operated at the material level by experimentally ungraspable forces. the writer being seduced by a masculine form of violence (Aers. which. But the five gates were consum’d. ‘Devouring & 112 . As David Simpson points out. and the ancient Guardians. & their bolts and hinges melted And the fierce fames burnt round the heavens. smitten with their own plagues They slow advance to shut the five gates of their law-built heaven Filled with blasting fancies and with mildews of despair With fierce disease and lust. which renders indistinct the boundaries separating material reality from Eternity. comprising a broad spectrum of phenomena. it is precisely because he sees this social cycle as an actualization of single vision that he makes full use of quotidian poetic ingredients. As I have pointed out. Yet this is merely the beginning – social Revolution bursts out in the New World. In terror view’d the bands of Albion. ‘Representations of Revolution’ 172). ‘Consumed and consuming’ (E 60). unable to stem the fires of Orc. is particularly relevant to my case. but its flames will thence contaminate Europe. between actualization of potential elements and disintegration of act and volition altogether. Europe. It is the intrinsic nature of this crude type of vision that urges one to vacillate between action and non-action. insisting on the fact that ‘America shows more characteristically than The French Revolution Blake’s way of including history and blurring the distinction between the actual and the ideal’ (56). Interculturality David Fuller’s assertion. outside of the three epics’ (E 903). ‘sieze the burning power’ (E 61). is ‘the subtlest and most difficult of Blake’s poems.9 The Orcan energetic impulse is. America records Orc’s apotheosis. On the whole. and sublime confusion is indeed here the rhetoric of tyranny and of melancholic self-deception’ (160). This helps to prove my primary thesis that Blake intended the poem as an exemplification of single vision. The visionary panorama displays a complex set of brutal images. according to Harold Bloom. destroying boundaries and upsetting obstacles. primarily. & round the abodes of men (E 57-58).

he siez’d the Trump. Eighteen hundred years: Man was a Dream! The night of Nature and their harps unstrung: She slept in middle of her nightly song. as in Hindu iconography (according to various artistic representations. the same characters 113 . one of the important keys to this primary level of interpretation lies in an explicit figure of speech. an ironical metaphor for Newton (‘mighty Spirit’). and the violent outcome of the surging masses is sheer rebellion.10 Leslie Tannenbaum draws an interesting parallel between America and Europe: ‘Whereas America is primarily concerned with the arrival of Orc as the apocalyptic bridegroom. Nam’d Newton. Fell thro’ the wintry skies seeking their graves. The second portion of The Song of Los. the ‘Kings of Asia’ constitute ‘symbols of unrepentant domination archaically imaged in feudalism’ (‘“Active Evil” and “Passive Good”’ 14). its hues ranging from golden to crimson. It is interesting to note that the accompanying characters are ferocious beasts. Single vision is again mocked in the compound metaphor suggesting at once Enitharmon’s sleep and the eighteen centuries of dogmatic fallacy: Enitharmon slept. Interculturality devoured’ (E 61). Blake’s scenario is rather simple: dogmatic sleep brings about rejection of imposed patterns of social behaviour. As a construct. each and every god of the Indian pantheon is ascribed a certain animal vehicle – vahana): The sun glow’d fiery red! The furious terrors flew around! On golden chariots raging. describes the hectic assault of the counter-revolutionary forces. and the fourth of the general plot. Communication. and that this contagion consumes the backward reactionary forces. Europe gives a picture of Orc’s tempestuous arrival in France. Rattling their hollow bones in howling and lamentation (E 65).The atmosphere is gory. Europe presents a more detailed examination of the condition of the bride’ (152). & blow’d the enormous blast! Yellow as leaves of Autum the myriads of Angelic hosts. where the background is set for a consuming uprising. a female dream! (E 63).Literature. whose pernicious mediation accounts for the subsequent emergence of spiritual barrenness and extreme dejection: A mighty Spirit leap’d from the land of Albion. the whole piece translates Blake’s idea that social unrest is contagious. According to David Punter. Asia. with red wheels dropping with blood. In my opinion. Eighteen hundred years. The Lions lash their wrathful tails! The Tigers couch upon the prey & suck the ruddy tide: And Enitharmon groans & cries in anguish and dismay (E 66). In my opinion.

However. Milton. The series of nouns. Lewiston. Like a serpent of fiery flame! The sullen Earth Shrunk! (E 69). and anticipating the conciliatory finale of Jerusalem. For the darkness of Asia was startled At the thick-flaming. the hues ranging from yellow through red to crimson. Vala. not the empirical. and Jerusalem. The chromatic pattern in Asia is the reverse of Africa. a return to the glory of primitive times’ (75). From his ancient woven Den. The archetype of any form of rebellion. Blake’s unique gift for visionary construction even in the concrete confines of social order. which is the trans-temporal aspect of reality described in Jerusalem: Orc. and verbs pertain to an imaginary of incipient. Queenston. ‘serpent o f fiery flame’ (E 69). he ‘combines the ideas of Cronus/Saturn and the returned Christ of the millennium’ (111). This palette is suggestive of the gradual yet unabated force of Revolution. thought-creating fires of Orc’ (E 68). raging in European darkness. paving the way for spiritual freedom. ‘red flames’ (E 69). Interculturality embody narrowed perceptions. insofar as Orc heralds a pristine age of spiritual awakening which is to supplant Urizen’s religions. however. rebellion. Orc. ‘pillar of fire’ (E 69). proves to be invincible. Martin Priestman thinks that. able to function solely on materialistic premises.A. William Blake’s Minor Prophecies. I hope.Literature. Communication. therefore imagining human relationships in terms of social exchange and servitude. nature of Orc’s fire that poses the real threat: The Kings of Asia heard The howl rise up from Europe! And each ran out from his Web. According to William Richey. adjectives.’ BIBLIOGRAPHY: Ansari. in the lyrics of these three ‘minor prophecies. A. ‘the thick-flaming. if luminous. levelled against scholastic narrow-mindedness and spiritual blindness. 2001. It is essential to note that these ‘primitive times’ translate the concomitantly religious and ontological concept of illud tempus. the dynamics of the Revolution cannot be subdued. the spiritual permanently bordering the material: ‘The howl rise up’ (E 68). It is the intellectual. All the poetic examples which I have analysed so far demonstrate. a transparent metaphor expressing the poet’s stiff strictures. Blake’s Revolution is ‘a rebirth of ancient vitality. ‘fires in the City’ (E 68). 114 . thought-creating fires of Orc (E 68). and Lampeter: The Edwin Mellen P. Arose like a pillar of fire above the Alps. and allow us to perceive the fabric of the subsequent great epics.

The Illuminated Blake.: Princeton UP. 1993. Ed. Complete Writings. Fuller. Stephen C. 3 Saree Makdisi deftly notes that. for Blake. 1988. Princeton. Nation and Empire.J. as well as to imagine the unimaginable projected into any number of possible (or impossible) futures’ ( Romantic Imperialism 3). Cambridge: Cambridge UP. The Complete Poetry and Prose of William Blake. Princeton. Basingstoke and London: Macmillan. 1982. Steve and David Worrall. Clark. William. 1982. Romantic Imperialism: Universal Empire and the Culture of Modernity. 1965. Project ID61968 (2009). Damon. ---.Literature. Foster. Interculturality Behrendt. and Sydney: Croom Helm. ---. Nation and Empire. Garden City. Priestman. Erdman. 1975. David.J. see the brilliant volume Blake. 1992. Erdman. simultaneously. Mee. fwd. Makdiski. A Blake Dictionary: The Ideas and Symbols of William Blake. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 1999. Romantic Atheism: Poetry and Freethought. Chicago and London: U of Chicago P. 1965. 5 Behrendt continues: ‘In these three works Blake marshals his verbal and visual forces to present for infernal reading a documentary history that aims to reveal that the events of the latter years of the eighteenth century are presages of the millennium that is imminent. David. 1957. 1780-1830. 6 Although one may hasten to infer that Blake downplays the idea of Revolution altogether. London. William. Biblical Tradition in Blake’s Early Prophecies: The Great Code of Art. 1979. that is in fact unfolding. New York. Columbia and London: U of Missouri P. David. this is not true. Revolution is inevitable on a material scale insofar as it is mirrored by rebellion on a spiritual one. and the Revolt against Theory. Blake’s Altering Aesthetic. Oxford: Oxford UP. Ed. 4 For the role played by revolution in Blake’s political thought. and annotated bibliog. Morris Eaves. 1954. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 2 The third poem represents. Communication. Dangerous Enthusiasm: William Blake and the Culture of Radicalism in the 1790s Oxford: Clarendon P. with Variant Readings. S. London: Oxford UP. Simpson. Annotated David V. Martin. 1988. ‘historical experience and time itself are never homogenous. Blake. Jon. eds. Nationalism. N. David V. Saree. Geoffrey Keynes. Revised ed. 1998. and one of the purposes of this kind of anti-history is to seek out the heterogeneous and the unexpected in the present. 115 . Leslie. 1996. 1969. Tannenbaum. Blake: Prophet against Empire: A Poet’s Interpretation of the History of His Own Times. Richey. Newly revised ed. Romanticism.5/S/61968. Erdman. 2006. N. NY: Anchor/Doubleday. Reading William Blake. Hanover and London: UP of New England. co-financed by the European Social Fund within the Sectorial Operational Program Human Resources Development 2007 – 2013. edited by Steve Clark and David Worrall. a prequel and a sequel to the two versified prophecies. Blake’s Heroic Argument. Notes: 1 This work was supported by the strategic grant POSDRU/89/1. Commentary Harold Bloom.. Blake. and that it has been foreshadowed in the artifacts of both Christian and pre-Christian cultures’ (105). 1992.: Princeton UP.

Christianity’s passivity . 10 For a perceptive analysis of the poem. 9 For a comprehensive presentation of Orc’s paradigm. the shrinking of humanity u nder the influence of its major philosophies and religions.Literature. 116 . of decay. particularly Judaic legalism. . Greek abstraction. holding that Blake’s whole symbolism springs from Swedenborg (I 337-38). see Ansari 46-54. Esau (or Edom). The same opinion is also held by Tannenbaum (see 131-33 et passim). Interculturality 7 David Fuller considers Africa a ‘spiritual history . Communication. . and the militarism of Norse mythology’ (53). see Hobson passim. . . 8 See E 722. It is perhaps significant that Raine equates Orc with Isaac’s son.

rather. we are not just dealing with a practical discipline. particularly resisting to generalities and generalizability: as a matter of fact. it is a peculiar discipline. First. that it is differently built and ciphered by each individual. the relation is more intricate: as it was famously been put. of course. the psychoanalytical theory is the theory of why its praxis necessarily fails. on such unstable bases. social and political theory. with a discipline in which the theory is subsumed to its praxis. differently put. The point is.Literature. and that this passage must be legitimate. on the other hand. The first such precedent that I will invoke is. in order to account for what is most socially common and public? I will attempt to answer this objection in three waves. Lacan already did it. and of the Left. not an epistemological one. So how can one build. that from the standpoint of the 117 . They all have the structure of the argument of precedents. CISTELECAN West University of Timişoara Political Lacan This article discusses the political dimension that is involved in Lacan’s psychoanalytic theories. This is what gives it its unique way of articulating theory and practice: thus. a general. of the Liberals. it draws a distinction and a comparative sketch between three totally different versions of ‘political Lacan’: the Lacan of the Right. in two waver. that the psychoanalytical truth cannot be generalized. so why can’t we? The theory of the four discourses. one that could break the walls of the psychoanalytical cabinet and the privacy of the analyst-patient relation. and hence that it doesn’t aim at establishing a general set of abstract principles. but to cure and treat particular subjects. In brief. in general. with psychoanalysis. among the famous post-Freudian psychoanalysts. any psychoanalytic – theory. attempts to provide a psychoanalytical formalization of the most common and general social structures. it tries to address and respond to the main objections formulated against the political relevance of Lacan’s – and. if the psychoanalytical treatment would be generally possible. it is also true. With them. Lacan himself. its one and only general truth is. And this is the point of this argument: it is not meant to say that even Lacan himself sometimes broke the limits of his discipline in order to engage in articulating social and political theories. it is impossible to distinguish between the private and subjective space of the psychoanalytical domain and the space of publicity which defines the jurisdiction of the social and political theories. or. Interculturality ALEX. it is true – as is commonly accepted – that Lacan was. perhaps. secondly. on the one hand. for example. that is. I will be dealing here with the following question: how is it possible to build a socialpolitical theory starting from Lacanian bases? If. that the psychoanalytical theory has a therapeutical function. since it was made by the master himself. the one with most concern for elaborating an articulated theory of this discipline. Communication. its theory would be no longer necessary.

logics. again. under a constant thread of divine inspiration. they are to stay there. Thus. in which 1 Far from conceiving himself as an unquestionable master of thought. in 1968. interiority and exteriority must be deeply questioned. Now. situated on the very thin line of demarcation between subjective and public dimensions and which. from the most diverse disciplines: sociology. Lacan actually placed himself consistently in the position of the disciple of others. while this fact is accepted by most of the hardcore Lacanians. he rushed in his car from Paris to Freiburg in order to expose to the German philosopher his own theory of the Borromean knot (cf. For now. the operation actually goes in the opposite direction: we are dealing with the discovery that social and political relations and structures are always already at work in the most profound subjective space. the subject is always already constituted in the field of the Other. by means of their functioning. The second answer is meant to reply to a variation of the objection formulated above. locked and without possibility of exit. the problem. nor is it an application of a particular discipline dealing with the subjective intimacy and privacy. Grasset. Albin Michel. So. with Lacan’s social and political suggestions. la fin de l’Histoire . mathematics. we are not dealing with some extensions of the psychoanalytical principles and ideas. 523). private existences. philosophy etc1. how to explain its uniqueness? I will come back to this issue later. after finding out that Heidegger is seriously ill. Paris. 1991. he rushed to Kojève’s studio in Paris in order to look into his unpublished theoretical notes (cf. let us point out that Lacan’s psychoanalytical theory is not external to the social and political field. but surely what can one make out of Lacan’s psychoanalysis. the public sphere is not to be built here from bits and pieces of distinct. p. or. Witness not just his repeated injunction to ‘return to Freud’. they seem to assume that. minimal structures. or clearly separated from these currents of thought. Lacan’s theory thus resembles a theoretical black hole. La philosophie.Literature. with Lacan. with its famously opaque style and impermeable theory? This objection – and the common wisdom underlying it – explains the treatment usually applied to Lacan’s theory: it is either thrown in together with other theories in the structuralist or post-structuralist trends. Alexandre Kojève. His passionate attachment to other thinkers is expressed even in some of his rather bizarre reactions: as in when. but rather that it articulates the transcendental. in Lacan’s theory. Elisabeth Roudinesco. These two seemingly opposite dimensions are actually to be situated on the ‘two sides’ of the Moebius strip: we pass from one to the other while following a continuous path. social context. Against this objection and the reactions that it generates. can account for this very opposition. 1990. ‘Vibrant hommage de Jacques Lacan à Martin Heidegger’ in Lacan avec les philosophes. in which case. Paris. This one goes something like this: maybe there is something politically and socially relevant in psychoanalysis. we should state that. Interculturality Lacanian theory. and then interpreted by analogy with other authors from the same trend but easier to read. he was not alone. l’Etat. Dominique Auff ret. Communication. in 1975. On the contrary. He didn’t build his theory ex nihilo. after finding out that Kojève died in a meeting of the Common Market in Brussels. As we already saw in the previous chapter. once these concepts and ideas are transferred to the Lacanian domain. his developments are full of concepts and ideas borrowed from other disciplines. mirror-like relation – but the transcendental structure of the public space. which designates not just his imaginary other – which would point to a mere dual. is rather opposite: if the subject is always already caught in and constituted by the a priori social structures. linguistics. to an application of these theorems to a broader. 118 . or embraced as the ultimate truth around which sect-like schools of thought begin to form. there is a double possible reaction: it is either discarded as plain non-sense (as Chomsky famously did). the very distinction between private and public. 235). p.

so why can’t we? There have been. 2004. from which the whole system of 2 See Jacques-Alain Miller. undisputable. in political ways should be. The fact that one can use Lacan’s ideas concerning the signifier. by now. Now. the expert. is not perceived by anybody. for our interpretation. Thus. Interculturality foreign concepts can be dragged in and swallowed. Lettre à Bernard Accoyer et à l’opinion éclairée. and also Jacques-Alain Miller & Jean-Claude Milner. this is a hard to get intellectual position. how can one explain the major. Legendre’s effort is. to re-mystify things: “The ultimate reality. Voulez-vous être évalué?. Ernesto Laclau). What one has to do in order to become a shaman is to insist that he possesses a knowledge so deep that. in order to expose the way in which. caused precisely by this solution: if it’s true. Atelier de psychanalyse appliquée. Communication. simply. to which it is also associated the industrial organization.Literature. The only way to test the accuracy of Lacan’s developments on these concepts would be re-apply them back to their initial domain. the resistance to arguments and reasoning. and thus construct a sort of Lacanian critical legal theory. that other people have done it already. in such a densely populated variety of interpretations. Paris. that there is a political theory that can be derived from Lacan’s theory. and a socialist left one (Slavoj Zizek). depending on the case. then. guided by one main idea. Pierre Legendre is. His aim is to apply Lacan’s insights to the sphere of law. open the black whole and retransfer the concepts and ideas that Lacan borrowed from other disciplines to their original field. There is no doubt that Legendre made it. in order to reveal in its fundaments the hidden religious fantasies. neutral. objective discourse of the university. there is a chance that people might start to believe it. I will briefly elaborate on each of these developments. for quite explainable reasons. one could say. a widely respected shaman of the French culture. 119 . by now. And this is precisely what we are planning to do with his social and political suggestions. It has to do with the imaginary guaranty. several – and pretty famous – social and political theories developing from the Lacanian psychoanalysis. but from which nothing can be extracted and applied back from where they came. lately. we see his ideas spreading all over the surface of the political spectrum: to consider only the most famous developments. through incessant repetition. eventually. it brings with it a world of conveniences. which he actually borrows from Carl Schmitt: namely. The only way to counter such deadly combination of utmost expertise and common sense would be to close the circle. Finally. However. a third answer to the same objection follows the same pattern of the argument of precedents and claims. Legendre took from the Lacanian discoursive apparatus the worst of it: the impermeable style. a liberal center one (Yannis Stavrakakis. with an asocial and divine truth. his endeavors consist in unveiling the modern social structures. there is another problem that appears here. the idea that all political concepts conceal within them theological categories. but once it is acquired. 2003. it is unknown by everybody else. we can register a conservative Right development (Pierre Legendre). different elements from Lacan’s theory are emphasized while others are marginalized. It is no wonder then that some of the most orthodox Lacanians can combine the most sophisticated psychoanalytical theories with the most banal social and political considerations2. the use of sudden revelations that don’t prove anything but pretend to explain everything. the subject and so on. Paris. irreducible differences that we encounter between these Lacan-inspired political theories? As a matter of fact. on the other hand. and also in order to make place. Grasset. on the one hand.

one cannot oppose a subjective space to an objective. Minuit. Legendre is left with only one. 120 . On the contrary. L’empire de la vérité. On the contrary. Faced with such a radical and deep critique of modernity. Legendre’s Lacanian pathos leads him to structure the whole social. but also because both these domains – the subjective and the institutional – exhibit the structure of a “text without subject”5. p. Traité de la bureaucratie patriote. But the problem with Legendre is not just this deeply reactionary political vision. radical. p. in both cases. the more it pretends to be objective and neutral. Nevertheless. for Lacan. Interculturality signifiers that structures the human species proceeds”3.. in a typical statement-explanation provided by Legendre: “Dans la bureaucratie moderne. Paris. As we have just seen. With Laclau and Stavrakakis we encounter a different problem. 27. a lack which it tries to fill with an imaginary scenario.. Or. the whole modern endeavor to establish the state of law represents an effort to absolutize this knowledge without subject. 6 Ibid. But then. à l’allégorie de la légalité. hence. Pierre Legendre. Jouir du pouvoir. There is also a theoretical problem. 86. then the only remedy could be to go back to the religious social life and to the theocratic mode of social organization: they would be. Jouir du pouvoir. social space: not only because the “unconscious is already a jurist”4. it is engendered by the real lack in the symbolic. 19. grace à laquelle vient répondre et dont répond l’auteur supposé du pouvoir… La question est de taille. what matters most here is the function and efficiency of the primal cause (the lack and the symbolic). is not the final answer. 1976. fantasy is secondary: it is meant to be. the fantasy. puisqu’elle consiste finalement à traiter de la politique comme d’une religion”8. 102. sincere. If it is engendered by the real lack in the symbolic. and structuring fantasy underlying the modern social structures. which can be articulated strictly from a Lacanian point of view: by constantly emphasizing the hidden imaginary fantasy underlying the seemingly objective symbolic structures of modernity. dont nous sommes à la fois les captifs et les reproducteurs méthodiques.. Introduction aux espaces dogmatiques industriels . in which the former has no efficiency or function whatsoever. Staring at it in shock and awe as Legendre does not help very much. p. nous avons affaire encore à cette scène de l’invisible. even though decisive and socially structuring. 8 Ibid. not the fascinating aspects of their effects – the imaginary fantasy. 5 Ibid. 2001 [first edition: 1983]. Legendre assumes that this relation is a simple relation of appearance-essence. du côté des Lois se tient la grande idole d’une science-fétiche.Literature. by constantly unveiling this hidden religious. une imaginaire vérité. So far. traversed. p. we are left in doubt as to the possible – if possible – solution to this tragic destiny: if the modern public administration is nothing but the expert management of a religious fantasy. Communication. Traité de la bureaucratie patriote. qui fait basculer le discours en cet espace d’une dogmatique où se lisent les croyances ayant à dire la Vérité. we are dealing with a knowledge without consciousness. nor the ultimate reality. which is all the more totalitarian. Legendre misses the fact that. And why is that? Because it pretends to an expert management of a religious fantasy: “the public administration is the organization of salvation”7.…. 7 Pierre Legendre. theory for what concerns the modern process of normalization: it is simply one “totalitarian nightmare”6. Paris. political and juridical 3 4 Pierre Legendre. p. pp. at least. eventually. Thus. medieval. so good. 19-20. Fayard. En d’autres termes. The link between the Lacanian unconscious and the discourse of law is the fact that. 133. for Lacan.

Lacan and the Political. Routledge. Hence. as Laclau constantly states. 84. Lacan’s real is just a synonym for the fact that. modest attempts at political symbolizations. In a typical move of this centrist reading of Lacan. Communication. etc. simplified into a good old appearance-essence relation. culture. namely the one between the symbolic and the real. Interculturality field on the model of the opposition between symbolic and imaginary. Laclau and Stavrakakis emphasize instead a different axis of the Lacanian triad. the only one: “it might be possible to achieve an ethically and politically satisfactory institution of the social field beyond the fantasy of closure which has proved so problematic. constituted reality. then. on the other hand. Certainty. for structural. “the political seems to acquire a position parallel to that of the Lacanian real… All human productions [Society itself. It is good news in the sense that it provides the theoretical ultimate argument for the ontological superiority of liberal democracy. which guarantees. administration. p. In other words. We. reasonable people. science] can be understood in the light of that structural failure of the symbolic in relationship to the real”9. efforts that revolve around this real lack. one that is perceived only through its disturbing effects in the former. should know that “our societies are never harmonious ensembles… Experience shows that this fantasy can never be fully realized… Opening up our symbolic resources to uncertainty is the only prudent move we have left”11. for both Laclau and Stavrakakis. 2000. provided that the latter cannot appear but as an absent cause. but it is actually.Literature. “is a defining characteristics of psychosis”. while our current liberal democracies 9 Yannis Stavrakakis. p. This opposition between politics and the political as opposition between the symbolic and the real can thus be understood as a tension between a constituted entity and a constitutive one. 95 (my emphasis). ontological argument to a normative one and back. the endless play of different efforts to symbolize. that the efforts to hegemonize it are necessarily destined to be unstable and to fail eventually.) and a dimension that escapes any attempt of structuring and normalization. as Stavrakakis claims. This is then the good news brought by Lacan’s teaching: it is the good news of reasonable skepticism. in all efforts of stabilization through symbolization. 73. the real which resists any definite enclosure of the political space and engenders the endless play of alternative. if not catastrophic... of the real. Lacan takes his well deserved place in the pantheon of the great heroes of reasonable skepticism (among Socrates and Montaigne. hence. the structural impossibility of society’s closure and. London. religion. that is. in which we constantly pass from a descriptive. It is the haunting presence of the political. after all. ontological reasons. for both Stavrakakis and Laclau. 11 Ibid. This argument also deals a deadly blow to all utopian and totalitarian attempts to structure society in a totalized and coherent whole: where all utopian and totalitarian attempts fail is in taking into account the real of the political. for both Laclau and Stavrakakis radical democracy is not only the best choice in town. the best way to organize the social might be one which recognizes the ultimate impossibility around which it is always structured”10. 10 121 . Thanks to Laclau and Stavrakakis. the Lacanian psychoanalytical theory provides the best arguments in defense of the liberal democracy and the fight against totalitarianism. Thus. Thus. the haunting dimension of the real in all politics. Ibid. as Stavrakakis ranges him). p. The guiding opposition that is established here is between politics as constituted and normalized field of social activity (but also economics. which is baptized the political. which is. is good news. ‘society doesn’t exist’.

Interculturality are proved to be our proper human destiny. is actually Lacan’s imaginary. apparently. a particular effort of symbolization. each two elements are linked by means of the third: thus. there is a real lack. meant to discard all other imaginary. After all. this one from a strictly Lacanian point of view: from the three elements of Lacan’s Borromean knot. the arguments by means of which his position – the one who pretends to start from this very skeptical awareness – successfully hegemonizes and closes the political horizon. The imaginary is. Or. and to their adequate social expression – globalized capitalism? Before celebrating this enlightened new form of skeptical domination. This is why the whole manner in which they conceive the relation between the symbolic and the real is extremely odd: there are no surprises here in this relation to surprises. just as well. completely left out. who claims to be based on and to correspond to this structural non-closure of the political field. the real and the symbolic. a certain ontological and structural non-closure is established. The real lack in the symbolic is firmly established and domesticated by means of the simple awareness that it is there. Even its status of absent. are available in much simpler form? Why should one take such a complicated detour through the work of Lacan. perhaps. to one particular political actor. the symbolic and the real are linked together by means of the imaginary. in trying to conceive the proper. Communication. if we are to bring on the scene the whole Lacanian triad: as it is clear from the structure of the Borromean knot. in the disturbances of the symbolic. even worse than the totalitarian domination. simply in order to justify what is already common wisdom and the very ideology of the liberal status quo? Secondly. The structural uncertainty at the ontological level becomes a certainty at the ontic level. when other famous authors. Hence. that of the supreme modesty – or modest supremacy – of liberal democracy. accurate relation between the symbolic and the real. in our case. There are at least three problems with this centrist account of Lacan. then. there is the problem of the constant passage from descriptive to normative arguments happening in Laclau and Stavrakakis. who reached the very same reasonable conclusions. they. True. but there is. the real is far from being the ultimate ground. is thus privileged: the liberal-democratic argument. The real is not outside. consequently. skeptical argument. one could say that the arguments of Laclau and Stavrakakis tend to go like this: first. The first is the obvious question: if the main political lesson of Lacan is that of reasonable skepticism and. symbolized positively. there is a third problem with Laclau and Stavrakakis’s account.Literature. utopian attempts to tame the 122 . dominating while reasonably accepting its own limits and impossibility to interfere with the real of our human nature and needs. Finally. isn’t our current liberal post-utopian form of politics firmly based on this modest. To borrow Heidegger’s famous ontological difference. constitutive cause is deeply problematic: from a Lacanian perspective. and derived from the first: as we already noticed. following their developments. worse than the bureaucrat who thinks he is God. hole in the symbolic. the impossibility of fully hegemonizing and closing the political field grants. even though. like Legendre. at the ontic level. it appears that what Laclau and Stavrakis designate as the symbolic. why should one bother to take the pain of studying Lacan’s extremely difficult prose. nor prior to the symbolic: it manifests itself only immanently. only focus on the relation between two of them: in this case. Its ontological negativity can be exploited positively at the ontic level. the only adequate symbolization of the real. is the God who thinks he’s just a bureaucrat. a symbolic hole in the real. one should recall that. a particular political vision. and thus completely tamed.

Even though Zizek started as a Laclauian (in the Sublime Object of Ideology. http://www. he nevertheless adds a crucial thing: this operation has also to be inscribed in one of the elements which. for Zizek. For Laclau and Stavrakakis. but as subject. It is the same thing with Laclau and Zizek: for Laclau. The economic domain is here conceived again on the model of the symbolic-real relation: the 12 Slavoj Zizek.htm 14 Yannis Stavrakakis. it opens the way to the celebration of failure: to the idea that every act ultimately misfires. Zizek’s self-critique echoes. there is an element. So how did Zizek separate himself from this view? In a way. 123 . Routledge. 1991). incorporates this very impossibility of complete signification. pp. every political project is an attempt – a necessarily failed attempt – to symbolize the real. Verso. society’s non-identity with itself is materialized: the impossible relation between the symbolization of society and its real is. the critique of Laclau and Stavrakakis that we just laid down: “The Sublime Object”. here. which incorporates this ontological impossibility of political and social utopian closure. the most indestructible utopia: the utopia of post-utopia. at the social level. and that the proper ethical stance is heroically to accept this failure”12. London & New York. in so doing. vol. A Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right . For They Know Not What They Do. an estate which is the dissolution of all estates…. 1991. ‘society doesn’t exist’ is. it is limited by the political qua encounter with the real” 14. the concept of différance names the endless deferral of meaning. Jacques Lacan. “contains a series of intertwined weaknesses… It basically endorses a quasi-transcendental reading of Lacan. 3. In this definition of the proletariat. as Laclau says. is the complete loss of man”13. The political difference between Zizek and Laclau is similar to the theoretical difference.marxists. It is more or less the same with class-struggle. in a Interculturality real. the relation between economics and the political is pretty clear: “the economic space itself as a discoursive construction is always subject to the structural causality of the political. London & New York. in this second book. Communication.). already analyzed. “Laclau with Lacan: Comments on the Relation Between Discourse Theory and L acanian Psychoanalysis”. and depending on the case. which. For They Know Not What They Do. 323. the certainty of uncertainty. Let us briefly recall: for Derrida. However. in the field of the signifying relation. or class-struggle. 1989). this one representing the proletariat conceived not as substance. this social entity has all the characteristics of a nonsubstantial being. the necessary failure of the consciousness presence to itself. he took care to take his distance very early from this trend of discourse analysis (already in his second book. the fatal non-enclosure of any social project. p. for Zizek. While this operation certainly holds also for Lacan. between Lacan and Derrida. Laclau and Stavrakakis have provided the ultimate imaginary fantasy. designates precisely the non-identity with itself of the social. Before accusing Zizek of turning Marx’s concept of the proletariat into a Lacanian category.Literature. or the fact that. the structural impossibility of coincidence between signifier and signified. 2003. which does not stand in any one-sided antithesis to the consequences but in all-round antithesis to the premises of any statehood…. This element which. by shifting from post-structuralism to Lacan. in Slavoj Zizek (ed. Critical Evaluations in Cultural Theory. constitutive lack. Enjoyment as a Political Factor . Zizek admits. subjectivized. 13 Karl Marx. XI-XII. at the ontic level. we should recall that Marx already did this: in his 1843 famous definition of the proletariat. the proletariat. focused on the notion of the Real as the impossible thing-in-itself. a materialization of pure antagonism: “a class of civil society which is not a class of civil society.

Slavoj Zizek. 2006. on the other hand. namely class-struggle. 2007. inspired by his Lacanian readings. one can reduce all political. cultural content to the ‘economic base’. ‘Against the Populist Temptation’. London & New York. pleads nevertheless for the possibility of the ultimate political act. ontological antagonism. there is no transcendental status of the political. In Defense of Lost Causes. this act is not meant to or arrived at by suspending the impossible real. Edinburgh University Press. Here. This is the core of Zizek’s debates with Laclau and Stavrakakis. 185-211. pp.293. 33. the economic is one of the necessarily failed attempts to symbolize it in a harmonious way.Literature. 2006. pp. on the other hand. the ‘political in the economic itself’ and. 551-574. In Defense of Lost Causes. juridical. Communication. the regulation of sexual mores and procreation. Zizek’s reply is that such a structuring entity already exists in the field of political struggles. 304-333. pp. However. Zizek. The economic is thus here double inscribed in the precise sense which defines the Lacanian Real: it is simultaneously the hard core ‘expressed’ in other struggles through the displacements and other forms of distortion. this relation is a bit more complicated: “There is no proper content of politics. accounts for the spurious displacements and proliferation of political struggles. ‘Schlagend. Things look similar in the Zizek-Stavrakakis debate: while Stavrakakis. The texts of this debate are: Slavoj Zizek. The economy. Interculturality political is the real. 646-680. The Lacanian Left. 124 . is not just one of the spheres of the political struggle. vol. BIBLIOGRAPHY: 15 16 Slavoj Zizek. 291.. For Zizek. by the liberal democratic framing. but the ‘cause’ of the mutual contamination-expression of struggles. as in Laclau. Critical Inquiry. in which the necessary failure of our endeavours is taken into account from the starting point and actually guarded. insofar as they emerge as topics of public struggle and decision. aber nicht Treffend! Rejoinder to Ernesto Laclau’. “To put it paradoxically. rather. the real of class struggle. 32. ‘Why Constructing a People Is the Main Task of Radical Politics’. Edinburg. Slavoj Zizek. can become) political’ – insofar as it becomes a stake in political struggle.. This is why ‘everything is (or. against all utopian temptation. on the one hand. the anticapitalist should not be conceived as merely one among a plurality of local struggles. which is. guided also by his own Lacanian interpretation. all revolving – but addressing differently – the same. vol. by subjetivizing this impossibility – which is another name for the class-struggle of the proletariat17. all political struggles and decisions concern other specific spheres of social life (taxation... pp. 2006. and consequently no hierarchical relation between the political and the economic. the health service. Critical Inquiry. concerning the society’s structural non closure and the absent-cause status of the political led him to a reappraisal of populism. pleads for a politics of reasonable scepticism. 2007. but as the structuring principle of Laclau’s ‘chain of equivalences’ 16. and the very structuring principle of these distortions. vol. Ernesto Laclau. 32. deciphering it as its expression – all except class struggle. Both these domains revolve around a common deadlock. which is the political in the economic itself”15. but by fully endorsing it. Laclau’s starting point. Critical Inquiry. Verso. 17 The texts of this debate on the nature of the Lacanian act are: Yannis Stavrakakis. conceived as the possible articulation of the multitude of political struggles. hence. pp. and so on and so forth) – ‘politics’ is merely a formal mode of dealing with these topics.

Stavrakakis. ‘Vibrant hommage de Jacques Lacan à Martin Heidegger’ in Lacan avec les philosophes. “Laclau with Lacan: Comments on the Relation Between Discourse Theory and Lacanian Psychoanalysis”. Jean-Claude. Yannis. Paris. Routledge. 2006. 2006. ‘Why Constructing a People Is the Main Task of Radical Politics’. Miller. Jacques-Alain. Zizek. ‘Against the Populist Temptation’. Voulez-vous être évalué?. 2007. Slavoj. For They Know Not What They Do. 125 . Pierre. Introduction aux espaces dogmatiques industriels. la fin de l’Histoire. Roudinesco. 2003. Enjoyment as a Political Factor. Jacques Lacan. Critical Inquiry. Verso. Paris. 1990. Ernesto. Alexandre Kojève. Atelier de psychanalyse appliquée. Grasset.marxists. Jacques-Alain & Milner. 2000. 32. Fayard. Legendre.htm. Slavoj. London & New York. 2004. Zizek. A Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right. Lacan and the Political. vol. Zizek. Dominique. Zizek. Edinburg. vol. Minuit. Slavoj. Albin Michel. L’empire de la vérité. Yannis. 2006. Critical Inquiry. Traité de la bureaucratie patriote. Communication. Jouir du pouvoir. London & New York. http://www. 2001 [first edition: 1983]. London. vol. Paris. in Slavoj Zizek (ed. vol. The Lacanian Left. 2007. Critical Inquiry. 1991. Laclau. Stavrakakis.). Critical Evaluations in Cultural Theory. Lettre à Bernard Accoyer et à l’opinion éclairée. Grasset. Routledge. Paris. 3.Literature. Pierre. Miller. In Defense of Lost Causes. Stavrakakis. La philosophie. ‘Schlagend. 33. Marx. aber nicht Treffend! Rejoinder to Ernesto Laclau’. Slavoj. Edinburgh University Press. Paris. Paris. Yannis. 1976 Legendre. l’Etat. Interculturality Auffret. Karl. Elisabeth. 32. 1991. London & New York. 2003.

le poète « décrit dans sa perfection idéale met en activité l’âme entière de l’homme » (Coleridge. surtout lorsqu’il s’agit du grand thème de la production artistique. tout en montrant les points d’accroche et les différences de leurs conceptions poétiques. c’est-à-dire de l’acte de lecture en tant que processus. à partir des réflexions de quelques penseurs et poètes allemands et de Gaston Bachelard. Humboldt. qui n’est en même temps que l’instrument mécanique employé dans ce but. 126 . dans une direction qui s’avère être éminemment moderne: il s’agit d’un complexe de thèmes envisageant l’effet de l’œuvre d’art sur le récepteur et le desideratum de la lecture comme création. III. à partir des réflexions de quelques penseurs et poètes allemands et de Gaston Bachelard. Le complexe de thèmes qu e nous étudions porte sur l’effet de l’œuvre d’art sur le récepteur et le desideratum de la lecture comme création. tout en montrant les points d’accroche et les différences de leurs conceptions poétiques. Dilthey et Bachelard) Dans cette étude. Nous nous proposons d’esquisser dans cette étude les grandes lignes directrices de ce que nous allons appeler une poïétique romantique de la lecture. Communication. il s’agira d’éveiller les puissances imaginatives du lecteur pour qu’elles puissent s’épanouir par la suite librement dans son âme. 12). 639) le dit de manière plus explicite. pour transférer sur lui quelque chose de sa vision poétique. selon nous. l’image du poète qui n’écrit que pour s’exprimer lui-même. Et comme la force vivante derrière cette vision n’est autre que l’imagination poétique. de manière consciente. Ainsi pour Coleridge. Les similitudes entre les romantiques et Bachelard doivent être recherchés. Il s’agit pour lui de trouver les meilleurs instruments pour rendre le lecteur inspiré.Literature. C’est à ce sujet que nous allons principalement porter notre attention. nous nous interrogeons sur les grandes lignes directrices d’une poïétique romantique de la lecture. Interculturality ROXANA GHIŢĂ Université de Craiova Une poïétique romantique de la lecture (considérations à partir de Novalis. la position contraire est cependant également représentée (surtout dans le cas du premier romantisme allemand) : le poète doit être conscient des effets qu’il veut produire sur son lecteur. II. La lecture comme création ou rendre le lecteur inspiré Certes. Poésie – l’art de mettre l’âme en mouvement ». en totale ignorance du public. De nombreuses affinités se laissent décelées entre la pensée romantique et la théorie de l’imagination poétique du philosophe français Gaston Bachelard. de produire des états intérieurs. et des tableaux ou des représentations – peut-être aussi des danses spirituelles etc. est un topos romantique par excellence . insistant sur l’effet que le poète se propose. Biographia Literaria. c’est-à-dire de l’acte de lecture compris comme processus. L’œuvre d’art apparaît comme le véhicule capable de mettre le récepteur dans une Stimmung. de produire chez le lecteur : « On cherche avec la poésie. Novalis (Schriften.

Avec les organes de sens ainsi transfigurés. Les premières pages de l’étude circonscrivent le problème central de toute théorie de la littérature.Literature. 17) et le met dans une « sympathie de l’imagination » (PR.. Une nouvelle possibilité d’appréhension du monde peut ainsi s’affirmer : « Toute poésie interrompt l’état habituel. sa voix ne manquera pas de nous parler . La réponse de Bachelard et des romantiques est la même : il s’agit d’une „contamination“ du lecteur (Novalis parle à cet égard de Bezauberung. il n’est poète qu’en fécondant la sienne. quand nous quittons son domaine » (Novalis. agit sur sa sensorialité et la transforme : « Le conte semble ouvrir en nous des yeux encore fermés – et nous nous retrouvons dans un tout autre monde. 564). 176). soit sur la toile par le pinceau. le lecteur peut participer à la nouvelle vision du monde. il ne lui reste donc rien à faire que de se renfermer en lui-même. en éveille la propre puissance imaginative qui. la vie de tous les jours. capable d’ajouter « s’il se peut. Communication. Sans cette sympathie de l’imagination. seulement. 47). que nous nous sentirons émus d’une manière vraiment poétique » (id. cela ne suffit pas : pour que le miracle de cette métamorphose soit transmissible. Schriften. Le poète sait que l’émotion esthétique éveille « l’être endormi dans ses automatismes » (PE. recherché de cet effet moyenné par l’art. notre imagination se réveillera . 11). pour nous renouveler – et pour garder ainsi notre vitalité toujours active » (Novalis. Celle-ci prend possession de l’âme du récepteur. Si ce monument de son art porte vraiment l’empreinte du génie. Pourtant. Le poète soumet la réalité à une transformation complète par le pouvoir de son imagination. d’un récepteur passif en un récepteur actif.] Il doit donc agir sur nos pensées et sur nos sentiments. III. mais il n’en sous-estime pas l’importance. la relation triangulaire qui relie la production de l’œuvre. Le Lebensgefühl novalisien se retrouve lui aussi chez Bachelard : l’expression poétique représente une « tonification de la vie » (PE.. de créer son ouvrage. pour continuer : « Mais il ne lui [au poète] est pas même permis d’agir directement sur celleci [l’imagination du lecteur] . le lecteur n’est pas capable de retrouver en lui les puissances créatrices du poète et de transformer l’abondance poétique de l’œuvre en nourriture pour sa propre fantaisie : « [. par extension de l’art. Schlegel. l’œuvre elle même et sa réception : « Le domaine du poète est l’imagination . [.] que la fleur et le noyau des autres esprits se transforment en nourriture et en graine pour ta propre fantaisie » (Fr. Même retiré dans la plus grande isolation. charme) au contact de l’imagination créatrice du poète. Le problème qui se pose est de déterminer de quelle manière le lecteur peut être transformé. 179) avec sa propre imagination.. Werke. Interculturality un état poétique dans lequel l’activité consciencionnelle habituelle est suspendue. 133). 3). pendant le processus de création. « il doit en opérer une au-dedans de nous-mêmes. Certes. une fois activée. et c’est alors.. 7). 10).. soit dans la mémoire de l’homme par des paroles. et nous donner. il faut rendre à l’imagination du lecteur son caractère poïétique : 127 . et de confier à cet ouvrage seul le soin de faire l’impression qu’il se propose. II. de le fixer. 568). il ne se montre tel qu’en échauffant la nôtre » (Essais æsthétiques. presque à la manière du sommeil. Pour ce faire.. le poète reste toujours conscient de l’existence de ses futurs lecteurs : « Strindberg sait qu’en écrivant dans l’absolu d’une solitude il communique avec le grand Autrui des lecteurs solitaires » (FC. Bachelard insiste moins sur le côté voulu. des organes différents de ceux qui guident nos pas dans le cours ordinaire de la vie » (id. II. sa propre fantaisie à la fantaisie du lecteur » (PR. ouverte par le poète. Schriften. pour ainsi dire. Très proche de la vision bachelardienne semble être le processus de „contamination“ po(ï)étique décrit par Humboldt dans les Essais æsthétiques dont nous avons déjà parlé.

1 Il est intéressant de voir que Bachelard décrit la transmission des images d’une âme à l’autre dans les mêmes termes de la théorie acoustique de Novalis (sans que l’arrière-plan musical soit cependant important pour lui) : il s’agit du doublet résonance – retentissement et du concept de la télépoésie. L’idée d’une lecture comme création se retrouve donc au centre de la po(ï)étique bachelardienne et de l’esthétique romantique. Aussi développe-t-il une théorie de la production artistique qui part de la même prémisse que 128 . L’essentiel de cette lecture – création. [. Schlegel peut déclarer : « Lire et écrire ne diffèrent maintenant que par le degré » (Kritische Friedrich-SchlegelAusgabe. 4). selon Dilthey. il fait d’un livre ce qu’il veut. dans le sens habituel du mot. Chez Novalis. est la notion de transformation dynamique : en lisant le texte. peut être considérée comme l’héritage de la tradition romantique. 144). il connaît une autre vie. psychologie. sur l’analyse de la production de l’œuvre puisque cette analyse représente la réactualisation du processus créateur. impénétrable à ses propres yeux » (id. Interculturality « C’est donc à mon imagination qu’il faut qu’il s’adresse. Il est évident que dans une telle conception l’œuvre ne peut être autre chose qu’une opera foncièrement aperta qui permet le jeu infini des significations : « Le lecteur met l’accent suivant son libre arbitre – en fait. en retentissement intérieur » (Roder. Dilthey s’efforce d’établir sa théorie comme une science historique qui combine. car il ne suffit pas de l’avoir seulement excitée. Avec chaque image. et tout son talent ne consiste qu’à l’échauffer et à la diriger . 399) et Novalis formuler dans un langage étonnamment moderne : « Le vrai lecteur doit être l’auteur élargi » (Schriften. une loi fondamentale de l’univers : une pièce de musique « met son environnement en co-vibration.] Il n’y a pas de lecture généralement valable. 10).. 470). La lecture comme Erlebnis poétique L’herméneutique de Dilthey constitue un bon exemple d’attitude critique qui. II. Humboldt n’est pas trop précis sur la manière dont cet « échauffement » de l’imagination du lecteur se produit. L’interprétation doit s’appuyer toujours. Il y voit le « secret du poète. selon l’exemple de la musique. II. dans la mesure où elle agit sur des êtres animés comme les hommes. Pourtant. Bachelard exprime la même chose . qui serait ainsi élargi par la formation de ce que Bachelard appelle un « sur-moi imaginatif » : « L’écrivain qui a le génie de l’imagination est alors un sur-moi positif pour le lecteur » (AS. et s’il ne veut point manquer son but. historisme et sociologie. chez Novalis2 tout comme chez Bachelard. à la vibration du poète par l’intermédiaire du mot poétique qui cesse d’être un signe arbitraire pour fonctionner comme parole magique (Zauberwort). il faut qu’une sympathie parfaite s’établisse entre lui et nous qui nous tourne toujours vers les mêmes objets. 1997:382-383). le récepteur fait siennes les images de manière active. selon lui.. 609). il doit diriger en même temps ses élans . mais en même temps il se transforme lui-même.. et nous tienne toujours au même degré de chaleur» (id. Lire est une opération libre » (Novalis.. par de nombreux aspects. une manifestation de cette « actio in distans » qui est.Literature. ce qui implique l’identification à une image étrangère et sa transformation. A tel point que Fr. l’explication peut être trouvée dans la comparaison avec le phénomène musical de la résonance. Le mot clé est donc celui de la résonance qui suppose l’accordage du lecteur. en tant que telle. Partant de l’idée de la télépoésie. Schriften. et. l’auteur doit devenir actif dans le lecteur. II. Communication.

seule. il n’est plus rien. Ce qui la différencie de l’activité créatrice du poète est l’intensité plus réduite.. Sauerland. il n’est plus sujet. l’intensité et l’unicité de son expérience vécue – elle s’enracine dans la subjectivité du sujet. Erlebnis und Dichtung. de l’imagination. autrement qu’en les saisissant dans le principe subjectif même qui en fait la substance. la loi fondamentale de lecture est. Pour être compris. Interculturality l’esthétique de la philosophie transcendantale : l’œuvre d’art est le produit de la faculté créatrice autonome de l’homme. Il s’agit en fait de ce que Poulet (qui d’ailleurs attire l’attention sur l’actualité de Dilthey. Rütsche. La conséquence de ce type de réception est. chez Dilthey comme chez 129 . A partir des mots l’imagination de l’auditeur reconstruit l’expérience vécue.Literature. cf. Rütsche. l’acte récepteur est basé chez Bachelard sur l’axiome diltheyen du Nacherleben subjectif. Deux conclusions importantes en dérivent pour l’acte de réception : 1. i. émue à son tour» (Dilthey. Dilthey veut fonder sa poétique sur une approche psychologique et historique (cf. Gesammelte Schriften. Ainsi. sentiment vécu) qui représente un acte psychologique par lequel se réalise l’unification de l’expérience intérieure et extérieure. 1986:9). 1972:170) appelle « la coïncidence de deux consciences » (Poulet. rationnelle. Cette reproduction par le récepteur n’est pas une simple copie ou imitation. et l’image toujours une origine de conscience. 1999:301). la création de l’artiste est basée toujours sur l’énergie. Ainsi.. le lecteur doit faire l’expérience du même état poétique qui se cristallise dans la création d’une œuvre et 2.]. Elle doit être comprise comme une véritable recréation (Nachbildung) dont le moteur est l’imagination (Phantasie) qui. pas même un mensonge. il ne doit pas être décomposé par l’analyse. mais pris comme une unité (Ganzes) et intégré dans la totalité de la vie de l’âme du récepteur. à la place de la démarche idéaliste qu’il considère spéculative. Dès que le sujet est „compris“ objectivement. l’acte de réception ne s’accomplit pas par la réflexion et par l’analyse de l’objet. doit être vécu subjectivement par une pensée qui est elle aussi sujet. dans la formulation de Poulet. Arthos. dans la « totalité acquise de la vie de l’âme »3 (Dilthey. Comme la conscience est l’origine de l’image. 1999:169-170). 2000). Ce processus est accompagné d’une forte excitation et éveille une excitation similaire chez l’auditeur. ce n’est pas la « réflexion ultérieure » (nachträgliche Reflexion) qui fait la force du critique (ou du lecteur ou de l’auditeur idéal) mais sa capacité de reproduire intensément l’Erlebnis (cf. id. Communication. Une importance particulière revient dans ce contexte au rôle de l’intuition qui s’oppose à la pensée conceptuelle. id. Pourtant.e. est capable de relier l’intérieur et l’extérieur et de permettre au récepteur de pénétrer dans les profondeurs inconscients ou préconscients du créateur (cf. puisque l’énergie psychique impliquée dans la reconstruction affective ne peut égaler celle de l’Erlebnis poïétique : « La poésie naît quand une expérience vécue se veut être exprimée [. pour être compris. 192). et qui se garde d’objectiver la subjectivité dont à aucun degré elle ne diffère par nature » (Poulet. vécu par l’artiste comme un instant privilégié et prenant son sens par rapport à la « totalité relationnelle de la vie » (Lebenszusammenhang) s’exprime dans la poésie (cf... par l’application d’une méthodologie mais par le Nacherleben (revivre l’expérience vécue du sujet créateur). VI. Ce qui est sujet. la suivante : « il est vain d’essayer de comprendre les activités d’un sujet. tout en devenant. 200). L’Erlebnis. Gesammelte Schriften. même si de manière plus faible. Chez Bachelard. 143) dont l’Erlebnis constitue la plus petite unité. VI. 149) : le concept central de sa réflexion est celui de l’Erlebnis (expérience. 208). La poésie apparaît comme une « représentation et expression de la vie » (Dilthey.

l’être doit briser les cadres sociaux. montre par de nombreux côtés des similitudes étonnantes avec des courants modernes de pensé c’est justement hors de cette chaîne que l’on peut atteindre selon Bachelard la pureté de l’image. définie par le plaisir imaginatif et sensuel et la défamiliarisation de la perception habituelle. phénoménaux et vitaux de la durée (DR.Literature. Zelle. et la pensée esthétique. 2000). Chez Dilthey. No. privilégiant le visuel. vol 3. La réflexion de Dilthey sur la production et la reproduction de l’œuvre dans la réception sera donc orientée par un effort de relier le personnel avec le social : « la chaîne mobile qui unit le moment [l’Erlebnis] à la vie unit aussi la vie à la société. en tout premier lieu. le facteur social est déterminant pour la constitution de l’identité : l’individu se présente comme un « point de convergence d’une multitude de systèmes qui se spécialisent de plus en plus.. Special Issue: Regarding a Critical Rhetoric. du choc. l’opposition de Welsch entre la pensée conceptuelle. l’intensification du Lebensgefühl. d’une sympathie affective inexplicable – voilà tout un pan de constructions théoriques dominantes des dernières décennies qui tendent à penser le problème esthétique dans des catégories proches de la démarche romantique et celle bachelardienne. émotionnelle de la réaction artistique qui se soustrait à toute conceptualisation et qui est vécue par le sujet sur le mode de l’instantanéité. Or. Gesammelte Schriften. et nous faisons ici référence au renversement qui se produit en esthétique (surtout dans l’esthétique allemande) dans les années 70-80 et qui est centré sur la spécificité de l’expérience esthétique en tant qu’expérience imaginative / sensorielle / émotionnelle s’opposant au mode réflexif de la pensée (cf. considérée sous un angle poïétique. l’Erlebnis apparaît comme la prise de conscience d’un sujet individuel historique. 226227). l’histoire au monde » (Arthos. 2002:71-90). 2000. BIBLIOGRAPHIE : John ARTHOS : „« To Be Alive When Something Happens » : Retrieving Dilthey's Erlebnis“. L’expérience esthétique de Jauss. La différence principale qui sépare la poïétique bachelardienne de la réception de Dilthey est cependant la mise entre parenthèses du contexte socio-historique qui détermine de manière nécessaire tout acte de lecture. la société à l’histoire. Interculturality Bachelard.] de maintenir. dans le retentissement.4 puisque. Ainsi. la tonification de la vie : « La fonction de la poésie est ainsi. VI. 51). selon lui. 130 . et donc activant le Lebenszusammenhang diltheyen (l’ensemble de la vie) avec ses déterminations sociohistoriques ne satisfait pas Bachelard. de renforcer et d’éveiller en nous cette vivacité (Lebendigkeit) » (Dilthey. Cette courte esquisse des grands principes d’une esthétique de la réception romantique. financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number SOP HRD/89/1. ou le modèle de Bohrer d’une dimension spontanée. [.. dans le parcours évolutif de la culture » (Gesammelte Schriften. Aknowledgements: This paper is suported by the Sectorial Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD). I. 1. source internet (www. Communication. in Janus Head. 131). Une lecture basée sur le principe de la résonance. basée sur l’ouverture des sens et sur la synesthésie.cfm). pour entrer dans le régime du temps poétique.

affectes. Stuttgart. Stuttgart. dans le processus de réception imaginé par Novalis. Ästhetische Positionen nach Adorno. La Flamme d’une Chandelle. P. und eingel. Der magische Idealismus im Werk des Novalis. Oxford Univ. London. 1993 (1e éd. Begleitbd. Paris. 3 Cette totalité est constituée par l’ensemble de nos perceptions. jugements de valeur etc. José Corti.. 2 Newman (1997:45) montre que. P. Walter de Gruyter.. Georges POULET : La conscience critique. Berlin. 1936 (DD).. 2 vols.F. 21 Bände. José Corti. Interculturality Gaston BACHELARD: La dialectique de la durée. 1997. Le droit de rêver. 1943 (AS). München: Fink 2002. Samuel. Kohlhammer. Communication. Glanzzeit und Verkümmerung eines literaturhistorischen Begriffs. 1970 (DR). Paris. Librairie José Corti. Weimar. 1 131 . Editions Payot et Rivages. 1961 (PR). 1980. Berlin. Johannes RÜTSCHE : Das Leben aus der Schrift verstehen : Wilhelm Diltheys Hermeneutik. edited with his aesthetical essays by J. NOVALIS : Schriften : die Werke Friedrich von Hardenbergs. Notes: Il faut noter que le mot allemand Stimmung. Paris. Paris. 1970ff. Librairie José Corti. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung. V. L’eau et les rêves : essai sur l’imagination de la matière. Mit der zweisprachigen Ausgabe eines Aufsatzes Humboldts für Frau von Staël. u. hrsg. Band. Roy (1977:192-206). Paris. Leipzig 1914ff.. in Kurt MÜLLER-VOLLMER : Poesie und Einbildungskraft : Zur Dichtungstheorie Wilhelm von Humboldts. Friedrich SCHLEGEL : Werke in 2 Bänden. Paris 1957 (PE). La Poétique de la Rêverie. Peter Lang. Teubner Verlagsgesellschaft. von Wolfgang Hecht. e. 1997.. Kluckhohn u. Press. Florian RODER : Menschwerdung des Menschen.F. actes volitifs. 1984-1985). signifie aussi „accord (d’un instrument musical)“ et implique des connotations pl us vastes. Paris.U. 1942 (ER). in 4 Bd. 1999. 1977-1999. Mayer. Librairie José Corti.F. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. Aufbau-Verlag. Michigan. Berlin. ausgew. 1973 (1st edition 1907). Göttingen. L’air et les songes : essai sur l’imagination du mouvement. Karol SAUERLAND : Diltheys Erlebnisbegriff : Entstehung. 1967. 1986 (1e éd. New York. 1961 (FC). Georges GUSDORF : Le romantisme II. J.U. 1972. NEWMAN : Locating the Romantic Subject : Novalis with Winnicott. Stuttgart. La Poétique de l’Espace. 4 Pour une analyse des tensions entre les positions phénoménologique et herméneutique de Bachelard. Samuel Taylor COLERIDGE : Biographia Literaria. Stuttgart.U. Gail M. que Novalis emploie pour désigner l’état poétique dans lequel l’oeuvre met le lecteur. Wilhelm DILTHEY : Gesammelte Schriften. Wayne State University Press. « le texte en train d’être lu devient un „terrain de jeu“ pour le sujet lecteur où celui -ci peut se construire lui-même tandis qu’il reconstruit ce qu’il lit ». Paris.. 1971).Literature.B. représentations. von P. Detroit. cf. Carsten ZELLE. Shawcross. L’homme et la nature. Paris. Wilhelm von HUMBOLDT : Essais æsthétiques. P. R.

The cultural communication of America has not always had the immense complexity that contemporary globalizing manifestations now witness.Literature. These texts disseminated among European readers – and implicitly among prospective colonists – some cultural concepts which would later be incorporated into an assertion of principles which are the backbone of American culture and American identity2. whose power of representation would eventually pay off by the successful colonizing experience. Characterized by a style which combined the realism of a travel report with the thrill and adventure that the audience was seeking. before the concept of “American” was even circulated. but also because they are considered to be the origin of the future American literature. due to the extreme diversity that the promotion materials took. was the main factor responsible for the creation. from which ultimately American literature itself did spring” (18). In Wayne Franklin’s view. George Scouten defines promotion literature as “any of a variety of works used to advance New World exploration and colonization” (4). of extreme wealth and opportunity for those who were bold enough to colonize it. promotion literature is significantly important in light of its huge contribution in shaping American thought and culture. shaped by the cultural specificity of the time. both in organization. namely the promotion of the idea of America for European readers and therefore the attempts to support colonization. other times fully invented4. it would seem fair to argue that part of the motivation for this singularity is the role of the 16th and 17th century promotion literature.3 What all the promotion tracts had in common is the purpose of the discourse. authored mostly by English writers but also by other European authors of the time1. Nevertheless. 132 . The European reception space. The importance of these old texts promoting colonization resides not only in the fact that these texts are the first manifestations of a cultural process of “importing” American images into the European space. 16th and 17th century promotion literature is an instance of transatlantic representation of America and of intercultural mediation. promotion texts represent “the first elements of an Anglo-American library. rhetorical mode and length. there is a centuriesold tradition in the cultural transfer between the New World and the Old World of Europe. They all present an idea of America which is sometimes exaggerated. Communication. with the purpose of creating the image of a land of bounty. Mures Communicating America: Intercultural Exchange in 16TH and 17th Century English Promotion Literature The construction of America as a cultural construct in discursive strategies started in Europe and it was represented by a literary trend which has come to be known as “promotion literature”. Interculturality DANA RUS Petru Maior University of Tg. Moreover. dissemination and growth of the cultural American myths. Classifying promotion literature according to classical criteria is no easy endeavor. Given the exceptional character of the American experience.

which Myra Jehlen defines as a genuine “advertising brochure” (59) introduces Europe to an image of America which is the embodiment of abundance and plenitude and is meant to counteract the 133 . similar to travel reports. they do contain specific information related to the location and climate of the colony in question. and in this respect. The clear identification and distinction of the promotion literature as an independent genre is a difficult task due to the many aspects involved in categorizing the texts. based not on form. the production of the land and the possible profit obtained by the colonist. Lindholdt explains that “the typical book draws upon formal and thematic conventions made available by travel accounts. He included several categories. they also have entertainment purposes. exploratory narratives and settlement narratives. among which we mention Howard Mumford Jones’ classification of promotion literature into eight sub-genres. these images were modeled by the input material of these initial texts: however exaggerated. beast fables. requests for patents. but rather on their content: discovery narratives. these promotional materials consisted the main means by which Europeans started to create images of America. the advertisements published by the Virginia Company). What Scouten does is actually insist on the essential role of the receiver of the cultural message. Interculturality Another unifying trend of the promotion literature is due to the characteristics of the times in which they were written. so that they could send first-hand information to those in old Europe. formal theoretical treatises. Therefore. who was seeking for adventure and thrill. obsolete Old World who was dying for something new to feed its illusions of a better life. Wayne Franklin suggests a different categorization of the tracts. George Scouten dismisses such categorizations as “admirable. they spread the artificially constructed image of the New World to a frustrated. the popularity of the theater was slowly but surely declining. while also fulfilling their informative purposes.1621). the authors were sponsored in their approaches by the patent holders of the colonies in America (for example. ecclesiastical histories and even sermons” (57). Fatally. captivity narratives. plagiarized. whereas that of the novel had not appeared yet. One of such authors is Thomas Hariot (1560 . With reference to the vast diversity of the styles embraced by the typical literary tract. They do have informative purposes. among which voyages reports. A Brief and True Report on the New Found Land of Virginia (1588). sermons on colonization. given that at the time when they were written. sometimes flagrantly untrue.Literature. There have been attempts to classify the texts according to different criteria. On the other hand. but not ideal” (13). His text. independence. whose contribution to this genre has been chosen to exemplify an instance of cultural transfer and of intercultural exchange. taking into account that at that time few people had actually been to the new world. There is a very practical explanation for this peculiar construction of the idea of America: in many cases. Also. Communication. claiming that both content and consequences of these writings can be understood by referring to the purpose and audience guiding such rhetorical constructs. these promotion materials managed to create the background which facilitated the cultural perception of America and cultivated its myths. This reality was responsible for the peculiarity of the cultural message incorporated in many promotion tracts: their authors were financially motivated to represent America as a site of wealth. In a time when the possibilities of disseminating accounts of America were extremely limited. the texts had to meet the expectations of the public. safety and easy living.

Literature. he mentions wine instead of grapes. resin and turpentine among the commodities that the colony had to offer. By insisting on the aspect of plenitude. natural elements which. luxuriant place. create an enticing image for the colonists. the overall organization of the text is conceived in such a way as to begin with the “marchantable commodities” (Hariot 9). planting requires only one day. The idea of plenitude is given by the enumeration of commodities. Second on Hariot’s list are the “commodities […] for victuall and sustenance of mans life” and the report finishes with “a briefe description of the nature and manners of the people of the country” (9). which is presented under the form of abundance. Interculturality negative reports which had become manifest regarding the colonization of Virginia and to convince the Queen of England not to forsake the efforts to form this colony. he creates an image in which nature. is the final usage of the commodities existent in Virginia. he lists pitch. copper. rather than mentioning the trees containing the substances from which the final products are obtained. The list that Hariot makes is conceived in such a way that it ranks among the first those commodities that are likely to bring the easiest and most rapid profit. Similarly. The ease of living that is insisted upon is granted by a paradisiacal nature whose abundance makes the human toil practically redundant. 134 . What he has in mind all the time. but use native names for the most common ones: “pagtowr” for “corn”. The way he manages to convey such images of plenty is slightly different from the style of a promoting text. and the soil needs no fertilizing and no toiling. Moreover. Such a paradisiacal image of the colony has made Myra Jehlen to assert that “Harriot has not been describing rich plantations but rather the spontaneous plenitude of a paradisiacal garden” (61). His strategy consists of a mere enumeration of the seemingly boundless number of goods which might be obtained and which simply awaited someone to benefit from them. For example. is the sufficient element to offer profit to those bold enough to assume the destiny of colonizing it. has very clearly expressed material ends. The same illusion of plenitude beyond the normal limitations known to mortals is rendered by Hariot’s description of the prospective profit obtained by investing in agricultural enterprises. such as silk. There is a great difference between a simple inventory of items and Hariot’s approach. summed up. The world he presented to his English audience was a second Garden of Eden. all they had to do was go the New World and reach out for them. iron. by God’s benevolent power. he does not explicitly advise prospective colonists to go to America. this is why his writing does not insist on the esthetical beauty of the colony as such. starting from the premise that a potential investor would be primarily interested in those items which would bring him financial profit. Communication. provisions. This is part of his attempt to attract readers by creating the illusion of an exotic. and what the readers eventually learn. as a final product which would be more likely to attract colonists in Virginia. tar. “okindgier” for beans or “macocquer” for melon. According to Hariot. One way in which he tries to make his enumeration of the resources existent in Virginia is his technique of giving English names for the most valuable commodities. this beauty. Natural conditions which are extremely favorable make the profit so easy to obtain that it practically requires no hard labor. Rather. He never neglects the fact that the main purpose of his report is to attract investors to America. In order to become master of such riches.

and thus opening the gates to phantasmagoric illusions: “Two more commodities of great value one of certaintie. he further enhances the idea of a place where people’s deepest wishes find accomplishment. After asking potential colonists to consider for themselves the prospective resourcefulness of Virginia. I might have specified. The reality presented goes beyond the boundaries of traditional plenty and enters a sphere where people’s imaginative powers are requested to complete the picture. 135 . In the conclusion of his report. The readers’ “considerations” are supposedly in the line of the same discourse of plenitude and material blessing. but Hariot offers the possibility for each reader to fill in the blanks with the commodities they find most valuable. more abundance of beastes” (44-5). he goes on to advance a promise of future blessings: there may be many more commodities “which yet we haue not discouered” (16). They will also benefit from the fruits of future exploits into a territory whose incredible abundance makes it similar to an earthly Eden. promotion literature marked the beginning of a long and complex history of cultural transfer from America to Europe and the rest of the world. the grounde more firme and deeper mould. he induces the idea that both of them are obtainable at a similar extent. So likewise of those commodities already set downe I might haue said more. Thomas Hariot’s work. Thus. The repeated use of the comparative is an implicit promise: not only will the colonizers have everything depicted so generously and in such bright colors as an already certainty. he introduces the idea that there is more to it than a simple report might ever mirror. Hariot reinforces his promise of plenty with regard to the lands of America which have not been colonized yet. Hariot goes even further. we found the soyle to bee fatter. by placing them on the same level. and the other in hope. Communication. Interculturality Another cunning rhetoric strategy that Hariot uses to create an image of America full of promises not only for the present but also in terms of future success is the strategy of omission. in some places rockie and farr more high and hillie ground. the commodities hinted at by Hariot are gold and silver (Fuller 52). Most probably. finer grasse and as good as euer we saw any in England. not to be planted. is an illustrative example of transatlantic cultural exchange and of recreating American reality from a European perspective. the trees greater and to growe thinner. However. After having enumerated a multitude of items for many of which he did not even have enough English names.Literature. but there to be raised & in short time to be prouided and prepared. as of the particular places where they are founde and best to be planted and prepared: by what meanes and in what reasonable space of time they might be raised to profit and in what proportion” (16). more plentie of their fruites. more and larger champions. Another strategy used by Hariot consists of linking in the same phrase reference to two commodities: one of them real. Hariot’s skill takes his audience to a climax when he mentions two more commodities without naming them. hoping to render an image where riches abound and offer the perspective of a better life: “sometimes as we made our iourneies farther into the maine and countrey. just as the rest of the works belonging to this insufficiently researched literary style. He creates a horizon of expectations for which wealth was the main prerogative by intentionally omitting to mention them: “Many other commodities by planting may there also bee raised. which I leave to your discreet and gentle considerations” (16). In its entirety. the other one only hoped for. a trend whose contemporary globalizing manifestations are subject to controversial debates.

2002. 1576-1624. “The Literature of Discovery and Exploration. Fuller. Paul. Also. Wayne. the Protestant ethic of success. 2 Among the best known principles which are part of the cultural concept of the American Dream we mention the work ethic. entrepreneurship. Lindholdt. individualism. The letter was so popular that. 1995 Hariot. 3 Compare. 1998. to enumerations. Alexis de Tocqueville. the texts vary from narrations. Newark. Meserole.” Columbia Literary History of the United States. 2008. Institutional building (postdoctoral school) and fellowships program (CommScie)" . “The Significance of the Colonial Promotion Tract. 4 Richard Hakluyt. Rich’s poem “Newes from Virginia” (1610) to Samuel Purchas’s 20 -volume compendium entitled “Hakluytus Postumus or Purchas his Pilgrimes” (1625). but at a much later date.. R. Ed. Howard Ed. confidence in individual’s abilities as the key to success.POSDRU/89/1. Mary C. De: University of Delaware. New York: Cambridge University Press. financed under the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development 2007-2013. “The Literature of the Colonization”. “Planting the American Dream.unl.cgi?article=1020&context=etas Jehlen.” Early American Literature and Culture: Essays Honoring Harrison T. recognizes similar traits of American national character. English Colonialism and the Origins of American Myth. the sense of the spiritual mission. who is probably the most famous mediator of America to Old Europe. Interculturality Acknowledgements:This paper is a result of the project `Transnational Network for Integrated Management of Postdoctoral Research in Communicating Sciences. Notes: 1 The first author to initiate the tradition of promotion writing of America is considered to be Christopher Columbus himself. The Cambridge History of American Literature 1st volume. Thomas. marks the beginning of a series of intercultural exchanges which facilitated the fictional representation of America in Europe. 1964. for instance. Emory Elliott. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Franklin. in terms of discursive typologies. 20 Oct. 57-72. which he sent to the King and Queen of Castile in March 1493. 19292. Ed. 16-23. persuasions and descriptions. both in its original Spanish version and translated into other languages. His letter announcing the discovery of the new territories. George Samuel. 136 . 1994. Jones.Literature.” PhD thesis.5/S/63663. Sacvan Bercovitch. democratic spirit. New York: Columbia UP. Catherine Zabelle Deounian-Stodola.P. University of South Carolina. New York: Viking. Voyages in Print: English Travel to America. Communication. about 10 000 copies were circulating among European readers. http://digitalcommons. Electronic Texts in American Studies. Libraries at University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Myra. New York: Cambridge U. Scouten. by the end of the 15 th century. A Brief and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia (1588). O Strange New World. who is considered the initiator of the English writings on America promoting the further exploration and colonization of the continent. had never actually been to America.

the narrator (Zuckerman himself in his 40s) also discloses information about even more remote past. by means of the young Zuckerman’s associative memory. by proposing some generalizations which highlight general truths about the world. more than 20 years before. I hope this analysis will offer a fresh way to think about the subtle and not-so-subtle communication Roth initiated in The Ghost Writer and maintained through the entire Zuckerman project. The theory of the rhetorical approach to narratives views the books as achieving their significance by advancing a coherent story (by means of creating and solving tensions and instabilities) about possible people and a possible fictional world. establishing this distance between a budding young writer and an experienced one predisposes authorial audience to direct their attention to the thematic component of the narrative: aware of the distance between the two selves of the narrator character. whereas my underta king is a clear step aside from the trend. The first sentence of the text informs that as a budding young writer living in New York. the interpretive maneuver James Phelan summarizes in a two-word slogan: "Always thematize!” They practice thematic criticism. The narrator's temporal relation to the scene he is describing establishes a tension. This technique is called double focalization. The story refers to events that unfolded in the past of Nathan Zuckerman over the course of less than 24 hours (the epigraph of the second book of the trilogy helps us know the exact dates: 10-11 December 1956) and. In the first sentence of the story the narrator-character announces his narrative audience that he is about to share with them events which he experienced at the age of 23. I set out to write about The Ghost Writer as a purposive communicative act. Progression. and reader response.Literature. In addition. on the grounds that pure thematizing is rather reductive. they look for the ways in which the younger writer actions and thoughts illustrated a type. One of the outcomes of this study is the observation that the character-narrator Nathan Zuckerman bears multiple functions and challenges the traditional view on omniscience and reliability. Strategically. but also about textual form. Establishing this temporal distance between the time of the action and the time of the narration influences the audience to align itself with the narrator as "we" all look back at the characters. This sentence 137 . it is obvious that the majority of the Rothian critics adopt. Communication. as it moves one away from the richness of response authors and texts invite their audiences to have.e. to a larger or smaller extent. Mures Re-Examining Reliability in the Communicative Act Proposed by Philip Roth in The Ghost Writer Reading through the perspective offered by the theory of the rhetorical approach to narratives. Interculturality CORINA PUŞCAŞ Petru Maior University of Tg. authorial agency. This is a method which calls for close reading and naturally builds the act of interpretation on the act of reading. and by assessing the artistic technique that conveys the message as efficiently as possible. Nathan was invited to pay a visit to the hideaway of “the great man”. i.

138 . living with his wife in the Berkshires. “the most famous literary ascetic in America” (idem) and the man who inspired him to write. about the circumstances of the visit (Lonoff and his wife generously welcome Zuckerman into their home after being impressed by several of Nathan's short stories). I had a loving father of my own […] and lately we had been having serious trouble in the family because of a new story of mine. Of course. and more importantly. ZB 13). According to Phelan. the relationship he was in at the time (which he ruined with adultery and dishonesty) etc. who considers Lonoff “his father in literature”. endorse his professing literature in his way. “cognitive tension functions to propel us forward in the narrative. and attitudes about the characters and the instabilities they face” (18). to submit myself for candidacy as nothing less than E. and I was off and away seeking patriarchal validation elsewhere. who the great man is and why the former is visiting the latter). expectations. He was so bewildered by what I had written that he had gone running to his moral mentor. therefore the same paragraph introduces the second instability: how will the family friction be settled? The lack of details implies a new tension increase/accumulation. to get the judge to get his son to see the light. a certain Judge Leopold Wapter. should a writer be true to his art or shouldn’t they? As the form of the second question indicates. A conflict mentioned will always represent a new instability in a story. Then I have lunch. In the middle of Lonoff’s lamentation about his dull life (“ I turn sentences around. introduces the first instability. you see.I. profession. education. That's my life. childhood . Thus audiences learn about Emanuel Isidor Lonoff. to petition for his moral sponsorship and to win. (ZB 7) This confession defines the central issues of the whole narrative: will Lonoff. a secluded writer (“rural recluse”) and a fellow Jewish writer whose reputation and standing is beyond reproach. job to support himself. if I could the magical protection of his advocacy and love. by having Zuckerman. While continuing to reduce tension by giving information about the reasons and circumstances of the visit. Lonoff’s spiritual son. Nathan Zuckerman’s) background: family.e. desires. confess: For I had come. Interculturality creates a gap between the narrative audience that is already familiar with the narrator and the authorial audience who is not. The narrative in the first chapter of the book (titled Maestro) progresses largely by the introduction and (partial) resolution of this cognitive tension extant on different levels of communication. as well: he comes to represent the writer torn between the choice to be free of external constraints and the need to bend his art in order to respect people’s feelings. This movement of Chapter I establishes the overarching thematic background and consequently gives thematic prominence to certain of Zuckerman's attributes. about the narrator’s (i. […] we have not been speaking for nearly five weeks now. Then I look at it and I turn it around again. I write a sentence and then I turn it around. Communication. orienting us toward the acquisition of information that will influence our judgments. even as the implied author's handling of the narration technique designs the trajectory of the main action around our mimetic interest in Zuckerman and his struggle. As a result.Literature. the progression of Chapter I leads us to read Zuckerman thematically. This gap signals a tension of unequal knowledge between author and authorial audience: he and his narrator surrogate know all about this world. while the authorial audience is completely unfamiliar with it (they do not know who the narratorcharacter is. the implied author. Then I come back in and write another sentence”.

greedy Jews) in one of his stories (“Higher Education”) as he feared it could provoke anti-Semitism among its readers. But the seemingly peaceful dinner turns out to have an unexpected outcome: the outburst of Hope. was disappointed by the description of family events (an old family quarrel. so attracted that he is willing to propose. Then follows the dinner. progression is enriched with both a new escalation of tension and a second instability. Femme Fatale.Literature. Interculturality which Zuckerman is more and more attracted to (“sounded like paradise to me”. an opportunity for the author to provide partial resolution to the first instability he introduced (Zuckerman’s imperious need for the validation of his art): Lonoff makes a toast . while Hope’s explains that her husband invited him because he has the highest respect for what he is – “He has no tolerance for people without substance” (ZB 28). not to mention accolades on his own writing. ZB 14). In the second chapter.” (Singh 20) Victor Zuckerman’s advisor. The audience now finds out that the disagreement between Nathan and his father has ethnic implications. I told Hope this morning: Zuckerman has the most compelling voice I’ve encountered in years. This chapter is also the part of the book in which the third instability is given resolution: the young Nathan learns while eavesdropping a dramatic conversation between Lonoff and Amy that there is a romantic relationship between the two which cannot be materialized because of Lonoff’s sense of duty to Hope.“To a wonderful new writer” (ZB 21). revealing grasping. briefly interrupted by the apparition. threatened by routine and by Amy Bellette’s presence around. but he abandons the task. This introduces a third instability: the fate of the Lonoffs’ marriage. “[…] his father believes [Nathan’s story] has dishonored the entire Jewry. after both men have had a nightcap and after Lonoff confirms Zuckerman’s talent as a writer again: “Look. trying to provoke a domestic row. Judge Wapter has sent Nathan a letter with the purpose of increasing his sensitivity towards the consequences of his writing about Jews with such biting irony. formal introduction (a young research assistant who is helping Lonoff organize his papers) and departure of Amy Bellette. titled Nathan Dedalus (which alludes to Joyce’s Stephen Dedalus) progression unfolds by relieving even further the tension of unequal knowledge between author/narrator and their audiences with regard to Zuckerman’s conflict with his family (and not only) over one of his literary productions. triggered by the sudden apparition of a “striking girl-woman”. to whom Zuckerman feels hopelessly attracted to despite not knowing who she is. So much for Zuckerman’s hope to marry Amy one day. It is also an important contribution to character depiction. He cannot understand that Literature is not the same as life and that every literary effort has a ghost writer. is represented by progression based on false tension relief and false resolution of the second instability. Lonoff’s neglected wife. Communication. The third chapter. through numerous flashbacks the young 139 . Nathan tries to write an appropriate answer without having given in to the judge’s arguments. While in both previous chapters. certainly for somebody starting out” (ZB 52). which complicates further the second instability of the narrative. Chapter I ends with Zuckerman’s accepting the invitation to stay overnight. obsessed with the status of the Jews. Progression is characterized by a slow movement in the direction of resolving instabilities and eliminating tension and by very little in the way of action: an afternoon of food and fascinating conversation. His father. a second generation JewishAmerican.

we do not immediately know that the story told of Anne Frank's survival is Nathan's invention. however. The last paragraph of the book shows Lonof pursuing his runaway wife. he gravely shook my hand” (ZB 129). Of all instabilities of the text the one referring to the conflict between Nathan.” (Spargo 90) Though the chapter is a bit confusing to the authorial audience at first (there are no clues telling us that Nathan has made it all up). is precisely what real writers do and what Zuckerman indeed does twenty years later when he gives his narrative audience The Ghost Writer. but we have no confirmation of his success in determining her to return. in chapter III his most compelling feature as a writer (the ability to easily transform reality into fiction) is brought to light and put into practice. His imagination takes the character of Amy Bellette and does something entirely unexpected with her. to Zuckerman at least. The one concerning the Lonofs is given only partial resolution. Married to Tolstoy. However. Lonof). At which time the mature Zukerman regains perspective of the narration and remarks: “Then. Another reason is that young Zuckerman’s fantasy had already supplied a solution in this respect. on the other.E. Lonof remarks that he has high hopes with respect to the book into which Zuckerman will be able to turn the events he witnessed in his house. That.a conflict between being a Jewish son and a writer. (It is the first instance of Nathan’s “useful fiction” in the series. It is also an internal one . By now there is a fair amount of equal knowledge between the poles of the different layers of rhetorical communication and what remains to be done is to give resolution to unresolved instabilities. his desire being to receiv e moral confirmation and validation for the manner in which he has chosen to profess in art. nearly believable. it is settled once and for all in a very satisfactory way. as well as a fascinating personality and inventing a twist of the historical facts. As for the major instability of the book which refers to the object of Zuckerman’s visit. the first time Roth shows Zuckerman’s ability “to invent as presumptuously as real life”. it was not the purpose of the young writer’s trip to ask for guidance in settling this problem. Interculturality Zuckerman had that day or through the explanations provided by the mature narrator. of course. Thus. once they understand that this in the way his writing is born. remains unresolved. Before leaving to recuperate his life-long spouse. narrative then returns to the progression by instability. In the last chapter. Communication. on the one hand. By the order of our reading knowledge. after the conflict between the two spouses heightens during breakfast in the presence of Amy and Nathan.Literature. this segment of the book is received with great delight. as though having concluded my administering my rites of confirmation. 140 . to quote an article title by Clifton Spargo). both Amy and Hope leave the house and the man (I. and this implicates us in Nathan's inventive distortion. giving her the dramatic destiny of Anne Frank. Zuckerman's thoughts return to the lovely research assistant and his mind takes off on a flight of fancy that is both compelling and. Anne as Amy has traveled to America to witness her own posthumous fame through her published diary and its Broadway staging. the story is at first indistinguishable from any true historical claim. and his father and Wapter. “In narrative terms. He also imagines a future marriage to her which would silence all his detractors. This is the reason why his failure to write the letter to Judge Wapter and give at least this satisfaction to his father is not perceived as a flawed ending or an untied end by audiences. Zuckerman the character is depicted in numerous contexts and most of his major attributes are revealed.

Roth will create specific situations and explores the numerous possibilities (foreshadowed in The Ghost Writer) for the construction of Nathan Zuckerman. transcendent calling is shattered when he sees the quarrel between the Lonofs” (Singh 19). a son. He treats the theme of Jewish resposability quite humorously. and vanish. Technique is quite fascinating. collide. a cousin.Zuckerman has a double identity. The further treatment of the Zuckerman character in the Zuckerman series will imply giving greater/heavier emphasis to particular roles in one book and to other roles in another. and references to James’. Hemingway’s. With writing so many sequences to The Ghost Writer. i. in The Ghost Writer Roth plays with omniscinece and creates a perfect device to sustain and deliver an engaging purposive communicative act. but no resolution is provided though. Lonoff’s. as well as perceptive intelligence. Roth trusts Zuckerman.Literature. As the rest of the Zuckerman series will prove. an objective observer of social reality. but honest voice. Abravanel’s. Zuckerman’s. throughout the novel there is a rich stew of the writer’s relationship to his material and to his society. Admitedly there are potential instabilities such as: his conflict with the secular Jews such as father and judge. That is why whenever there are reproachable matters he has Zuckerman writing that book in the third person (Zuckerman Bound and The Anatomy Lesson) or from a very distant point of view in the past (like the novel under discussion here): Zuckerman is ironic about his younger or driven self. The Ghost Writer is a book in which another fictionalized Zuckerman recalls events of the past . He assigns his character a wide number of roles: a writer. Then it continues with the conflict between a writer’s creative life and his domestic one. James’s. The choice of themes is in agreement with type of narrative progression suggested by the implied author himself when he has Zuckerman the narrator say: “I was […] like many a Bildungsroman hero before me. the powers and responsibilities that “great talent” brings. kinds of discourse – Roth’s. Interculturality Thematically. In conclusion. Joyce’s. Not Roth is ironic about Zuckerman. a brother. The answer: as much as there is between an author and the reliable narrator. standing behind the 40-year-old Nathan Zuckerman who is “the author” and the narrator of a book about himself in his early twenties. First. the progression in The Ghost Writer highlights the large theme of the tension between literature and life. As Patrick O’Donnel notices: “Roth’s novel may be seen as a vortex in which texts. And finally it develops on the theme of turning life into literature. their ‘authority’ and literalness subverted” (367) Secondly and most importantly.e. “Nathan’s notion of writer’s craft being grueling exalted. Lonoff’s. All in all. a member of the larger family. Progression does not particularly highlight the theme of Jewishness. everyone notices that The Ghost Writer is filled with texts: Zuckerman’s. Communication. conveying meaning from behind him. 141 . Roth has complete confidence in Zuckerman and his driven. Anne Frank’s. a nephew. as the latter is a writer just as serious and diligent and devoted and intelligent as he is. there is Roth the implied author. It introduces the question of artistic truthfulness and conventional decency in connection to the theme of the literary validation by a chosen artistic father-figure (mentor). Anne Frank’s – whirl about disconnectedly. When it comes to narrator reliability one might wonder whether there is distance between Roth and the surrogate author Zuckerman. a member of the Jewish-American community. already contemplating my own massive Bildungsroman” (ZB 3). He does not want to undermine his authority by writing.

3. Patrick. Fall 1983. Vol. Ethics. Clifton. Nandita. Roth. “The Disappearing Text: Philip Roth’s The Ghost Writer”. Spargo. 2001). 142 . <http://www. 76 (Autumn. New Delhi: Classical Publishing Co. Singh. p. 88-119. Narrative As Rhetoric: Technique. “To Invent as Presumptuously as Real Life: Parody and the Cultu ral Memory of Anne Frank in Roth's ‘The Ghost Writer’”. Philip. No. Representations.Literature. James. Press. University of California Press. Zuckerman Bound: A Trilogy and Epilogue. 1985. New York: Farrar. Contemporary Literature. Communication. 24. No. Philip Roth: A Novelist in Crisis. 2001. Columbus: Ohio State Univ. pp. Audiences. Phelan. Straus and Giroux. Ideology. 16 May>. 367. R. Interculturality BIBLIOGRAPHY: O'Donnel.jstor. 1986.

of a unique model of cultural authenticity is confronted with the dystopia of marginal identity. Naipaul’s The Mimic Men. which becomes ambiguous and locates itself at the limit between the myth of origin and that of becoming. S. as well as of social and political elements (in The Mimic Men we have this perpetual oscillation between utopian and dystopian representation of the fictitious island called Isabella and of the metropolis. Naipaul tries to identify an ideal space for anchoring the identity of the postcolonial. of alienation. migration and global mobility. the feeling of not-belonging in a space that is negatively perceived and ascribes him a marginal identity. Naipaul’s novels are emblematic for this new world by the diversity of the intercultural images. is a general human experience that takes different forms in Naipaul’s writings: the migration to the metropolis that brings along geographical. of postcolonial identity. The way the individual refers to the new space is through a perpetual dual movement that accommodates both alienation. nor the Other. the cultural mimetic experience which produces that hybrid space to which Homi Bhabha refers to. This bicultural space imposes a dialogic pattern where cultures mirror each other in a non-hegemonic relation. Displacement. Interculturality NICOLETA MEDREA Petru Maior University of Tg. Naipaul’s The Mimic Men The article aims to identify the ways of constructing migrant identities within the postcolonial context of V. This 143 .London. of subalternity is translated through the feeling of non-belonging. but which proposes new ways for defining it. Postcolonialism and postmodernity are ages of displacement. the metropolis.Literature. Mures Defining New Identities in V. the source of this permanent search. S. historic and cultural dislocation. which is neither the One. Naipaul resorts to this dual dialectic – utopia-dystopia. usually associated with the centre. the utopia of an ideal space of the metropolitan culture. which consequently propose new patterns of defining identity.where the main character retreats in his attempt to recover his identity). as well as his placement in an ideal space of becoming. While migration is perceived as a utopia of liberation within the idealized space of the European civilization. postmodern spirit. the experience of the exile that results in alienation from the social and cultural environment. a Third Space1. where the image of home is continuously moved somewhere else. of a monological discourse. V.S. and which leads to estrangement from one’s own identity. The perpetual movement between the origin culture and that of adoption interrogates the meaning of the notion of home.both in the description of space. The consciousness of marginality. In the fragmented and chaotic postcolonial world the characters feel estranged from the world around them and experience a crisis of identity which leaves them hollowed and unable to reinvent. discourses and dialogues that they approach. The result is a hybrid space that Foucault defined as heterotopia2. This perpetual and never-ending search is like a dream whose purpose is never completely reached and whose direction is permanently changed. Communication.

As Homi Bhabha shows.Literature. Home is the central space for defining identity and its absence generates the individuals’ displacement and alienation. The result is that they become mimic men who imitate and reflect the 144 . whose ancestors left India to make money and go back to their home. an Indian coming from a fictitious island. by means of the colonial project. Moreover. Communication. and thus proposes its reception as a product of a discursive representation. Ralph Singh. a necessary action for restoring the historic and cultural identity of the marginalized. Naipaul’s writings also propose a reconsideration of history from the perspective of postcolonial consciousness. has generated the displacements and relocations of history. removes the veil of the self-claimed absolute objectivity of the historic text. ethnical. offers a possible space of identification at the limit between two cultures: that of origin and that of adoption. The main character. retreats to a London suburb and starts to write his memories in an effort to structure his chaotic existence. of the results of decolonization and self-governing. Isabella. The fascination with the Western world in The Mimic Men is a false mirage which. of defining national. on the other hand. but who never returned. and on the other side of the divide. religious and cultural identity. As the colonial experience left them with the feeling that they belong to an inferior culture. by the displacements and relocations it has produced. which at present celebrate the epiphany of a cultural hybridity. by using irony and skepticism. Interculturality translates into the bicultural consciousness placed within a space that. In addition to this. After having failed his marriage with a white woman and his political career on his native island (faced with the challenges of self-governing). ethnic. a newly independent country in the Caribbean whose people face the challenges of self-governing.his desire to become a real English gentleman. which have led to the racial. religious and cultural amalgam in the West Indies. The Mimic Men mainly presents the problem of the people coming from colonies as regards their impossibility to culturally adapt to the realities of the postcolonial world. they try to identify themselves with the empire. thus suggesting the hollowness of its dwellers. The backdrop of most of his memories is Isabella. this mimetic experience replaces the reality with the desire of identifying with the other and the result is the falsification of self-representation. Ralph seems to be hallowed of his self-projected identity and actually lives the disillusion and loneliness of postcolonial displaced identities. Rewriting history is made within the context of the struggles to affirm national independence. Naipaul regards colonialism as an alteration of the culture and self-consciousness of the colonized that are presented as victims of social. history is presented as a fertile source of new identities and values within the new space of history that accommodates hybridity and cultural syncretism. the effects of colonialism are complicated by taking the characters from their origin space and placing them within the central space of the metropolis where they undergo the cultural mimetic experience. historic and geographic displacements. This is also reflected in Naipaul’s writings where home is represented as a crippled existence (Crippleville is the symbolic name given to the residential area in The Mimic Men). The colonial and postcolonial history engage in a discourse that. He is faced with his lifetime oscillation between the elements of the colonial binary which are challenged as he realizes that they are only projections of his desire to identify with heroic characters of a mythic India. The source of these visions is actually Naipaul’s own life: he descends from the ethnical group of Indians living in Trinidad.

which. Interculturality colonizer's life style. This cleansing process supported the ideology of the imperial project that was meant to suppress the natives’ culture and to instill them with the feeling that they belong to an inferior culture. writes about his childhood and adulthood. as claimed by E. culture. these ‘poor imitations’ of the Self are nothing but reminders of the former inappropriate colonial subjects whose ambivalence and hybridity challenged and subverted the colonial discourse. as the place in which he was born is associated with chaos: “to be born on an island like Isabella. Moreover. second-hand and barbarous. Only on the level of the text can he take control of the fragments of his past and shape them into a spiritual and psychological autobiography. in the hope of achieving order. The editing is clearly at fault. decolonization. an obscure New World transplantation. race."4 Naipaul’ signaling of the hollowness of these characters and their inappropriateness as mere reproductions. He considers the notions of colonization. a fact that could make us think of this book as more of a psychological study than one dealing with the effects of colonialism. by the expression and presentation of the events. Singh underwent a similar educational process. Bhabha speaks about a ‘hybrid displacing space’ that incorporates both the indigenous and the colonized cultures. and views. but English in tastes. lost their Indianness. his life in Isabella and in England. When he studies English culture and history. he feels that his own culture 145 . Singh’s colonial education has taught him that the mother country. in opinions. challenges the authority and the authenticity of the imposed imperial culture. This puzzles me.3 Thus. if we follow Home Bhabha’s theory of mimicry. and politics. Said who argues that Naipaul “ allowed himself quite consciously to be turned into a witness for the Western prosecution". he tries to put the parts together to complete the puzzle and rewrite his life. in morals and in intellect”6. yet my memory insists on the apple. and thus. He does not follow any chronological order (ironically he is in search of order) in his writing but he constantly moves backwards and forwards. who had to go to England to be ‘reformed’ in order to serve the Empire. It must have been an orange. promoting what Said classifies as "colonial mythologies about wogs and darkies. values. to write his own story and to give meaning to his existence. 90). history.Literature. Naipaul‘s discourse does not follow the pattern of the colonial discourse. which refers to the condition of the East Indians in the Caribbean (he belongs to this minority) who crossed the kala pani. is the symbol of order. Singh. Hence. imitations of the Self. Yet. We had no apples on Isabella. 118). as he suggests. Thus. was to be born to disorder" (The Mimic Men. a striking amount of the book is devoted to Singh’s childhood. Singh can reduce the pain of being a displaced colonial man. and his education. is actually a re-writing of the colonial history and its effects on the indigenous people. black water. By presenting different times. Communication. the narrator of The Mimic Men embarks upon the endeavor to re-evaluate his life in a hotel room in a London suburb. and situations. Singh has always been encouraged to imitate the empire and to become a "mimic man": “My first memory of school is of taking an apple to the teacher. places. his political career and marriage. England. the novel presents Singh’s desire to learn “what it means to be a colonial subject in a postcolonial society” 5 The act of writing is also a healing experience as. The same loss of identity was associated with the colonial educated Indians “Indian in blood and color. Carrying along the story of his native island.” (The Mimic Men. but the edited version is all I have. As a victim of the colonial education system and curriculum. From the very beginning we are informed that Singh suffers from “genetic” dislocation.

implies that the emotional security and a real sense of identity are unachievable in heterogeneous societies of the Caribbean. the land of his origin. and that island society still suffers from social and racial unrest and from economic problems. Mackenzie has explained. Singh is sent to England to carry out the negotiations. Thus. He refers to his political activity as a “drama” and examines its effects on himself and does not concentrate on his people. he is unable to understand Hinduism: he is shocked when his father sacrifices Tamango. Deschampsneuf comes from one of the island’s French families and Browne is black (Singh’s revolutionary friend. although he is aware of the symbolic significance of such an act in Hindu tradition. China. Isabella itself is a disordered and mixed society: Singh is of an Indian descent. he becomes disillusioned. Hence. owned by an upper class Englishman called Lord Stockwell. Interculturality is inferior to that of the colonizer. The other attempt Sigh embarks upon is his involvement in the political life. In his attempt to reconstruct the past. He creates an ideal and heroic past which is in conflict with the real-life condition in Isabella: for example. he goes to the beach house owned by his grandfather and one day he sees the death of three children who are drowned in the sea while the fishermen do nothing to save them ("The Mimic Men". its culture. Singh’s colonial education has caused him to become a homeless man with no self-image. he realizes that such a task is impossible and. therefore. which is more to satisfy his ego. who also fantasizes his origin and his room is full of pictures of black leaders). . Singh idealizes his past and wants to reconstruct history to establish his identity. On the other hand. Hindu rituals have lost their meaning in Isabella as the people have lost their connection with India. At that point he realizes that Isabella cannot be the ideal landscape he is searching for. The novel. Under such conditions. this mimicry is further complicated by the experience of “ethnic displacement” which refers to Singh’s status as an Indian in Isabella. Consequently. He also fails to persuade the English to help his government and is also humiliated by one of the English ministers in the meeting: “His manner indicated clearly that our game had gone on long enough and he had other things to do than to assist the public relations of colonial politicians. This is even more obvious in the characters’ depiction as being dependant on their colonial overseers and mimicking their masters in dress and attitudes..Literature. but he also knows that he cannot help being a mimic man as he is “a specific product of a particular socioeconomic formation called colonialism. the government decides that the nationalization of the sugar estate. according to Dolly Zulakha Hassan.. However he fails as a politician as he becomes aware of the meaninglessness of his role and of the fact that the “drama” has only created a dramatic illusion of order. 108-109). As a reaction to this. each boy is in fact obsessed with his own racial origin and the ethnic group to which he belongs. However. and idealizes his past and is humiliated when it is discovered that he has black ancestors). customs and traditions. his friend Hok has some Chinese roots (like Singh. therefore. 98). is the only way of solving the economic problems and uniting people. Singh is dreaming of India. the aim of the sacrifice is to secure prosperity and fertility. the race horse. As Donald A. Singh keeps asking himself whether he is the product of his colonial education.”7 In the case of Isabella’s inhabitants. “How 146 .8 Thus the ideal past gets into contrast with the noble and ideal realm of his imagination. He reads books on Asiatic and Persian Aryans and dreams of horsemen who look for their leader ("The Mimic Men". he reads books on his own origin. I said. Communication. He both recognizes and criticizes colonial mimicry.

His final detachment is an expression of a “distance from any clear-cut national identity or notion of home. 50). 249). and finally to a sense of political dislocation and failure. ends up in a dystopian manner by unveiling a city that does not promise anything to an East Indian colonial subject as he can never identify himself with it. Institutional building (postdoctoral school) and fellowships program (CommScie)" .POSDRU/89/1. the London experience. Acknowledgements: This paper is a result of the project `Transnational Network for Integrated Management of Postdoctoral Research in Communicating Sciences. a mis-created perversion of its progenitors. Louis Simpson has pointed out that the West Indians can only face dislocation in the metropolis: “The descriptions of the immigrant’s life in "The Mimic Men" show how disillusioning that life could be. and as a positive one by its protean character of generating new identities within a new cultural space that accommodates alterity and otherness. Singh finally takes control of his sense of dislocation as he realizes that there is no ideal place with which he can identify himself.”9 Reaching the end of his travels. by writing his memories he is attempting to reconstruct it in order to define his present identity. thus the representatives of the imperial power impose their superiority on Singh and by refusing to consider Singh as a political figure. yet. the feelings of displacement.”14 Consequently. projected as an ideal experience of self-discovery. Nothing would have prepared the West Indian for the English climate or the dreariness of living in a boarding house. Being deprived of an identifiable historical past. However. Communication. they in fact push him to an inferior status.”13 Robert Young argues that hybridity. 224). he would have had long thoughts. This process does not accommodate any exclusive identification: he fails to reconnect himself to India. a fact that can explain Naipaul’s vision regarding hybridity: both as a negative consequence of the experience of colonialism.Literature. Both Lord Stockwell and the minister refuse to talk seriously about labour problems and sugar estate and treat him like a child.12 This third space “enables other positions to emerge…displaces the histories that constitute it and sets up new structures of authority. In London..” And that was the end. disillusionment and sadness give him the feeling of "imminent homelessness" ("The Mimic Men". 147 . the decolonization process can be achieved. “can never be third because as a monstrous inversion. His "final emptiness”10 actually gives him a perception of himself. Finally. Confronted with greasy wallpaper and a gas meter into which you had to feed shillings to keep warm. by writing his memoirs. the metropolis. He realizes that only by analyzing the past.. it exhausts the differences between them. Singh realizes that he can never be an Englishman in spite of his public school education. and challenges the authority and the authenticity of the imposed imperial culture. Interculturality can I take this message back to my people?” .” (The Mimic Men.”11 Singh thus steps into what Bhabha calls the ‘hybrid displacing space’ that incorporates both the indigenous and the colonized cultures. He said: “You can take back to your people any message you like. or to connect himself to London. the homeland. financed under the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development 2007-2013. Singh realizes that his feelings of displacement are strongly related to his colonial background ("The Mimic Men". by reconsidering history stripped of ideologies and idealizing perspectives. this intermediary space between cultures becomes problematized.5/S/63663.

Notes: 1 Homi Bhabha.99 6 Thomas Macaulay. http://foucault. Thomas Macaulay. Mackenzie "India". S. New York. “London Calling: V. Greenblatt & G. pp. London: Studio. 1992 2 Michel Foucault. Routledge. Michel Of Other Spaces (1967). “Interview with Homi Bhabha”. Naipaul: A Materialist Reading". Louis.archive. Young. Naipaul: A Materialist Reading". Naipaul and the License of Exile”.scholars. New York. 1975. pp. in Naipaul”. “Hudson Review " 37:4. “Postcolonial Criticism”. “Postcolonial Criticism”. 574 10 Robert Morris. Robert K. S. 1988. Cudjoe. 1985. Said (1 March 2002). The Third Donald A. Of Other Spaces (1967).). Lawrence and Wishart. Cudjoe. Amherst: The University of Massachusetts Press. Modern Language Association. Edward W. New York. Naipaul and the License of Exile. Redrawing the boundaries: The transformation of English and American literary studies . "V. S. in Identity: Community. Simpson.nus. "Edward Said on Naipaul" http://web. S. S. "V. Redrawing the boundaries: The transformation of English and American literary studies." Missouri: University of Missouri Press. Culture." Missouri: University of Missouri Press. Cudjoe. Heterotopias. p. Gunn (Eds. 1992. 3 Homi Bhabha. Communication. “Postcolonial Criticism”. Hybridity in Theory. "Paradoxes of Order: Some Perspectives on the Fiction of V.Naipaul. 1984. Difference.1990.). Jonathan. Nixon. Redrawing the boundaries: The transformation of English and American literary studies. S. Naipaul: A Materialist Reading". Interculturality BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bhabha. Greenblatt & G. "V.nus. -india. Culture and Race. Robert Colonial Desire. Gunn (Eds. 1985. Amherst: The University of Massachusetts Press. 1995. S.html 7 Selwyn R. London.100). “Minute on Education”. pp. 1988. “Disorder and Escape in the Fiction of V. http://www. 57-58 in S.fordham.” "South Atlantic Quarterly" 87: 1 (1988). “Minute on Education”. 5 Selwyn R. Heterotopias. Selwyn R. 57-58 4 Edward W. V. “London Calling: V. 66-67 11 Rob Nixon. pp. Gunn (Eds. Penguin.fordham. p. 1992. "South Atlantic Quarterly" 87: 1. London&New York. Naipaul. 1969. London: Studio.S. Said (1 March 2002).). “Disorder and Escape in the Fiction of V. Amherst: The University of Massachusetts Press. http://foucault. 8 Donald A. 90-91 9 Louis Simpson. Modern Language Association.3 148 . "Paradoxes of Order: Some Perspectives on the Fiction of V. London. The Mimic Men. S. 1988. p. Homi.Naipaul.Literature. Greenblatt & G. "Edward Said on Naipaul" http://web.” "Hudson Review " 37:4 (1984). in S. Modern Language Association. Naipaul. Morris. Rutherford. Mackenzie "India". Rob.

Greenblatt & G. Interculturality 12 Homi Bhabha.23 149 . 1992 13 Rutherford Jonathan. in Identity: Community. Difference. “Postcolonial Criticism”. Colonial Desire. Lawrence and Wishart.Literature. Gunn (Eds. Modern Language Association.211 14 Robert Young. Communication. London. pp. New York. 1995.). p. Culture and Race. Routledge. The Third Space. Hybridity in Theory. London&New York. 57-58 in S. “Interview with Homi Bhabha”. Culture. Redrawing the boundaries: The transformation of English and American literary studies .1990. p.

Après les expériences poétiques du symbolisme. de la matérialité du langage » et « une attention accrue aux rapports qui unissent la conscience poétique à la matière sensible du monde »1. Henry Bauchau resorts to words’ materiality out of his desire to render meaning starting from the sensitive reality. une intimité. ce qui a déterminé la plupart des poètes qui avaient été publiés dans ses premiers numéros à s’en détourner7 et à fonder 150 . qui trouve sa source dans le dynamisme vital qui anime le monde physique. comme les menhirs de Carnac qui « sont autant de poèmes / Que le ciel et le vent/ Cherchent à se dédier »4. se déploie en deux directions : « une mise en œuvre des propriétés physiques de la parole. n’est. Mures Ecriture de la matière et matérialité de l’écriture chez Henry Bauchau The literary creation of the 20th century. words are given an ambiguous dimension. si les surréalistes croyaient à la capacité des mots à se grouper selon des affinités secrètes. Communication. avec Tel Quel on assiste à une montée en puissance de la poésie sonore et visuelle. il convient de rappeler que Lorand Gaspar assigne à l’écriture le statut d’un « quatrième état de la matière »2. « l’alphabet de la matière »3 étant susceptible de rendre la richesse d’une expérience concrète. L’approche de la parole marque un détour dans l’évolution littéraire au XXème siècle. notre façon de le saluer. qui se propose de retrouver le monde tel qu’il est6. qui relègue au second plan tout ce qui est extérieur au processus d’écriture . Le réel s’avère un langage lisible. Pour sa part. le debut du XXème siècle marque une réévaluation poétique de la matière qui. une amitié de plus en plus grandes. L’évolution de Tel Quel va pourtant vers la promotion d’un texte clos sur lui-même. de créer entre lui et nous une connivence. énoncé dans la « Déclaration » qui ouvrait son premier numéro: « L’Ecriture.Literature. therefore he attributes them the role of rendering sensations and feelings’ variety. Réconcilier l’esprit de l’homme et la matière du monde était aussi le propos de la revue Tel Quel. En ce sens. continuously placing themselves between resistance and friability which makes the poetic expression to be born not out of a word’s exaltation but out of the struggle with its materiality. Comme le rappelle Michel Collot. en définitive. qui est un peu notre fonction vis-à-vis du monde extérieur. une matière en elle-même expressive. selon Michel Collot. Interculturality CORINA BOZEDEAN Petru Maior University of Tg. especially the one after the Second World War marked a turning point in its evolution by assigning a new dimension to words’ value. afin d’exprimer l’affectivité profonde du sujet. en ce qu’elle oriente la création vers un investissement matériel. qui rejetaient la matière au profit du culte de l’Idée. qu’une entrée en matière»5. Inscribed in matter. namely by asserting their dominant material attributes. la seconde partie du XXème siècle tend à considérer la matérialité du monde comme révélatrice des émotions les plus intimes. notamment dans l’après-guerre. Eugène Guillevic considère que la matière même est poésie. Si les expériences futuristes et dadaïstes tendaient à faire du matériau verbal une construction sonore ou plastique. la poésie sera désormais centrée plutôt sur l’aspect textuel.

qui n’est pas un but en soi. aux archétypes les plus antiques du monde10. qui va de la désignation de la matière brute de l’œuvre contenue dans les gisements d’un sous-sol profond. à ce moment je me sens encore partie du monde et le moi partiellement effacé. à l’art de tailler et d’assembler qui relève d’une technique d’architecturation. Chez Henry Bauchau. « des couches plus originelles de [l]a géologie personnelle » (EE. À cet égard. Chez Bauchau. p. p. le titre du premier recueil poétique. lisant. 20). En prolongeant l’activité de l’Ephémère. comme réalité psychologique ancrée dans une mémoire individuelle et collective. on trouve chez Henry Bauchau un «pressentiment d’une langue originelle oubliée dont la source se situe à la fois dans un monde très ancien et au-dedans de soi. mais structure tout un système de pensée. La condition de l’écrivain n’est plus celle de l’artiste inspiré. en tant que matérialité constitutive de l’homme et de la parole. qui prend fin en 1972. accueillera dans ses pages des poètes français et étrangers qui placent le réel au cœur de leurs préoccupations et qui se tiennent à l’écart des « rhétoriques anguleuses »9. esthétique et poétique à la fois. les phénomènes géologiques. p. le geste de l’artiste ne vise pas la représentation. mais une exigence intime. le motif du minéral concourt à l’agencement d’une vision sur le processus d’écriture. s’enfoncer dans la matière du monde devient pour lui une manière de rejoindre le fonds originel où s’entassent la substance de l’être et celle du monde. pourrait trouver un sens dans le présent. la géologie a pour but l’exploration des profondeurs. Le poète. mais l’extraction de tout ce qui. leur consubstantialité et connivence affective. éthique. comme il le dit d’ailleurs explicitement : « c’est le fond le plus vrai qui monte à travers moi quand j’écris un poème. équivalent à des principes poétiques qui déterminent et régissent la structuration et l’avènement de la matière poétique. dont le nom renvoie à la matière donnée à l’artiste pour créer. ancré dans les « couches archaïques de la personnalité » (GM. p. et où à l’expérience de l’individu se superpose « l’expérience de la vie. 437). Ce que l’expérience poétique tente de restituer. Comme Catherine Mayaux le remarque. coïncide avec la descente dans son intériorité . aux histoires. 151 . en extrayant puis en travaillant la matière brute. En ce sens. n’est pas anodin. dans le but d’extraire sa matière. la revue Argile. mais qui visait aussi l’interrogation de l’expérience au monde8. 251).Literature. Géologie. mais plutôt du géologue qui vise à extraire le sensible de l’invisible. mais aussi d’un registre temporel. Ainsi. l’entrée en matière par le biais de l’acte créateur. avec le monde » (JA. telle est la démarche de l’écriture bauchalienne. où les circonstances personnelles sont « plus vastes que la personne ». tout au long de l’œuvre d’Henry Bauchau. se faisant tour à tour géologue et architecte. non sans erreur ni confusion. qui publie son premier recueil de poèmes en 1964. arrive à édifier sa demeure poétique. Communication. 136). Extraire du monde pour ne pas s’extraire du monde. c’est la résonance intime entre le moi et le monde. la réalité matérielle et l’émotion intérieure. Ce fond relève d’un registre cosmologique. que la langue perdue de chaque individu est relié aux sites. explicitement évoqués ou suggérés. Interculturality l’Ephémère. déchiffrant. Sur les mêmes principes que la psychanalyse. comprise comme « le signe de la présence de l’inconnu intérieur » (JAJ. p. 185). sa pensée (AD. une revue qui ne privilégiait pas uniquement une poésie centrée sur le travail de la langue. La géologie personnelle est à comprendre comme le dépassement d’une sensibilité individuelle vers des couches anonymes.

Si les mots trouvent leur origine dans le « sel bleu de la mer » et « ses cris. susceptibles de devenir matière artistique . comme chez Saint-John Perse14. Michel Collot observait qu’on a affaire à une matière première qui « sommeille en chacun de nous. mais se réduit à « l’exploration des mystères. par sa qualité de premier rapport au monde (« je crie. je suis au monde » . car il tient de l’inscription du moi dans les énergies du monde. Interculturality Si l’écriture est l’acte à travers lequel l’artiste tente de récupérer l’originel inscrit en lui. 123). rattache le poème à la sonorité et aux sens. p. non pas comme un savoir. de lui faire place en soi et d’en être pendant quelques instants transformé. p. mais fertile en visions capables de guider le poète « de méandre en méandre vers ce qui sera le poème » (PBG. « le plus ancien des mots » (PC. 16-17). 167). l’écriture repose sur une vibration première. 187). une matière latente et indifférenciée. geste ou rite incantatoire qu’une articulation d’un message »13 . l’eau et le minéral. 16). dans une origine marine. 311). d’où émanent le moi et la parole. non par son caractère de préciosité. p. les profondeurs de la terre contiennent chez Henry Bauchau la source de la matière langagière qui exige d’être apportée à la surface. l’écriture n’est rien. des trésors encore dormants dans la mémoire » (OSR. le rythme remonte aux couches primitives du langage « à une dimension de l’être-au-monde où la parole est davantage cri. l’inspiration n’a rien d’exaltant. sa joie est de la découvrir.Literature. 437). En analysant la matière des poétiques contemporaines. p. p. mais il revêt aussi une dimension psycho-cosmique. Le cri à l’origine de la parole poétique. 66). où l’organique et l’inorganique. auquel il ne peut pas parvenir autrement. Comme l’observe Jean-Claude Pinson. de la rencontre de l’individuel et de l’universel. percepts et signifiants »12. où se mêlent inextricablement affects. l’articulé et l’inarticulé étaient encore mêlés : les mots « qui ont franchi la mer / pour s’enrichir dans d’immenses pays perdus / lorsque la vie était plus lourde et plus sonore » (PC. Le rythme représente d’une part les pulsions du corps qui font surface avec une certaine périodicité. selon les mots de Francis Ponge11: Ainsi le plaisir de l’écriture est de travailler cette matière. Communication. aux « cris de perle » (PC. dans un état de latence et de confusion. Le sous-sol sédimenté de la mémoire et du rêve intègre plusieurs matières amalgamées. Assimilées à l’inconscient. ses bonheurs » (PC. l’homme s’inscrit également dans la réalité tellurique-aquatique primaire: « Le soir au Large en remontant / je retrouve le sel » (PC. dans la lumière sous-marine / la joue contre la pierre on sentait les marches/ le 152 . Plusieurs vers laissent lire une consubstantialité marine de l’homme et du langage. p. mais comme réalité des origines qui condense l’animé et l’inanimé.PC. 167) remonte pour Bauchau. mais comme être de vie (JA. mais c’est par la reconnaissance intérieure de ce rien que le tout peut advenir. p. Inscrit. p. il recouvre des images-souvenirs et des rythmes provenus d’un passé individuel et collectif. Sans cette présence d’une réalité souterraine. Ou plus explicitement encore : Toute vie emplissant de force les narines/ s’amplifiait là. p. Le poème est lié à une préhistoire du langage. Fondée sur la matérialité et la vocalisation du signifiant. des « merveilleux sédiments ».

Associée au jade. L’origination de l’œuvre dans la mer est reliée au caractère maternel et matériel de la langue. dont la capacité résistante tend parfois à imposer ses lois . p. devient le symbole de la pérennité et de l’immortalité. 154).Literature. également une matière défensive pour certains animaux. 34). qui a servi dès le néolithique à sculpter des armes d’apparence réelle. le jade est considéré une matière pure et noble. domaine pauvre/ Pierre de l’homme originel. Mais le titre du poème attire également l’attention sur le symbolisme oriental des images minérales déployées dans ces images. La poésie est donc cette forme solide. Le poème « Tao » évoque d’une manière explicite la matérialité du poème. Les caractéristiques des roches convoquées dans ce poème métaphorisent les traits essentiels de la matière poétique chez Bauchau. la lumière spirituelle. Interculturality sel bleu de la mer et ses cris. « grands démons de sel » (EE. leur mélodie) sont chargés d’investir la richesse des sensations et des expériences. 16). mais aussi de matérialité dissoute dans une substance universelle. mais aussi de consubstantialité avec l’eau de la mer. Signe de la désagrégation. Chez Henry Bauchau les mots entrent souvent en résonance avec la loi materielle du minéral. Répondant au souci de durée et de dureté. ainsi qu’au devoir de la poésie de réactualiser l’expérience primaire. Dès lors. l’expérience poétique sera dépassement de la réalité individuelle et déplacement vers une autre. 180). érode et affadit constamment» (EE. 43). l’homme de sel. En inscrivant la parole poétique dans la matérialité du monde. homme d’algues/ et de sel ingénu. qui. p. p. à l’instar des mots « brûlés de sel » (PC. qui éclaire un réel obscur. naissent d’une même énergie universelle concentrée dans une fusion synthétique. l’écrivain est contraint de s’y soumettre et d’accepter qu’il ne peut pas les contrôler. ses bonheurs/ quand le feu l’étreignait jadis./ Un seigneur de la mer aux anciens chandeliers/ Est venu ranimer les images obscures/ Les archers endormis sous l’austère peinture / Dans l’eau verte du songe entourée de glaciers (PC. la poésie est célébrée pour sa capacité à assurer la durée et l’immortalité. père confus/ homme encore englouti dans la mer. ciselée et polie comme la pierre dure qui peut émouvoir et défendre. surtout à cause des médias et de la publicité qui l’ « use. Les paroles apparaissent comme des réalités matérielles ambiguës. la poésie est cette flamme. d’une langue 153 . inscrit le propos poétique d’Henry Bauchau dans un désir de faire sens à partir du sensible. et redit le rôle défensif de l’écriture. Communication. souvent. pré-individuelle. le feu sans hommes/ La pierre devenue la servante du riche/ Etait dans l’escalier pauvre. p. 66) Comme ces vers le suggèrent. les mots se chargent de ce matérialisme. Les traits matériels des mots (leur timbre. Cette intensité des sens est propre aussi au langage poétique qui procède d’un dynamisme sensoriel. utilisé dans les tombes. née du réel même. devenu un ensemble de roches dans le site poétique : Reine de jade vert et d’ivoire pâli/ sois la perle de sang et le cil des prières/ Sois la flamme éclairant les palais obscurcis/ où s’éveille un rêveur de laque rouge amère. comme le suggère aussi l’ivoire. renvoie à l’idée d’arme du poète. vagabond mais le seul/ à vivre encor au temps plus vaste des racines/ les mouvements des grandes vagues immobiles » (PC. le sable traduit une esthétique tendue par l’ambivalence composé / décomposé. p. à la fois cristallisation d’une essence qui peut émerger par l’évaporation de l’eau. Le jade. L’écrivain développe une conception du langage soumis au processus de dégradation. mais inutilisables sinon à des fins rituelles. En Chine. recouverte par « les sables de la mémoire » (RN. Ce recours à la matérialité pour en faire une matière poétique. p.

Œdipe sur la route (OSR). p. L’idée d’une précarité des mots est repérable aussi chez Francis Ponge qui dans « Les écuries d’Angios » parle des mots soumis à « un long usage. Actes Sus. Bauchau. Henry. Une certaine méfiance dans le pouvoir évocateur de la parole justifie sa passion pour la pratique de la peinture et de la sculpture. Henry. Actes Sud. À l’opposé de la dureté. 2000. de forcer le pouvoir suggestif des mots. l’idée de langage érodé renvoie à celle d’un langage conventionnel de la parole. la perspective de Gaspar est différence en ce qu’elle inscrit ce phénomène dans le mouvement de la vie. Le langage – matériau de la création littéraire – a déjà été façonné par les nombreux emplois (« Le mot a servi trop de maîtres » . qui s’oppose à l’épanouissement du naturel. Actes Sud.155). 2002. L’écriture à l’écoute (EE). p. Le travail d’écriture implique alors un travail sur la langue pour soustraire les mots à cette usure et les investir d’une certaine densité. ce qui engendre chez Bauchau le sentiment d’une œuvre fragmentaire. En ce sens. 2003. sur toutes leurs faces déjà frottés et polis »15. Labor. tel le « béton nu » de la ville.Literature. 34) et devient en conséquence impuissant et inefficace devant la réalité intérieure qui exige d’être communiquée : « Les mots ont dû être broyés quelque part par la formidable machine qui secrète ce ciment odieusement lisse et banal. Arles. Chez Bauchau. Arles. 418). Le mot cimenté est celui qui oppose sa résistance à l’écrivain en quête d’une formule expressive légère. à une vision du poème comme prolongement du monde qui l’entoure. a des propriétés disloquantes. comme signe d’une continuité entre la vie de la matière et celle de la parole. 1992. Arles. L’érosion poétique. comme détachée du continent : « Dans le rêve d’aujourd’hui émerge l’obligation de passer dans le secteur textile. dans lequel vous ne savez pas comment vous insérer » (D. Je ne ferai pas une œuvre continent mais un texte-île et le poème est bien cela » (AD. Henry Journal d’Antigone (JA). Henry. Bauchau. Le poème-île renvoie à la dimension de la poésie en tant que terre originelle qui contient encore la densité du langage. de pétrir les mots. 1999. Arles. Dans l’acte d’écriture. ou chez Lorand Gaspar. Le mot « ciment » n’indique pas ici la matière ayant la capacité de réunir des matières dispersées. Actes Sud. La déchirure (D). 154 . Le régiment noir (RN). Bruxelles. Actes Sud. 1992. Le passage de la bonne graine (PBG). La menace de dissolution du langage mène chez Henry Bauchau vers la valorisation du langage universel et celui des arts plastiques. mais une matière produite artificiellement. Bauchau. 190). l’écrivain devra se faire un véritable Orphée. il s’agira en conséquence de redonner au langage érodé sa densité. p. Bauchau. Interculturality « constamment pillée par la publicité » (EE. dont l’ouvrage Approche de la parole est parcouru selon Anne Gourio par « le leitmotif de la langue érodée »16. BIBLIOGRAPHIE: Bauchau. Henry. capable de faire chanter les pierres. Henry. Je m’y assigne donc au texte-île. Toutefois. mais aussi à une esthétique qui instaure l’idée du fragment et de la discontinuité en tant que mode d’expression.PC. l’érosion du langage menace la densité de l’expression. comme celle géologique. Communication. p. leur donner le souffle primitif. chargée de tonalités affectives. Bauchau.

Bauchau. no. Le Quatrième état de la matière est le titre du premier recueil de Lorand Gaspar. Henry. Art poétique. p. 13 Jean-Claude Pinson. 156. p. p. Paysage et poésie du romantisme à nos jours. 2005. (GM). à la commune Mer d’où l’œuvre fut tirée ». comme il apparaît dans une note de journal : « Je retrouve avec émotion les notes de mai 68 de Louis -René des Forets.. « Bibliothèque de la Pléiade ». Berne. 2006. 36. Bauchau. Actes Sud. ELLUG. 12 Michel Collot. 155 . 9 Michel Collot. dans un numéro d’été 68 de L’Éphémère » (JA. « Littératures de langue française ». dans Ecritures babéliennes. 249. 1978. cit. . Chants de pierre. 91. 212. 14 Rappelons que Saint-John Perse définit l’aventure poétique comme une « anabase » ou « retour à la Mer. Journal de la Déchirure (1960-1965). 677. Approche de la parole. p. « Voyage en Babélie poétique : quand les poètes font leur égyptologie … ». Journal d’Œdipe sur la route (1983-1989). 77. Œuvres complètes. paru chez Flammarion. (JAJ). 15 Francis Ponge. Paris.Literature. 2005. 89).. Poésie complète (PC). Jours après jour. sous la direction de Violaine Houdart-Merot. Essai sur la poésie contemporaine. Arles. 9. Paris. Gallimard. André du Bouchet et Louis-René Des Forêts. 7 Il s’agit d’Yves Bonnefoy. p. 385. 10 Catherine Mayaux. p. 1971. 124. 2009. Paris. Champ Vallon. La matière-émotion. PUF. José Corti. 5 Michel Collot. 8 Il est à noter qu’Henry Bauchau connaissait bien cette revue. p. p. 231.cit. Méthodes. en 1966. 6 Michel Collot. op. Actes Sud. Peter Lang. Habiter en poète. op. Arles. Henry. « Ecriture ». Paysage et poésie du romantisme à nos jours. Gallimard. Communication. « Les essais ». Bauchau. 1995. 2003. Paris. p. 16 Anne Gourio. Actes Sud. 2005. dans Tome Premier. 526. 11 Francis Ponge. 2005. p. « Poésie ». p. 4 Eugène Guillevic. Henry. Paris. Paris. «Idées». La grande muraille. Arles. cit. 64. 1965. Grenoble. 3 Lorand Gaspar. op. Notes : 1 2 Michel Collot. 140148. p. p. « Ateliers de l’imaginaire ». Interculturality Bauchau. 2001. 2009. p. Gallimard. Gallimard. Les années difficiles : Journal 1972-1983 (AD). Gallimard. Henry. Paris. Paris. La matière-émotion. Actes Sud. La Seine. La matière-émotion. Arles. précédé de Paroi et suivi de Le Chant.

social. the European diversity refers to countries. rules and principles. etc. in the scope of concerns and action of the European 156 . national and individual identity. which imprinted a set of values shared across the entire continent. contemporary Europe. Higher education is the framework of the development and specialization of language competencies. The European Unidiversity Europe is the space of a fabulous historic. linguistic diversity. This diversity has common historical and cultural roots in the Greek-Latin civilization and in Christianity. It is from these roots and from the common trunk. cultures. a Tower of Babel whose inhabitants aspire to restore the original unity. Today. is a difficulty that requires policies and conditions to change it from a projection into reality. civilizations. The philosophy of the European Union is built upon a principle of great scope: unity in diversity. languages. The European Union promotes language learning as a priority through the multilingualism policy. It is a leading idea of the new humanism that defines. which can be considered linguae francae of the present. Humanity needs languages to be understood and spoken by all. in their quality of communication tools and means of knowledge. cultural. mentalities. the coexistence in a space governed by common values. Academic multilingual education should be at the core of globalization. but observing the specific differences of the nations. European Union is a Tower of Babel in the postmodern society. minorities. The process of globalization can not be conceived without universal communication tools. Europe is a geographical and spiritual space whose complex diversity is manifested in a plenary and multidimensional manner. identities. dialects. In this context. and multilingual education is an important part of knowledge. The role of the common language today is played by English and French. that the European civilization has developed in a tree like manner. religion.Literature. That is why. Interculturality SORIN IVAN Titu Maiorescu University of Bucharest How to Communicate in the Tower of Babel? Academic Multilingual Education at the Core of Globalization Today's world is a Tower of Babel of a huge linguistic diversity. however. languages with universal expansion area. It is a way of finding the lost original language. ethnic groups. by surpassing diversity. communities and individuals. national. by numerous branches that express a complex and fascinating diversity. at least theoretically. cultural and moral norms. traditions and spiritual values. expressing the force of human creativity in asserting community. Communication. in the higher education systems and institutions progress should be made regarding the improvement of language teaching and learning status in the reception horizon. in other words. Foreign languages should be undertaken as a priority of education at European and global level. Europe of Knowledge is based on education. spiritual. languages of globalization. Achieving unity in diversity.

Interculturality Union. Such approaches as the encouragement of the multilingualism and multiculturalism. that is why they have the most difficult mission in reaching the proposed goal. Also. i. observing the cultural. Communication. relating. Academic education and scientific research represent the most authorized and advanced source of knowledge. such as English and French. knowing and speaking foreign languages contributes to achieving unity in diversity. with a more efficient use of resources) and an economic growth favourable to inclusion (a more significant participation of the labour force market. acquiring competencies and fight against poverty). innovation. of unity in diversity are symptomatic phenomena and processes to the philosophy that defines the European Union. This way. by understanding. a primordial place is taken by the policies dedicated to the multilingual and multicultural space. triggered by the Bologna Declaration (19th of June 1999). research. to its aspirations at the beginning of the third millennium. communication. on teaching and learning foreign languages in secondary and higher education. in the Knowledge Society and in the Age of Globalization. a good command of foreign languages of international circulation.” The changes within the Bologna Process are subordinated to reaching two objectives 157 . Encouraging and supporting multilingualism is a European priority in the field of education. education and digital society). innovation and creativity. knowledge is power. Knowing one or several foreign languages offers an interpersonal and inter-institutional instrument in a world of diversity and in a complex space of manifesting the national identity. spiritual and national identity of each state. sustainable growth (a more competitive production. represents the access code in the area of other cultures and civilisations. it results from the data of a syllogistic reasoning that education is power.e. This document underscores the role of knowledge in the development of Europe in the third millennium: ”A Europe of Knowledge is now widely recognised as an irreplaceable factor for social and human growth and as an indispensable component to consolidate and enrich the European citizenship. As science has as source education.Literature. This vision that promotes multilingualism at the level of society and individual is subordinated to the idea of encouraging multiculturalism. cooperation in the spirit of common values and ideals. in an interdependence relation: intelligent growth (promoting knowledge. Learning at least two foreign languages by each citizen of the European Union represents a priority promoted by the policies in the field. a generic term including teaching. in the space of universal culture. In terms of philosophy. capable of giving its citizens the necessary competences to face the challenges of the new millennium. Such an approach falls within the scope of the horizon opened by the founding principle of the European Union. cultural and spiritual diversity in the European space. together with an awareness of shared values and belonging to a common social and cultural space. Europe 2020 Strategy for overcoming the crisis and preparing the EU economy for the 2010-2020 decade refers to three priority factors for economic growth in the EU and at national level. scientia potentia est. study. Europe of Knowledge and the Foreign Languages Study Launched by the European Commission on 3 March 2010. unity in diversity. The policies of the European Union in the field of education focus on the study of foreign languages. according to a saying by Francis Bacon. European higher education is involved in a reform of wide scope.

etc. mainly English and French. Also. Currently. At the same time. formulated by the policies that promote multilingualism and also the priorities of the European higher education reform. economic sciences. The Bologna Process thus proves to be a means of achieving Europe of Knowledge. Foreign languages have become subjects present in the university curricula in most study programs and their position has consolidated. In most cases. all the study programs and all the specializations in the Romanian higher education institutions.Literature. various positive changes have occurred. innovation. such as law. In pyramidal order of the Bologna cycles studies. the European policies in the field of multilingualism and the new paradigm of European higher education have in promoting the learning of foreign languages an important element of convergence. psychology. excellence. communication and public relations. by the year 2020. All these elements included in the new paradigm of the higher education cannot be conceived outside the competencies of communication in foreign languages of international circulation. the European Union aspires to achieve. pragmatism in education and competitiveness at European and world level. but also means of knowledge of exceptional value to personal and professional development. Communication. foreign languages have become compulsory and they have been generalized. is the proving of communication competencies in at least one language of universal circulation. especially in the higher education one. especially English and French. performance in academic education and scientific research. A good command of foreign languages. offers the students and graduates. from the regime of optional disciplines. medicine. teaching and research staff instruments of communication at European and international level. Foreign Languages in Romanian Higher Education The European policy of multilingualism has had positive effects in the Romanian space as well. creativity. international relations and European studies. Against this background. political sciences. foreign languages represent a primordial field of the higher education process at European level. foreign languages are studied as mandatory disciplines in most master’s degree programs. the undergraduate and graduate studies include mandatorily the study of foreign languages. transforming higher education institutions in spaces of efficiency. at least two semesters. part of the selection and admission process. Acquiring competencies of communication in foreign languages is one of the priorities of the European Union. the study of foreign languages is mandatory in the first two years. By building them. With most undergraduate studies. by means of the certificate of linguistic competence. Mention must be made that reform determines a change of paradigm at the level of the European higher education. information technology. On the background of the European interest in promoting foreign languages at the level of its citizens. in Romanian education. the European Knowledge Area (EKA). one of the conditions for the access to the doctoral studies. defined by elements such as: quality. both for day courses and distance learning. orientation of the education process towards formation of competencies and professional qualification for the labour market. Interculturality of cardinal importance: achieving European Higher Education Area (EHEA) and European Research Area (ERA). The access to the graduation examination is conditioned on proving by the candidates of their competencies of communication in foreign languages. of at least two. An increasing number of 158 . in accordance with the recommendations of the European Union.

Asia. The current position of the study of foreign languages in the Romanian higher education represents a remarkable progress as compared to the last decades and especially in the context of the reform of the Romanian education after 1990. universities become inclusive and responsive. countries and continents. formation. irrespective of specialization and field. part of the process of internalization of higher education. and also with the developments of the reform of European higher education under the sign of the Bologna Process. Interculturality Romanian higher education institutions offer study programs in foreign languages. proves at the same time the synchronization of the policies of academic education in Romania with the ones in the European Union. offering foreign students. such as English and French. teaching staff and researchers. research and development. the system of easily readable and comparable degrees. The study of foreign languages in the universities of the member states has similar evolutions with the ones in Romania. The same processes and phenomena take place in general. This phenomenon is part of the more complex process of massification and internationalization of higher education which takes place at European and global level. a period dominated by experiments and a tendency to return the system to its European matrix. under the form of internationalization of studies. are instruments of communication. of acquiring competencies of communication in foreign languages of international circulation. lifelong learning programs. the system of transferable credits at European level. economic sciences or engineering. which proves the European direction of the Romanian higher education under the auspices of reform. interinstitutional co-operation. curricular development. mobility schemes and integrated programmes of study. special study programs in languages of wide international circulation. professional 159 . the Erasmus programs of academic exchanges. training and research. they extend their addressability to wider and wider categories of public. as Romanian higher education is part of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). The massification process extends its scope beyond the borders of the national systems of higher education. Thus. Communication. universities are open not only to a diversified domestic public. In this context. in English. facilitates academic mobility of students. promoted by the European Commission. Another phenomenon that takes place at the level of Romanian higher education is the internationalization of studies.Literature. Africa and from all over the world. training. the study of foreign languages seen from the perspective of results. The programs of studies in foreign languages are in full development. It is a logical integration in these evolutions. In the spirit of the objectives set by the Bologna Declaration. at the level of modules or in full. the generalized presence of foreign languages in the university curricula and their position as mandatory disciplines contribute to the reform of the Romanian higher education. The mandatory regime of foreign languages in the Romanian higher education. French or German. exchanges of experience. Foreign languages of international circulation. the implementation of the Diploma Supplement. by opening access to the public in other systems. but with specific differences also in the higher education systems and institutions from the other countries of the European Union. promotion of the European dimensions in higher education. information. but also to an international public. Examples in this respect are the programs in the field of medical sciences. In terms of such process. facilitating their access to higher education and to quality formation in order to qualify for the labour market. European co-operation in quality assurance. from Europe.

This approach is valid. but only complementary ones. this situation presents a special kind of complexity and indeed raises a problem of the higher education. but also in the other educational systems of the European Union. in the teaching-learning process. have a secondary. which cover a great part of the fields of knowledge. Interculturality integration of graduates in the labour market in the European Union and beyond the European frontiers. as we have seen. students do not pay the necessary attention and de not make the efforts necessary to study. in the faculties of non-philological disciplines. in its turn. of course. competencies necessary to the process of education. professional and personal development. Mention must be made that the de-synchronization between status and reception is not uniformly expressed in general at the level of higher education. of a good command of the communication competencies in languages of international circulation. physics. Consequently. and the practical position of foreign languages. economic sciences. or even secondary or marginal. public administration. There is a difference between the mandatory regime of foreign languages in higher education and their real position at the level of reception and even approach in the teaching-learning process in universities. but is manifest in various degrees. From Priority to Marginality. which have to do with the specificity of the study programs. such as English and French. this difference between the official position and reception expresses a difficulty in the field of the study of foreign languages and multilingual education. therefore. a problem of reception. they are mandatory disciplines in the education plans of the study programs. as marginal study disciplines. Anyhow. recognize the necessity and usefulness of knowing foreign languages. The problem is that non philological specializations constitute the majority of the study programs in all the higher education systems. in case of the study programs that do not have a philological character and in which foreign languages are not disciplines of specialization. There is. The difficulty mentioned here expresses the distance between the theoretical and administrative horizon. most students in the Bologna cycles of higher education. Thus. bachelor. things are not fully as they seem. to which students give priority. philology and foreign languages. Also at theoretical level. 160 . Such an approach. biology. A Critical Approach on Language Reception Still. medicine. engineering. chemistry. somehow subsidiary importance. except for humanities. As they are not considered priority disciplines. social and political sciences. Communication. This understanding of foreign languages arises in a direct report to receipting the disciplines of specialization. however. leads to a diminution of the capacity of students to acquire competencies of communication in the foreign language or languages studied. according to which foreign languages are understood as general culture disciplines. Such a perspective has consequences at the level of approaching foreign languages. communication and public relations. complementary. At the first level. covering a wide range of diversity. etc. not only in Romania. which unfortunately is more than a tendency.Literature. Such disciplines are law. that foreign languages should be perceived by the students at the practical level of the education process. a difficulty that needs to be progressively combated and eliminated.. not part of the priorities of specialization and which. psychology. there is a tendency. master and doctoral studies. to their own formation.

In the absence of a priority interest and of students’ involvement in the act of learning. so that now it has to do with a tradition of reception. It has developed also against the background of an uncertain culture of multilingualism. The real possibilities of communication in foreign languages contradict such an opinion. regarded as mandatory disciplines in the curricula policies. which are mandatory disciplines. have poor competencies of communication in foreign languages. in study programs and in the education plans and the way foreign languages are perceived by the target public. in fact. illusion.Literature. should determine in time a change at the level of mentality and perception. physics. Considered at the practical level of perception in the higher education system as mere general culture disciplines. it expresses a contradiction between the official regime of foreign languages. This situation is aggravated by the way of receipting and approaching foreign languages in the educational process. Fundamental disciplines would include exact sciences. influences also the actual teaching-learning process. etc. of getting away from excellence. present in all curricula. it has been favoured by superficial approaches: the contact with foreign languages. chemistry and recently information technology. foreign languages have suffered and still do suffer from this perception. foreign languages do not have a priority position. Reality proves. This is a necessary and mandatory change to the benefit of students and higher education in the Europe of Knowledge. Communication. Also. Wherever it is manifest. with a tradition of reception and an insufficient culture of multilingualism. performance and competitiveness in acquiring and mastering competencies of communication in foreign languages. It is a problem of mentality. technical sciences. At the level of mentality. by means of audio-visual media and internet has often led to the opinion and. there is the idea. with different educational and cultural backgrounds. that many students. there is a risk of lowering the standards of the teaching-learning process. social sciences. in the absence of a feedback to the teaching expectations. It would be desirable that the official regime of foreign languages. and its occurs rather often. economic sciences. which has become a prejudice. Interculturality This uncertain position of foreign languages at the level of reception and approach has explanations that have to do with mentality. Such a perception. Beyond the Limits of Communication and Knowledge The difficulty regarding the perception of foreign languages in the higher education is in complete contradiction with the European and global policies and developments in the field 161 . This mentality has developed and continued in time. an insufficient awareness of the role and importance of knowing foreign languages at the level of individuals and society. which excludes them from the fundamental disciplines. at individual level. especially English. then other fields. such as law. of having a good command of the communication competencies in one or another of the foreign languages. according to which there are fundamental disciplines and less important disciplines. insufficient and precarious. In an empiric epistemological hierarchy of the disciplines of study and of the fields of knowledge. at the same time. which has survived today. This problematic approach of foreign languages expresses a tendency and a reality that cannot and must not be generalized and made absolute in the Romanian higher education or in the European one. priority disciplines in order of individual options. mathematics.

etc. they must be considered together. should become a priority. etc. we can reach the conclusion. studying foreign languages and acquiring or improving competencies of communication help the development of the students in the fields of specialization by offering them instruments of communication and knowledge necessary to the training. formation. but are complementary and. irrespective of faculty and specialization. do not compete. Knowledge of foreign languages offers the students access to mobility. academic education and scientific research. In the Knowledge Society. training or specialization stages in foreign universities. law. economic sciences. from this point of view. Their importance is fundamental as they ensure access to specialized information. the problems of perception need to be corrected. of a primordial importance in the process of study and preparation. in various field of study. given nowadays circumstances of the developments in various sectors and fields of knowledge. professional qualification and integration into the labour market in the European Union and in the world. Seen from this point of view. psychology. In both cases. which is at the antipode of the tendency in the general perception. foreign languages are a necessity without which university studies or research activities cannot be conceived. this regime should not exclude the importance presented by the learning of foreign languages. which is nowadays in full expansion and continuous development. On the background of the special heed paid to foreign languages at European and world level. present in the education plan as mandatory. as a means of access to the universe of knowledge. the approaching of specialized disciplines becomes difficult to conceive without the contribution of foreign languages. study experiences. the competencies in the specialization cannot develop up to the standards required at European level. acquiring. Foreign languages are mandatory and fundamental both to personal development. that foreign languages are fundamental disciplines. Thus. The “main” disciplines and foreign languages do not exclude each other. At the same time. foreign languages can be assumed as priority disciplines. both from the perspective of general culture. specializations or educational cycles. By means of the educational policies of the higher education institutions. under the name of general culture. and of specialization. by opening the knowledge horizons. Interculturality of multilingualism. real and virtual bibliographies. It is absolutely true that the disciplines of various specializations (law. keeping in mind that the offer of studying foreign languages. improving and specializing competencies of communication in languages of international circulation. possibilities of international 162 . engineering. to acquiring specialized competencies. Without foreign languages. to training. Thus. scientific resources. knowing foreign languages offers the students communication instruments with a global scope and the possibility of access to the universe of knowledge. is to the benefit of students from various faculties. Also from this perspective. to scientific research.) should represent priorities for undergraduate and graduate students during study and research. practically unlimited. the study of foreign languages in higher education. Foreign languages must be understood and approached as communication instruments and as means of access to the epistemological universe of each specialization.Literature. in geometrical progression. development and improvement of their professional qualification. each citizen should have competencies of communication in at least two languages. In higher education. agronomy. Communication. and to the academic education and formation throughout the university cycles.

there are generous concepts such as knowledge society. scientific resources. international databases. by the direct access to scientific resources and specialized bibliographies. publications of international prestige. foreign languages have a cardinal mission and importance as a means of access to specialized information.Literature. European Union bases its development on the force of education and research. the objectives of the Lisbon Agenda projected in the year 2000 for the year 2010 have not been reached. attending courses in foreign languages at universities in Europe and in the world. In this competition. For the time being. unity in diversity. seminars. exchange of good practices. or will remain mere projections of a new utopia. A key role of the foreign languages in the Knowledge Society is also their quality of being a means of international expression of the results of the scientific research activities conducted by the higher education teaching staff and research staff. new humanism. in other words. alliance of civilisation. in these languages. A dialectic evolution of forces reshapes the planetary order. participation in congresses. at European and world level. Communication. all in printed form or. to knowledge. realities to the benefit of humanity. The achievement of the Society and 163 . which cover the academic environments and scientific research. under the circumstances of the world crisis. in the entire range of their variety. part of a fierce competition in all fields. At the same time. Homo universalis and the global multilingual citizen At the level of the European Union and the world under globalization. scientific symposia. These developments of an unprecedented scope at European and world level involve changes of great complexity. The Europe 2020 Strategy represents a new attempt to initiate a common action to make the European dream come true. in original or translated. in virtual form. especially. the foreign languages are communication instruments that facilitate international cooperation and partnerships. but also in the country of origin. All these have a simple explanation: languages such as English and French are communication means of universal impact. studies. emerging countries such as China and India grow impetuously globally. conferences. It remains to be seen whether such notions will succeed in generating the expected changes. and go beyond such environment to the fields of practical existence. a new world order. and bibliographies in the fields of interest. The benefits of competencies of communication in foreign languages to undergraduate and graduate students are valid also for the teaching staff and scientific research. courses. treatises in the area of fundamental or applied research. All these express the intention of the states to structure their existence according to new principles and paradigms. involvement in academic mobility and university exchanges. in a common form of global dimensions. Moreover. results of the most recent scientific research. in the European Union. this time of planetary dimensions. and of instating. foreign languages open their way to wide fields of knowledge. at the teaching level of the academic education and scientific research. workshops. At the same time. Also. against this background. participation in European or world scientific events in the field of specialization or in inter or trans-disciplinary fields. Interculturality communication and cooperation. the biggest part of human knowledge is expressed. At the same time. etc. European Union aspires to become the most powerful and competitive economy in the world.

performance and competitiveness. in one single word. The Tower of Babel of today’s world becomes coherent from the point of view of language and communication by the fact that its inhabitants. specialized and refined in the higher education. mainly English and French. Communication. cultures. with a wide scope of action. Knowledge is power. Interculturality Economy based on knowledge represents the means by which EU aspires to reach the objectives of the new Strategy. part of a process that tends to create the European Space of Knowledge. higher education needs to reform itself in the spirit of quality and excellence. In order to produce knowledge at the highest level. by extending at global level various political. 164 . It is a process of an unprecedented scope and difficulty. Academic education and scientific research constitute the engine of the progress of the European society. whose limits are difficult to establish. The Bologna Reform formulates a new paradigm of the higher education at European level. The existence of today’s world. creativity and innovation. excellence. Part of the global diversity. foreign languages play a key role: to ensure communication between countries. at least two languages of international circulation. These metamorphoses launch important challenges at the level of the education systems. acquired. historically determined. under globalization. improved. At the same time. planetary massification which also presents benefits. Europe and the entire world are engaged in a race for quality education. against the background of a tough competition at global level. alleviate diversity. These instruments are foreign languages of international circulation. the global citizen must be an educated individual. inter-institutional and inter-personal level. institutions and individuals. qualified at high standards in their field of specialization. universities and human resources involved in education and research. who masters. include also communication competencies. economic. cannot be conceived without common communication instruments. If. performance and competitiveness.Literature. traditions. in the space of the European Union and Europe overall there exists a great variety of nations. of globalization is man.. According to today’s terms. trained. homo europeus. for knowledge. English and French play today the role of lingua franca in a world of great diversity. regarding the conservation and asserting identity and diversity. Today’s citizen of the European Union and planet is the multilingual man. citizens of the planet. advance research. civilizations. Europe of Knowledge must be regarded in the context of the globalization process. knowing these languages offers a common communication code which makes dialogue and understanding possible at international level. The mandatory competencies. organizations. identities. values. at global level we deal with a much wider diversity. and covers large geographical spaces by the force of the civilization which they express and of the models promoted by them and by the association with the prestige of the cultures of origin. globalization is a process that tends to mitigate differences. in the centre of existence and. social. The global extension of these languages transcends today the Anglophone and Francophone areas. To different extents and on different spaces. models. mentalities. In terms of the old and new humanism. at international. with multiple competencies. can speak languages of international circulation. cultural etc. It is a process of uniformity. languages. Both in the European Union and at the level of the globalized world. in the current context. etc. but also a series of risks. in terms of the European policies.

a treasure of national and individual creativity. Knowledge of foreign languages has a paramount importance in the postmodern era. with shared values and specific differences. In a general context. perpetuated throughout a tradition of their understanding and approach. there is a tendency for foreign languages to be understood and addressed as complementary subjects. promoted through the policies related to multilingualism. higher education plays a special role in the acquisition. which aim to bring nations and individuals to the common denominator of certain values. i. they express a difficulty in achieving the goals promoted through the multilingualism policy. development and specialization of communication skills in foreign languages. a complex. plurivalent reality. The language learning environment is developed. communication is not possible within such diversity otherwise than by reducing it to a common code. In this context. probably. cultures. in the general education and culture area. the solution is represented by the universal languages. above all. In this postmodern Babylon. All these express a fabulous spiritual and material wealth. Language learning. and human attempts to impose artificial languages (esperanto. to be understood and spoken by everyone. In this context. These issues of perception represent an obstacle to language learning and acquisition of the necessary communication competencies. regardless of specialization. But there is no longer a common world-wide spread natural language as existed before the Tower of Babel. a difficulty in the context of European and global evolutions. At university level. students. at national. a heritage to be preserved and perpetuated. A defining element of this world is diversity. of tomorrow. Interculturality Conclusions – Multilingual Education at the Core of Globalization The globalizing world itself is a huge Tower of Babel. The critical or erroneous perception of foreign languages. such as English and French. a contradiction appears between the official regime of foreign languages as compulsory subjects and their marginal status in the students’ reception horizon. A problem in the context of this global diversity is the great linguistic variety of Europe and of the world. this diversity can be a problem.) for compensating this absence have failed. in the teaching and learning process. which play the role of lingua francas in the world of today and.Literature. Yet. The solution is a common language of humanity. etc. volapük etc. at the reception level. European and world level. Humanity passes through a period of great transformations. of globalization. On the other hand. the insufficient assumption of their importance for the personal and professional becoming represent a matter of mentality. versatile. through strategies aiming to determine the awareness of their paramount 165 .e. Firstly. which includes history. Communication. languages. of secondary importance. for the common existence and development of humankind. required by the knowledge society and the today’s world. principles and objectives. in the framework of scale processes aiming to establish a new global worder. civilizations. Under these conditions. traditions. The reception problems and therefore the approach of foreign languages should be addressed and solved at the levels of the education systems and of the higher education institutions. involving the target audience. is a priority of EU. language learning is promoted through the study programs and curricula. which should be seen in at least two perspectives. by the education systems. it represents the very specific of Europe and of the whole world. "Mother tongue plus two" expresses an objective of these policies in the European Union and Europe as a whole. at least two out of the mother tongue. foreign languages having a compulsory status.

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la corrélation des connaissances mais aussi avec un potentiel d’adaptation de ses vécus aux différentes technologies. Freud. le dessin. mais son système nerveux et ses structures sensorielles connaissent un couplage continu aux états synthétisables. Galilei. dans lequel il s’est abrité ou il s’abrite encore. Nietzsche. «le premier qui a séparé la raison du coeur». son parcours historique et les relations sociales de plus en plus sophistiquées lui ont déterminé autant son pervertissement comportemental qu’aussi celui sensoriel. Il était et il reste encore. Bruno. par les collectivités humaines. De l’esprit heuristique de Socrate. l’internet. les plus beaux et les plus romantiques de toute l’histoire de l’humanité. l’un des voyages. jusqu’à Darwin. c’est-à-die du supplément auditif aux symboles graphiques de l’écriture. sur l’échelle du temps. correspondant au moyen de communication adopté. le voyage de la pensée humaine sur la page imprimée constitue. hiéroglyphiques. Communication. Mures Communication et philosophie L’homme est doué par la nature avec un potentiel colossale pour la mémorisation. deux sens sensoriels. ont fonctionné comme quelques leviers de 168 . surtout. Puis. un voyage de profondeur entre communication et connaissance ! Une fois. autant dans l’instruction d’un langage commun au groupe social appartenant qu’aussi dans la guérison affective par des rituels et des incantations musicales. Einstein et Heisenberg –. un effort d’adaptation au milieusource ou fluctuant. Interculturality EUGENIU NISTOR Petru Maior University of Tg. en accordant de la priorité à l’organe de perception favorisé. dans une étape que nous appellons maintenant «paradisiaque». la sélection. etc. La connaisance sensorielle (les extériorisations) a propulsé dans la zone intensive de la communication le parler / le langage. dans lequel les sens de celui-ci se trouvaient dans une parfaite harmonie. l’homme historique a parcouru plusieurs étapes d’effort soutenu. Descartes.. dans des subtils processus d’assimilation et désassimilation. idéographiques. jusqu’à l’art et la science visionnaire de la Renaissance et. active et énergique. le primitif lui a focalisé la gamme entière des sentiments vers la référence orale et auditive. la sculpture. quelquefois hiératiques (cunéiformes. l’architecture. l’ouïe et la vue – dans une manifestation simultanée. Newton. jusqu’à l’invention révolutionnaire de la presse de Gutenberg. les imprimés / les publications. la télévision. par l’invention de l’alphabet phonique. autant entre eux qu’aussi avec le milieu dans lequel celui-ci vivait. Ainsi. il a existé une condition idéale de l’homme dans le monde. pictographique. la radiophonie. depuis plus de cinq millénaires. le télégraphe. et de Copernic. le téléphone. sans aucune doute. etc) l’humanité a passé dans le stade de la culture visuelle. parce que les technologies inventées par lui sur ce tracé (parmi lesquelles se trouvent aussi les moyens de communication). en ce qui concerne l’importance et la signification. mettant au même plan. Mais. Cependant l’éloignement de la nature. pour devenir ce qu’il est aujourd’hui.Literature.

mais l’homme a dû montrer aussi que cette rupture a permis l’appariton de l’homme qui n’appartient plus aux tribus. McLuhan. raccordés aux nouvelles inventions technologiques. Mircea Eliade persévère l’esprit heuristique de Socrate. l’internet. dès l’apparition de l’alphabet phonique. la contribution considérable de l’homme a été de signaler la rupture entre le monde magique de l’ouïe et le monde indifférent de la vue. etc. Selon le philosophe canadien. elle influence l’art et la cronologie du Moyen Âge jusqu’à l’apparition de la presse (le XV-ème siècle). un schizophrène. la radiophonie. la sculpture. comme ce produit n’a pas été introduit instantanément et 169 .Literature. s’il pouvait être connu. le téléphone. le télégraphe.2) Les appréciations du philosophe canadien sur l’esprit dichotomique du grecque alphabétisé sont tranchantes: celui-ci se trouve loin du contenu de la maxime de Protagoras de Abdera (selon lequel il serait «la mesure de toutes choses»).. par l’homme. mistique). son trop-plein se déborde. de plus en plus disharmonieux et instables. des relations simultanées. religieuse. ignorant aussi les énoncés formulées par le célèbre Gorgias de Leontinoi. Dans le monde magique. Mais. Les rapports naturels entre les sens humaines et le monde physique mais aussi les rapports entre les sens. Entre les deux aspects fondamentaux de l’ancienne culture. la culture de la Grèce antique peut être mal comprise pour quelqu’un qui ne connaît pas la technique alphabétique. en accordant de la priorité à l’organe de perception favorisé. correspondant au moyen de communication adopté. ont subi des modifications fondamentales provoquées par le fait que les nouvelles technologies ont toujours couronné l’un ou l’autre.1) McLuhan souligne que l’homme alphabétisé a parru premièrement dans la Grèce antique. animée d’élan et de jouissance. l’architecture. l’autre rationaliste. elle est le produit fertile d’une société fondée sérieusement (la forteresse). la télévision. a eu le courage de ne prendre pas en sérieux les énonciations et les préceptes des sophistes. quand les anciennes techniques de l’uniformité et de la répétitivité des manuscrits (par la copie manuelle) sont remplacées avec les formes de la technologie de Gutenberg. constitué par l’espace orale et acustique. empirique. accentuant le fait que celui -ci est «un individu avec deux aspects différents. sur l’échelle du temps. qui vit intensément dans l’empire de l’espace clos. il étant excessif en tout (dans la poésie. toujours avide de connaissance). le dessin. déplace automatiquement l’angle d’intérêt de la perception mais aussi celui de la pensée vers une zone sensorielle privilégiée. pareil aux hommes alphabétisés. il y a une seule voie vers la libérté et l’indépendance de l’homme sans tribu. dans la religion et aussi dans le péché). C’est ainsi qu’on explique la manière dans laquelle la connaissance sensorielle («les extériorisations») a propulsé dans la zone intensive de la communication soit le langage. et ainsi l’information que l’individu l’extériorise plus fréquemment par ses organes de sens. «le premier qui a séparé la raison de coeur». Cette voie passe par l’alphabet phonique. Interculturality prolongement de ses sens. Communication. 3) Ce fameux vivant aux frontières entre la culture orale et celle alphabétique. s’il existait quelque cho se il ne pourrait pas être connue. et puis. il ne pourrait pas être communiqué!» 4) Généralement. la philosophie. malgré leur ingéniosité. mais on peut dire qu’il a des manifestations spécifiques aux deux tendances – l’une dirigée vers l’au-delà (passionnée. les publications. qui transporte soudain les gens sur les divers degrès du dualisme schizophrénique». sonore. dans la manière de cet exemple: «dans le monde il n’existe rien.

d’accepter les archétypes de l’inconscient collectif. on ne peut pas se douter de leur correction». séparées par celles de la vie privée). l’homme aliéné (intuitif et irrationnel) a été créé par la logique tipographique qui a aussi affranchi les énergies spirituelles insoupçonnables. l’invention de «l’arithmétique politique» (les règles de Machiavelli pour des affaires. même dans le Moyen Âge. Galilei. dans toute la littérature moderne). des voix. qui. 6) Les conséquences – fastes et néfastes – de l’imprimé n’ont pas retardé d’apparaître. la connaissance. provoquée par l’imprimé. la science et la doctrine de l’histoire de l’humanité. la purification du latin jusqu’à sa disparition et la transformation des langues nationales en systèmes clos. constitue le trauma dont l’Europe de Machiavelli souffre jusqu’à nos jours». elle constitue le commerce médiéval de livres. littérature et philosophie utopique. sur le plan social. jusqu’à la science et la politique. Dans la mentalité de l’homme oral apparaît le contenu de tous les niveaux de communication. depuis quelques siècles. il s’agissant des publications avec un contenu très différent. selon le Principia de Newton. en variant de la piété liturgique. «la rupture entre esprit et coeur. Ainsi. «Le système de Copernic – écrit Werner Heisenberg – les lois de Kepler et la mécanique de Newton se sont confirmés par l’interprétation des expériences. l’institution du credo selon lequel la presse tipographique est une voiture qui produit de l’immortalité (une fièvre qui a embrassé tous les écrivains médiévales. de certains adversités et conflits apparus entre les structures scripturales et celle orales de la connaissance qui se réflètent aussi sur la vie sociale. Freud. la quille du moine était la niche idéale pour chanter et l’enseignement scolastique.Literature. des résultats des observations et par la technique d’une extrème exactitude. Copernic. c’est la raison pour laquelle ils sont considérés des récipients qui doivent être remplis avec des objets ou des activités». était axée sur l’entretien et le développement de la tradition et de l’intérêt pour les aphorismes de Seneca. liée à la philosophie stoïque de la Rome. l’invention du calcul hédoniste (de Cervantes à Ibsen. «Après Gutenberg. peut-être. La conception sur l’espace et le temps s’est modifiée. Communication. fixant en même temps le fondement du nationalisme moderne. la nouvelle intensité obtenue par la vue prétend que la lumière se déborde sur toutes les choses. en structurant le «nouveau sens» de l’humanité – le sens pictural. mais le syndrome est loin d’être vindicatif même de nos jours). étaient prédestinées autrement au silence. à l’exception de Shakespeare. malgré le fait que dans la Renaissance l’art a contribué à la transposition de l’auditif dans des formes visuellement rétiniennes. Newton. 7) 170 . enregistrant parmi d’autres le divorce déclaré entre la musique et la poésie. inconventionnel et cinématographique – élibérant l’homme des archétypes de la conscience individuelle et le préparant ainsi. 5) La dynamique de l’imprimé a imposé une accentuation du visuel et. En imposant. Le mercantilisme de la nouvelle technologie a poussé l’Occident dans l’étape du progrès et. en jetant un pont par-dessus le fleuve trouble de la philosophie scolastique. centralisateurs. pas seulement sur celle lettrée. en appartenant aux quelques esprits comme Bruno. Einstein – l’imprimé est le plus beau et le plus romantique voyage entre la communication. il faut souligner ici l’existence. Interculturality partout.

il soutenait en fait (sans glorifier l’analphabétisme) que celui-ci contiendrait (au moins dans la période analphabète de l’individu). mais il existe aussi d’autres sortes de convictions et des attitudes face à cette «machine» de communication et de connaissance: la Dunciada de Pope – écrit Mcluhan – s’élève contre le livre. au moins face aux modèles et le spécifique de la Renaissance. pourrait donner de la gloire et une nouvelle vie à n’importe qui. Communication. la faiblesse. le médiocre. aussi longtemps qu’il nous éloigne du primitivisme et des superstitions de l’inconscient. le mal. McLuhan considère que «Heidegger pratique le surf sur la crète de la vague électronique. vis-à-vis de la pensée spéculative du penseur allemand. 8) Ainsi. plus simplement. avec son uniformité. «N’importe quel beau – soutient Karl Rosenkranz – étant donné qu’il doit avoir de la forme. l’incorrection. le fantastique. le diabolique. elle évoque la résonance magique de la horde tribale». sur l’unité. en déterminant ainsi une désordre de la composition et des contradictions dysharmonieuses». en soutenant l’utilisation de la totalité du langage comme donné philosophique. Beaucoup d’entre ces aspects esthétiques pourront être considérés des conceptions privilégiées dans le paradigme du postmodernisme. le laid naturel et celui spirituel. dans le cadre de cette «galaxie reconsidérée».Literature. la communication artistique se reconfigure aussi atypiquement dans l’époque moderne. celui qui dans Le sacre et le prophane. l’accidentel et l’arbitraire. la simétrie et sur l’harmonie. qui a ouvert l’une des perspectives les plus renouvelées de l’idéal artistique dès la deuxième moitié du XIX-ème siècle. en l’accusant que par sa qualité purement visuelle. l’imprimé a été le plus fidèle diffuseur des conceptes philosophiques. écrit par le philosophe allemand Karl Rosenkranz. le roumain Mircea Eliade. Mais. 9) Le philosophe canadien rappelle encore ici. son répétitivité et ses possibilités illimités. le dégoûtant. dans le cadre de laquelle se trouvent tous les aspects dont nous devrions tenir compte dans l’homologation d’une oeuvre d’art: l’imperfection. la redécouverte des transactions entre Moi et le Monde ou. la vilenie. la dysharmonie. Interculturality Il faut reconnaître. 10) On assiste. l’absurde. grâce à l’imprimé. qui. le grossier. entre le sujet qui communique et qui connaît et l’objet communiqué et connu. le mesquin. se fonde sur certaines proportions universelles. considéré d’être «l’agent d’une résurrection primitiviste et romantique». le hideux. L’alphabétisation a transformé l’individu intelligent dans un système clos et elle a créé une faille entre l’apparence et la réalité. l’ordinaire. Mais. Sur ce problème nous persévérerons davantage parce que nous 171 . l’infamie. le rapport le plus évident de tous les sens humaines. que jusqu’en-deçà de la découverte de l’espace courbe. aussi triomphal que Descartes sur la vague mécanique». qui empêche soit la réalisation de l’unité soit il la dissout dans l’informel. l’asymétrie. entre lesquelles ce qui persévère est seulement «le flux de la conscience». en 1853). Ici nous avons en vue l’apparition du livre intitulé Une esthétique du laid (publié à Königsberg. par la suite. paradoxalement. mais aussi de l’ontologie de Martin Heidegger. à une confrontation d’où il résulterait que la clé d’or de ce phénomène est. glorifie ce «monde tribale et analphabète». en 1905. il paraissait que l’imprimé. Le laid commence avec l’absence de la forme. par l’immersion dans l’organicisme du milieu électronique.

le conflit. les amas de gens ont réussi de voir le mot imprimé. est connue par des spécialistes sous cette dénomination). le contrôle de l’activité. (La substance produite par la bioph ysique et qui se combine avec les glandes surrénales. la neurologie. un moyen de communication et de connaissance. Robert Cummis et Mark Rollins – les derniers étant les représentants des sciences cognitives. la Conscience constitue un facteur essentiel de la séparation entre les courants philosophiques et les directions dans la psychologie. l’homme a passé environ 650 périodes dans les grottes. 150 dans les logements et grâce à l’écriture seulement dans les dernières 70 périodes. 11) Mais pour mieux comprendre comment la conscience fonctionne et comment se manifeste le syndrome de l’adaptation au milieu. considèrent que les programmes de l’ordinateur obtiendront le conscient.Literature. en comprenant des réactions spécifiques aux stimulus. le positionnisme et la herméneutique.000 années. dans son ensemble. Witgensten. on obtient 800 périodes de vie. la compréhension de la réalité. le langage. comme: la psychologie. en continuant avec des nuances spécifiques de la philosophie de Descartes. le réductionisme et le holisme. Malebranche. des valeurs. Jusqu’ici nous avons à peu près une transposition du modèle relatif à la philosophie de Kant. Seulement dans les 4 dernières périodes a été possible de mesurer le 172 . le souci. si on partage cette chiffre à 62 (la durée moyenne de la vie d’un individu). le syndrome de l’être le plus évolué sur la terre. l’incertitude. mais aussi l’attente d’une joie. L’évolution des conceptions sur la conscience commence avec Platon et Aristotel. le contrôle du comportement et l’intégration des informations). Carnap. l’hilarité et la gaieté – toutes ces choses mettent en fonction l’usine ACTH». d’où résulte le fait que la conscience représente indubitablement «un niveau supérieur de manifestation syncrétique des phénomènes psychiques. la transposition des informations et des impressions d’un code psychique à l’autre à base de critères et des motivations mentales ou d’une autre nature». le directionnement de l’attention.. même entre les conceptions sur l’intelligence artificielle (qui considèrent qu’on peut créer des robots ayant des émotions et de la conscience). Communication. l’homme a réussi de communiquer d’une période à l’autre. le syndrome de la communication et de la connaissance. il est nécessaire qu’on recourt aux différents domaines extrêmement spécialisés. De ces 800 périodes. 12) L’américain Alvin Toffler fait un calcul extrêmement intéressant. représentant la succéssion correspondante des générations humaines sur la terre. des connaissances.». de la neuroscience et de la philosophie du mental. entre le matérialisme et l’idéalisme. à la compréhension de l’ordre des choses et à la séparation du réel de la fiction. Les principales fonctions de la conscience pourraient être résumées à «l’orientation dans l’espace et dans le temps.. Dans les 6 dernières périodes de vie. des symboles. la phénoménologie et l’introspectionisme. Les recherches scientifiques ont montré que les réactions adéquates de ce procès ne se produisent pas tout au long de la vie d’un individu et elles constituent une réponse aux changements du milieu physique et social qui l’entoure: «la colère. et les conceptions qui en faisant une distinction entre conscience et le conscient. Goodman. qui illustre la manière dans laquelle l’homme a passé sa vie dans les dernières 50. Interculturality considérons que. la théorie des communications et l’endocrinologie.

Et. Ceux qui ont payé des consultants pour apprendre d’avance en quelle mesure ont participé leurs compétiteurs à une vente aux enchères pour un projet de Pentagone. des idées. Et la majorité accablante de tous les biens matériels que nous utilisons dans notre vie quotidienne. ont été produits dans la dernière période. des groupes ethniques. parru dans le dernier siècle. ils influencent l’économie et les transactions commerciales. Communication. qui résultent des confrontations de ces deux grandes doctrines de l’humanité: le modernisme et le postmodernisme. On assiste donc aux distorsions de communication. les revues. Dans la deuxième vague. enfin.Literature. qui joue à la pupitre de l’accélérateur de particules. il a goûté les fruits d’un siècle romantique (le XIXème). Il était et il est encore un voyage de profondeur entre communication et connaissance. on peut parler avec certitude d’une confrontation entre L’homme moderne. et puis. le même message pour millions de récepteurs. pouvant identifier sur n’importe quelle surface. Aujourd’hui. Dans cette dernières phase la vente aux enchères informationnelle est très puissante et elle déterminne l’individu de percevoir la réalité dans une manière plus dénaturée. en contrôlant et en filtrant même les plus banales détails de la vie quotidienne. Mis devant ces bienfaisances évidente de la science de l’avenir. la troisième vague spécialise ses produits imagistiques et transmette des images de plus en plus sophitiquées. quand l’information circulait oralement. ces pouvoirs font et défont tout. étant vorace. et L’homme nouvel. Tout se réduit à l’information et à la communication. de marchés. les autres 173 . des êtres et des objets qui ont la dimmension d’un stylo. qui dans la première vague correspond aux sociétés agraires. dans son ensemble. 13) Grâce aux moyens d’information et de communication transmis à grandes distances. parceque cette vente aux enchères cognitive s’oppose à sa capacité de penser. des catégories d’âge. Entre les pouvoirs il existe une guerre totale des informations. la société humaine. des symboles et des messages très divers aux segments précis de population. celle présente qui est la 800-ème.14) En perspective historique. parce que de temps en temps les pratiquants excessivement dévoués fixent des microphones dans les chambres de l’hôtel ou dans les bureaux où les adversaires négocient une transaction. les journaux. en reflétant les besoins de l’économie post industrielle. des voies ferrées rouillées et des squellettes métalliques contorsionnées. constitue aujourd’hui un village planétaire. ainsi les sons sexuels enregistrés dans les hôtels luxueux résultent quelquefois. le cinéma. veillés par les ombres de leurs professeurs et maîtres – Platon et Aristotel. les figures illuminées par les idées des disciples de la Grèce antique. qui faisant preuve de prudence. Les satellites surdouées gravitent autour du globe terrestre. il est très difficile d’associer au savant contemporaine. en se promenant dans le jardin d’Akademos. Toffler distingue trois manières différentes de communication: une manière élémentaire. sont défensifs et de moins en moins agréables. les communications à distance ont donné naissance à l’office postale. Le moteur électrique a été utilisé pour la première fois seulement dans les 2 dernières périodes. qui. au télégraphe et au téléphone. étant diffusée dans des commu-nautés extrêmement restreintes. le radio et la télé présentaient la capacité de transmettre simmultanément. des professions. a capté les énergies des grandes inventions techniques et les a appliqués et il les applique encore. Interculturality temps avec une certaine précision.

Bucureşti. nous déterminant et en nous obligeant de penser dans une manière postmoderne. Meridiane. cit. 160 174 . Gheorghe Vlăduţescu. collection „Idées contemporaines”. Ed. 26. La Galaxie Gutenberg. Albatros. Le choque du futur. Marshal McLuhan. d’un bout à l’autre. 3. 6. 8. 183. La philosophie dans la Grèce antique. avec ses populations multiples et complexes qui l’habitent. 1977. 52. Karl Rosenkranz. Ed. Ed. Le verbe dominant du XXI-ème siècle est celui de posséder. 52-53. en manifestant la tendance d’imposer une exclamation de ce type: aujourd’hui. collection „Idées contemporaines”. traversé en quelques secondes. comme curiosité de cette nouvelle époque de l’Homme. cit. Ed. traduction par Mihnea Columbeanu. 398. p. Antet. p. Floare albastră. p.139 5. Bucureşti. 311. En tel les circonstances. et la devise contemporaine. Marschal McLuhan. Propagés dans un rythme soutenu. si tu es vu et si tu possèdes. paraît seulement un pauvre hameau. Bucureşti. par l’arsenal connu du mass média. 361 -362. 66. ed. p. passe au-delà du cogito ontologique cartésien. Ibidem. Interculturality ingrédiants spirituels et idéologiques ne comptent plus (même si quelques’uns parlent intensément d’un transmodernisme). Ibidem. pp. à cause de l’inadaptation. 1984. à laquelle t’encourage cette manière de communication et de connaissance. p. 10. pas sans un certain frisson nostalgique. Alvin Toffler. 55. parce que les malaxeurs offensifs du postmodernisme ont la tendance d’être trop qu’ils sont en réalité: ils ne se résument pas à la déstructuration et à la décimation des structures coupables et innocentes du culturel. p. 409. les paradigmes du postmodernisme dépassent les limites réduites de la vie culturelle et ils se réflètent dans notre vie individuelle et collective. Entre le beau et le comique. Ibidem. économique et politique. Angela Botez. Ed. Ed. Sources. étude introductif et notes par Victor Ernest Maşek. Politique. il nous paraît que notre gigant globe terrestre. la prognose du philosophe canadien de la culture – Marschal Mcluhan – sur la crépuscule de la Galaxie Gutenberg (qui perd de plus en plus de terrain devant la technologie électronique de communication. La philosophie du mental. 2. efficiente. par une nouvelle. préface par Victor Ernest Maşek. 14. Et. 9. Ed. Communication. 11. et P. Ibidem. 13. nous sommes les victimes de celle-ci. Marschal McLuhan. Comme les témoins de cette confrontation. La Galaxie Gutenberg. étude introductif et traduction par Ilie Pârvu. traduction par Leontina Moga et Gabriela Manta. mais ils s’imposent de plus en plus énergiquement dans les hautes sphères de la vie sociale. 7. p. Bucureşti. en nous encourageant. 12. Le pouvoir en mouvement. Werner Heisenberg. p. Auteurs. p. il existe des personnes qui ne se contentent pas avec la terre dessous la plante du pied. p. Bucureşti. 1975. Une esthétique du laide. collection „Idées contemporaines”. 325. on peut affirmer que tu existes! NOTES ET BIBLIOGRAPHIE: 1. Bucureşti. 178. et ils s’entassent d’acheter des parcelles sur la Lune. Ibidem. Politique Bucureşti. p. est très crédible parce qu’aujourd’hui.Literature. 2006. p. traduction. 1984. Théories. La Galaxie Gutenberg. traduction par L. 4. Pas à travers les frontières. Năvodaru. 1973. 1995. de bon marché et rapide). pp. ed. Alvin Toffler. Politique.

e.that makes us feel the mood of others. in the tradition of modernity.fellow feeling . a matter of reason.e. morality. the geography of man. the principle according to which man first feels the call towards action and only subsequently. becoming sources of inspiration for contemporary philosophy. In his actions. David Hume stated that great principle which certain philosophical movements later made their main motto and which is. an individual that is fully aware will not resort to religion. Communication. Hume introduces a touch of irrationality in the philosophic area and is inspired by it when he explains man’s active life. a natural science of human morality. religion. Hume maintains that. moral phenomena are explained from the standpoint of experimental psychology. Regarding religion. but one of the senses. man feels pleasure even if pleasure destroys him. He is an important resource and a model for our efforts to address the intellectual and moral challenges of the contemporary world from our own area. his works are incompletely translated into Romanian and the studies that were published only deal with sequential and fragmented milestones of his philosophy. for Hume. i. morality. Ethics is the natural design. ethics. but sympathy . However. becoming sources of inspiration even for contemporary philosophy. Mures The Philosophy of David Hume . religion. Often. taken in itself. Hume’s philosophical ideas are still challenging and tempting because they approach fundamental aspects of knowledge. nothing is valuable or worthless. the physics of sensitivity. In his Natural History of 175 . Hume maintains that. things become so only thanks to human feelings and passions attached to them. Hence. Consequently. Hume argued that it should replace the motives and the tasks of ethics for that category of people who spiritually have not yet reached full development. that is why. as for Hobbes. politics and other spiritual areas. the physics of sensitivity. the call towards theoretical knowledge and troublesome theorizing that beset the human mind. i. things become so only thanks to human feelings and passions attached to them. characteristic of modern man’s spiritual consciousness. in his philosophy. the fundamental ethical sense is not. taken in itself. Interculturality MARIUS PAŞCAN Petru Maior University of Tg. particularly. ethics. egoism. Ethics is not. politics and other spiritual areas. Hume attempted to form. Although the name of the Scottish thinker and fragments of his creation are often quoted in the most significant philosophical studies. the geography of man.Literature. a natural science of human morality. explain and justify the principles of human understanding in their particular historical context in philosophical works that express and largely foreshadow the doctrine of the Enlightenment. th erefore. man lets himself be moved by the thirst for happiness and the best guides on the road to happiness are the very organic instincts with which nature endowed us. nothing is valuable or worthless.Three Centuries of Modernism Hume’s philosophical ideas are still challenging and tempting as they approach crucial aspects of knowledge. articulate. The measure of ethical value consists of both pleasure and pain. Ethics is the natural design. their joys and sorrows.

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Religion (1757), Hume is the first author who tried to write the history of the spiritual development of religion. He argues that religions were not created artificially, but they arose naturally from the human spirit. He also examined the formation and evolution of religious representations, from the polytheistic beliefs of primitive peoples to monotheism, and in this regard, he formulated many original and exciting comments. We have attempted to demonstrate Hume’s great influence on subsequent developments of philosophical thinking. Adam Smith (1723-1790) continued Hume’s analysis of man’s moral world. It is by analyzing the feelings of sympathy that Smith ultimately came to the foundation of political economy. It is also thanks to Hume that associative psychology was born, so influential subsequently, and whose main representatives are David Hartley (1705-1757) and Joseph Priestley (1733-1804), who established a relationship between psychology and the study of the nervous system. Mention should also be made of Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802), grandfather of Charles Darwin, who based his studies on instincts and extended the scope of associative psychology to a general biological theory of evolution. We have also highlighted the fact that David Hume represents a crucial period of the Enlightenment epoch, when a fundamental change took place: the cultural first-rank role of philosophy was replaced by the excessive valuing of science, culminating in the positivist movements of the 19th century, from A. Comte to K. Marx and from them to J. St. H. Spencer Mill in England, W. Wundt and E. Mach in Germany, to be resumed in the 20th century neopositivist movements - such as the Vienna Circle - and after the Second World War in the French and American structural-functionalist movements. Given these arguments, we show that Hume may be considered as one of the personalities belonging to the 18th century, who tried to form, articulate, explain and justify the principles of human understanding in their particular historical context in philosophical works that express and largely foreshadow the doctrine of the Enlightenment. Hume remains therefore an important resource and a model for our efforts to address the intellectual and moral challenges of the contemporary world from our own area, in the tradition of modernity. In a triple creative hypostatization, a pioneer in leading fields of knowledge, the Scottish philosopher is considered to be a historian, economist and journalist as well. He formulated the guiding principles of modern European agnosticism, being a precursor of positivism. Hume’s theory of knowledge developed under the influence of Locke’s and Berkeley’s empiricism. He maintains that our knowledge is a series of 'impressions', but their sources (that is the sources of our perceptions and sensations) is an unsolvable problem, however, since knowledge can not exceed the limits of "impressions". Experience cannot show the cause of our sensations. D. Hume's aesthetics is reduced to the psychology of artistic perception: a thing of beauty is treated mainly as the subject’s emotional reaction to the expediency of the object. In the field of sociology, Hume was the opponent of both the feudal-aristocratic idea of the 'power of God "and the contractual concepts about the origin of the state. Seen as a whole, Hume's philosophy seems a vast theoretical experiment, directed by the empiricist hypothesis - as it was understood and practiced by Locke and, partially, by Berkeley - but more closely observed in its consequences. But these very consequences highlight the impassable limits of empiricism, which fails to substantiate knowledge, so that knowledge is actually impossible. In fact, as we have pointed out, Hume shows that a 176

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consistent empiricist philosophy leads to the denial of philosophy, a point from where Immanuel Kant had also started in his judgments. Hume distinguished himself by freedom of thought, anti dogmatic spirit and his criticism of obscurantism. If Kantian agnosticism appears as a result of the denial of the link between essence and phenomenon, D. Hume's agnosticism has a different mechanism. He denied the cognitive value of 'impressions' and 'ideas' and came to call into doubt the very existence of the objective world, to treat as illusory the belief that there is something beyond the world of subjectivity. We do not know from where we take our knowledge - from states of matter, as materialists claim, or from the idea (God), as claimed by idealists. We operate with what we have in our minds, leaving out of our consciousness is theoretically unjustified. Pushing the empiricist thought up to its ultimate conclusions, Hume put into a serious mess all empiricists that came after him. But empiricists would continue to delude themselves that they would find a way of circumventing Hume's conclusions and they might find a basis of knowledge inside empiricism. In the 19th century, British philosopher John Stuart Mill earnestly sought to demonstrate the possibility of induction. This demonstration was necessary because without it, empiricism would have no longer justified its existence and would have become totally detached from the scientific movement. Lying in the shadow of the father of positivism, Auguste Comte, John Stuart Mill would seek to complete positivism with a logics and a theory of knowledge. He starts from the notion of cause, which he considers as ,,the root of the whole theory of induction”1 and speaks of the physical cause. Unlike Comte, Mill, denies production, efficiency as being the defining feature of the concept of causal relationship. In this case, the law of causality is only a law of succession. But this sequence does not affect things, since it is but a succession of sensations. As a positivist, Mill could not find a genuine solution to the problem of induction because he denies the essential feature of the law of causality, namely cause and effect. Empiricists in this century have also been confronted with the validity of induction. This confrontation has become even more dramatic in terms of knowledge, as the issue of causality appears to be problematic for the new science of physics. New knowledge in this area seemed to promote the idea of the inexistence of causality or at least the impossibility of knowing it. Hume suddenly returns to the limelight. Most great scientists and thinkers of the century address the issue of causality, some of them being influenced by Hume’s ideas. The specific behavior of phenomena at a subatomic scale puts in the forefront statistical laws. It highlights the probabilistic nature of evolution. From this point there was only one step to establishing an antinomic relation between probability and causality. This step was made by most thinkers. Bertrand Russell was convinced that it was impossible to follow Hume's line. He limited himself to assert that the rejection of Hume’s writings was unconvincing and that, following the empiricist line, he hoped to be “somewhat less skeptical than Hume's system” 2. H. Reichenbach also believed that, due to Hume, empiricism found its final formulation: all a priori knowledge is analytic, while all synthetic knowledge comes from sensorial perception, in other words, sensorial perception is the sole criterion of non-analytical truth. According to this theory, the existing empirical method cannot validate knowledge because sensorial perception ,,informs us only about the past”, and on this basis the predictive knowledge may not be established. Since the relationship between past and future is synthetic, deduction can not be applied. Reichenbach's theory can be summarized dichotomously: we 177

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either accept the principles of Hume's empiricism, in which case skepticism can not be avoided, or, in order to get rid of the paralyzing skepticism, empiricism must be overcome. However, by sticking to the empirical principles, empiric philosophers were not able to get out of the scope of phenomenalism and skepticism. As for contemporary empiricism, it defines causality as succession and constant connection. As pointed out by Bunge, the causal problem, ,,far from having only an epistemological side, it is primarily an ontological problem”3. Defining causality as a succession is not satisfactory either. Hume himself noted that only succession does not characterize the causal sequence. And yet, his positivist followers kept the characterization of causality as being a succession in time. As shown, the main merit of empiricism is that, as opposed to speculative thinking, it emphasized the need for knowledge to be based on experience. However, by conceiving experience subjectively, empiricism finally came to become estranged from reality. Addressing problems in terms of common sense, empiricist philosophers could not avoid the danger - once denounced by the dialectician thinker Giordano Bruno – of being the slaves to their senses in their research. Thus, in the empiricist view, senses eventually ceased to be a wide open window to the world and became dividing walls between man and reality. According to N. Trandafoiu4, Hume brilliantly demonstrates that consistent empiricism involves skepticism, and M. Flonta notes that ,,empiricism” and ,,skepticism” are words often used to mark Hume's place in philosophy. Hume also tried to reform philosophy, based on the study of human nature, developing a foundation of moral and aesthetic judgments similar to what Newton tried in natural philosophy, namely the elimination of any principle that is not based on facts. Hume believes that the basis for any science of man (logic, ethics, aesthetics, politics etc.) must be the research of human nature, namely a practical philosophy to help positive knowledge of individuals. Established in a phenomenology of affects and passions, it appears to be a discipline similar to the descriptive and cognitive psychology about which we speak today. Empirical research of human nature is conceived by Hume as a psychological research of people’s behavior. He seeks to discover operational patterns of analytical psychology and the simple elements that compose the mental life, arguing that morality must be explained by the naturalism of feelings, not by transcendence. The driving force behind human nature are feelings, not the intellect, therefore reason must be subject to the natural states of mind. He speaks of moral philosophy as a science of nature with branches such as logic (theory of knowledge), metaphysics, ethics, history and politics. Hume's empiricist theory was combined in the 18th century with the utilitarianism of Bentham and Mill, according to which moral principles are natural and arise from feelings of sympathy and instinctive tendency to maximize happiness and avoid pain. Naturalistic conceptions (T.H. Huxley, G.E. Moore) will later claim that all existing things are natural and in order to be explained they need no reference to the supernatural, whether the supernatural may be a deity, a system of values or anything different from natural phenomena. Hume's contribution to moral philosophy has two components. First, it consists of a series of reflections on epistemic source of moral judgments. Second, morality is a characterization of moral exercise, especially the types of reasons that support moral judgments. Hume wants to know how we get to have moral beliefs - from what source we 178

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extract them. He strives to show that - unlike what moralists argued over time – we do not get these convictions by the exercise of reason. According to Hume, moral beliefs, for the most part or essentially, are derived from our passions, rather than from reason. This is the basic thesis of his moral epistemology. When characterizing morality and moral judgments supporting reasons, he formulates a point of view that has many supporters among the English philosophers of the 18th century and the following ones: utilitarianism. According to Hume, what makes an action be morally correct and worthy to be performed is the utility of that action, its ability to promote the public good and human happiness in general. Hume advances two conditions to be met by a conviction or a judgment to be considered as being moral. First, it must be the expression of a sentiment common "all humanity" - a sentiment shared by all or nearly all people. The second condition imposed by Hume is that moral sentiments "should be extended to all mankind" in the sense that all people must become objects of approval or disapproval to the extent they serve or oppose utility. At this point Hume formulates one of the most famous statements in the literature of moral philosophy: ,,Reason is, and should only be a slave to the passions and can not claim another job than to serve them and obey them”5. Recent researches compared Hume's project with the most ambitious and influential synthesis of history and philosophy of the 19th century: Hegel's study of the evolution of human consciousness in a given cultural context, his research on the history of concepts, social practices, standards of judgments, institutions and philosophical systems. At the same time, we maintain that Hume can be compared with two of the most representative philosophers, in the German tradition, belonging to the second half of the 19th century, both interested in the relationship between history and philosophy: Nietzsche Dilthey. On the one hand, Hume anticipates many aspects of Nietzsche's thinking, such as critical tradition of substance in Western metaphysics substance, the criticism of Christianity and the moral tradition deriving from Christianity and the use of the historical-genetic method to explain concepts, beliefs and judgment standards. Unlike Nietzsche, Hume attempts to offer a direct and constructive explanation of reasoning and evaluation, including the principles of historical investigation. In this regard, he anticipates the concerns and projects of Dilthey, who sought to impose a method of historical research directed towards understanding the individual's conscious states, in relationship with the historical and cultural context to which he belongs, as the basic method of humanities. We believe that, despite criticisms that have been made since the mid-20th century, the Enlightenment is worth being reconsidered and reassessed because a great part of the efforts to understand and improve the world of today are still expressions of Enlightenment principles and they still have to face its problems and challenges; actually, the persistence of the Enlightenment project is admitted even by its most fierce critics. The concept of "modernity" attributed to the Enlightenment can not be neglected, with all its implications in contemporary thinking. Not accidentally, Robert B. Pippin addresses the concept of modernity and its relations with the Enlightenment in his Modernism as a Philosophical Problem6. No matter in what way he might be interpreted and whether he is right or wrong, Hume influenced to a large extent the image and the direction of a large part of the" analytical 179

p. This era has passed . his thinking is similar to that of many contemporary analysts. to use a phrase of Albert Camus. we ought to bring a trenchant argument about this brief comparative analysis. and he sets forth the terms of debate in recent and contemporary moral epistemology. – Western Ethics: An Historical postmodern thought. which put in question the existence of any standards.Literature. to get back to fundamentals. Until recently. this year. Bunge. 1998.and the fact that he failed to make those distinctions that are to be found in the works of ethical analysts.. The place of the causal principle in modern science. 44 180 . how they need being cleaned! If we take in hand. We have also noted that despite the pessimistic predictions about developments in the field of ethics. . The foundations that today's world tries to rediscover are spiritual and moral foundations and. How to explain this great interest in David Hume if not.the 21st century will be ethical or there will be no 21st century“8. morality being equated with hypocrisy and bourgeois repression. to a large extent. rightly. a theological or metaphysical book.. However.K. while and magazines compete in publishing studies and essays on his philosophy. A large part of the twentieth century was marked by distrust of moral and ethical origins of the nihilism of Nietzsche. The celebration.. David Hume remains a challenge for new approaches to contemporary ethical and philosophical stakes. It can be said therefore that the times in which we live force us. ethics has been lying in the foreground. of ethical and moral relativism. of the 300th anniversary of David Hume seems to be a major event not only for lovers of wisdom or those concerned with philosophy in general. in May.clearly opposes Kant's ethics. Oxford. Communication. In conclusion. Causality. our societies were electrified by the idea of individual and collective freedom. principles and moral values with claims of universality or.says. Robert L. consider him a pioneer in other areas of research and knowledge as well. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Arrington. large-scale conferences and symposiums are organized throughout the whole year. Interculturality ethics " of the 20th century. in one way or another. for it can contain only sophistic deception". Kant recognized that. 1959. his philosophical thinking was influenced by Hume and Kant's philosophy is one of the most important empirical criticism represented by Hume”7. He himself was an "analytic philosopher" – undoubtedly.. makes his works to be sometimes ambiguous and unclear. in this respect. Blackwell Publishing. Harvard – Cambridge – Massachusetts. U. "Hume's subjectivism and naturalism .moral absolutes” and even morality in the traditional sense. any . and the last part of the century . Arrington . but also for those who. Mario. for example. for his skeptical challenge addressed to philosophy and theology. Everywhere in the academic world. we should ask: does it contain an abstract research about size or numbers? No! Does it contain empirical issues about facts and existence? No! Then be it given to the flames. among other things. especially since the last decade of the 20th century. somehow.. in simple and penetrating words: "If you look through our libraries. analytic philosophy is a phenomenon belonging to the 20th century . Robert L.

translated by Bogdan Astafei and Cristian Ducu. Gilles – The Twilight of Duty. – Enquiries concerning Human Understanding and the Principles of Morals. in parentheses in the text. Oxford University Press. Hume. Tomiţă . 2006.AN ENQUIRY CONCERNING THE PRINCIPLES OF MORALS . Bobbs-Merrill. Humanitas Publishing House. D. Kunymann. Ciulei. David Fate Norton and Mary J. Flanagan. . 1975. published by L. Selby-Bigge. Babel Publishing House. . . Norton (eds. D. Interculturality Ciulei. includes as a supplement Hume’s My Own Life.A Critical Introduction in Knowledge. 1978. translated from German by Monica-Maria Aldea. David – Political Essays. 2004. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1987. Oxford. 181 .A. IInd edition revised by P.A. 2004 Landemore. Hume. Nidditch. Oxford.) (The Claredon Edition of the Works of David Hume). Bucharest 2002. Iaşi. Hume. R. Oxford. 2000. Alternative Publishing House. Earman. Oxford University Press. – Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. – A Treatise of Human Nature. 2000. Iaşi. în Oeuvres Philosophiques choisies. A Historical and Methodological Attempt on Empiricism in the Gnoseological Effort Lumen Publishing House. Hume. European Institution 1997. published with an introduction by Norman Kemp Smith. Preface by Aurelian Crăiuţu. Hume.Literature. 35. David – An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding. 1998.). 2007. M. 2006. Britannica Great Books. Classics of World Philosophy collection Scientific and Encyclopedic Publishing House.H. translated by Mircea Flonta. D.).Mureşan. Flonta. Clarendon Press. Tom L. Alain – The Basic Trends of Modern Philosophy.De sensu.Psychologie morale et éthique.H. with an introduction by Emanoil Mihai Socaciu.The British Moralists on Human Nature and the Birth of Secular Ethic. . in The British Moral Philosophy. Alasdair – A Treatise of Morals.Wiedmann. Hume. Part. Graf. Oxford University Press. IIIrd edition. 2007 Crisp. All Publishing House. Pennsylvania. Traduction de l`americain par S. D. 1994. About Virtue. Pittsburgh. HUME. 1998. Nidditch. Editors: A. David Fate Norton and Mary J. Enciclopedia Rao. Constantin Niţă. 1952.An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding. Frany – Atlas of Philosophy. Tomiţă – Classical Empiricism about the Sources of Knowledge. Communication. 1996 Macintyre. Frany-Peter . vol. O. Hume. Bucharest.A Treatise of Human Nature (Oxford Philosophical Texts). Incitatos Publishing House. ChicagoLondon-Toronto. (References to this work start with T and are followed by Book. 1998. Presses Universitaires de France. includes Appendix and Abstract. Michael . John – Hume’s Abject Failure. Hume. Lipovetsky. Selby-Bigge. Montefiore and V. Section and paragraph number.). Bucharest.Marnat. D. Adrian-Paul Iliescu. Traite de la nature humaine. DAVID . Norton (eds. Gill. D. 1996. Hélène – Hume-probabilité et choix raisonnable. Peter – Burkard. 1912. Clarendon Press. – Theories of Virtues. Lumen Publishing House. Bucharest. Bucharest. revised by de P. introductory study by Mircea Flonta. Paris. published by de L.A Treatise of Human Nature: A Critical Edition . translated by Catrinel Pleşu. . 1977. Beauchamp (ed. The Argument Against Miracles. PUF. Bucharest.

ed. All Publishing House. Mill. Oxford. Pippin. p. Russell. Becker. – Real Ethics – Reconsidering the Foundation of Morality. Bertrand. Durkheim’s The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. 1999. Blekwell Publishing. 1880. in A History of Western Ethics (second edition). J. – The Invention of Autonomy – A History of Modern Moral Philosophy. 2003. Arrington. Paris. Cambridge. Sârbu. Babel Publishing House. B. UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press. Cambridge University Press.Modernism as a Philosophical Problem.. Systeme de logique deductive. 2003. 1961. Bucarest. Bucarest. Singer. Cambridge. Western Ethics. Malden MA Oxford. vol. Routledge New York and London. 1998 6 Pippin. New York. Robert B. ClujNapoca 1996. revised and expanded – Bucharest. Iaşi.Epistemology and Practice. Causality. 232) 5 Robert Arrington. 1998. 368 Bertrand Russel. Rawls. p. p. UK.. Notes: 1 2 J. – Seventeenth – and Eighteenth – Century Ethics. I. The Pennsylvania State University. J. edited by Lawrence C. Humanist Education Collection. St. – History of Western Philosophy. 2005. Smith.Literature. London. Allen & Unwin. Polirom Publishing House. „Matei Teiu Botez” Academic Society Publishing House. Schneewind. Claudia M. Routledge New-York and London. Cambridge University Press. p. a II-a. Robert B. 2004. Bucharest. Charlotte B. the 2nd edition. 44 4 N. 1999. 2003. Trandafoiu. . Norman Kemp . edited by Lawrence C. History of Western Philosophy. John M. în volumul A History of Western Ethics (second edition). A Critical Study of its Origins and Central Doctrines. Reason in History. Interculturality Mill. Becker. Oxford. B. Communication. Massachusetts. Argonaut Publishing House. All Educational Publishing House. 17 182 . Systeme de logique deductive et inductive. London – New York. 1999 7 Robert L. în 2 vol. 1959. – David Hume. U. the 2nd edition. U.The Philosophy of David Hume. 1961. Rist.K. Becker – Charlotte B. The Edinburgh Building.. 1999. 1960.Modernism as a Philosophical Problem. Vasile – A Historical Introduction to Philosophy. 1880. . Nicolae – A History of Philosophy – Substance and Causality in the Interpretation of the British Empiricism. Blackwell Publishing. Pennsylvania. IInd edition.K. Tănase – Ethics: Moral Values and Virtues. Twilight of Duty. Trandafoiu. Press University Park. p. The place of the causal principle in modern science . Schneewind. Anne Warfield . vol.St.I. second edition. 368 Muscă. Malden MA Oxford. 259 8 Lipovetski Gilles. Allen & Unwin. – Nineteenth-Century British Ethics. p. Blackwell Publishers. 2004. 2003. . Paris.. Becker. Substance and causality in the interpretation of British empiricism. J. Blackwell Publishers. Marcus G.. 1996. London. Schmidt. pp 670-671 3 Mario Bunge. Western Ethics.

As a leader of opinion. we have observed that the journalistic discourse which convinces reflects the creative spirit of the 183 .Literature. the allurement and/or the lectorial stimulation (through the title. especially in Romania. 2006:27-29). through which professional pressmen. apud Fontanier). Without being a caprice. and the reception of the discourse or the total reading. attack. manifested through analytic and/or synthetic acts. Mures 'The Political Bestiary’.). ethopic. the serious journalist convinces us that he constructs his discourse applying the strategy of reading the publicistic text in three steps: the atraction. Preliminaries Included in the paradigm of communication sciences as the science of managing the word. ascertainment. a specialized annex of literature.). messengers of the imediate present (reality). epic constructed sequentially. setting as a goal to establish a friendship with the readers.” (Vişinescu. focused on the story. posographic. metaphor. polemic discourse conserved at the level of the reactive act or of the sophisms – dissent. threats) specific to orality. Interculturality LUMINIŢA CHIOREAN Petru Maior University of Tg. monologue or soliloquy – a polyphonic construction. prediction – anticipative and prospective act. descriptive acts (topographic. holding etc).). and mainly focused on the production of journalistic text rather than on deep analysis. The taxonomy of the journalistic discourse inventories various discourse types (JeanMichel Adam in Preda. commissive acts (promises. correspondents and contributors make possible the act of communicating with the public in different styles and manners. journalism is defined as the "creative activity in the written. the fabulation. subheads etc. chronographic. variants of description. the explanation. 2002:62-83) like: the narrative discourse. the narration. irony etc. the injuction – discourse focused on the elocutive act (imperative discourse which contains warnings. recipes etc. pagination.are all focused on the writing of Cristian Tudor Popescu and aim to maintain the interest for reading among the everyday individual. 2002:132) is verrified through the concrete communication of the event. the argumentation reflected through persuasive acts with the characteristic persuasion techniques (discursive anaphor. spoken and audio-visual press. portraitistic. The considerations regarding the discursive architecture as developed from Classical Rhetoric and discursive Ethos (applied to opinion-based journalistic discourse) . Starting from the current reading. Communication. 2002:152-154) The pragmatism of the publicistic styles (Vişinescu. defined both as imediate present (reality) and as interest for reading (Preda. The extra-discursive Ethos gives value to the fame and authority of this critical voice of Romanian media. discourse which uses dialogue. he influences the reading and offers an ideatic plan to his own opinion on the events. images. symbol. The Level of Discursive Practices in the Opinion Editorial The contribution of our article entitled 'The Political Bestiary’ consists in applying rhetoric notions to journalistic discourse – a controversial domain. the provocation or the maintainance of the interest for reading (through lead.

characterized by diversity. The option for such editorials. irony and aporia. persuasive or critical. Why the political editorial? During an electoral campaign or the debate of an inflammatory subject. the influence of the Ethos in the orator-public relationship being obvious. the explicative-argumentative part (narrative models propose either the gradual ascending order or the 'homeric’one) and the final-conclusive part (ending formulas: 'cliche’ ending. And last but not least. has socio-cultural functions. emphatic ending. In journalistic writing the one who gains respect and is recognized as an opinion leader is the one who proves to be a spirit that cumulates as many communication virtues as possible. is an important opinion leader in the contemporary Romanian press. he can change to world. but also a descriptive. 2005:120-121) Preferring the 'inverted pyramid’technique. the economic crisis – represents the optimal application in the rethoric of the Romanian journalistic discourse. who insist that. Editorials are samples of the journalistic idiostyle: between humor. giving value judgements about the society he represents and having a discourse which also contains predictive acts. followed by explanation. discursive and socio-cultural. Finally. "hic et nunc”). the editorial is text organized in three parts: the introduction (causa scribendi) and/or the expositive part or naratio.Literature.” (Rovenţa-Frumuşani. using a persuasive discourse. More than this. with a considerable experience in the field of political journalism. education.] Defined largely as 'enunciation’ about the social reality (mediatic discourse) it is unmistakably a plural concept. [. is and should be. reformulated argumentative ending). the author of the editorial group proposed for analysis. "now”. society. oscilating between conviction. Communication.. The fields which are privileged in the editorial are interesting and actual: politics. The editorial is written by an experienced journalist or a recognized leader of opinion. which consists in the summarized presentation of the information right in the introduction. being a critical spirit that manifests thorugh a natural behavior. educational-instructive functions). economy. It conserves the opinion and the official attitude of the magazine where it is published. the opinion leaders are the 'critical voices’ with the greates resonance together with the ones of the political actors. the editorial analyzed offers an interesting reading on all levels: textual. sarcasm and satire. 184 . the polyphonic configuration of his contemporaries must be found in the journalist’s Ethos. of course with stressing the present ("news”. polymorphism and ubiquity. the definition os completed with Daniela Roventa-Frumusani's affirmation: "The mediatic discourse can be understood as a general discourse which mixes and focalizes the beliefs and knowledge about what was. parable and parody. criminality.. 1. excluding sophisms through viable and valid arguments in the socio-politic present reality of a collectivity. analytic and/ or synthetic spirit. without the exclusion of memory and prospective.. The variety and the signification of the metaphors represented an additional challenge for the interpretation of the article from a rhetorical perspective. Why the political editorial signed by CTP? The editorial is the pillar and the conscience of the journal where it is published. comments etc. Cristian Tudor Popescu (CTP). born in tense moments for the Romanian society – stage marked by the second round of the presidential elections between December 2009 and September 2010. like: being a great narrator. through his discourse. specific to the publicistic style (informative. Interculturality journalist. figurative.

.Literature.frag. Two representative groups of three discourses each have been selected from these editorials. The first group presents events from the election campaign (the second round of the presidential election in Romania in Dec. the discourse With the Fist on the Bible. 1/I). frag. 8/I). 5/I: the Self conscience. 185 .2010(Sept).. The Textual Level: The Confrontation CTP's editorials are either pamphlets.2. The decision of the omniscient narrator: "I will vote" (frag. evocations either with the presidential candidates (in naration. (Chiorean. The second group refers to representative discourses on the theme of the economic crisis: Summer Is Not Like Winter (3rd Aug. It is obvious that CTP prefers the ironic discourse. The affirmation is verified through the essayistic simulation of the architecture of the political editorial which respects the rethoric of the classic discourse: exordium. paradox in behavior. essay (discourse between prose and journalism). which have the imaginary in common announced from December 2009: a political maladive. Vote with desinfection2 and Iz ză seim picceăr3 (7th Dec. (I) starts ex abrupto through the subjective topic of the attitudinal attribute "terrible". 2009). which describes the events and characters implied using persuasive elements – verbal and nonverbal language. 9/I) is the line of the citizen who is confident in the democratic values of the society. have been the fundamental document of the research which has as a goal the analysis. Death Is Not Like Life (8th Aug. Communication. 2006) After an inferential exordium (frag. confirmatio. 2. It is the moment when the objective voice of the CTP journalist-narrator can be sensed. presentatio. 7/I: the indignant and dissapointed Self). 2009). 2010) and Upside Down (23rd Sept. models which are representative for the 'political bestiary’. a symptomatology of the political maladive. inexplicable attitude in the avantelectoral context. or through the widening of the political spectrum: actor C – the politicians (refutatio – frag. But the euphoria of the moment is blown to pieces on the shocking discovery of a sum of "political (terribil)-ism" announced through the repetition of the 'deaf' ignorance. expressed through the phraseology "to turn a deaf ear" (frag. 3/I: the historical conscience.1. Interculturality The editorials analyzed carry a well-defined 'CTP’ style included in the tendencies of the opinion journalism of the contemporary Romanian press. frag. Editorials under "the magnifying glass” The political editorials signed by CTP between 2009(Dec) . 9/I). In conflict with these behavioral-political samples the narration hypostases are relevant (frag. 2009): With the Fist on the Bible/ The Right of the Last Night1 (4th Dec. 2010). his word against the "political terribilism”. 2010) The interpretation of the rethoric of the opinion editorial refers only to two texts: With the Fist on the Bible/ The Right of the Last Night and Upside Down. confirmatio). naratio.0/I): the confrontation of the potential candidates (actors A and B). The explanation lays in the writing talent of the author of SF literature. or samples of essayistic discourse – publicistic essays (especially film chronicles). The aggressive actant tone of the presentatio structures the rethoric of the presumption of guilt and compromise. which proposes the forceful entry of the first actant: actor A – presidential candidate (presentatio . published in the newspaper Gândul. In conformatio a few attitudinal models can be visible. consumed by fear and hatred 2. refutatio and peroratio. states/manifestations comprised in the ethic code marked by the civic conscience (peroratio – frag. the imposition of a 'CTP’style and the recognition of an opinion leader. 3/I).

Hence. which provokes his disdain and dissaproval (frag. the narrator uses the same imaginary of the 'political bestiary’. which comes as an answer to the question regarding the interhuman relationship. In the exordium the rethoric of the present state of things: the narrator’s revolt.. as the reader can notice the journalist’s option for paradox. More than this. 3. sarcasm (frag. in the Romanian society). 5/II: "doesn’t understand the meaning of the word vulgarity not even when it creates it”). is analized each time by the narrator who views reality through his own 'magnifying glass’. It is already known that in conformatio the reader comes across the voice of the narrator. As a conclusion. sophisms and formal and conceptual aporia characteristic both to the political model and the cultural and civic ones as answers to the astonishment. speculation and aporias referring to the human being’s position in society (here. while the one of the head of state does not” (frag. even though the discoursive Ethos dominates the text through the alternation of naratio and confirmatio: the narrated event.. It is possible for CTP’s writing to evolve towards the journalistic essay and the soliloquy. generally. the journalist respect the same rethoric which. 2/II: "being vulgar with oneself”). the omnipresent narrator warns the reader about the infestation of the political imaginary with vulgarity (frag. 7/II – narrations which have an axiological subject: homo valens in actor B’s opinion). in its first meaning of vileness” vs. 0/II). 6/II) Peroratio reaches the peak with the luxury of hating belonging to a revolted and dissapointed Self (frag. the different manifestation of the discoursive Ethos which gives solutions and contours the socio-political model of reference in the editorial. In presentatio. conserves the parts of the classic discourse. 1/II) – label of actor B. For this. the period between 2009 and 2010 has nothing new to offer the citizen who believes in democracy. 2/II). asked by curious people (frag. In the naratio. revolted self (frag. whose discursive Ethos takes form through axiological conscience (frag. the narrator's deontological conscience is dissapointed by actor B: "The journalistic profession includes the pamphlet. [. 4. this time the attitudinal model being conserved at a linguistic level: 'basescian’ becomes the metaphor of a strange behavior which manifests its disdain and igorance towards education and culture (frag. ethical conscience (frag. Communication. the argumentation through the interpretation of the editorial Upside Down is necessary. 8/II: "I am keeping the outer signs of respect.] but I do not have the inner ones anymore”).1/II: "vulgarity.”). 2/II). Just like time would have standed still. Questions trigger the aporetic potential which will generate the model of a political maladive which has as a consequence the inevitable 'luxury of hating’.. The same symptomatology of a political maladive can be sensed here. 9/II: "Which does not mean that vulgarity is produce only by" actor B). triggered by one or two actors. 10/II: "Romania is getting every day more vulgar. reality supported through the axiological pseudo-samples (the narrator's irritation and revolt is triggered by the state of "being vulgar with oneself” – frag.. "human nobless”). Interculturality The same rhetoric pattern is also conserved at the textual level of the article Upside Down(II). editorial which has the rethorical question as its discursive mechanism. In refutatio. 186 .Literature. the narrator developes the concept of "vulgarity” as opposed to "human nobless” and the derived "vulgar” (frag.

the metaphor generates an unreliable ethical code for actor B (frag.Literature. 4/I). the political grid generates characters recognized in the CTP discourse through the actants: A. the political weakness determined by power are ridiculed through actor A. 2/I).2. 4/I). an electoral battle.. Luminiţa Roşca’s affirmation: "The structure of the journalistic language is conditioned by the reader and the context where the communication takes place. Both the imperative of voting ("I will vote" . characteristic to actor A.I). B and C. Communication. Both articles express the voice of a collectivity that is exigent with 'the nation's chosen leaders’. and the oratoraudience relationship implies the creation of a language of its own. 7/I) together with the in absentia metaphor completes the narrator’s revolt. The ostrich politicy. 2004) is complementary to the rethoric perspective.O. which evolves in the symbol of weakness and ridicule. triggers fear and disorientation because the symbol of the 'ostrich’ is a sign of recognizing both the mocking. GO or "the moment of maximum thrill” of the oath "with the fist” on the Bible . At this level. The level of discursive practices: 'the political bestiary’ The readers are the nominal audience. "to cast out”) brings into discussion the friendship with S. The orator transfers the state of the confused citizen without offering an answer. "hurricane”. the journalist-receiver relationship determining a code specific to journalism” (Roşca. 7/I) In contrast to the metaphor of the ostrich with a sarcastic effect created visually. and the certainty of the society’s infestation with 'vulgarity’ (II) are adecquate attitudes both for the historical moment. negative results: "with its head buried deep in sand and its butt raised towards the neons of the room. which has. in fact. and culminating with the image of "ostrich G” (frag. The polysemy of the word "wind” ("element”. anger and even "the luxury of hating”. 5. mediator that will also bring actor B to the stage. 7/I comprise relevant mini-narrations: the episodes with SOV. the one who is attributed the metaphor of "political beast” (frag. "the political beast” brings forward the symbol of cunningness and (social) danger. key characterin conserving the political maladive. either traumatized by the laws given by the government. the invocation of "the case of the sick child”) 187 .V. and the publishing of the articles (December 2009 and September 2010). and the reiteration of the comunist behavior described gradually from "turning a deaf ear” (frag. "autoprotective” tactic. Interculturality 2. it awaits for the wind to stop blowing” (frag. the resistance trope is the poetic or non-poetic metaphor. where there is the certainty of a real and exigent audience of the citizen. "storm”. "to give somebody the push”= "to abandon”. where the audience (the reader) and the rethoric situation (the context) influences the structure of the discourse.1/I) to the stage of "pretending not to hear” (frag. who is either disoriented. drifting. The epithet "hideous on the inside” (frag. Manifesting through 'terribilism’ and other behavioral '-isms’. image which will have as an effect dissaproval. The framing into style and category allows the presentation of some specific information regarding the language used. The political scene of 2009 (I) is resumed to a compromised imaginary characterized by anemias and strategies in order to obtain "the mediatic execution of the opponent”. Also in this case. sine qua non element of human communication which has a double purpose: it codes the message and facilitates the understanding of the alegoric imaginary of the 'political bestiary’ proposed and supported by Cristian Tudor Popescu.

V. The narration of "the sequence of political romance”. in which the well-known actors act predictably and in a hilarious way: "an illogical and grotesque jumble” (frag. 4/ I). beast. 9/I) – the manifestation of the civic conscience. The image of protagonists A and B is negatively influenced by the 'game ’of interests. By accesing the argumentative function of the metaphor in the distinction and the qualification of the political characters. Interculturality The metaphor of the "serpent-like mating” (frag. which disadvantages them both in front of the audience. actor B. Caragiale’s characters. the meeting between actor A and the businessman S. where S. The dichotomy 'communists vs. 4/I). security’ will be mentioned again in the articles of 7th December 2009. 3/I).O. Communication. The neologisms of cinematographic art define the kinetic mechanism and the political cliche. 5/I): "vileness. the strategy of "the silver bullet” (frag. action which is similar to the one of the communit security. there are two syntagmas which have a neological and sarcastic imprint: "illogical and grotesque jumble with shadows of horror” (frag. CTP signs the conformity of the political avatar at the level of the stage of enuntiation through real links between the metaphor and the event. Without the persuasive function of the metaphor both in the sequencial and global creation and perception of the text (Lakoff and Johnson. which focuses on the "political bestiary” (ostrich.Literature. 1980).O. allusion to I. The rethoric of "terribilism". In order to support the 'tipsy' electorate. The offer of the political dimension/2009 (I) is overshadowed by stupidity. conclusioned through the equivoque of the states of "the fear of what tomorrow might bring” and 'the hatred’ against the system. is presented as film scenes. 4/I). 6/I). now the causes that have changed the mentality of a nation until it reached the level of "drunkenness of hatred” are explored. culminating with "the right of the last night” (frag. which has an axiology leaves a lot to be 188 . the narrator offers the solution in the end: "I will vote" (frag. the audience would lack the interpretation of a unitary perspective. vulgarity opossed to the nobless of the human spirit”. represented through the image of citizen Ionescu. As follows. and the politics of "the mediatic execution of the opponent” through elimination. like "The Cruel Trinity” (decal). Consequently. 8/I) generates the alusive semantic of compromise: unpredictable alliances and collaborations dictated by a politic full of party principles. especially politics – allusion to the friendship with oligarchy. changes his discourse partner "into business". and also the actor. L.V. the political system. Still. a political maladive consumed between "fear and hatred”4: between "the right of the last night” – frustration and "anemia” – and "with the fist on the Bible” – "strategy” and power – intertexts in linguistic decal. The political scene of the year 2010 does not bring great surprises. Although they are not taken into account as metaphors. Mainly. forgetting that "money is the root of all evil”. transforming the audience into the public of a decaying film. which mock the event described. is nothing but the new face of the 'guerrilla’: the chasing of game (without taking into consideration that game can become hunter). accentuates the countour of the metaphor of human decay (in "the premogul phase of the basescian way of thinking” – frag. is supported through the metaphor of political pathology: money make the world go round. 4/I) and "sequence of political romance” (frag. the politics of the ostrich favourizes the interation of the communist model ("everything we pretend doesn’t exist does not exist” – frag. serpents).

If I do not believe in God and God exists. 2007). which bring their contribution in argumentation. 2004. I believe. Creangă). epithets. 1/II)." The editorial "Upside down” proposes another type of structure: it is a journalistic essay which has a subject that evolves based on reflection ”To survive means to survive hatred” (Glucksmann. This is how he presents the paradox of "the religious philosopy of the today’s Romanian citizen”. 7. 2/II) that comes from homo valens in ’the Basescian language’ (frag. which has many followers: "Vulgar materialism in a nation who believes 95% in God? How this can be possible is explained by the French Blaise Pascal. anger. as in CTP’s case. discoursive strategy which persuades the public-reader. I cannot lose much. language detested in a political leader (actor B). this world 'turned upside down’ (intertextual decal of the "world turned the other way round”. from anger (frag. Interculturality desired. anger. interrogative and euphemistic metaphors (Mancaş.metaphors or paraphrases.Literature. comparisons and personification are subordinated to a logic which is ment to cancel appearances and bring the essence and the pure truth into light. is accused: by using cataphora. negative. disdain. the adjectival metaphor (or the metaphoric epithet). 2010). who anticipated hundreds of years ago the religious philosophy of today's Romanian citizen: If I believe in God and God does not exist. From "the grammar of metaphor” there should also be mentioned the metaphors of expression: the nominal metaphor (explicit/implicit). for example – which he creates through transferic stylistics. 2002:141) The journalistic discourse usually conserves superlative. like: the univers of today’s life. I am in trouble. The aporetic potential strenghtened through rethorical questions develops 'hatred’as an effect of the political maladive announced in 2009. gradually. the disagreeable and the ridicule. to disdain (frag.” (Vişinescu. 5. 2004. 2007) 2. 8) and reaching to the aversion towards a system. 6). "dolor or self-mourning” (frag. to despair. 1991:237249). Depending on their 189 . Common words become word-play.3. 3. the narrator takes into account the offer of vulgarity (actor A/ frag. 2/II). recognized in Vişinescu’s opinion as: "The stylistic individuality (which) appears with full reliefs when the talented journalist uses the methods of narrative art – portraits. whose articles. The level of socio-cultural practices: "The limits of my language mean the limits of my world” (Wittgenstein) The journalistic style pleads for an imaginary based on metamorphosis. frequently found in CTP’s editorial. oxymoronic (the association from different semantic fields) metaphors. So. hyperbolic metaphors. tropes generated by semantic spheres. „ nefas or universal mourning” (Glucksmann. used by I. this world of paradox. as the first form of revolt. the verbal metaphor (which has a role in annihilating the differences between the semantic areas of the [Concrete] and the [Abstract]. pamphlets and essays impose a style. The journalistic metaphor is proposed and used as political semantics (specialized communication) by the narrative authority of an opinion leader. All editorials signed by CTP impose a 'CTP style’. Communication. Journalists also use contrastive. That he is intrigued by the state reached by society. 'definition’. unrest have also been expressed in the editorial "Summer is not like winter” (3rd Aug. proving that the reader is dealing with an authentic opinion leader that has credibility in front of the public opinion. Hatred is written in stages. 5/II). 3. 4. 1991:206-214). 4. "furor or mouring the others” (frag. the metaphoric chain or the 'trailed’ metaphor (Mancaş.

the orator having the possibility to (re)formulate the context through this rethorical figure. CTP prefers the metaphors: ostrich. 1991:396).Literature. it can be said that metaphors 190 . with which it has in common some particularities). fear vs.n. decal and antithesis with connotations for "the first night” through the feudal code or "the last night of love” from Camil Petrescu's prose etc. no matter its nature (artistic. Interculturality presence in context. 1994:79) Consequently. More than this. In the sphere of figures of reasoning. in order to verify the circuit and the quality of the receipt. of 'deceiving appearances'. created either based on a rapport of contiguity (of substitution of a name with another. the synecdochic comparison. the poetic language is characterized by parallel series: the metaphoric serie and the metonymic serie. metaphors are all the more important so as the editorial is the reference object of a mass communication5.). mythological and bookish) which he inserts in the discourse through a 'disparaging' decal ("The Cruel Trinity” from "The Holy Trinity”. can favour the its receipt and internalisation. tropes which function based on the same technical principle: the motivated semantically substitution. the catachresis. to extend communication or to suspend it. but also inovations in the sphere of the symbols of 'adversity'. the accent is on the chanel. It should be remebered that CTP frequently uses cultural symbols (biblical and christian. being a written communication. in other editorials signed by CTP). the metaphor is a component of daily language. so that the shape and content of the discourse cannot be distorted or jammed. formative-interpretative publicistic genre. Through its trichotomous structure. 2000:118) In journalism. Still. hatred). both types are successfully used in the Romanian editorial (also in CTP’s case). without being aware of this. Depending on the feedback of the receiver-reader. The serie of metonymic figures consists in: the synecdoche. The journalistic style also signals the use of metonymy. This is why the use of metaphors in sending a message of general interest to an appreciable audience. the antonomasia. published in a newspaper which is both printed and online. scientific. (Rovenţa-Frumuşani. figurative language created by the apories which flood the text (symbols of hatred and revolt. serpents. beast. metaphors can be explained. either by manifesting itself as a whole-part relationship (as synecdoche). which may use figures of speech. the metaphoric series generate the symbol and/or the allegory (Corbett and Connors. In the case of these tropes (metaphor and metonymy). the editorial belongs to the opinion. it is important that they also have a phatic function.). of repression (n. without receiving appositional constructs: in absentia metaphors." (Panaitescu. the metonymic symbol (for example: the political maladive). In this case the focus is on an article. But beyond the stylistic purpose of the metaphors specific to the 'CTP style’ amd the contribution to the contextual understanding. Communication. a discursive-referential strategy and a suggestive and argumentative method. More than this. characteristic confirmed by the theory of discourse. available for large numbers of people thanks to the internet. unlike the informative genre. which thinks in metaphors. in the phatic function. persuasive in the understanding of the textual meaning. For example: for the allegory of the political 'bestiary’. journalistic etc. metaphors can create symbols (the ostrich. More than this. persons from the audience who are interested to read it again can do it easily.). argumented or discussed – in praesentia methapors – or only named. the metaphor can contribute to creating a contextual understanding. Also. the metaphor is: a trope. in the sense that: "the message mostly intends to fix.

2004:274). The red wire of the discourse structured mainly on the rethoric function of metaphors is monopolized by the orator. encouraged to participate to the presidential elections even if it lack a viable candidature. Interculturality also have the purpose of keeping the audience excited. From here: the Ethos consists in the socio discursive notion implied in an interactive process of influencing the other and is perceived as a secondary plan of enunciation. Ethos is implied in the enunciation stage which represents and supports the image of the auctorial self. in damage to argumentation. 9/I) – the civic conscience. figures of reasoning like the metaphor or the symbol. and the right to decide his own fate ("I will vote” – frag. being complementary ot an prediscursive Ethos. as image of the auctorial self. 5/I) and has the purpose of making the orator more legitimate. the political dimension being overshadowed.1/II). because I have not forgotten about the time when I was the only voice criticizing Mr.Literature. Communication. by style (ample sentences. 5/II). Having a persuasive discourse. which. of revolt. achieved in time. which aim at the human dimension. 10/II). good faith and virtue. the description of actors A and B. 5/I). whom they recognize as an important critical voice on political subjects in the Romanian media and as a notable presence in the electoral campaigns of the last 20 years. The editorial "Upside Down” (II) comes with new meanings of the journalistic conscience: axiological (frag. The use of the Ethos works as a persuasive technique of the discourse (Aristotle. 2004:263) – which implies o previous knowledge of the latter two. for achieving the goals of the discourse. just as the orator himself says: "there will be made a choice. without being favorable to any of them. is frequently fascinated by the stylistic register. the aristotelic Ethos consist in the trichotomy: phronesis or prudence. arete or virtue. 2007). consists in the use of credibility by the author of the discourse.)” – frag. eunoia or goodwill. The implicit discursive Ethos finds its resource in the rethorical person. "the luxury of hating” (frag. between their moral cores” (frag. as Bahtin points out (Aristotle. the author adapting the discourse depending on the audience and the ocassion (Aristotle. but also of what was communicated before. his self conscience ("can I say I” – frag. B. In fact. between their ways of being. 2004). The extra-discursive Ethos fructifies Cristian Tudor Popescu’s journalistic notoriety and experience. ethical (frag. The orator’s intention is to determine a change in the election behavior of the audience.. in the sense of the enunciator’s positive image (Maingueneau. the audience will believe his words. between the characters of two people. in order to demonstrate that the civic and democratic spirits are superior to the 'political bestiary’. sarcastic (frag. 3/I). If the situation is favorable for the author. supports the final affirmation. the oxymoron etc. which represents the goal of the persuasive effort. As it has been observed..(. the allegory. Ethos. the deontological conscience (frag. 8). 2/II). first of all. CTP stresses a few defining characteristics for the two political actors. 6/II). In Dominique Maingueneau’s opinion. 8. in the first article. in this case. But how can the author of discourse become credible? The answer is given by Aristotle: credibility consists in displaying a practical intelligence (phronesis). constructed. which define the 'CTP style’). who manifests his historical conscience ("I cannot stop remembering” – frag. The expressed discursive Ethos consists in reminding the audience of the past moments when the orator had an edifying role in the political conflict ("Until when can I say I. The 191 . an Ethos. The audience has previous knowledge about the orator.

the present study has tried to underline the more profound layers of the discourse which accompanies the political. raport reality. not only reproductive. A completion of the prediscursive Ethos is brought by 'incorporation’. the Ethos refers to the power of conviction of a discourse based on the orator's status. doubled by a virtual spectator liable to cross over into an authentic (advised) spectator. taking into consideration the fact that any writer (essayist. The editorial represents the journalistic discourse characterized by the dominance of free indirect style. the spectacular is represented by the receiving part: the reader. Although the number of rethorical figures is narrow. Communication. the reader takes on an identity that is somewhat 'embodied' and filled with historical values (Maingueneau. If during electoral bampaigns. on his recognized qualities. Referring to identity folding. 2007:235-257). by ignoring some of the masks. the option has been to stress the metaphors that have an essential role in the discursive construction and their correlation with the other figures of reasoning. and the implications should be rational and not emotional. the event. using ethical irony. through this process. mostly in Romania. from here. focused more on the production of the journalistic text than on a profound analysis. This article’s contribution consists in applying the notions of rethorics to the journalistic discourse – a controversial field. as it is known that the Ethos is linked to a habitus. which could not be valued without being linked to the stylistic register specific to the journalistic discourse. The latter is a discourse of the orator’s solitude who. both the electors and the journalists’ attention is focused on the candidates’ discourses. Interculturality prediscursive Ethos refers to the image given by the receiver about the sender before the latter manifests. The receiver-lector’s halving can become unique through consecutive halvings which can happen from a virtual reader to a reader – model belonging to the dramatic genre. the author’s intention has been to keep a balan ce between the two fields and to underline the rethoric dimension.Literature. on his image. but also reflexive. situation that explains the theme 192 . to his own behavioral models. isolated in his character played by an actor on the stage. Even if it may be thought that the present study is focused more on the journalistic dimension of the political editorial. he may be found in a director that can often easily become a dramatic author. journalist) is a public character and that the belonging to a certain discourse implies a certain horizon of expectation. the crossing to essay and solliloquy being natural. Through Ethos. Halving as a result of duplicity is nothing but a "play of masks" (Zumthor). as it can also be characterized by 'leaps’. and the reiteration of the enunciation scenes represent hiperprotection itself or the temporal legitimacy of the piece of work. The duplicitous path is not always linear. This is a process for what will be called hiperprotection. The extradiscursive Ethos includes everything that refers to the journalistic self. that is the reader’s (addressee) way of adopting the Ethos. recongnized by public opinion. In the study of political discourse. Conclusions The observations regarding the discursive architecture tributary to classic rethoric and regarding the discursive Ethos (with a case study on the opinion journalistic discourse – the editorial) have had as a main goal keeping up the interest for reading of the reader active in everyday life: possible introduction for a poetics of the journalistic reading.

Mircea Toma . without being vulgar.Cotidianul. Vulgarity. The opinion journalistic discourse verrifies its value through the rader’s critical voice (comments. talk illiterately. "After all. Upside Down by Cristian Right of the Last Night by Cristian Tudor Tudor Popescu. It is the type of question that. Terrible in MG was the method 1. still. using an old Romanian vileness. in the primary sense of which can be named. intelligent. There are people who can curse. 0. I can say that vulgarity can be found in every social and human category. to geniuses.” (CTP – Cuvinte rare.. ANNEX I. disgust and ridiculous.?" I was asked this question by (Exordium) presidential intellectuals. Interculturality s chosen by the journalist: revolt. isolation (solliloquy). doesn’t deserve to be answered. Poeziar). in Romanian media: Cristian Tudor Popescu. interpellations – on CTP’s editorials in Gândul . is the main factor of blockage in the idiom. even the crossing from trauma to drama. who frequently prove their inculture and. of 'turning a deaf ear’ (Presentatio A) undersigned's relationship with people. The opinion leader influences the receiver's reading and/or offers an ideatic plan to the launch of his own opinions regarding the events he evokes and interprets.. the obsession of the characteriological metaphor which implies human typology. poor and wealthy people. but also the noomorphic metaphor – the one of structuring the poetic thought (Poeziar): "I've always been a man of his word. The study has proved that the persuasive potential of the metaphor expressed through intertext.Academia Caţavencu etc. And of imaginary.printed and online daily paper). whores and thieves. mostly when we are talking about someone who sees himself as an intellectual. 20096 0. under the sign of irony and sarcasm or through linguistic decal. Lelia Munteanu – Gândul. processes the sociopolitical realities into a critical imaginary.). when we still used to talk. I've talked to stupid. if the interlocutor doesn’t know how to answer. crazy. the affective implication in the orator-reader relationship.Literature. but image always comes afterwards. Cornel Nistorescu . (Exordium) A A Ss 1.g. 20107 Popescu. In CTP’s case. Inferences in confrontation . With the fist on the Bible/ The II.. it can be noticed the holding and the insertion of the essay in the media discourse. Communication. it is born out of the word. Vulgarity 193 . delirium of existence. why can you get along with B. The extradiscursive Ethos develops the notoriety and authority of the critical voice in the media (e. I say death and only then I see in black and white.. As there are also some people who even by saying a simple yes or a no or by being silent can be vulgar. 23rd Sept. 4th Dec.

Communication.. not brain. This was also the core of the K. T. not phylosophers” 194 . not qualities. B. while millions of people could. 'assholes’ and many others. Interculturality 2. after 4 years. like the one of reciting his own poem dedicated to his deceased mother when she was more alive than ever. pretending not to hear them. but from the ascertainment that Mr. When he tells students to search for herodot on Google or states that he is reading Cărtărescu’s book The Levant and then. in the moment of the "silver bullet” (the way Mr. in fact.O. (Naratio) 4. but also with himself. B.O. Every time he was in difficulty – "What is the name of the institute?”. but I have something else that is bigger”. (Presentatio G & Confirmatio) B.. B. Not mind. kept telling him "Did you like your last night’s meeting with S. G. B.. on what is linked to the guts. defines value in politics? "He has a politician's stomach". in the public space. But in his little soul. (who must have stopped reading Cărtărescu since the latter called him to be finished) expresses. Stomach. It also means disdain for the opposite of vileness. brute force and cruelty. "We need auto tinsmiths and waiters. one of the most horrible kitsch created inside a human being. What about the relationship with the U. B. he used to say about his former acolyte Mr. is vulgar not only towards others. which I won’t mention. not from outbreaks like 'stinky gipsy’. in his very conscience.V. Guşă.S. 2. calls the hits ment to publicly terminate his opponent). G tried to ignore the questions repeatedly asked by Mr. sex. in his nature that he exhibits in “poetic moments”. human nobless. I cannot stop remembering the almost religious faith of Ceausescu's party "everythig we pretend does not exist. and the ostrich G. does not exist. Do you remember how Mr. (Presentatio P & Confirmatio) 3. Mr. Mr. not vocation. with his head deeply buried under the sand and with his butt means the strong accent on the lowest part of the human being. B. the same book. "What markets have fallen in exports?" – Mr." (Confirmatio) 4. "Năstase makes love with his butt”. insticts. is maybe the most vulgar person I have ever met on such a high level of the social scale. his sincere disdain towards culture. suffered by Mr.Literature. based on the preferable organ of suction of the Big Fire Fly? These are the fundamental values in Mr.?”. B. (Presentatio B) 3. B.’s political way of thinking. "20% of the Romanians are gay”. I have come to this conclusion not starting from obscene public statements "I have small years. For dozens of seconds.

who have common sense. with shadows of horror: the second man in the state.V. his secret friend in the last 4 years. P. I will call him a financial oligarch. meet in the parking lot in Tâncăbeşti. For him. The journalistic profession includes 195 . "I regret the Dinescu and the Cristian Tudor Popescu before they became vulgar” and. I will say it again. I profoundly loath vulgarity. as he is not involved in politics!" (Confrontatio) 6. for you. 'the right of the last night’? (Refutatio) means. citizen S.O. At the undersigned's live insistence. who now claims that V. S. In particular. good taste. (Naratio) 5. O. does not understand the meaning of vulgarity not even when he produces it. so that he can make the Cruel Trinity today. B. Mr. together with Mr. who have no cojones.the beginning of another beautiful friendship which would have materialized into the discreet support of Mr. meaning that he had the right to take the virginity of his serf's wife. and other politicians. he made an ‘imperial’ concession: “Ok. in basescian. who could also be the first one in three days. B. he is impudent.V. by S. the night before a decisive political confrontation.O. and B. Andrei Pleşu would be the most qualified to say a few things about this.. and that now. on Realitatea TV. Mr. "malicious and turbulent” in a newspaper! To this. Mr. was waiting for the wind to stop blowing. In fact. I only use strong words when the subject needs that. has used on Mr. S. visited him ‘to relax’! This is followed by a scene that seems taken from a political romance: S. B. G. Udrea and R. who know foreign languages. and even Romanian. what else can citizen Ionescu understand but the fact that Romanian presidents get to Cotroceni only by respecting the condition of a beautiful friendship with Mr.O. behaves like a monkey”? (Confrontatio) 6.Literature. It is not the same thing. 'oligarchs’ (pre-mogul phase in the basescian way of thinking). as I have not forgotten the time when I was the only voice in Romania that criticized B. in 2004 and which lasted up to "a certain point". about V. goes to visit Mr. they are some jerk-offs. on the parliamentary list in Bucharest. "he has the figure of an immature person. whispering hidden from Năstase’s security .V. P. I can say up to what point. but he will not do it because he has not a pinch of his former boss’ vulgarity. The rest is just an illogical and grotesque jumble. Interculturality raised towards the neons of the room. Among my feminine preferences there have never been goddesses of vulgarity like E. fineness and decency. to justify himself for calling S. S.O. in the same discourse.O.O. Communication.V. tact. and Mr. another organ of the bascescian phylosophy. Popescu. I will not find this kind of things in my texts about cinema and tennis. that he could not care less for educated people.? That in the Middle Age the lord had the 'right of the first night’.V. After this bewildering scenes. Voic. S. G.’s stubbornness when he refused on the same TV chanel to call Mr.. Some will criticise the fact that I also use vulgar expressions in the texts referring to Mr. How could he otherwise say. V. “licked the door mat in my office in 2008” and that he had once written Crin A. P. (Naratio) 5. Neither have I forgotten B. says that M.V.O. Anastase.V.

when Mr. President to Gen. hit the child with the back of his hand. Once. does not punch children.’s case. while the one of head of state does not. That's right. but the invocation made in a TV show of electoral confrontation. On Sunday.Literature. their moral cores on the background of the coverlid raised of a corner of the Romanian politics. as it can be seen on the video that he said to be "edited on the computer". B. I am keeping the outer signs of respect towards him for the very improbable case that we shall ever meet again.B. minister of Interuir in the Negoiţă government. B. there will be made a 2004. Mr. (Refutatio) 196 . Back then. (Confirmatio) C 9.’s 'outburst’ – he will never understand this. has discovered me as being vulgar and has announced that he does not give me the outer signs of respect. I wrote in favour of his position. when almost everyone stopped believing. nor in his face" to cover the truth which comes to light on the spot: the candidate B. but if you are a hideous political beast on the inside you have to squeeze out electoral tears using a child's suffering. the winner in his confrontation with his opponent from PSD. This kind of things are to be solved quietly if you are really a person. Mr. by the qualities attributed without batting an eyelash by Mr. (Naratio & Confirmatio) C 8. Interculturality the pamphlet. where there are given points just as in boxing. Ponta’s reaction of announcing the launch of the T. Gabriel Oprea . In T. publicly declared me his favourite newsman. One should not answer these personal insults with such strong means that affect the entire state. B. making visible the underground 7.B. first of all. S.’s suspension soon after he was called 'licker of door mats' and 'little monkey' is sordid. second name. nor the swindle uttered with the hand on the Bible. in my case. which I considered to be correct. their ways of being. I did not use to write differently than I do today. when they ran for Mayor of the capital city. the moment of maximum thrill was not determined. first name. B. in 2009. "the head of the Năstase mafia”. (Narratio) 8. cannot look after because they are poor. but I do not have the inner ones anymore. home town. V. of the case of a child with leukemia that his mother. Communication. in the conflict from the Democratic Convention and I declared him. "the thief of thieves”. economic and social programmes of the two candidates have moved into a distant plan after the TV show on Thursday evening. B. (Refutatio) B 7. between the characters of two people. This does not mean that vulgarity is produced only by Mr. The prestige of the presidential function is affected in a negative way with each of Mr. The political. Oprescu. "Do you swear that you did not hit the child Bogdan Istrăţoiu?” "I swear I did not punch him in the plexus.

Terminologie poetică şi retorică. 1991. Preda. Interculturality serpent-like mating. 2006. Michel. and J. Discursul urii. Argumentarea – modele şi strategii. Coşeriu. Communication. Edward P. 1999. Dumitru. Luminiţa. Persuasiunea. and Mark Johnson. Mancaş. Panaitescu. Paris: Edition Armand Colin. B. Eugen. XXVII. Metaphors We Live By. Daniela. Bucharest: Humanitas Publishing House. Cronica. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Randall. Limbajul artistic românesc. No matter how alarming and degrading is what T. 2004. I will vote (Peroratio) 10. André. (Peroratio) BIBLIOGRAPHY: Aristotel. 1-5 IV. Căile persuasiunii: modul de influenţare a comportamentelor prin mass media şi publicitate. Tehnici de redactare în presa scrisă. 2005. Ştiinţifică. Foucault. Kapferer. 2007. 2001.I. Rovenţa-Frumuşani. Irimia. Maingueneau. Iaşi: Polirom Publishing House. Valentin (coord. Jean-Noël. Robert Connors. 2000.. 6-7. Retorica. David. Bucharest: All Publishing House. (Refutatio) 9. Discursul literar. Bucharest: Ed. Iaşi: "Al. The day by day more vulgar Romania is the one that gave birth and raised Mr. Dominique. Roşca. Bucharest: IRI. Luminiţa.). Cuza” University Publishing House. Dominique. Producţia textului jurnalistic. Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student. president. it is a comfortable illusion to think that he is the one who infests Romania with vulgarity. 1999. Corbett. 1980. George. 2004. 1980. Bucharest: Publishing House. Maingueneau. Charles U. Iaşi: Polirom Publishing House. Paris: Editons Gallimard. Târgu-Mureş: 'Petru Maior’ University Publishing House. nr. 1994. Lakoff. "Omul şi limbajul său”. 2000. does.J. Iaşi: Polirom Publishing House. New York: Oxford University Press. Jurnalistul Universal. 197 . Iaşi: Polirom Publishing House. 1971. 2003.Literature. 2002. 2004. Iaşi: Polirom Publishing House. L’ordre du discours. 2007. Mihaela. Iaşi: Institutul European Publishing House. 2007. Larson. Ghid practic pentru presa scrisă. Introducere în stilistică. Chiorean. Arhitectura eseului poetic stănescian. Sorin. 2006. 2004. Receptare şi responsabilitate. 1992. 7. Glucksmann. Pragmatique pour le discours littéraire.

Ricœur. 4 http://www. Victor. Metafora 5 http://ebooks. 198 .unibuc.gandul. Ipoteze şi ipostaze. 2001. Daniela. Bucharest: Tritonic Publishing 3 http://www. Analiza discursului. Diversitate stilistică în româna actuală. http://www.gandul.gandul. Electronic sources: 1 2 http://www. Communication. Jurnalism contemporan. Bucharest: Univers Publishing House.gandul. 1984.pdf 6 7 http://www. Rodica. Bucharest: University of Bucharest Publishing http://www. Bucharest: Victor Publishing 1975.Literature.gandul. Interculturality Rovenţa-Frumuşani. Zafiu. Vişinescu.

” Signs. Vico et Humboldt. Giambattista. that is before articulated language” Ab initio Giambattista Vico (Vico. a mental one “in the era where people did not know to use speech” (tempi mutoli): “because in the silent times the spoken word did not yet ap pear. it spoke in primitive manner: “. all being silent at first. then talking in writing. which starts from the premise that phylogenesis repeats ontogenesis.” the language of the gods.. heroes and language human language. reaches mankind portrayed in the Homeric poems.. l` homme serait dépourvu de volonté.” Divine language was characterized by a “set of silent religious acts and concrete rites. To this first principle we add tradition. On the other hand.].. in terms of cosmological conception and poetry. des sentiments et d`imagination. found in the case of Egyptians as s` il y a une grande distance temporelle entre leur oeuvres.”( Vico. as man was silent. There are two passages in Homer's Iliad about these three languages..]. 0. La grande decouverte de Humboldt consiste dans le fait que la langue-loin d`appartenir au aspect exterieur de l` etre. Vico precedes Herder and the generation of thinkers of Romanticism. Scientia nuova is a theory on the origins of language. and is certain that there were poetic characters first and only then articulated characters representing sounds.] it existed before the vowel. every spring or stream. en général. 1981:243). terms that form a rich divine vocabulary. The hieroglyphic language in the established chronology of Vico. every plant. As a philosopher of culture G. above all.writes Vico . The first of these passages . and he anticipates the whole idealist philosophy. that of the gods”. in their first language..elle doit appartenir à la dimension interne de l`etre. Three are the linguistic stages that are covered throughout human history in Vico’s philosophy: the language of gods. according to which their Theut or Mercury would have invented their own laws and letters. speech was born as a mental language [.000 names of gods survived in the case of the Romans and Greeks. Interculturality DOINA BUTIURCĂ Petru Maior University of Tg. Mures Language . "of which you can see clearly that the Greeks were of the same opinion with the Egyptians [. From the language of the gods over 30.ils ont eu une préocuppation commune: Ils ont crée une philosophie inédite pour une nouvelle science concernant l`origine du langage et de l` homme.. “characters” means “ideas”. 199 . so that Nestor must have been a heroic character in the timeline established for the three languages corresponding to the three ages. every rock had become a deity: “stories about the gods of the Greeks and Latins had to be truly the first hieroglyphics. Communication. the w ord. This language was.Literature.Dans l`absence de la langue.Factor of Individuality G. or sacred or divine characters of the Egyptians. on the epistemological level. Giambattista. illustrating the fact that the mentality of primitive Greek and Latin every stone. Phylogenesis repeats ontogenesis. 1981:243) The first is “hieroglyphic or sacred where it says that Nestor lived three lives of people who spoke different languages. “models”.. The second passage is that in which Aeneas tells Achilles that people speaking different languages have started to live in Ilion[.. “forms”.

as the plebeians were called. similarities or comparisons.” It is a language derived which will use “similarly vulgar characters [Phoenician characters]. the first pagan nations had to express themselves through gestures or objects that had inborn links with their had inherited from apes? Does the theory of evolutionism imply the existence of such distortions? Regarding the notion that people were silent at their origins. in order to be distinguished from their heroes” (Vico. It is the language of “weapons (armor)". Junona marriage): as they were silent “from their origins. man fails to fully know the environment. a guiding principle of progress. images. Communication. the idea of historicism being anthropocentric representing the novelty of this forward thinking. which is rational.” The legitimate question that a linguist today may ask himself is when did these three types of writing appear? Here’s Vico’s answer: “. Vico himself seems to hesitate: “people were silent at their origins" notes the philosopher in a context.. it was spoken in symbols. this language corresponds to the age of people. “silent similarities” that could be: metaphors. Stages of human cognition have facilitated the emergence of poetry and articulated language. the peoples of the heroic age. that of people is a creation of the masses. The three ages he passes present the signs of its evolution from “fantastic knowledge”. which converts the religious feeling into the consciousness of human dignity.Vico believes . 1981:269). an essential fact: primitive man was not silent.. A question comes naturally: under what circumstances the primitive man abandoned emitting sound that . According to the age of the heroes. Giambattista. except that the language of the gods “was almost silent or easily articulated”. from intuitive knowledge (which ignores causes) to the rational cognition. 1981: 260). conferred to the human by its very evolution from the state of the animal to that of humanity. Giambattista. a “people's right to speak or write in the same way.are rooted in a “kind of authority that mass exerts on them. was also silent. The third language. the three kinds of writing have appeared simultaneously”.. terms. that of the heroes. The language of the gods manifested itself with the allegorical or symbolic value items that characterized each deity (Jupiter symbolized auspices. it speaks to posterity through allegory. and this explains the name vulgar.. and later he considers that primitives “emitted vowel sounds singing" Giambattista (Vico. Interculturality gestures had natural links with the ideas. 200 . to the real knowledge. coins. called “epistolary” because it was placed in the service of public relations: “.” Vico's theory on the origin of language is part of a broader philosophy of history which found formidable emulators from Herder to Hegel.” Giambattista Vico ignored. The second language.Literature.” Language and literature .according to Darwin's theory . consisting “of medals. but emitted sound groups from the previous phase in the hierarchy of evolution. the language of heroes was “a mixture of silent and articulated language” while the language of the people was “fully articulated and very little silent. In essence. Here this conception in short: by following the road from the golden age to that of humanity. In the course of human history providence becomes an immanent law. not a will that is manifested externally. The language of the people was based on a freely accepted convention. through imagination. we believe. Vico's philosophy has been an immanentist theory. Man does not create the world but it creates history. All these constitute the full material of poetic speech after the emergence of articulated speech. of military life. terminal”.

during the two trips he made to the Basque Country. Interjections are formed from onomatopoeia.”Under the fascination of a prize offered by the Prussian Academy. Giambattista. To support this axiom. The emergence of language is related to the emotional nature of the spiritual life of primitive man. “da”. Burmese complete the intellectual portrait of this powerful polyglot. All other parts of speech claim their origins in monosyllabic structure. Vico believes that man has seen at first only onomatopoeia (“in the beginnings of poetic speech. written with common characters. For instance: “ the Latin words “pipulum” and “pipare” with the meaning of the complaint and “complain” have their genesis in the interjection of lamentation “pi”. in 1769. His contribution to the development of the comparative-historical linguistic method is non-existent... despite the fact that in other areas (moral. such as: “es”.. “be”. “sit”. Herder’s solution appears in his study entitled Abhandlung über den Ursprung der Sprache (1772).] . such as Humboldt was. “i”. as expressions of “impulses of violent passions” defining manifestations of the first people... Japanese. In many respects Vico anticipated Wilhelm von Humboldt. “go”. mythological. pronouns “are monosyllabic words in all languages” Giambattista Vico. “give” . As a linguist he was little popular among his contemporaries. but this hypothesis is not sufficiently argumented in order to convince posterity. awarded by the Academy. we must not forget that through his intellectual formation. p. American Indian language. Humboldt is a man who belongs to the age of the Enlightenment.Literature. If the German national Romanticism has left its mark on the true founder of European humanism. He learned Basque (1800-1801).” The axiom of the philosopher regarding the poverty of the speech of the first humans due to the “gross nature of minds” as well as the inner need of expression constitutes the instrinsic motivation of the birth of the poetic vocabulary. which he studied in Paris at the age of 30. 1. At the beginning there existed “divine and heroic characters” expressed through “common speeches. “The anthropological turn. pronouns and articles the other “particles” such as prepositions were formed. ”pi” [. Tatar. Inversions were born because of the difficulties of introducing verbs in speech. Similar to interjections. the essay that will answer the question if one could develop one’s own language. Hungarian. The issue addressed in his works is the consubstantial philosophy of the eighteenth century: the preference for humanities. Sanskrit. He had also acquired a number of different languages in their structure and origin. the study of the origins of language and speech and so on.. Communication. Chinese. justice) it was considered a precursor method.. After nouns. The origins of poetic language are in a close relationship with human evolution. 266( Vico. He deepened his knowledge of classical languages. Verb paradigm was conceived as a product of all monosyllabic forms represented by imperatives. Interculturality Referring to the first forms of sounding language. “sta”. 201 . familiarity with Greek and Latin classics. Vico leans on the language of children who “say the name and particles but not verbs” and states that the situation is comparable to that of the first people “whose voice was very rigid and not yet heard a human voice”.. Vico establishes the common origins of language and poetry. onomatopoeia is being used”). Humboldt’s work is the most eloquent expression of the principle that true knowledge is based on direct experience. 1981). with the natural sciences. Herder support the hypothesis that language and thought have a common origin and parallel evolution that followed the successive stages of growth and maturation. The thinker knew practically the whole of the linguistic material that European libraries possessed at that time.

Literature. but also to the most delicate and perfect ones.” The revelation of the philosopher is that of the infinite creative aspect of language both from the grammatical and the lexical points of view . It can be identified not even with the grammarian’s instruments proposing a lifeless description language (Ergon). 202 . an essential part of the human mind. he is a diplomat in Rome and Vienna. literature is derived.” The passive material for the formal organization or structure of language . In this respect he supports the idea of the existence of a primary energy of represented by sounds. inner perspective of the human being. Communication. [. of its nature remains inexpressible: “any language . A long time before studying in France he built an unprecedented philosophy for a new science of man.on one hand to man. that of the “anthropological turn” resides in the fact that language .. Innere Sprachform is the main organizing principle that governs syllabic structure. It belongs .. it is the primary. i found the key with which I can explore all the depths of the universe: language. hearing. This innere Schprachform is the semantic and grammatical structure that encompasses the imposed models and rules. detaching itself from Aristotle’s and Giambattista Vico’s tradition: “Language in itself is not a work (Ergon). Without language man would lack will but emotions and imagination as well.bears an engaging virtual device to lend itself not only to the most fair uses. Wolf. mythology.. which bears his name. It is the inner form of an idiom prior to any articulation.listener. but an activity (Energeia).innere Sprachform . he is the founder of the University of Berlin. he wrote: “.” The revelation the philosopher describes. energeia is the inherent creative capacity of the speaker . This anthropology proposed a view of being seen through the prisma of its structural duality: external.far from being a simple instrument as it was initially classified . Interculturality The “anthropological turn” that Humboldt will produce is not only due to the fact of having been in the possession of an enormous linguistic material. Humboldt is the first of the philosophers for whom language illustrates the work of an intellectual-creative force. referring to senses (sight. as well as the Prussian ambassador in London). This was the innovative idea that later on awakened the interest of generative linguists who placed Humboldt at his worthy place. In a letter addressed to his friend. the Prussian philosopher. indestructible principle of every being. and on the other it represents the unique and nonrepeatable “identity” of a language. grammar and the vocabulary in an idiom. history. during his public activity in Prussia (he had a rich academic experience. something of its spirit. The question is in what exactly lies the difference between man and animal in Humboldt’s vision. created the central European academic system. the crude material of speech. Energeia underlies any living organism.has a special characteristic. but also to the established personal contacts with representatives of various philologies.through which the limited resources of the speaker can be amplified and refreshed. When making a language description.writes the philosopher . From this primary energy art. that can be defined only through an intrinsic. Thought in its internal articulation. body and language) as well as internal (referring to passions and imagination)..] The fact in itself to qualify languages as activities of the soul (Energeia) is a perfectly just and adequate expression because the being of the soul is an act and it cannot be conceived as anything else.

” The Humboldtian “anthropological turn” is illustrated by the belief that everything in the human being is related to its inner force: sensitivity.” Although none of his works were published during his life. the brother of the linguist published the most important study: On the Kawi Language on the Island of Java (with the subtitle On Diversity of Human Language-Structure and Its Influence on the Mental Development of Mankind). The intention was to understand the principle of profound cohesion that lies at the base of every language (energeia). The intention is to propose a typological classification. Even if it represents no interest for linguistics. Through articulate language our spiritual energy becomes functional. the study fascinates by the way language represents man’s spiritual power. “who owe their theories partly to Humboldt theories should lean more carefully” (cf. For the first time this “poetic imagination” finds its natural foundations in language. on the one hand. he was concerned with describing the organism of language that he called Organismus in German. Neither the study of the various manners in which people carried out the task entrusted to the by tradition (that of creating language) remained without a serious approach. ideas and especially language. On this point. through specific features. knowing that no matter how long we analyze a language.wrote the philosopher. Alexander von Humboldt. There is an energy which is manifested in speech. Interculturality There exists in our being an energy different from that of animals. He also attempts to study the language ability of the human mind by means of empirical observation and critical reflection. on the other hand: “the structure and spirit of language data become clearer when particular structure is confronted with the diversity of languages possible and when the spirit was measured with the universality of language. which are specific to every man” . which remain definable within the limits of some primary forces.Literature. The Prussian philosopher had the intuition that every idiom defines itseld through an intrinsic individuality. taking into account the structure of language. Communication. passions. but on the sentiment of pleasure or un-pleasure they awaken. Given that he knew a large number of languages. and the spiritual power of language. Humboldt conceives language as a factor of “individuality”: the character of “energeia”. The philosopher explicitly stated the purpose of his research: the intention to emphasize the relationship between language size and division of peoples. and in French organisme and structure. Robins). The idea of joining particular languages 203 . which bursts in the man “Godly free”. Kant bore in mind “poetic imagination” without correlating this state of being with language in one way or the other: “The different sensations of agreeable or disagreeable are based not only on the appropriation of exterior things they provoke. linguists today. Humans and language evolved together. He also meditates upon linguistic diversity. something of its nature cannot be expressed. exteriorizing the way of being of the humans”. The volume condenses all the principles of the Humboldtian language theory and becomes one of the most important writings in the history of Western linguistics.This linguistic energy differentiates man from other living organisms. due to the human’s speech faculty. located at the base of human activity. Introducing the concept of “diversity” as a correlative element of the Humboldtian principle of “individuality”. not a finished product or “ergon” remains fundamental. in Humboldt’s work: “Every other way of the subjective perception of objects is transferred in constituting and using the language.

and the fact does not prohibit the thinker to regard the work itself. but also meanings that include the named object in a distinct thinking category. At this point one can identify the influence (thought and language had a parallel evolution) Herder had had on Humboldt’s thinking: “the speech of a nation i s its soul and the soul of a nation is in its speech. Interculturality and speech as general phenomena can be found at Humboldt for the first time: “For this study needs to investigate and to link all the threads of the system. based on linguistic identification. and it is “a spontaneous emanation of the spirit”. “an organic being”. derived from human nature itself. While believing that the ability for language is universal. Articulate language “is pulled out of the chest . we cannot overlook the fact that at this point of his dissertation of the Prussian thinker an important role was played by the nationalistic tendencies of the nineteenth century. The function of communication is in fact secondary. Provided that the process of communication to take place is to use the same language code. A spoken language is always the product of its past. and the languages are related and dependent of the nations they belong to”. and then gets to learn a “less perfect” idiom. Communication.Literature. that the external being can understand it. As said. The whole existence of man is linked to their social commitment. The first are ordered by language needs and possibilities identical in all nations.” The structure of the language is in an absolute dependence with the spiritual particularities of a nation. horizontally in every direction of the similarities of language and others vertical. The language followed the evolutionary process of man. The words of a language are not simply names. It does not present itself as the work of nations. What prevails in the man . through the different parts of each language. The mystery of language is an autoenergy revealed gradually to our mind. evolving concomitantly with enthusiasm. but as a gift acquired through the internal laws of their evolution: “language springs from itself. It springs from the depths of humanity. it could produce foreign effects in its 204 .writes Humboldt . Only this double aspect allows to assess the diversity of language that was created by the human species and the consistency of spirit with itself that is proven by every nation in this creation.” The creation of the language is a born necessity of man. so to speak. Language was born together with man. The system of language open to innovations. a speaker owes other languages its degree of culture."( apud Semiotică şi filozofie1998:36). liberty and spiritual power of the latter. In it essence it is the work of the creative power of the intellect and that of the creation of thought. It is the sine qua non condition of acquiring self-awareness and spiritual evolution of humanity and is a double necessity: an external one. It is profoundly anchored in the spiritual evolution of man. with a divine freedom. governing it work itself. since among them there are some that stretch. Humboldt follows Herder’s philosophy when he argues that individuality of each language is a specific priority of the nation or group that speaks it. remains an eternal "opera aperta". tags. Relationships with others and communicating through language are dictated by need. dictated by the development of human relations and an internal one. The language and thinking of a nation are inseparable. which returns to the ears. It is sufficient to know the language in order for the dominance of the nation to be deduced from this. so to speak. following it in every step of its progress. If for example. the other of the individuality of each nation.language relation is the possibility of the first to express order to awaken an echo in another individual.

The genesis of a language which also means its creative force is seconded by the era of decadence. de Saussure radically transformed the science of language. Humboldt was concerned with scientific and philosophical problems of great depth and originality. a flexible language. but after an extrinsic criterion. that of a race. Sanskrit is one of the fashionable examples of the era. Humboldt is the follower of the current thesis on the decadence of languages: perfection of an idiom is reached at its origin. that of diversity of phenomena of the universe (Weltansicht). Communication. unlike literary Latin. that each concept to be expressed by a syllable. Each language tends toward inner perfection. universal. Vico. Romance languages. Rightly posterity asked the following question: “if his style had been clearer.. He followed the evolution of language from simply referring to objects by agglutination of sense carrier auxiliary elements. Three are the levels that come to justify linguistic relativity: historical. H. the philosopher believes. It is a natural given. which the speaker belongs to. It is another principle to explain the linguistic phenomenon: “the structure and spirit of language data become clearer when particular structure is confronted with the diversity of languages possible and when the spirit was measured with the universality of language. a spirit very different from that which is used to put it there by the nation” (apud. individual. The preference for inflexional languages involving modifications either in the root or in the affixes shows.. This “new element” foreign to the national characteristics becomes “impossible to express” in the language of the given nation. which seems to continue the hypothesis of monosyllabic language origin. Its roots are monosyllabic. We note that Humboldt is committed to the tripartite typology of language: isolated.based on a statement by Rene Gerard . In Humboldt’s vision the difference between languages is due to the differences between the spiritual forces of nations.Literature. Through the axiom that language diversity illustrates the diversity of mentalities ("anthropological turn") and the structural superiority of one language proves the superiority of a mentality. Robins 2002 :197). Only this double nature makes it possible to approach the problem of classification in a serious manner.. restoring and enhancing the nature of the 205 . developed from popular Latin were the most phonological. as it occurred in Latin. F. Humboldt founded comparative anthropology. Semiotică şi filozofie 1998:37). Greek and Sanskrit. as the natural expression of the individual spirit and the nation. which cannot be exited only to enter the circle of other languages”. supported by G. Language is the spirit of a nation and it is language itself: “. could he not have been given a position comparable to that of Saussure’s as a founder of modern linguistics”?( R. in terms of perfection of the inflexional structure.” The philosopher does not differentiate languages based on the stamp or the signs they use.between “nostalgia for unity of the spirit and the diversity of languages”. a plea for the formal unity of the word. Human intervention corrupts this purity. an axiom. Through the Course on general linguistics.each language draws a circle around the nation it belongs to. Interculturality own language “in the sense that it makes sense to enter it. remaining trapped . Here are comparatively a few of the ideas the two linguists both engaged in. and if his many works had been better known and more widely disseminated. Being a cultivated European. to true inflection. being the oldest. his ideas and examples better processed.. agglutinative and inflexional. in fact.

Sorin 1971: Sorin Stati. The Saussurian doctrine is based on a series of dichotomous structures: the opposition between social institutions and semiology. the acception of the word as sound that signifies a concept is an old formula that was developed by medieval scholasticism. Ed. “the word is an articulated sound signifying a concept. Bucharest. R. objective fact and subjective reality.2002: Robins. Vico. psychological. the inexperienced linguist would think that Saussure himself is in nuce. R. Ardealul. Giambattista. translati on from English by Dana Ligia Ilin şi Mihaela Leaţ. Toşa. Robins. R.” On a surface reading. Saussure. philology.. Efemeride. Vasiliu. etc. Bucharest. Ferdinand de 1998: Ferdinand de Saussure. Then there is the opposition between language and speech. in order to highlight both the specificities of the controversial eighteenthcentury. Studiu introductiv. As mentioned. Semiotică şi filozofie. while the Homboldtian philosophy of language is expressed in the most unclear style (Jerpersen). G. Humboldt also used the structural polarity of language. arguing that it would be simultaneously an individual and a social product. Ştiinţa nouă. stable system and evolutionary process. 2002. between language as a system and speaking as an individual fact and last but not least the dichotomy between associative groups in absentia (classes of units available in memory) which constitute the pragmatic plan and the ones in praesentia in a chain that makes up the syntagmatic axis. Interculturality linguistic sign. reaching obscurity sometimes. in the work of the Berlin philosopher.Literature. Didactică şi Pedagogică. Editura ştiinţifică.. scientific linguistics. Scurtă istorie a lingvisticii. 206 . H. long before this idea was formulated by Humboldt. traslation and afterword by Constantin Dominte. translation and index by Nina Façon. Iaşi. while Humboldt remains a precursor. Interferenţe lingvistice. Stati . But. The Prussian scholar wrote. Emanuel 1995: Emanuel Vasiliu. etc. Polirom. Polirom.). come after one another as a palimsest. Curs de lingvistică generală . traslation and foreword by Irina Izverna Tarabac. Saussure renewed the comparative grammar of Indo-European languages having a profound influence on all subsequent developments. Bucharest. Paideia. Communication. Elemente de filozofie a limbajului. The Genovese scholar draws his lines with much more safety: ancient grammar. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Mounin. posterity owes an objective historical analysis of Humboldt's linguistic work. 1998. H. form and content.A. G. 1998: introductive study by Alexandru Boboc. 1981: Gimbattista Vico. Istoria lingvisticii. Târgu-Mureş. Editura Academiei Române. Bucharest. sociological. 1999: Mounin. which is conceived as a whole (philosophical. Alexandru 2004: Alexandru Tosa. Bucharest. lucidly delineated. both the influences of German Romanticism or the unique contribution made to the nineteenth-century linguistics. between semiology and language. Iaşi. object and instrument. “the man of introductions” without his linguistic theory and concepts to be established.

and last as an immigrant in the USA. B. some are lost. whether it is about nations. composite culture emerges. as she confesses. about what is ‘home’. Relying on her Indian charm and ambition in her quest for personal independence and professional fulfillment. from this syncretism or fusion of the cultures. The immigrant experience is presented as a gain and not as a loss. B. It is a two-way transformation in which each culture ( Indian and 207 . with everything she has done she tried to find a balance. to be familiar enough with my environment and to be able to exert my presence on the world around me. the Indian female character from “A Wife’s Story”. to thinking of it as an idea. a new. or culture. Mukherjee’s experiences. ‘Home’ becomes a liminal. Mukherjee every time she is interviewed. India. in which some features are combined. was a radical metamorphosis for Mukherjee. Mukherjee uses acculturation to describe the processes of change and customs and beliefs that result from the contact between two or more different cultures. and new features are generated. But Mukherjee’s future had more in store for her. first as an exile from India. a prize she won for her collection of short stories entitled The Middleman and Other Stories (1988). Unlike other Indian-born writers. Interculturality SMARANDA ŞTEFANOVICI Petru Maior University of Tg. about the state left behind or the one we’ve adopted. Female characters are best at reinventing themselves through immigration and the article will explore this emblematic rebirth of Panna Bhatt.Literature. then as an Indian expatriate in Canada. or it is about mother tongue. She is the first naturalized American to win the National Book Critics Circle Award for Fiction. religion. who write about Indian characters as being part of the Indian society. first as an exile from India. MOTTO: “Language is the only certainty I have and writing is the only home I have. her implicit concern with themes like home and sense of belonging. not a geographical space. Mures Home and Sense of Belonging in B. Communication. America as an idea offered her romanticism and hope. metaphorical space. Born into a lower-middle class family in Calcutta. then as an Indian expatriate in Canada. made her acutely aware of her immigrant status. Mukherjee was raised for a traditional life in a patriarchal society with few expectations beyond arranged marriage and total disappointment.” (“The American Dreamer”) “I’m proud to call America my home” is a statement repeated by B. But subsequently I also need to feel at home when I’m writing. she learned to create and fulfill her own destiny. and last as an immigrant in the USA. we can rightly determine why she has always been concerned. Throughout her life. and hence. Making the change from thinking of home as a place. Mukherjee’s “A Wife’s Story” B. her fiction illustrates her want to get away from any sense of belonging. where we can find it. Considering the ways in which she depicted her experience.

such as Toni Morrison. I shouldered my way into the country in which I felt minority discourse empowered rather than enfeebled me … This time I was repossessing a ‘homeland’ I had willed into existence. She also becomes the protagonist in her own stories. while both are mutually enriched. she knew she would become a writer. or Maxine Hong Kingston. “Let me choose how to call myself”. This world will animate her writing from that moment on. she said in a Bill Moyers television interview. and she could keep moving. Admittedly. Her long-held belief in the shedding of one’s old identity. She involves her characters in a roots’ search the way other writers from South Asia did. aged 21. narrating her own immigrant experiences. Communication. She did not want anyone to know where she fit in. In the interview taken by Alison B. and this belief makes itself evident in my fiction” (651). so she could be whoever and anywhere she wanted to be. Most of the stories in The Middleman and Other Stories support Mukherjee’s stance that immigrants can reinvent themselves through immigration to America by strengthening ties with their homeland. so the perspective I have about a single character’s life is different from that of an American writer who believes that he has only one life. and started imitating the format of the new American novel. which was not considered a threatening degree in the patriarchal India of those times. B. Amy Tan. She mastered the English language. At nine she already wrote several chapters from a book. Her first contact with America was in 1961. An immigrant in a country of immigrants. And she chose to be called an American writer of Indian origin. who write about Indian characters as being part of the mainstream Indian society. As a Hindu. She is also unique in her determination to choose how to call herself. she is a pioneer in discovering for herself how colonial history shaped her. she believes in alternate realities and rebuilt selves. Carb. the snobbish school she attended. She ‘slaughtered’ her former self and became somebody else.Literature. the cultural shock for Mukherjee was more with seeing the new country than with adapting to it. Interculturality American) retains its own unity. her fiction illustrates her want to get away from any sense of belonging. and the many readings of Bengali translations from Russian and other European writers contributed a lot to her being completely fluent in English from an early stage of life. she says: “I believe that our souls can be reborn in another body. when she attended Iowa’s Writers’ Seminar to study creative writing. 208 . This metaphorical rebirth is an outcome of the character’s self-empowerment through self-awareness of own cultural roots. She refused hyphenation in her name. However. I believe in the existence of alternate realities. The structure of her new literary discourse centered around who she was and the geographical position: she could be either in America or in India. unlike other Indian-born writers. Mukherjee’s writings are largely autobiographical. Therefore. Mukherjee confesses that. At the age of three. Her mother’s encouragement. allows her characters to experience a metaphorical rebirth in order to move from the margins to the mainstream of society. She discovered her material in the dislocation and the relocation of immigration rather than in postcolonial nostalgia for the world she left behind. not inherited” (Mukherjee & Blaise 303). The evolution in her writing aimed at a gradual replacement of the omniscient ‘we’ from Indian writing with the American ‘I’. painful as it may be. she reconciles her traditional Indian beliefs with the newly acquired American beliefs: “I made my way.

nor truly a native of the newly achieved shore. The exile gains acceptance in the new land while remaining inescapably the “Other”. I view myself as an American author whose ancestors arrived at Ellis Island. Exiles. the colonial discourse highlights the importance of stereotyping and of fixed representations: mainstream (oppressor) and marginality (oppressed) are fixed cultural concepts. as Dascălu rightly assumes. There is still one condition for these ‘shapers’: to accept willingly. native. an Indian wife. in Kumar 21) Moreover.”(qtd. confining culture and to adopt a new world and culture where she would find herself at home is the unifying theme in the collection of short stories. found in continuous transformation.Literature. The price that the immigrant willingly pays. inhabit many parts. remains exterior to it and never fully integrated into it” (Dascălu 65). a short story included in the volume The Middleman and Other Stories reveals Mukherjee’s alienation and dislocation from her childhood home. “A Wife’s Story”. the sense of belonging. to vote and to make the difference that I can. Unlike Naipaul who writes about living in perpetual exile and the impossibility of ever finding a home. Unlike the colonial oppression that relies on the notion of a stable self. Gowan 356). Panna. Panna discovers that not only can she not go back to India to live. the immigrant will lose many of its older certainties. the new homeland. I need to put roots down. is the trauma of self-transformation” ( “Two Ways to Belong to America”). Mukherjee shows the positive side of the exile experience. Her husband from Bombay visits his wife. who goes to New York to study for a PhD in education. neither truly at home in his or her homeland. belonging to the home). It is a positive transformation that starts as pain and eventually becomes pride: “I am an Ame rican citizen… I need to feel like a part of the community I have adopted…. Mukherjee’s discourse contradicts the idea according to which the exile is tied to his/her homeland or original landscape: “Like Naipaul. I have adopted this country as my home. and that the exile avoids. Mukherjee’s need to escape a traditional. Although criticizing exile writers for the omnipresent nostalgia as a theme in their writings. unknown) and the canny (familiar. B. emerge as something new” (Cf. Living in two worlds brings to our attention the concept of home in relation to the concept of exile. using the very tools of their oppression. It is the story of Panna Bhatt. Whereas Sigmund Freud differentiates between the uncanny (unhome. I am a writer from the third world but unlike him I left India by choice to settle in the USA. although a part of his/her land. Mukherjee transforms her characters into immigrants who actively participate in the process of self-transformation. in return. in the case of exiles. “In this willed act of transformation. Interculturality From immigrants and expatriates as victims and outsiders. The best place to see this positive change is in her volume The Middleman and Other Stories. but she did not want to. nobody can pass from one group to another. but will. The exile may play many roles. Homi Bhaba seizes upon the same issue of the uncanny in postcolonial literature. Communication. and be the sum of many different cultures … The exile. unfamiliar. Mukherjee’s interpretation favors the active self. She throws away her Indian childhood and later exile identity to choose a new home in North America. of their own choice. yet he does not see the canny and the 209 . “The exile holds… a peripheral place. Over the ten days they spend together in New York. can shape the new world they adopt as home.

in postcolonial terms.Political solidarity and a sense of family could be melded together imaginatively to create a strategic space I could call ‘home. the outside and the inside. Interculturality uncanny as binary oppositions but as mutually infusing each other. They have to struggle with their gender. the public and the private. which is distinct from ‘the unusable past’.Literature. which is associated with patriarchal societies. by uprooting and rerooting. colonial experience to anchor into and adapt to the present 210 . Much of the diaspora writing is marked by an acute awareness of the condition of the immigrant and a simultaneous longing for home and native land. and I write about the people who are immigrants going through the process of making a home here … I write in the tradition of immigrant experience rather than nostalgia and expatriation.’” (5) Home. the immigrant can build up a new. More flexible and innovative in facing the pressure of constructing new identities. I am saying that the luxury of being a US citizen for me is that I can define myself in terms of things like my politics. can act as bridges between old and new societies. That is very important. managing to use the past. My affiliation with readers should be on the basis of what they want to read. Women have always been trained to be adaptable as wives and that adaptability is working to women’s advantage as immigrants to the USA. hybrid identity: “I maintain that I am an American writer of Indian origin. non-traditional cultures and societies. yet. It is in fact something which is familiar in mind but which has become unfamiliar because of repression. The process of making a new home while longing for homes left behind in becoming diasporic is analyzed in political terms by Chandra Mohanty: “What is home? The place I was born? Where I grew up? Where I live and work as an adult? Where I locate my community – my people? Who are ‘my people’? Is home a geographical space. they accommodate and define themselves more easily in new territories due to the gender roles they have to act in patriarchal societies. in Mohanram X). However. but because my whole adult life has been lived here. at the border of two cultures (native and newly acquired). Communication. free of constraints. they express themselves in constant reference to their past identities. a historical place. a neutral space. where. and each becomes a part of the other” (qtd. which is normally associated with the sense of belonging. whose identity empowerment occurs mostly when they get out of their private sphere and confining cultural norms into the public. an emotional sensory space? Home is always so crucial to immigrants and migrants … I am convinced that this question―how one understands and defines home―is a profoundly political one …. It is the case of women mostly. ‘the usable past’. In line with Bhabha’s postcolonial theory regarding the ambivalence of colonial discourse. Van Wyck Brooks coins in America’s Coming of Age a new concept. it is a space for both longing and belonging. her hybrid characters allow “something marked by an uncanny ability to be at home anywhere” (Huddart 79). is not a geographical space. the concept of home as a liminal space between homeland and the host country makes each setting for Mukherjee a possible homeland for her characters to identify with. not because I’m betraying or distorting my past. a liminal space. The latter erases “the clear borders between the world and the home. In this sense. not in terms of my ethnicity or my race. it is a ‘third space’. a metaphorical space where a postcolonial subject can feel at home. Immigrant women. my sexual orientation or my education. (qtd. in Cowart 71. italics added). not because I’m ashamed of my past. mostly.

she addresses contemptuously to one of her theater white neighbors: “You are exploiting my space” (“A Wife’s Story” 59). Fully aware of this new home. she chooses to feel at home in the American nation that defines itself in terms of life. In New York. in exchange. Although too shy to dance. At the end of the story. but something which is familiar and old-established in mind but which has become alienated due to repression and feeling unhomely in a place. she realizes she has been trained to behave well. In other words. the immigrant to build and feel at home anywhere. are at the theater. Imreh starts dancing to amuse her and make up for the humiliation his friend had to endure. the uncanny. Far from home. takes decisions and does other such male jobs. she swallows her indignation. her feelings are delicate. She knows she cannot go back. her gestures refined. On the contrary. At the beginning of the short story. At the beginning of the short story. While in New York she recalls snapshots from her native Indian culture. She has decided to leave India for America. to experience an absolute break with the old Indian culture. I have a multiple-entry visa and a small scholarship for two years. I can get back on the board. Panna and Imreh. Instead of her native India. but at the edge. she manages to make the exotic familiar and the familiar exotic. her moods undetectable. Interculturality postcolonial society. She and her Indian husband exchange the traditional gender roles assigned to them by the patriarchal Indian society. she is in full control of her personal and professional life. Her manners are exquisite. … I’ve made it. longing for “ugly. She emphasizes the cultural differences between India and New York without the intention of homogenizing them. After that. far from her culture and family. She is the one who handles the money. she longs for the American freedom and is well aware that America is the land of opportunity and transformation. not recognizing her. apparently. well aware of the fact that her husband “would never dance or hug a woman on Broadway” (“A Wife’s Story” 60) Externally discreet and well bred. having the right to this position. is in reality nothing new or alien. which offers her romanticism. Panna is liberated from the patriarchal rules she was raised with and can live according to her own terms. she often engages in behaviors she would not even dream of doing in India. the way Charity Chin [her Chinese roommate] and her lurid love have replaced inherited notions of marital duty” (“A Wife’s Story” 63). The hybrid identity allows. liberty. acts as guide to her husband. Panna feels disgraced. These are incentives towards her integration into the mainstream. is self-reliant and self-possessed. the way trucks replaced lorries in my vocabulary. Panna Bhatt from “A Wife’s Story” chooses New York as her new home. and fulfillment. nasty rage” (“A Wife’s Story” 59). well-aware of her dream and. hope.Literature. she buys the tickets for the city tour. marginalized and alien. I’m making something of my life.” (“A Wife’s Story” 59. leaning on her for linguistic support in understanding the 211 . her Hungarian friend. I’ve left home. in both Bhabha and Mukherjee’s assumption. She goes to America alone: “I’m not finished. we’ll see. That part of my life is over. Yet. They seem strange and alien even to her. When they leave the theater. she hugs him instead. America. Communication. my husband. watching David Mamet’s offensive play at the address of Indians. seated in the front row. She feels a proud immigrant. at the same time. Glengarry Glen Ross. and pursuit of happiness. In this vein is also Mukherjee’s message: by overlapping identities. He looks at her disconcerted. 61). Panna tends. who has chosen a new home. The more she recalls the more reasons she has to escape her patriarchal society: “I try to remember a driver named Karamchand but I can’t. to get a PhD in special ed.

it is the acknowledgement of mutual cultural infusion by admitting the necessity of enculturation and acculturation as bidimensional or bicultural constructs. etc. find themselves in a liminal state of contradiction. Interculturality English language spoken in the streets. the stronger she is. USA: Kessinger Publishing. 1988-1989). or get another meaning. tell me again… Come back. She removes all signs of Indian recognition (the sari.” (“A Wife’s Story” 68) Whatever Mukherjee’s target may be. Communication. and V. From the humiliation and sense of alienation. London: The Hogarth Press. she confronts her naked body in the mirror. (Winter. 2006. Imaginary Homelands of Writers in Exile: Salman Rushdie. Carb. London & New York: Routledge Classics. 1994. Panna becomes aware of her naked body. a country of immigrants. Van Wyck. USA: Cornell UP. a body devoid of all stereotypes. the effect of her writing promises us the ‘new’ hybrid American. S. a body transformed due to her willingness to accept this cultural challenge. a body free from all gender or cultural constraints. Alison B. York than they had ever had in India. Brooks. a body of a woman who has perfect control over her body and mind and who feels obliged to make up to her husband for the many years away from him and for “the degree she will never use in India. such as Panna is. 212 . Cristina Emanuela. Collected Papers – 5 Vol. Naipaul. I can’t live without you” (“A Wife’s Story” 63). such categories as ‘dominant’ and ‘peripheral’ lose their basic meaning. At the end of the story. he even is begging her to go back with him because he needs her so much: “Tell me you need me. In this interaction with the Other. “An Interview with Bharati Mukherjee”. America’s Coming of Age (1915). a nation where successful immigrants. This new civilization offers her the freedom she has never found at home. sitting “in the front row but at the margin” (“A Wife’s Story” 58). the weaker he is. but with an exhilarating sense of metamorphosis. “The Uncanny”. Freud. Panna’s hybrid body becomes a variable. due to education. 2010.Literature.). Sigmund. Bharati Mukherjee. I have tickets. Panna. Cowart. Trailing Clouds: Immigrant Fiction in Contemporary America. now. Set 1949-1950. of Panna’s marginal voice to the center of our attention and a move of her Indian husband’s dominant voice to the margins. The concept of ‘home’ and ‘stable’ identity are not familiar to her anymore. USA: Cambria Press. Dascălu. ‘Home’ also becomes a universal concept. 1949. which alters significantly both dominant and peripheral or marginal cultures. We have all the things we will ever need. It is the possibility of a shift. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bhabha. unable to attach itself to any fixed point. always constructed and produced that allows dynamic fate and creative understanding. She extends hybridity to universal hybridity and not only to immigrant status. America has always been a hybrid space. She admits they had more privacy as a married couple here in N. David. the mangalsutra. 2007. The Massachusetts Review. This access to the hybrid space vitalizes cultural exchanges. America thus becomes in Mukherkjee’s work a new nation that accommodates and adapts to the external changing world. Homi K. The Location of Culture. not with regret or remorse.

Moyers. 1993. USA: Aunt Lute Books. USA: Routledge. Communication. “Defining Genealogies. 1991: 58-69. Radhika. “Two Ways to Belong to America”. Our Feet Walk the Sky: Women of the South Asian Diaspora. 2000.: Houghton Mifflin Company. New York Times. ------------------------. “American Dreamer” (essay). David.Literature. Mukherjee Bharati & Clark Blaise. September 22. ------------------------. edited by Mary Ann Ferguson. York: Clarkson Potter. Boston et al. Chandra Talpade. N. Interculturality Huddart. York: Doubleday. Bhabha.V. Bharati. St. 2006. Mukherjee. Homi K. N. 1995. Feminist Reflections on Being South Asian in North America”. Netherlands: Editions Rodopi B. Race: An Anthology in the First Person. Colliding Cultures. edited by Bart Schneider. Bill. 1997. Days and Nights in Calcutta.. 1990. 1996. Mohanty. “A Wife’s Story”. Images of Women in Literature. A World of Ideas II. Shifting Continents. Paul: Hungry Mind. 213 . Mohanram.

in a manner similar to the syntagmatic structures called ‘lexical solidarities’ by Coseriu. c’est-à-dire. we have argued that the textemes are not made of unanalysable elements. Rastier. The following two sections attempt to provide solutions to these obstacles. 2001. Mais. Le textème dans le cadre conceptuel de la linguistique intégrale 1. which would make inadequate the analysis of the textemes from a strictly linguistic standpoint. Eugenio Coseriu faisait une distinction entre «la „technique du discours”». d’une part. traverse la linguistique du texte (comme «herméneutique du sens») et se dirige enfin vers la poétique de la culture. et „le «discours répété»”. qui comprend «les unités lexicales et grammaticales (lexèmes. Communication. 1. morphèmes) et les règles pour leur modification et combinaison dans la phrase. les „mots” et les instruments et procédés lexicaux et grammaticaux». Vers l’étude des structures lexicales. catégorèmes. but merely of co-occurring units. Eugenio Coseriu. Dupuy-Engelhardt. „phrase” ou „locution” et dont les éléments constitutifs ne sont pas remplaçables ou re-combinables selon des règles actuelles de la langue». 1966).-P. Interculturality SIMINA-MARIA TERIAN Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu Les textèmes comme solidarités discursives-culturelles. Préliminaires à une sémantique du «discours répété» Our paper investigates the possibility of a semantic approach of the textemes (as a subclass of the ‘repeated discourse’) from the perspective of the Integral Linguistics postulated by Eugenio Coseriu. textes réunis par H. J. premièrement. Louvain – Paris – Sterling. selon «le degré de leur combinabilité” et selon «les niveaux auxquelles elles sont commutables»: 1 V. Dans l’un de ses premiers articles de «sémantique structurale» (Vers l’étude des structures lexicales. in L’homme et son langage. nous concevons notre démarche comme un trajet qui commence par une étude de sémantique structurale. Éditions Peeters. Virginia. Our conclusion is that Integral Linguistics may provide an adequate conceptual framework for the semantic study of the textemes. which would mean that they signify only en bloc. Durafour et F. Coseriu classifie les unités du «discours répété» en trois catégories. qui comprend «tout ce qui est traditionnellement figé comme „expression”. we have tried to establish that the ‘literary’ nature of the textemes does not exclude them from the study sphere of the linguistics. The first section of our study identifies the main characteristics that render difficult such an approach: the ‘non-commutable’ nature of the textemes. dans le cadre dessiné par cette distinction d’ensemble. Dans ce sens.Literature. On the other hand. Le présent ouvrage se propose d’explorer la possibilité et l’utilité d’une approche des textèmes à la lumière de l’intégralisme linguistique fondé par Eugenio Coseriu.2. and their ‘literary’ (cultural) nature.1. p. On the one hand. d’autre part1. 214 . 1. on doit rappeler quelques axes fondamentaux de la théorie intégraliste. Puis. 235. but merely places them in the area of “Text Linguistics” (in the meaning ascribed by Coseriu to this disciplinary field).

Literature. Interculturality 1. en analysant la «locution» la nuit tous les chats sont gris. par conséquent.) englobée et transmise par la tradition linguistique.1. 1. Elles correspondent. Par exemple.. Ibidem. 215 .3. on ne peut pas affirmer que les lexèmes chats et gris seraient comprises dans le textème rappelé. les maximes. en échange. semblent compliquer et même faire impossible l’étude linguistique de ces unités: 1. elles portent le nom d’«expressions idiomatiques». les ainsi-dites refranes de la tradition populaire espagnole. et celle du niveau linguistique auquel ceux-ci doivent être situés. Les syntagmes stéréotypes (équivalentes des mots).. 237. d’ailleurs.). la non-commutabilité des éléments du «discours répété». échappant à toute structuration. Les locutions (c’est-à-dire les phrasèmes ou les textèmes. n’être pas dans son assiette. étant donné que les textèmes fonctionnent toujours «en bloc». les proverbes. Communication. «les éléments des expressions figées.2. qui sont commutables seulement au niveau du transphrastique et seulement avec des éléments du discours équivalents avec une phrase ou avec un texte: «Ces unités – dit Coseriu – ne sont [. Par conséquent. comprenant aussi idéologie. Mais. Et. morale etc. c’est-à-dire les unités qui sont combinables à l’intérieur de la phrase.3. en réalité. comme substituts des phrases ou des textes). en procédant ainsi. Coseriu avertit que.2. dans le cas où elles caractérisent seulement une langue «historique». si les unités du «discours répété» se refusent à la décomposition 2 3 Idem. qui sont aussi combinables à l’intérieur de la phrase. à cette catégorie appartiennent les énoncés métaphoriques. En second lieu. si cette définition explique dans une manière assez claire la sphère de la notion de «textème ». indépendamment de la „transparence” de leurs éléments constitutifs. nul et non avenu. la définition que Coseriu donne aux textèmes comprend deux éléments: les textèmes sont (a) des unités du «discours répété» (b) commutables par un autre (fragment de) texte. qui peuvent être substituées par des mots «simples» et qui se situent ainsi au niveau lexical proprement dit: par cœur. 1.1. Autrement dit.. huis clos etc.. les dictons. avoir maille à partir etc.2. le savant de Tübingen résout en même temps le problème de la liberté ou du figement des textèmes. au fond. En premier lieu. Les périphrases lexicales (équivalentes des mots). mais qui peuvent être substituées seulement par d’autres syntagmes qui appartiennent à la «technique (libre) du discours» et qui se situent. Dans la phraséologie internationale. p. aux «locutions» de la grammaire traditionnelle roumaine. Ce sont. les citations des auteurs célèbres etc.2. parce que la «locution» toute entière ne s’oppose pas à d’autres «locutions» pareilles dont elle se soit distinguée par un élément quelconque. des „textes” et des fragments de textes. constituent des documents littéraires: une forme de la littérature (au sens large.2. les «wellerismes» (constructions du type comme disait celui qui. qui. l’ouvrage de Coseriu ajoute encore deux précisions qui.3. dans ce cas. restent en dehors de la grammaire et de la lexicologie synchroniques»3. 1.3. qui excluraient ainsi la possibilité d’être étudiés d’une perspective lexico-sémantique. ces constructions sont appelées des «unités phraséologiques » ou. 1.»2 Selon le fondateur de l’intégralisme.] interprétées qu’au niveau des phrases et des textes. au niveau syntagmatique: se moquer du tiers comme du quart.

en dehors du domaine de la linguistique: «leur étude – affirme le fondateur de l’intégralisme – appartient-elle. Linguistica del testo. 2001. où il admet „la possibilité d’utiliser les signes dans les textes d’une manière qui devrait être comprise comme allusion à une séquence de signes préfabriquée. en ce qui concerne l’étymologie de leurs éléments)»4. 109. l’approche des textèmes à la lumière de la linguistique intégrale semble se confronter avec deux difficultés insurmontables.1. Il y en a deux autres faits dont on doit tenir compte: 2. du point de vue de la signification.. dans le plan stricte de la signification. présupposent obligatoirement une transgression des possibilités combinatoires de leurs éléments (altérations des propriétés morphosyntaxiques. mais. Cependant. les textèmes ne marquent que rarement des écarts par rapport aux «normes» grammaticales – ce qui confirme l’utilité d’une approche sémantique de ces 4 5 Idem. Carocci editore.2.). que. 2. à la différence des «périphrases lexicales». mots sorties de l’usage actuel de la langue etc. qui ont acquiert un certain prestige non grâce à leurs propriétés sémantiques «internes». déjà existante”5. Coseriu soutient que les «locutions» (les textèmes) se situeraient. les proverbes et les autres textèmes qui n’ont pas un certain auteur identifiable dans l’histoire de la culture).Literature. Coseriu nous a indiqué aussi la route juste que l’on doit suivre a cet égard. le début de Don Quichotte (En un lugar de la Mancha.1. Les textèmes comme solidarités discursives-culturelles 2. seulement par rapport au chef-d’œuvre de Cervantès. Eugenio Coseriu. p.).. Un tel «dit» devient «proverbial». qui. ils semblent parfois d’une banalité décevante. C’est ainsi qu’il arrive. que Coseriu cite. 2. à cause de leur caractère «littéraire». Roma. sans impliquer une transgression des restrictions combinatoires de leurs éléments.. du point de vue de la langue. à la rigueur. mais à cause des relations signiques complexes qu’elles ont contractées dans le contexte d’origine des œuvres dont elles proviennent. il y en a beaucoup qui. nous allons insister sur la thèse de la non-commutabilité des éléments qui composent les textèmes. ne se distingue. par exemple.2. Coseriu a infirmée dans ses recherches ultérieures – par exemple. Par exemple. par rien d’extraordinaire. Interculturality sémantique. Bien des textèmes «cultes» (en particulier les textèmes que Coseriu appelle «les dits proverbiaux») sont des énoncés apparemment banals. ou il y en est compris qu’un animal (ou tout autre agent) ne puisse effectuer deux actions qui s’excluent dans leur simultanéité (un chien ne peut pas aboyer et mordre à la fois). dans La linguistique du texte (1977). aux sciences littéraires et à la philologie: la linguistique n’y peut intervenir qu’en qualité de science auxiliaire (par ex. non seulement qu’ils permettent la décomposition et l’analyse sémantiques. de cuyo nombre no quiero acordarme. Communication. Pour le commencement. soulevées par le fondateur lui-même de cette doctrine.1. démarche qui ne pourrait se concrétiser. Mais celui-ci n’est pas le seul argument qui soutient la commutabilité des parties des textèmes. 216 . Introduzione a una ermeneutica del senso . et surtout la possibilité de modifier les séquences «déjà existantes».1. d’ailleurs. que par la commutation des éléments du «discours répété». Même parmi les composants du «discours répété» en sens restreint (voire. naturellement. 238. 2. Par conséquent. dans le proverbe La chien qui aboie ne mord pas. p. c’est-à-dire célèbre. Par conséquent. edizione italiana a cura di Donatella di Cesare.

Literature. proches de celles du langage quotidien (Le mensonge a les pieds courts – proverbe roumain). c’est-à-dire par un classème. . Editorial Gredos. Biblioteca Románica Hispánica. Madrid. le savant de Tübingen commence par définir cinq concepts sémantiques fondamentaux: champ lexical. segunda edición. terme par l’intermédiaire duquel il désigne «la totalité des lexèmes qui. Cependant. Sans proposer pour l’instant une taxinomie avec prétentions d’exhaustivité. 146-147. En conséquence. vache. dans la terminologie de Coseriu): Le chien qui aboie ne mord pas etc. les textèmes constituent une classe très hétérogène. lexème. jusqu’aux métaphores révélatrices (La mort est l’ombre qui donne plasticité à la vie.. – Lucian Blaga).3. un classème pourrait être la capacité ou l’incapacité des lexèmes du champ lexical des cornues de figurer dans des contextes comme Le bœuf tire le chariot ou *La mouton tire le chariot. Et. Dans cette étude.des structures métaphoriques. archilexème. Un exemple élémentaire. revisada por el autor. le bœuf et le mouton n’appartiennent pas à la même classe (qui. versión española de Marcos Martínez Hernández. Par exemple. taureau. on peut constater que. pour le cas cité. Coseriu définit le concept de solidarité lexicale comme «détermination sémantique d’un mot par l’intermédiaire d’une classe. les textèmes comprennent: . quoiqu’elle diffère théoriquement du champ lexical. Coseriu continue par définir la classe (lexicale). Communication. est l’archilexème cornue. . dans ce sens. proche de celui offert par l’auteur de l’étude. Ensuite. L.des non-sens (des cas d’incongruence absolue): Au bout des luttes séculaires qui se sont éteintes sur trente années. mais seulement dans le plan du sens): La nuit tous les chats sont gris. équivalent au champ lexical forme par les lexèmes bœuf.1. à son tour. du point de vue sémantique. d’un archilexème ou d’un lexème. que leur unité.3.des énoncés «neutres» du point de vue sémantique («corrects» du point de vue grammatical et non-vérifiables dans le plan de la signification. classe et classème6. Cependant. in Principios de semántica estructural. un bref inventaire empirique nous relève la diversité des situations qu’une telle approche doit confronter. Autrement dit. Autrement dit. O scrisoare pierdută/ Une lettre perdue). Las solidaridades léxicales. un archilexème ou un lexème déterminés fonctionnent comme trait 6 Eugenio Coseriu. Le lexème est identifié comme «toute unité donnée dans la langue comme mot». Interculturality phénomènes. mouton. indépendamment des champs lexicaux. Caragiale. pp. se relient par un trait distinctif commun». 2. bien qu’ils appartiennent au même champ lexical (celui des cornues). 2. dans ce cas avec celui des «animaux de traction»). plus exactement. 1991. care se répartissent graduellement des métonymies et personnifications. nous allons utiliser le concept de solidarités lexicales que le linguiste a développé dans l’un de ses études de sémantique structurale (Les solidarités lexicales. chèvre etc. ce qu’il est vraiment difficile d’un point de vue linguistique n’est pas de prouver tellement la composabilité des textèmes. Ainsi. cette unité peut être explicitée aussi dans les termes de l’intégralisme de Coseriu. (I. le champ lexical est «un paradigme lexical que résulte de la répartition d’un contenu lexical continu entre les différentes unités données dans la langue comme mots et qui s’opposent d’une manière immédiate l’une à l’ truismes (des cas de «congruence absolue». peut. 217 . coïncider ou non empiriquement avec un autre champ lexical. et l’archilexème représente «une unité sémantique équivalente au contenu unitaire d’un entier champ lexical». dans le sens qu’une classe. 1967). par l’intermédiaire des traits distinctifs minimaux». ..

1. et ses étudiants complétaient d’une manière absolument spontanée la séquence qui y manquait. la formule „une grande partie” peut y paraitre moins précise. cit. Interculturality distinctif du mot considéré»7. 61-62.Literature. parmi plusieurs chiens. morder).3. le professeur a effectué lui -même plusieurs fois. 218 . p.3. que Coseriu cite aussi: On mord avec quoi? Avec les dents. mais sans que l’affirmation réciproque soit vraie. Les considérations précédentes peuvent être systématisées sous la forme de deux conclusions provisoires: 2. Mais elle ne fait que confirmer deux aspects fondamentaux de l’usage des textèmes: a) le fait que les textèmes sont des unités sémantiques déjà figées dans la tradition d’une communauté linguistique (qui pourrait être une collectivité géographique. A la suite de cette particularité. On pose ainsi la question si les textèmes puissent être caractérisés à l’aide de ce modèle sémantique. L’intertextualité créatrice: vers une poétique de la culture 7 8 Idem. 2. chaque connaisseur de la langue française nous donnât invariablement à tous ces questions les réponses indiquées ci dessus. Dans ce sens.2. nous pouvons comparer des diverses situations où les textèmes s’opposent au libre usage de la parole: Le chien qui aboie ne mord pas (un textème qui se réfère à une telle personne qui essaie de cacher sa lâcheté derrière un comportement violent) vs. Concrètement. parce qu’il est très timide). pendant ses cours. qui se réfère à une cour où. la signification du nom dent (all. mais des textèmes: Quand est-ce que tous les chats sont gris? (Dans) la nuit. Quel chien ne mord pas? Celui qui aboie etc. Le chien qui aboie ne mord pas (libre association des mots. esp. Etant donné que les textèmes fonctionnent comme tels seulement par rapport à un contexte culturel ou historique9. mais par les entours de la parole. un test pareil: le linguiste commençait une séquence de „discours répété” (un proverbe ou une citation célèbre). 3. qui fait que. cette propriété du langage se manifeste comme une „relation orientée en sens unique”. toute une tradition idiomatique ou le patrimoine culturel de l’humanité dans son ensemble) et b) le fait que l’actualisation des textèmes comme unités sémantiques ne peut se manifester que par leur placement dans certaines entours du discours.. 2. Certes. Selon les affirmations d’Eugenio Coșeriu. sociale ou professionnelle. On lèche avec quoi? Avec la langue. beissen. ils peuvent être considérés comme solidarités discursives-culturelles. les textèmes ne peuvent être étudiés adéquatement que par une linguistique de la parole (et particulièrement par une linguistique du texte). Dans ce sens.3. Communication. p. Qui aboie? Le chien etc.3. par exemple. les entours et surtout les sens que les unités du «discours répété» actualisent en divers textes. Zahn. 9 En conformité avec l’acception donnée à ces termes par Eugeni o Coseriu dans son étude Détermination et entours (1955) – cf. il est aussi très probable qu’une grande partie des répondants à la deuxième série de questions nous offrissent précisément les «solutions» signalées8.3. 148. On pourrait imaginer un exercice similaire. l’un qui ne comprenne pas des lexèmes. diente) soit comprise dans la signification du mot mordre (all.2. dans le premier cas. esp.3. 2. éd. L’homme et son langage. dont l’unité est assurée non par les normes de la langue. nous pourrions démarrer notre analyse en rappelant les exemples de solidarités lexicales offertes par Walter Porzig. S’il y est évident que. l’une qui saisisse les techniques de détermination. il y en a un qui ne mord pas.3.

le fameux dicton 10 Eugenio Coseriu. s’en débarrassant ainsi de sa valeur «poétique» (au sens large) et s’en transformant dans un textème tout simplement. Et cette coréférence ne peut pas être réduite à la substitution de type synonymique. 219 . En fait. Lecciones de lingüística general.Literature. 3. mais cette métaphore s’est déjà grammaticalisée à cause de l’usage. père Vasile était radin et pingre tel que tante Marioara. Par exemple. strigă pe tata la poartă. cu vornicul și pasnicul.2. les deux difficultés signalées auparavant semblaient résolues. Soit les textèmes ont une structure métaphorique qui repose sur la transgression des solidarités lexicales de leurs éléments.1.. Vorba ceea: «Au tunat și i-au adunat!» [Vers le soir. mais dans les cadres (les entours) à l’aide desquels ceux-ci fonctionnent dans un discours. Madrid. le caractère composable de ces unités). D’ailleurs. dans certains entours de la parole). le savant de Tübingen avait reconnu depuis ses Leçons de linguistique générale (1973) le fait que les textèmes «doivent être étudiés par la linguistique du texte et par la philologie»10. le père Vasile. ca și mătușa Mărioara..1. Ensuite. Ainsi arrive-t-il dans l’exemple prochain: Dar mai în desară. Interculturality 3. à vrai dire.1. le voilà avec le maire et le gardien. où les deux séquences soulignées désignent la même réalité référentielle. îi spun pricina și-l cheamă să fie de faţă când s-a ispăși cânepa și cireșele. S’il a admis dans La Linguistique du texte (1977) la commutabilité des éléments à l’intérieur des textèmes (et. Parmi eux. étant donné que le textème ne remplace la signification d’un référent absent. qui ne peut être réduit à la simple addition des significations de ses éléments. dans une certaine manière. căci. font mon père sortir devant la porte.. 301. 3. Or. mais il y est utilisé chaque fois pour dire «quelque chose» sur une autre chose. lui présentent le problème et lui demandent d’être présent pour payer le chanvre et les cerises. même indiqué par Eugenio Coseriu. p. Mais ces situations peuvent être partagées en deux catégories: 3. mais il est co-présent dans le texte avec son ainsi-dit «synonyme».1. les textèmes ne peuvent être étudiés adéquatement que par la linguistique du texte (comme herméneutique du sens) et en particulier par la sémantique textuelle.. une telle actualisation présuppose chaque fois un rapport de coréférence entre un textème et une autre séquence textuelle. Amintiri din copilărie/ Souvenirs d’enfance). drept vorbind. Mais les fonctions métaphoriques des textèmes ne doivent être cherchées dans le cadre des textèmes-mêmes. Cependant. processus à la suite duquel la signification idiomatique du textème se particularise dans un sens textuel déterminé. Communication. le déplacement rappelé a été accepté et.1. și moș Vasile era un cărpănos ș-un puiu de zgârie-brânză. Editorial Gredos. Comme dit le proverbe: «Ils se ressemblent comme deux gouttes d'eau!»] (Ion Creangă. la coréférence des textèmes avec d’autres parties du texte est le trait fondamental (et bien nécessaire) pour l’usage des premiers: le textème n’apparait dans un texte pour dire tout simplement «quelque chose». le déplacement de la sémantique structurale vers une linguistique du texte pose une série de problèmes supplémentaires. Et le «contenu» sémantique que la synthèse de ses unités transporte est un sens textuel nouveau. implicitement. Il est vrai qu’il y a certains cas où on peut rencontrer aussi des constructions métaphoriques à l’intérieur de textèmes. dans cette manière. iaca și moș Vasile. et le procès de la création de sens ne peut être approximé que par un modèle explicatif de type métaphorique. le plus important concerne l’actualisation des textèmes dans les textes (c’est-à-dire.1. Pour cette raison. parce que. 1981.2.

au contraire. élaborée en partant du textème biblique dinte pentru dinte [dent pour dent] .3. Cambridge. Linguistica del testo. nous proposons trois hypothèses de travail: 3. Raymond W. les textèmes ne peuvent être insérés – comme simples textèmes situes dans le plan historique/ idiomatique du langage – dans la sphère de la création de sens. que l’on pourrait développer du point de vue intégraliste. voire dans le plan des solidarités discursives-culturelles qui les constituent. la force créatrice des métaphores proprement dites. 1994.11. C’est pour cette raison qu’une approche en perspective intégraliste des textèmes ne peut éviter leur étude de l’angle de la linguistique du texte.. Cambridge University Press. 13 Idem.2. Cependant.1.. Les textèmes. éd. peuvent-elles constituer des sources de la création poétique ou. Gibbs. mais sans y suivre de diminuer. Figurative Thought. 3. Jr. 12 Eugenio Coseriu. 220 . aussi Cornelia Müller. pp. il faut nous rappeler deux aspects: (a) le caractère «culturel» (et non lexical!) des structures textémiques. 05. 2008. Communication.2.2. mais elle doit parcourir l’entier espace de l’évocation. cit. Encore plus évident est le «rodage» des métaphores qui se trouvent dans les proverbes ou dans le langage quotidien. 3.1. En second lieu: A cause des rapports de coréférence qui les caractérisent. Interculturality anglais Time is money n’est pas une métaphore: il a été une métaphore seulement quand Benjamin Franklin l’a créé en Advice to a Young Tradesman (1748). Language and Understanding . Concrètement. dans la manière du cognitivisme. Et. Chicago – London: The University of Chicago Press. mais une métaphore insolite. les textèmes peuvent devenir créatrices dans le plan du sens ou du texte. qui fait que la systématisation de leurs significations se développe non pas dans le domaine de la lexicologie. mais les métaphores «mortes» de la parole courante11. Mais. The Poetics of Mind. Par exemple. la formule dinte pentru minte [dent pour ment] (Academia Caţavencu. Par conséquent. pp. Dans ce 11 Cf.3.2. 8-15. ces unités «grammaticalisées». une telle investigation ne se limite à l’étude des procès métaphoriques. Metaphors Dead and Alive. Elles peuvent composer. l’objet d’une étude de sémantique structurale. dans le cadre de cette étude. 3.3.Literature. c’est-à-dire ils peuvent établir des rapports métaphoriques en corrélation avec leurs co-référents textuels. mais des métaphores tout simplement. leur créativité s’épuise au niveau linguistique? Nous allons essayer d’argumenter pour la première thèse. 3. mais dans ce cas on ne peut plus parles des textèmes. qui prennent naissance en partant des textèmes. D’ailleurs. mais dans le domaine d’une sémantique culturelle. en ce sens. V. l’une des plus grandes provocations d’une approche intégraliste des textèmes concerne leurs fonctions poétiques. pour que le dernier quart de millénaire le réduise à la condition de textème. En premier lieu: La créativité des textèmes ne doit être cherchée dans le plan de la signification. 97-131. 182-185. que le savant de Tübingen l’a théorisé sous la forme de ses bien-connues fonctions signiques13. comprise comme une «herméneutique du sens»12. et non dans le plan de l’organisation idiomatique du langage. (b) le fait que toute tentative de systématisation des significations culturelles des textèmes n’est qu’une opération d’abstraction des sens qui se manifestent au niveau du texte. pp. Sleeping and Waking: A Dynamic View. tout au plus.2008) n’est (plus) un textème. l’erreur majeure des cognitivistes – sur laquelle ont insisté aussi Eugenio Coseriu que Mircea Borcilă – est qu’ils ont pris comme prototype de la métaphore non pas les métaphores «vivantes» de la poésie. Soit les textèmes ont une structure métaphorique qui repose sur la transgression des solidarités discursives-culturelles de leurs éléments.

versión española de Marcos Martínez Hernández. Mircea.3. Linguistica del testo. C’est pour cette raison que nous avons soutenu l’utilité d’étendre la sémantique structurale vers la linguistique du texte et. Contribuţii la elaborarea unei tipologii a textelor poetice. vol. la plupart des sens produits par les textèmes sont. MÜLLER. vol. Eugenio. éd. Virginia. no. VII-VIII. Figurative Thought. En fait.. in Studii și cercetări lingvistice. sur ce point Mircea Borcilă. pp. Dupuy-Engelhardt. cependant. Durafour et F. 2001. dans une direction similaire nous a guidé Eugenio Coseriu quand il a reconnu la capacité «recréatrice» du «discours répété». XXXVIII. 1987. Carocci editore. Chicago – London: The University of Chicago Press. segunda edición. Linguistica del testo. 109. no. Eugenio. mais qui peuvent (ré)activer dans le texte leurs fonctions signiques et qui peuvent ainsi contribuer à la création des mondes selon un modèle mythique ou symbolique. Communication. COSERIU. Editorial Gredos. Editorial Gredos. in Dacoromania. Principios de semántica estructural. 3. VII-VIII. Rastier. Mircea. L’homme et son langage. Introduzione a una ermeneutica del senso.-P. comme dans le cas de la «technique libre du discours». Lecciones de lingüística general. GIBBS. 1994. BIBLIOGRAPHIE : BORCILA. mais la qualité du sens textuel qui en résulte. pp. pp. Biblioteca Románica Hispánica.3. 2002-2003. Language and Understanding. Madrid. 14 V. COSERIU. COSERIU. 4. Metaphors Dead and Alive. cit. vol. L’argument décisif à cet égard n’est pas la simple détermination de la signification dans la parole. surtout.. XXXVIII. BORCILA. in Studii și cercetări lingvistice. Cornelia. COSERIU. Lingvistica integrală şi fundamentele metaforologiei. les fonctions textuels des textèmes pourraient être décrites dans les termes de la «poèse» discursive élaborée par Mircea Borcilă14. 1991. 146-147. J. comme des opérations de resémantisation impliquant deux champs internes de référence: l’un appartenant au référent proprement dit. 2002-2003. 185-195. Il y en a. Lingvistica integrală şi fundamentele metaforologiei. 4. 47-77.. 47-77. revisada por el autor. 2001. edizione italiana a cura di Donatella di Cesare. pp. Raymond W. in Dacoromania. 1987. 2008. pp. dont la particularité serait celle d’être composé comme un ensemble de quantas (micro-unités) référentiels soudes par l’intermédiaire des solidarités discursives-culturelles. 221 . sur la poétique de la culture. Jr. assez banaux. D’ailleurs. textes réunis par H. En troisième lieu: Toute actualisation d’un textème n’est pas «poétique» par sa nature-même. Roma. The Poetics of Mind. Contribuții la elaborarea unei tipologii a textelor poetice. 15 Eugenio Coseriu. 185-195. Éditions Peeters. des situations où les textèmes réussissent de produire des sens vraiment «poétiques».Literature. Cambridge. Louvain – Paris – Sterling. Cambridge University Press. grâce à ce qu’il appelait la «technique du collage»15. vol. Interculturality sens. l’autre appartenant au co-référent textémique. Eugenio. Eugenio. Madrid. Sleeping and Waking: A Dynamic View. p. 1981.

thus they represent. a fact seen in other languages too. We have chosen a series of terms for illustration. ‘dialog’. it no longer belongs to special fields of activity. but expresses something superlative). taking into consideration the fact that it takes place in a relatively limited period of time by means of massive social takeovers. Interculturality MARIA-LAURA RUS Petru Maior University of Tg. Mures Present Linguistic Comunication by Means of Lexical Predilections Our paper analyses some aspects of linguistic communication that are related to present lexical predilections. such as ‘treabă’. their frequency. Thus we look upon some terms (neologisms or not). the second one. the possibility to integrate them into fixed structures or free combinations. Communication. their possible negative connotations. Lately this term went through an extension of meaning. ‘a manipula’ etc. the written press undoubtedly represents ‘a barometer of social-political tensions’3. These register and consign first any kind of change. a linguistic fashion if we can name it so. irrespective of the elements that produce these changes2. but cool represents the exact figurative meaning of the Romanian structure). to the period of time they appeared among the favourite terms (from a lexical point of view) and according to the category of speakers who use them. on one hand. linguistic communication proves to be rather sensitive and receptive to changes in society. the motivation of this use or their different meanings. with a large spectrum. One of its present meanings in Romanian language was linked to social and political changes in our 222 . followed during a relatively short period of time. we can say. passing from scientific language to common expression. We actually speak about the so-called fashion. no matter if we speak about oral communication or written communication. which has nothing to do with the English equivalent goods. Inside the process of linguistic communication. and treabă/business. The process of communication reflects the evolution of humane community. marfă/goods (the Romanian marfă. and we follow their excessive use in communication. there are certain lexical predilections which can be explained through changes in society. This phenomenon becomes general. In the same linguistic fashion we have also included the process of derivation (suffixation). We have grouped the terms in two different categories according to their connotations (positive/negative). on the other hand. a neologism. Dialogue is no longer used by a limited number of speakers. Together with the audio-visual. Among frequently used terms nowadays there are dialog/dialogue and a manipula/to manipulate. and the less used with the meaning of method of speech. a manipula/to manipulate. Whereas language appears as one of the ‘phenomena of a great stability'1.Literature. such as: dialog/dialogue. due to a more and more frequent use of terms by a large circle of persons. the primary source for such lexical predilection 4 we discuss about in this paper5. de cartier/cool (in the neighbourhood would be the proper translation. our paper looking upon some of the most productive suffixes in nowadays communication.

to the prejudice of some partially synonym terms as chestiune. (Dilema Veche. in standard language. In these situations one can risk the impoverishment of expression6. conversation. Interculturality country (democracy = dialogue). this term is especially used inside verbal phrases or expressions: structures with a verbal centre – ‘a avea/a nu avea treabă’/‘to have some/no business’. sa etc. problem. / There are two main reasons according to which international media were manipulated during the first hours from the Israelite attack. As part of the active vocabulary of common daily language.. discuţie/ interlocution. technical systems. thing7. that of handle apparatuses. Today dialogue is more used than terms as convorbire. This process of generalizing the meaning was accomplished through reduction of specific features of action and hence the figurative use. the initial meaning (nothing to do with ‘hand’ for instance). The term treabă/business. ‘to have some business’ is undoubtedly the most active nowadays. or nominal structures as ‘treaba mea!’ (ta. / Politicians manipulate the feelings and the structure of group for their aims. It is obvious the fact that a great number of speakers who use it in communication (especially oral communication) have a medium level of culture. mechanisms. because we rarely hear nowadays its restraint meaning. conversaţie. taking into consideration the fact that it has nothing to do with the proper. dispute.) ‘that is my (your. July 2007) Cine manipulează în România? Presa sau statul? / Who manipulates in Romania? The press or the state? (Cotidianul. which is a fashionable structure even for young users. ‘a se pune pe treabă’/‘to get down to work’ etc. discussion. As in the case of the precedent term. Communication. identified as the most frequent of the five terms chosen for characterization. Political language is the one that frequently uses the figurative meaning and from this language it quickly passed in other fields.Literature. problemă. The rich meaning of the term gives complete reason to this frequent use. 11th-17th November 2010) The constructions with the negative connotation of the above mentioned verb usually include nouns semantically characterized by the feature [+humane]. In the case of this term the negative connotation is extremely obvious. dispută/ argument. but this does not mean that it is not used by other speakers. his/her etc. Politicienii manipulează sentimentele şi structura de grup pentru ţintele lor. seems to place itself somewhere between the two classes. To manipulate is frequently used today especially in a figurative way. the initial one. It is an expression in which the term 223 . decent’. ‘a-şi vedea de treabă’/‘to mind one’s own business’.) affair!’8 or adjectival expressions as ‘de treabă’/’honest. We speak about an extension of meaning in the case of this term too. Present day language registers the meaning ‘to be occupied with’. (Revista 22. lucru / question. Among the structures in the first category. the great frequency to the prejudice of some synonyms existing in the language (a manevra/to manoeuvre for instance) presents the risk of a monotonous expression. and it has replaced terms as polemică. ‘a nu-şi vedea capul de treabă’/‘to have one’s hands full’. 17th November 2010) Există două motive principale pentru care media internaţională a fost manipulată în primele ore de la atacul israelian.

) or ‘globalizare’. Cât câştigi? / How much do you earn? În jur de 2000 de lei. / Around 2000 lei. ‘operaţionalitate’. an adjectival one and an adverbial one. but ‘their semantic transparency makes people like the word and stimulate to use it’12. winning this competition. not to meet with difficulties’ or ‘to keep quiet’. Among the productive suffixes in present Romanian language. this term also got another meaning. when another term appears and enters the competition. 20th January 2010) The negative connotation or perhaps the pejorative value is obvious. In this case we speak about a ‘semantic restriction’11. an evolution anticipated by another term. It is actually the reverse of it. Both in current oral communication and in written language. there is another lexical process related to this linguistic fashion and that is derivation. ‘impozitare’ (globalization. Communication.. we do nothing but underline this feature meaning ‘available’ (‘the lack of any obligation related to activity’9 – Valeria Gutu Romalo). Although used in communication especially by young people. I’m available. When it is used too many times in communication the structure becomes annoying. applicability etc. ‘to have no worries’: Să mă fi ascultat. both representing the superlative. Some suffixes which contribute to the formation of neologic 224 . ‘serviabilitate’. when we also include the negative adjective inside this negative form of expression. As a matter of fact this will be its destiny too. 10 O!!! . Rodica Zafiu speaks about a semantic evolution of this term. ‘europenizare’.Literature. ‘democratizare’. the suffixes –itate/-ity and –re/-ation contributed to the formation of neologic nouns as: ‘linearitate’. and the negative form of the expression (‘to have no business’) paradoxically represents a positive idea: Nu mai am treabă / I have no business = I’m free. because there is a clear opposition between ’quarter’ and ‘center’. The terms marfă and de cartier in their present meaning are argotic. Europeanization etc. Besides the terms we discussed about. We will discuss about derivation with suffixes. meserie/meseriaş / trade. marfă is also seen in Romanian press during the last decades. n-ai treabă! / O!!! … You have no business. but their frequent use both in oral and written communication places them among many speakers’ lexical predilections. Furthermore marfă was in competition to mişto at a certain point. democratization. ‘aplicabilitate’ (linearity. ‘periculozitate’. As we have seen above. Furthermore. (Adevărul de Buzău. In the language of young speakers there is another frequently used term. together with two grammatical values.) etc. n-ai fi avut treabă.. For this negative structure we also have the meaning ‘to have no displeasures. Interculturality ‘business’ implies only indirectly the meaning ‘activity’. handicraftsman. derivation with suffixes has widely spread. One of the favourite structures with this term is ‘băiat de cartier’/’cool guy’ (‘neighbourhood boy’ with the proper meaning): Băieţii de cartier au o nouă distracţie: întorc rablele vecinilor cu roţile în sus / Cool guys have a new fun: they turn the neighbours’ jalopies upside down. de cartier/ in the neighbourhood. / If you had listened to me. you would have no business. Of course not all the words built by means of derivation will survive.

Timişoara. 2005. Florica. Among the verbs derived with suffixes which are in the list of present lexical preferences we can mention those with the suffix –iona: ambiţiona. Dicţionar de cuvinte recente. Editura Facla. 19 – 36. Zafiu. 105-109. Communication. monotonous expressions (the so-called wooden language).A. Institutul de Cercetări al Românilor din Ungaria. Petru. Vocabularul românesc contemporan – schiţă de sistem. … to be fashionable …’13. Sinteze de limba română. which is harmful to communication through their effects of poverty and coding’14.).romlit. informaţional etc. Editura Logos. acquainted with languages of great civilizations. 1943. Bucureşti. Limba română actuală. Co. interrelate. Iaşi. 2002 (varianta online a revistei: http://www. Guţu Romalo. Interculturality adjectives are also operative and frequent. bengos etc. Editura Junimea. Mureşanu. concluziona (aspirate. Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti.. Editura didactică şi pedagogică. Gheorghe. Theodor (coord. Bucureş Hristea. 1977. Giula. Probleme ale limbii române actuale. XIII. 1997. Editura Humanitas Educaţional. Dicţionar de sinonime. 3-4. O gramatică a greşelilor. Diversitate stilistică în româna actuală. Evseev. nr.C. Valeria. în Comunicările celui de al X-lea simpozion al cercetătorilor români din Ungaria. 1997. 1981. We refer to –al (conflictual.R. Laura. 1978. Şerban. 2001. 1994. to be seen as a cultivated man. merţan.). p. Vasile. tentacular etc.E. Constantin.Literature. 225 . Rodica. Dimitrescu.ic (ideatic etc. Nowadays we are not far from Iorgu Iordan’s affirmations from 1943: ‘There is … the snobbery. especially at publicists of different categories: the desire to impress. . model de exprimare.C. interrelaţiona. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Studies and articles: Dominte. Guţu Romalo.).O. This linguistic fashion is characterized through ‘an obvious and quick growth of frequency caused … by subjective preferences and made through a mim etic taking over and a non-critical use. în LR. some of these terms can lead to stereotypes. Unitate şi varietate în evoluţia limbii române literare. Bucureşti. Editura S. S. 2003. Aspecte ale evoluţiei limbii române. nr. Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti. Vasiliu. If they are insistently used and the speakers do not make use of their synonyms where possible. Dictionaries: Bulgăr. Bucureşti.) or – ar (spectacular. Media electronică. Ileana. Noi derivate sufixale. 2003. Zugun. and conclude) etc. These suffixes have also entered the argotic language (one can see Rodica Zafiu’s articles on argotic terms used in the press: prietenar. Ivan. amărăştean. Iorgu. 28. Bucureşti. Editura Palmyra. Iordan. Introducere în teoria lingvistică.). în România literară. p.

Problem.R. fact. a proof of the evolution of the negative structure in comparison to the affirmative structure. p. Bucharest.E. p.C. 13 Iorgu Iordan. 2001. Communication. as well as the vitality of structures which include the term ‘treabă’/‘business’ (a fact noticed by the same linguist. Bucharest. Media electronică. Humanitas Educational Publishing House. Limba română actuală. 2 We speak about more or less occasional changes. 28. Probleme ale limbii române actuale (Problems of Nowadays Romanian Language). in România literară / Literary Romania. 3.O. 4 We take into consideration the speakers’ active vocabulary.C. 8 This is a structure that usually appears in exclamation sentences and it often represents the sentence itself (with elliptic a fi /to be). XXXIX (1990). business. in Limba română / Romanian Language. 7 Or according to Gh. theme’. 2002). p. a Pattern of Expression.A. question. S. in Comunicările celui de al X-lea simpozion al cercetătorilor români din Ungaria (Communications of the 10th Symposium of Romanian Researchers from Hungary). p. 24. preoccupation. 2. Aspecte ale evolutiei limbii române (Aspects of Romanian Language Evolution). Co. Valeria Gutu Romalo). S. 22. O gramatică a greşelilor /Present Romanian Language. Giula. 2005. thing. 226 . Achievement. 11 We use Rodica Zafiu’s terms. activity. p. 10 The intonation seems slightly different in the case of these two meanings. 3. 6 Stylistically speaking argument and dispute are more profound. work. p. model de exprimare / Electronic Media. Bulgar’s Dictionary of synonyms: ‘1. 5 There are many linguists who seized this fact. no. A grammar of mistakes. 12 Ileana Mureşanu. 9 Valeria Gutu Romalo. 14 Valeria Gutu Romalo. În legătură cu utilizarea actuală a cuvântului treabă / About The Present Use Of The Word ‘Business’.. 212-218. 293. 470-471. 3 Ileana Muresan. no. richer. Interculturality Notes : 1 Valeria Gutu Romalo. 275.Literature. The last one vehemently said in one of her articles: ‘The most powerful voice [in spreading methods of expression] in nowadays social conditions is the one represented by mass-media in its multiple hypostases’ (Valeria Gutu Romalo. 1943. Aspecte …. cited work. The second case is not registered in current dictionaries. we can mention Rodica Zafiu and Valeria Gutu Romalo. Occupation.

moreover. Communication.Literature. Therefore. we follow some of the most relevant opinions that view the two distinct and yet mingling perspectives upon the phenomenon of translation. on the contrary. in which several methods and strategies related to translation are described. “the object of such a science as traductology does not consist in a sum of objective natural phenomena. while that of science might betray some sort of a ‘mechanical approach’ towards translation. that. Thus. yet. since any text in a different instance will get a different interpretation. Any work that deals with the phenomenon of translation brings into the foreground an issue that concerns all the researchers: the righteously oscillation between defining translation as art and/or science. 1975) while G. that is most likely to be related to art an not to exact sciences” . as Tudor Ionescu warns us in his suggestively entitled book Ştiinţa sau/şi arta traducerii 3. Interculturality BIANCA-OANA HAN Petru Maior University of Tg.1 Even if we admitted that all the terms discussed have their share of truth. it is a subjective activity. Although it might appear a ‘no combat’ solution. it is the study of the theory and practice of translating and interpreting. This is the reason why the object of translation can not be included to the science chapter. we are speaking about the term traductology. Jakobsen in 1958 sees it as craft. according to DEX (Romanian explanatory dictionary) it is the science of translations. we might be driven to the conclusion that translation is more likely to be considered a science. but. leading to the idea that translation can not be. Mures Translation: Science and/or Art The article intends to be an insight upon the overly-debated dichotomy regarding the statute of translation. small) number of translations. Others call it an exact art (George Steiner. in 1964 Eugene Nida signs Towards a Science of Translating. Bantaş and Croitoru consider that “the difficulty lies not in considering translation art or science. 227 . Mounin (1963) believes that translation is an art that just like medicine. Therefore. while E. the result of a posterior analysis upon a (large. or according to Wiktionary2. not to mention another valence translation may embrace: i. what we call the science of translation is in fact. we must not lose sight of the fact that there is also a share of danger implied: therefore. an act of creation. but.e. This might bring us to admit that translation is the privilege of art . has scientific grounds. in 1957 Theodore Savoy writes The Art of Translation. therefore. since there are studies related and concerned with the phenomenon of translation. we believe that the mistake would be just as big. but in establishing their complementarity”. we believe that. In each of the cases. the one that perceives it as craft. Thus. that of perceiving translation as art and/or as science. one of the oldest controversies related to translation is that regarding its statute in the equation science and/or art. even a form of ‘amateurism’. analysis that will never repeat again. the term craft might be perceived as being slightly inferior to that of art.

5 Regardless of how we choose to see things. By translation we understand: translation as an abstract concept (both the translation process and the translation product). Nonetheless. Therefore. the one regarding the semantic sphere of the idi om. between scientific and artistic. denotation. His position is the one that allows him to compare cultures. Let us convince ourselves: in order to deserve the title ‘science’. Communication. one has to consider translation in light of the theories scientifically generated by it. thus touching the domains of linguistics. he must have experience and knowledge in two independently evolving entities. R. sphere of the sintagmatic or collocative compatibility. The fact that he is between them proves his competence. anchored in one of them. key that is to be used by professionals in the art of the word. semantics. as being the first layers of signification a word can receive. must prove competences in the cultures in question. as the two cultures never stop influencing each other. sphere of the expression register.” 9 It is interesting to follow the pragmatic explanation of the translation process. I. explanation on how should the process of translation be perceived: thus. an ever-changing territory. be it art. is again underlined. This is the Translator. 2. process that lies at the border between theory and practice. but having strict conventional limits. Ionescu 7 who cites from J. on the other side. he is in the socalled no man’s land.4 Bantaş and Croitoru complete this with a fourth theory. translation as a product of the translation process (the translated text) and translation as a process (activity performed by the translator). This Translation Operator (TO) as Bantaş and Croitoru would call him. e. Ladmiral: “the characters who do theory are not always the same with the ones that make translations: we have those who speak it and those who do it. 4. Here we find a metaphorical and. connotation. on the one side and upon the receiver R. 6. since “the equation of an idiomatic expression from the SL is done in translation by seeking for an idiomatic expression in the repertoire of the other language (TL)” 10. metaphoric or metonymic sphere.TOTA. science or craft. the semantic spheres could be imagined as the concentric terrestrial spheres. since there are enough convincing arguments coming from both directions.” Professor Ioan Creţiu 8 authors a book in which theory is successfully blended with practice. in the same time. The difficulty in translation appears once the third layer is reached. communication competences. idiomatic sphere or idiom. cultural context. translation is the key to the sense of the word.Literature. within the so-called translation oriented text analysis . if we were to consider the opinions released by T. more or less. the middle position is to be embraced here. psycho-linguistics. Thus. mind you that the translator is not situated half-way between the two entities but permanently. He is the mediator between two instances of intercultural communication. The role and meaning of denotation and connotation . 5. The difficult yet noble mission to bring the original text as close as possible to its readers falls upon the translator. The de-coding of the idiomatic statement is achieved by accessing both Surface 228 .6 The dilemma discussed in this chapter opens into a debate just as interesting. we ought to keep in mind the effects that the act of translation has upon the ST. 3. that focuses on the process of interpretation. the interpretative one. “semantic spheres might be: 1. well supported practically. Interculturality again. pragmatics.

generates many such cases of ‘harmonisations’ among and within languages. We believe that the scientific aspect of the issue we are debating upon is clear enough. linguistically and semantically sustained. one belonging to another language. means of communication. any new information whatsoever to the original material. On the other hand. the translator overpasses the phase in which he was a mere aesthetic consumer and prepares himself to become a professional operator who trans ports words. Again. For instance. “probably the most interesting and in the same time. since it implies handling figures of speech. which is to be achieved in at least two steps: “a text that awaits its translation must be first read from beginning till the end in order to defuse the possible surprises” 14. approach which is scientifically supported by certain rules. The last semantic sphere we mentioned is the one regarding metaphoric or metonymic sphere 13. even harder to transmit. one that is technically. talent and artistic intuition. we reach the same area of interference. is the sphere of the sintagmatic or collocative compatibility. sex. we are talking about the semantic sphere of the expression register. spheres that increase the difficulty in translation. therefore. social status.Literature. the translator is faced to more complicated technical aspects. the one that avoids the threat of repetitions due to its artistic side. These semantic spheres form. especially translation of literature. to absorb the information it offers. one endowed with cultural. syntagm. Interculturality Structure and the Deep Structure of both languages we operate with. that generates a meaning perceived as a whole and not the sum of the semantic spheres of the words composing them. communication status. obviously. history etc. a system of significations that can be hard to penetrate.”11 Moreover. since the translator ought to b e (only15) an operator. We are warned about the threats we might be exposed to when the semantic spheres intersect and interfere. Thus. in order to achieve a new re-wording . as “it refers to selection preferences of words or linguistic structures displayed by the speakers belonging to different groups that can be identified according to age. in which a major part is played by the ability and writing talent of the translator. 229 . It is this combination between art and science the one that confers uniqueness to the literary translation. the necessity to get familiar to that text. a rather sensitive area viewed from the psychological/psycholinguistic point of view. collocations. Translation. from the level of idiomatic expression and all through the other semantic layers mentioned so far. linguistic abilities. to shift into a different system of meanings. Communication. by means of translation. On the one hand. collocation. there are other semantic spheres to be incorporated here. in which translation offers an artistic approach to a given material. as from this point forward. geographic area. metaphors from SL to TL. slang) or conventional language (the argot). that of specific language (the jargon. this implies difficulty in translation. there is an essential rule to be applied when the translator approaches the text in order to translate it. the one that hardly allows itself to be subject to theoretisation 12. Another golden rule the translator must consider is the one regarding his obligation not to bring. that views the group of words.

Teora Publishing House. 2006.. where the shades and valences characteristic to a certain languag e are most of the times difficult to render by means of translation.. I. Cluj-Napoca.. the rules allow a controlled infinity of combinations. Craiova. T. I. A. London and New York. cit. “the first condition of a viable and vital game is to have and respect the rules. A. Croitoru. idem 6 according to Bantaş. In other words . Routledge Publishing House. Ioan Creţiu.5-19. 13 Apud. Fundaţia Editura Craiova. Teora Publishing House.. Communication. Institutional building (postdoctoral school) and fellowships program (CommScie)" . London and New York. Longman. translation theory. Longman. More than that. 2006 Steiner. Croitoru. Didactica Traducerii.6 10 translated by the author from Idem. op. 230 . pp.. Limes Publishing House. prose. 1999 Ionescu. 1996. Editura Scrisul Românesc. 25 7 Tudor Ionescu. Translation and Translating: Theory and Practice. op.. 4 Roger 3 Tudor Ionescu.. p. Playing by the rules does not imply strangling the idea of novelty. 14. perceived. E. as we know all too well. on the contrary. London and NY. New York and London. 14 translated by the author from the game called literature theory. 25.POSDRU/89/1. Croitoru. 1999. Scrisul Românesc Publishing House. financed under the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development 2007-2013.. 26 5 Bantaş. Translation and Translating: Theory and Practice. which increase the difficulty. poetry. 8 Ioan Creţiu. Ştiinţa sau/şi arta traducerii. Bucharest. cit. just like i n a chess game. stim ulates it. Limes Publishing House. creativity but. 1999 Bell. 1999. Ştiinţa sau/şi arta traducerii. After Babel. Teoria şi practica traducerii: din proză scurtă în limba engleză -bilingual edition.Literature. things are becoming complicated when we have to approach the artistic zone. p.. Aspects of language and translation. pg. in op. 1975 Aknowledgement: This paper is a result of the project `Transnational Network for Integrated Management of Postdoctoral Research in Communicating Sciences. Teoria şi practica traducerii: din proză scurtă în limba engleză -bilingual edition. p. Didactica Traducerii. 2002 Bantaş. pp. Echinox Publishing House. Cluj-Napoca. Cluj-Napoca. A. Notes: 1 2 Bantaş.. 15 although the adverb only is just limitative 16 Irina Mavrodin.wiktionary. p..” BIBLIOGRAPHY: Baker. 27. cit. p. nevertheless as constructive challenge. op. Cluj-Napoca.literal şi în toate sensurile. M.8. R. p. Despre traducere. 11-12. 11 http://en. Interculturality Obviously. Bucharest. cit. p.5/S/63663. G.7. controlled exactly by means of the rules established. a literary translation handles the transfer of literary forms.. Editura Echinox. E. 2003. Croitoru.literal şi în toate sensurile. 1996 Creţiu. 9 Ioan Creţiu. E. 2003 Mavrodin. Just like in a chess game -whose rules are strict. As translator Irina Mavrodin would say in her book 16. 12 Idem. p.. Despre traducere. Oxford University Press. 11 Ibidem.

He will see the world through the lens of transience.Literature. The Writer and the Exilic Subjectivity The present paper aims at redefining exile as no longer a phenomenon of physical banishment. as the exiled always returns to this original experience. becoming more of an attitude than an existential condition. exile itself still remains. It may change form. deeply rooted in his internal being. the entire existence of an exile is based on a void 1. always at a border in constant movement 2. Moreover. In this light. Exile. as it has been experienced more than twenty years by the East-European writers. lacking a real place he can call home.. the initial deracination ends in itself. the oblique positioning between cultures and the constant questioning of all fixed notions should characterise the discourse of contemporary intellectuals. Exile is finally transformed into a matrix of belonging. the present paper tries to outline a portrait of the exiled writer in connection to a world in which exile itself undergoes rigorous reconsideration due to an unprecedented permeability of borders. Interculturality OANA ELENA STRUGARU Ştefan cel Mare University of Suceava Exile beyond Borders. exilic subjectivity. accepting the end of exile would not even be possible. because he learned the evanescence of orbiting around a fixed identity point called home. The one who left becomes the DeleuzoGuattarian nomad. as Andrei Codrescu masterly captures it in words. awareness of transience. Moreover. Among the many 231 . Not turning exile into a permanent reality and accepting its end would lead to another exile. an exile from exile. Any exile is thus irreversible. Communication. because. those of Vilem Flusser. Edward Said and Nicoleta Sălcudeanu. The conclusion that we reached is that. Three main points of view have been employed in order to construe the idea of exilic subjectivity. but it is still deeply rooted in the soul of the exiled. as the original deracination experience generates a new type of subjectivity bearing the characteristics of exile. and also its socio-political causes have long disappeared. he will always be subject to a continuous absence. Paradoxically. is still the focus of their public discourse and is often the subject of their writings. No matter how well he is integrated in the adoptive culture. but more as a type of subjectivity proper for the intellectual living in a world constructed on the principles of dislocation. a dislocation from the border turned into a place of belonging. Furthermore. as once with loosing the native country the exiled. inhabits exile as if it were a metaphorical home. the immobility of home becomes a source of isolation and of a centripetal existence. with its main characteristics. the traumas of physical dislocation must not be ignored. once contemporaneity shaped a way of existence that turns the traumas of exile into attributes of existence. they seem to be unable to detach themselves from the condition of the exile. apparently the conditions that generated it disappear. And even though.This exilic subjectivity is what makes the individual see the world in a different light. Exile becomes a new landmark. Despite that these writers are aware of the fact that exile as a physical condition. he thus becomes eternally deracinated. despite the apparent adaptation to a new culture. despite the fact that exile is conceived in a more positive light due to the latest cultural changes.

the interpretation of this information equals creation. Interculturality researchers who assert this point of view we come to quote Vilem Flusser who addresses this issue of the exile/home dichotomy by discussing the „invisible connections” that links an individual to his home: „Home. If the threads tear or are torn. as Said defines it. His cultural relationships are double. as for Flusser. On the contrary.”5 The world is in a continuous state of metamorphosis.”3 Exile is thus conceived as a breakage of these connections that keep the individuals connected to a certain place. nor is he totally disconnected from the old one. but rather a function of a certain technique. To this extent. the secret of survival once home left behind is. On the contrary belonging. This state of obliqueness is what generated the different view in reality. suffers. For Flusser. In habit. he becomes aware of the fact that there are no pre-established connections that cannot be broken. by the sole means of this breakage will the individual become aware of them. because in his continuous state of change. as it were. according to Flusser. only change is perceived. on both sides of the imperial divide enables you to understand them more easily. Furthermore. everything is perceived as if in the process of change. Home becomes an easily deconstructive concept. whoever loses his home. for Said it is a multiple state of (non)belonging. 232 . the exiled is bound to a permanent reconfiguration of identity.”7 The phenomenon of exile gains thus additional meanings that do not refer only to the connection of an individual to a certain place in the world. but in overcoming the stability of a fixed landmark. Communication. In this light. for in reality he is lost) causes everything around him and in him to appear provisory. For Said the exilic subjectivity does not reside. the impossibility of growing new roots is not all conceived in negative attributes. but it becomes. most of which are secret threads beyond his consciousness. as his is not fully integrated in the new culture. in a lack of landmarks that leads to a conscious situation in the new realities of exile. And. only to forget them and to be thrown into an ocean of chaotic information4. when I say «exile» I do not mean something sad or deprived. then this tear is experienced as a painful surgical incision into his most private self. sees the entire world as a foreign country6. It is a unique subjectivity born out of the awareness of the transitory reality. his landmarks ambiguous. transitory. as Flusser continues. in exile. Another point of view is that of Edward Said's. he also questions everything. as physical dislocation discloses the artificiality of all those notions which attributes the individual to a certain place. The initial dislocation together with the inability to grow new roots makes the exiled position himself on the border territory between two cultures. yet. argues Flusser.Literature. and by breaking off the connections with home. is not an eternal value. Here is what Said says: „Yet. This very form of freedom and the ability to construe all this new information (both characteristics of a deracinated living) shape the aforementioned perspective of the exiled. Moreover. Due to this double perspective and being aware of the discontinuity and transience of reality. not in forgetting. the exiled. Here is how Flusser explains it: „The transcendence in which the expelled finds himself (as much as the word finds describes him. because the exile will no longer be able to regard things outside a relation on comparison. the exiled gains the freedom of connecting freely with the realities of his exile. He is bound to his home by many threads. to use Said words.

familiar world inhabited by natives (so to speak). is best exemplified by the condition of exile. Therefore. the common point of these two theories is that exile inevitably leads to a certain type of subjectivity.Literature. this type of exile generates an intellectual freedom by the awareness of deracination and by making most of that lack of invisible connections mentioned by Flusser. Patria de hârtie. The individual. are those who cannot or will not adapt. but also for those who. exilic subjectivity can be read as a critical distance from all dominant structures. homelessness. Interculturality „an alternative to mass institutions that dominate modern life”8. and at the same time assuming it as his own in his autobiographical article No Reconciliation Allowed11. Despite the fact that the book is dedicated to Romanian exiles. exilic intellectuals are those whose point of view is a constant negation. It becomes the metaphysical condition proper not only for those who left their native country. resumes the (Saidian) meaning of exile (that extends from our point of view over Flusser's definition). as Said explains it.”9 More than anything.. live in a constant state of estrangement from their families. the one who is bound to a home finds its own limitations by unquestionably accepting those hegemonic notions which control his individuality. without ever leaving the country. assuming this state intellectual deracination. Compared to the exiled who is free to choose his own landmarks. We also notice a certain evolution in the defining of the term itself that generated auxiliary meanings. we notice in the aforementioned definition the same inclination for generalization of meaning. Exile is no longer limited to the physical dislocation from a pre-established home. which I believe is the right role for today’s intellectual. exile is: „an empowering idea that allows intellectuals to transform their pain of border crossing. identity and home. it seems that for the critic there is no other attitude proper for an intellectual. Despite the different perspectives. To this extent. As Rehnuma Sazzad. The different point of view of the exiled intellectuals is also asserted by many researchers who most times explain it through a strong awareness of a lost landmark. this being either the native country or a personal paradise. but it becomes an intellectual privilege. For Said. Exilic intellectuals. Nicoleta Sălcudeanu is one of the researchers who study this exilic subjectivity in her book. Said outlines the portrait of this unique intellectual.”12 Consequently. tending to avoid and even dislike the trappings of accommodation and national well-being. the critic characterizes best the exilic intellectual and at the same time enlarges the paradigm of the word exile: „The pattern that sets the course for the intellectual as an outsider. Moreover. because it transfers deracination and non-belonging from a physical to an intellectual level. remaining thus outside any main trends of contemporary thoughts 10. is free to choose his own place in the world. Just as Flusser. Exile becomes thus a particular attitude of situating oneself against all dominant structures and discourses which have a hegemonic role over societies. Communication. even from themselves. Exile thus comes to mean a particular attitude. the state of never being fully adjusted. Said also renders pejorative meaning to the notion of home in outlining this exilic subjectivity. the researcher places from the beginning the cause of exile in a metaphysical dimension of existence that turns the entire human life into 233 . from societies. always feeling outside the chatty. and marginal identity into the paradoxical pleasure of achieving intellectual freedom through a deeper and broader understanding of culture.

because it is not dependent of any hegemonic discourse. Exile is thus directly connected to creation. just as for Said or Sălcudeanu. for it leads to the synthesis of new information. be it physical or metaphysical. 234 . for the new. Once he becomes aware of fact that even the most fixed of the notions are temporary. the freedom gained through exile is for Flusser. says Flusser. literature is.the expelled threatens the «particular nature» of the original natives. writers stand out from the wide landscape of exile. Exile as a metaphysical banishment marks the existence of every human being cast away from Heaven. Without giving an exhaustive definition of the creative act. the most stubborn in winning back a personal heaven. due to. Communication. For Sălcudeanu the creative act intervenes in the moment when those invisible connections that Flusser mentions start to fade out. This seems to be the reason why that the works of the exiled are different from the ones of the natives. the exile becomes a revolutionary in his own country13. For Flusser. talking solely about the physical exile. we would add. From this point of view. His entire life will become an attempt to win back the lost Paradise by the means of various creative acts. noticeable in his works. leading thus to the false idea that that status of exiled is characteristic to that of the writer. Bringing these two dimensions on common grounds generates the creative act producing new meanings. But at the same time it is also an identity manifesto. as the exilic work has a double purpose: to gaining back both a lost memory and a lost heaven 16. But. Creation is therefore according to Sălcudeanu the only possibility of returning into the matrix of the divine. John Spalek explains this phenomenon by asserting that a great part of the XXth century world literature. Furthermore. he will regard everything from a different perspective. interprets the creative act as the ability of the exiled to render meaning to an amorphous mass of information. as the work of the native is. Furthermore. „a particular emotional arsenal generated by the existential meaning of dislocation”17. Therefore. Nicoleta Sălcudeanu too places an emphasis on the creative features of exile. his strangeness calls them into question. the creation of the exiled has a particular character due to the same awareness of transience. different from the rest14. Interculturality and endless suffering (and also limits its connotations to Christianity).”15 Just as Flusser. From all forms of art. Sălcudeanu's definition shapes a point of view different from that of Flusser who. is a breeding ground for creative activity. Here is how Flusser describes this threat: „. exile literature has certain characteristics. even such a polemical dialogue is creative.. as the exile's creations will bear the mark of his identity. as it is for Said. the freedom of remaining a stranger. a lost identity. according to Sălcudeanu. The creative act represents a dialogue between the interior realities that shape the identity of the exiled and the new world that does not have a meaning yet. often becoming a threat for the stability of the natives. the individual tries to fill in amnesic gaps with fruits of his imagination. Nicoleta Sălcudeanu's point of view comes to continue Said's perspective in explaining the peculiar character of the exiled intellectual. Exile. and also.Literature. be it the native country of the lost childhood. as the writer herself puts it.. This is in fact the terms in which exile is more often than not discussed. no matter what form it takes. By creating artificial images of Paradise. This is the reason why. We once again go back for a moment at the initial meaning of exile as the writer's physical experience of banishment from the native country. The exiled is thus a creative presence who challenges the native to a dialogue of differences. exilic creation bears also the mark of freedom.

Still. an abandon of the most important tool for writing. It is one of the rewards of exile. Spalek. Refusing these determinants by choosing deracination is equivalent to that exilic subjectivity mentioned above. Interculturality at least in Europe. be it a form of isolation from society. some specialists even asserting that the writer. Actually. writers were banished form their native land. This XXth century phenomenon. or even refusing to write in the native language. choosing to leave the native country. points out that this exilic positioning in the world always implies the existence of an enemy against which all action of the exiled are aimed. Furthermore. but we have to stress upon Spalek's point of view: „it is fitting that the writer in exile is most often regarded as exile per se. To this extent. but in search for more creative grounds for writing. an architect. Due to autarchic regimes. Still. This need to escape. all these not being present in the writings of the natives. the native tongue – thus the particular character of the exilic writings and the constant return in all discussions about exile to the status of the writer. can be noticed in the attempt to elude any objective determinants that suppress the writer by enclosing him behind fixed barriers of belonging.Literature. from the language of their writings. we will not stop here to discuss the relation between the writer and native tongue.”19 As many others.. asserts the author. Many of them flee the country not due to an autarchic regime. has political and historical echoes. regards the exile of the writer as a linguistic dislocation. this status of exile does not lack shortcomings. as Eva Hoffman puts it in her essay The New Nomads20. the writer must step outside the familiar and enter the solitude of the self. must perceive himself as in a continuous state of exile. being thus cut off from their families. despite its many traumas. was written in exile18. . Flusser and Sălcudeanu. it can also place barriers between the exile and the rest of the world. writing forces the writer to escape the familiar. is. exile becomes a necessary condition for the writer. This generates in exchange a painful identity crisis. In one words. In order to create. returning once more to the relation between physical exile and the condition of the writer. transformed in a mystification of exteriority. This is why exile is always rendered new meanings. this being no longer a proper attitude for a contemporaneity having as a main trait the permeability of all borders and the fragmentariness of any form of existence22. Exile becomes the phenomenon that generates writing. No matter the meaning or the reason for choosing it. some post-structucturalist critics even arguing that exile and writing become synonymous. Their tools and means of communication do not require the labour of translation.. and even more. Communication. Exile. or a painter in the same way. On the other hand. many are those who argue that exile is a condition necessary for writing. exilic subjectivity should not be understood as the sole benefit of 235 . exile is constantly connected to creativity. Still. connecting her theory with that of Said.] the problem of identity does affect a mathematician. great stimuli for writing 21. History brings forth many writers who chose exile. The idea is not new. Eva Hoffman for example.[. a comparative perspective and the feeling of constant dislocation. we have to emphasise upon the general consensus of all these points of view that particularities of the writings of the exiles are due to the simultaneous connection to two cultures. in order to create. continues Spalek.

Still for most writers. Here is how she underlines the complexity of this entire phenomenon. time travel machine. as Nicoleta Sălcudeanu.. In most cases. many of the theories about exile focus on the aforementioned aspects. do not cancel each other out. in outlining the 236 .. exile is both spiritual/abstract and material.”24 This complex dialectic underlines the fact that the meanings of exile can never be exhausted. And still. as the experience itself differs from individual to individual. Hence. But there is another purpose to exilic writings. In the light of exile's paradoxes. it is not a mandatory condition for the metaphysical exiles. Communication. we could sum up that all traumas of exile are somehow compensated by this particular type of subjectivity that we placed under the name of exilic. On the contrary. In this transformation finally resides the peculiar character of the exile's writings. the experience of exile is both unique and universal. the constant truth remains that even if exile is a collective phenomenon.] damage the being and scratch the paper”25. identity vessel. referring to the main characteristics for exilic writings: „exile writing often contains the following unity of opposites: the condition of exile is depicted as physical and mental. exile is a state that both liberates and confines the writer. either through the rebuilding of the past. puts it „[. exiles write about the past and also about the future. physical dislocation is transferred at the level of writing. Still. the experience of exile will always. and the pain of radical change. Furthermore. Each writer uses writing according to his own anguishes generated by exile. each and every experience is individual. upheaval and dislocation can sometimes produce some rather more conservative impulses of self-defence and self-preservation. a period of continuous dislocation. the only possible way to return to the native land. do not necessarily lead to a more radical personality structure or greater openness to the world. in relation to the writer. exile may generate the isolation of the writer in a parallel world in which he mourns for the lost past and refuses any form of integration in a world that he considers foreign.Literature. we mention Sophia McClennen who proposes a dialectic of exile. because the writing becomes everything: home for the writer. or even through the erasure of any trace of a previous existence. Here is what Eva Hoffman asserts. Fertile experience from a creative point of view. the traumas of exile are turned into a fruitful experience for writing. Both Flusser and Said. or through the redefining of home. exile is personal/individual and political/collective. So. and mirror reflecting the world. The theories that emphasise only on the benefits of exile as a casual form of existence tend to refer mostly to the state of contemporaneity. turning it into a survival tool. exile writing recuperates the past and re-imagines it. Literature itself becomes a defence mechanism against the shortcomings of physical dislocation. exile improves and also restricts the writer’s work. no matter of the interpretation. despite the many attitudes towards exile. Interculturality physical dislocation. the writer emphasising exactly on the duality of the entire experience. despite the fact that she also notes the positive aspects of this phenomenon: „my point is that exile. exile seems always to be considered in dual terms that paradoxically. writing is both the cause of exile and the way to supersede it.”23 Therefore.

of the exilic subjectivity as necessary in a decentred contemporaneity. it should not be understood outside the traumas of physical dislocation. 2004. necessary in a type of logic of compensation.Literature. but at the same time of building a new world. the exile calls the other to a dialogue meant to make the native question his own worlds. should outline the way in which the intellectual. 1995. Nr. Language and Loss. The amplitude of this phenomenon. Deleuze Gilles. The New Nomads. The New Press. going further than any physical determinants. Bucureşti. exile always implies a de-centering of those hegemonic notions that focus around them individuals. no matter of the viewpoint. exile shapes in this decentred contemporaneity a way of being in the world. emphasise on the fact that the writings of the exile are meant to destabilize the unequivocal viewpoints of the native. Said Edward. better said. an alternative to reality as a comparison term leading to the questioning of reality. Writings become simultaneously a way of getting back a lost home. Nomadology: The War Machine. Columbia University Press. from our point of view. Minneapolis. On the contrary. Letters of Transit. and Space in Hispanic Literature. regenerating societies by inserting a term of comparison meant to deconstruct the hegemony of a single point of view. the awareness of transience. opinions. and the critical distance towards every fixed notion. Reflections of Exile.. Purdue University Press. André (editor). Intellectual Exile: Rexpatriats and Marginals în Grand Street. it is mostly polemical (not to mention murderous)”26 Therefore. Thus.. or. relates to the entire world. Univers. Identity. Dispariţia lui Afară. 1986. The oblique placing among cultures. West Lafayette. to question the stability of their worlds and consequently to trigger a regeneration process. to ignoring to some extent the initial traumas of dislocation. It is in the end a continuous battle between a centre that holds the power and the always mobile and inquisitive margin attacking the stability of the centre. [.] This dialogic atmosphere that characterizes exile is not necessarily part of a mutual recognition. Interculturality idea of exilic subjectivity. subjectivities. 1999. is due. By his peculiar subjectivity. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Codrescu Andrei. în Aciman. 47/1994. [. Flusser Vilem. Guattari Félix. Time. Hoffman. Language. an advantage of deracination. 2002. the exilic subjectivity. they are already incorporated within the identity of the individual placed among cultures by a sine-qua-non exile in a world built from the very beginning on the principles of deracination.. and especially the writer. of questioning opinions and why not. but rather. Eva. the researcher characterising the exile as the dislocated being who through his new form of freedom dislocates everything around: „It is the freedom to change oneself and others as well. New York. Communication. New York. 237 . McClennen Sophia.. A Dialectics of Exile. Un Manifest al Evadării. should be conceived as a secondary outcome. Nation. Flusser's words are more than eloquent. Despite this idealized image of exile. Writings. all these forming the exilic subjectivity mentioned above.] His advent in exile allows the original natives to uncover that they are unable to «identify» without him. University of Minnesota Press.

p. Patria de Hârtie. Nr. to work with and also against each other. New York. 1994. 47/1994. cit. 5 Ibid. p. 6 Edward Said. Purdue University Press. p. p. New York. Vintage. cit. Notes: 1 2 Andrei Codrescu.”) 10 Edward Said. West Lafayette. p. p. Culture and Imperialism. Vintage. Sălcudeanu Nicoleta.. Minneapolis. and Space in Hispanic Literature . Aula. cit. motivat de sensul existenţial al dislocării” – our translation). 108..Literature. 1994. 54. 51. André (editor). University of Minnesota Press. Vol 4. 1994. 13. op. (“””) 13 Vilem Flusser. p. p. The New Nomads. Writings. p. 11 Edward Said. p. 2002. Chapel Hill. 50. op.. using the disparate halves of my experience. 1982. (“. p. Interculturality Said Edward. 23 Ibid. op. p. 107. Chapel Hill. 1982. 46 . ( „[. 24 Sophia McClennen. Braşov. The University of North Carolina Press. 20 Eva Hoffman. 14 Ibidem. op. p. 30. 2003. 117. 22 Ibid. 8 Edward Said. Identity.. Columbia University Press. Said and Foucault: Resistance through Revealing the Power-Knowledge Nexus? în Postcolonial Text. .] I began to think and write contrapuntally. Communication. 1993. 2002. (“Exilul [. 1999. 9 Rehnuma Sazzad. 2002. 57. 4 Ibidem. Language. 3. cit. în Aciman. cit. p. 106. Vol 4. New York. cit.103.. p. 2003. Patria de hârtie. p. 3/2008. 1999. 17 Nicoleta Sălcudeanu.] va răni fiinţa şi îşi va scrijeli hârtia” – our translation) 26 Vilem Flusser. 26 („arsenal emoţional aparte. 7 Edward Said. Félix Guattari. Nomadology: The War Machine. 116. 2003. Letters of Transit. p.. Un Manifest al Evadării. op cit.. 92. 117. 146. Hatoum. Culture and Imperialism. Sazzad Rehnuma. op. p. Spalek John. 55. p. Bucharest. The University of North Carolina Press. 2004. Said and Foucault: Resistance through Revealing the PowerKnowledge Nexus? in Postcolonial Text. 21 Ibid. Nr. 19 Ibidem. Gilles Deleuze. The New Press. 18 John Spalek. New York.xxvi-xxvii.. 20. 238 . Exile: The Writer’s Experience. Intellectual Exile: Rexpatriats and Marginals în Grand Street. as an Arab and as an American. 3/2008. p. p. Nr. 1993... Dispariţia lui Afară. 3 Vilem Flusser.. A Dialectics of Exile. 25 Nicoleta Sălcudeanu. Time. Univers.. 1986. 16 Ibid. 1995. Hatoum. p. Nation. Reflections of Exile. 15 Ibid. Exile: The Writer’s Experience.”) 12 Edward Said. Braşov.. XII.. op. Language and Loss. Aula.

Petru Maior University of Tg.... GOLDIŞ.. Petru Maior University of Tg. Mures Assistant Lecturer ALEX. PhD. PhD. Mures Lecturer SORIN IVAN. Petru Maior University of Tg. PhD. PhD. University of West. PhD... PhD. The Gheorghe Şincai Institute for Social-Human Researches of the Romanian Academy Professor IULIAN BOLDEA. PhD.. CISTELECAN.. PhD. Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca Professor CAIUS DOBRESCU. PhD. Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava Professor ANDREI BODIU. Mures Lecturer EUGENIU NISTOR. PhD.. Petru Maior University of Tg. PhD. Mures Assistant lecturer CORINA BOZEDEAN. PhD. Mures Lecturer CĂTĂLIN GHIŢĂ.. Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca Lecturer ANDREI TERIAN. PhD. Mures Associate Professor LUMINIŢA CHIOREAN.. Timisoara Lecturer ROXANA GHIŢĂ. Petru Maior University of Tg. PhD. Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu Associate Professor DORIN ŞTEFĂNESCU.. Petru Maior University of Tg.. Petru Maior University of Tg. PhD.. PhD. Mures PhD. PhD.Literature. Petru Maior University of Tg. Cand. Interculturality LIST OF AUTHORS: Professor AL. PhD.. Mures Associate Professor SMARANDA ŞTEFANOVICI. Stefan cel Mare University of Sibiu 239 . DIACONU. Transilvania University of Brasov Associate Professor SANDA CORDOŞ. Petru Maior University of Tg.. Petru Maior University of Tg. PhD. Mures Lecturer SIMINA TERIAN. Communication. Mures Scientific Researcher NICOLETA SĂLCUDEANU. PhD. Petru Maior University of Tg.. University of Bucharest Professor MIRCEA A.. PhD.. PhD. PhD.. Titu Maiorescu University of Tg. CISTELECAN... PhD. Mures Lecturer NICOLETA MEDREA. University of Craiova Lecturer DANA RUS. Petru Maior University of Tg.. Mures Lecturer MARIUS PAŞCAN. Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu Assistant Lecturer MARIA-LAURA RUS... PhD. Mures Assistant Lecturer CORINA PUŞCAŞ. University of Craiova Lecturer ALEX. Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca Lecturer DANIELA PETROŞEL. Mures Associate Professor GHEORGHE PERIAN. Petru Maior University of Tg.. PhD. Candidate Oana Elena STRUGARU. Mures Associate Professor DOINA BUTIURCĂ. PhD. Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava Lecturer DUMITRU-MIRCEA BUDA. PhD.. Petru Maior University of Tg..

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