A Novel Deembedding Technique Applied to the S–Parameter Computation of Multichip-Modules via TLM

Wolfgang Dressel, Tobias Mangold, Larissa Vietzorreck and Peter Russer Institut f¨ r Hochfrequenztechnik, Technische Universit¨ t M¨ nchen u a u Arcisstr. 21, D-80333 Munich, Germany, email: dressel@hft.ei.tum.de
Abstract—The TLM-method is used for computing the scattering parameters of multichip-modules via time domain simulation. A novel deembedding method is applied which allows to reduce the error introduced by nonideal port termination. Index Terms—MCM, numerical modeling, TLM

I. I NTRODUCTION In this contribution the TLM method is used for the numerical characterization of multichip module (MCM) structures. In MCMs several IC chips are mounted in a silicon or ceramic substrate. As a group of highly functional electronic devices MCMs reduce cost and size providing opportunities to integrate unique functions of chips from various processing technologies into one system [1], [2], [3]. MCMs exhibit general threedimensional geometry. For the modeling of MCM structures therefore a field solver is required which imposes no restrictions on the geometry of the electromagnetic structures. Considering this requirement the TLM method is well suited for modeling of MCM structures including losses in the dielectrics as well as in the conductors. In modelling an MCM structure the task usually is to compute its multiport parameters in a wide frequency range. The TLM method already has been applied to multichip modules and to extract lumped element equivalent circuits of MCM structures [4]. The frequency characteristics is obtained from the time domain simulation of the MCM multiport structures by Fourier or Laplace transform [4] or by parameter estimation methods [5]. Full–wave simulation of the multiport characteristics may be done under open circuit conditions, short circuit conditions and matched conditions. Computation under matched conditions directly yields the

scattering parameters after Fourier transformation. The main advantage of simulation under matched conditions is that the decay of the scattered pulses is considerably faster than in the case of open– circuit or short–circuit termination. This may reduce the computation time considerably. However, this method suffers from the difficulty of a correct modeling of the termination. In this work we therefore propose a new deembedding method which allows direct time domain computation of the scattering parameters without exact termination of the multiport under consideration. II. TLM S IMULATION
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D EEMBEDDING

The S-parameters are calculated from the computed generalized port currents or voltages respectively. We obtain for example from the incident generalized voltage wave amplitude and the resulting generalized input port voltage via

The application of this formula, however is not a trivial task. The generalized voltages are specified via a path integral or an area integral over the transverse electric field component. Since the modes are non–TEM and furthermore the transverse field distribution also is frequency dependent, an exact modelling of a matched waveguide termination will not be feasible. In the following we therefore propose a deembedding procedure which can be applied in case of modelling the scattering behaviour of the multiport without matching the ports. Let us consider a multiport with the scattering matrix . The vector of the incident waves and the vector of the

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A number of simulations is carried out, where in the –th simulation, ( i = 1 . . . N) a primary pulse wave is applied to the –th port. The ports of the multiport are terminated with the reflection factors . The waves flowing into the multiport are given by

For this evaluation both, and have to be evaluated. This procedure yields a deembedding of non–perfectly terminated multiports. III. E XAMPLE

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In this section, S-Parameters calculated by the conventional method according to (1) and the dembedding method after (6) are shown for a interdigital capacitor mapped in fig. 1. The interdigital capacitor has got a size of 880 m 250 m and is manufactured by a thin film method on a ceramic substrate. The computed scattering parameter results have been compared with measurements made by a HP-8510C network analyzer and Fig. 2. Simulated and measured pacitor a Cascade on-wafer prober.

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with . If exists, the scattering matrix of the multiport can be obtained from (6)

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The simulation was performed using 5 m as smallest mesh size and 10 m as biggest. The simulation box has got a size of 880 m 305 m 335 m, whereas 240 m from the 335 m represent the free space above the structure. A magnetic wall can be used to half the simulation box. So computation resources and time can be saved. The path integrals for the voltages and currents are in the same cross-section defined as the measurement plane at every port of the interdigital capacitor. With this cell sizes the computation time took 5 hours on a HP-C360 workstation with 500MB memory. The time includes the two device simulations needed for all wave amplitudes, and the reference simulation needed for the characteristic impedance of the microstrip-lines. , Fig. 4 till Fig. 2 show the S-parameters and derived by the conventional method according to (1), the dembedding method after (6) and the measurement. In order to proof the deembedding technique, one simulation was computed with non-ideal 

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If we want to characterize a multiport with ports we have to perform simulations and to compute the scattering from the input ports to the output ports. Usually we will excite only one port at each simulation, and each time we will excite another port. However, due to non-perfect termination of all ports each time all ports will be excited by incident waves. Let , , ... be the vectors describing the excitation in the first, second and simulation, and let , , ... denominate the vectors summarizing the scattered waves. We then may introduce the matrices

  

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ary models. IV. C ONCLUSION In this work a deembedding technique was applied to the S-parameter computation of multichip-modules using TLM. In contrast to the conventional technique, where the scattering parameters are obtained directly by the outgoing waves, assuming no reflections at the boundaries, the described approach also considers reflections at the non-perfect port terminals. By exciting the of the interdigital ca- multiport in different simulations at each port, a system of incident and reflected wave amplitudes is established, which has to be solved. As an example, the technique was applied to a interdigital capacitor frequently used in MCM connecting structures. Scattering parameters of the balun were computed by using both techniques and compared with measurements. With the deembedding method an improvement of the calculated results and a better agreement with the measurement is obtained.
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boundary conditions equal a mismatch of 0.3 at the ports. The according curves calculated by the conventional method from this simulation are labeled with ib=0.3. The S-parameters derived by the dembedding method are marked with ib=0.3 corrected. The two curves can be compared with the measurement and the simulation with ideal boundary conditions (labeld with ib=0.3) as reference. It can be seen that a good improvement can be obtained if the deembedding technique is applied to simulations with nonideal boundary conditions. The deviation between the calculated Sparameters of the simulation with nonideal boundary conditions corrected and ideal boundary conditions calculated normaly is most about 0.5 dB. So an improvment of about 2.5 dB is obtained for and . For the improvment is about 5 dB at higher frequencies. Furthermore if the results of the two calculation techniques are compared, this technique can be used for a verification of bound-

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R EFERENCES
of the interdigital ca[1] [2] P. Russer, “Emerging Technologies in Microwaves, Microelectronics and Hybrid Integration, Microtec 2000 Conference Digest, Hannover, September 2000. T. Mangold, P. Gulde, G. Neumann and P. Russer, “A Multichip Module Integration Technology on Silicon Substrate for High Frequency Applications, Proc. of topical meeting on ’Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems,Ann Arbor, Michigan,181-184,17.-18 September 1998 T. Mangold, J. Wolf, M. T¨ pper, H. Reichl and P. Russer, o A Multichip Module Integration Technology for High-Speed Analog and Digital Applications, Proc. ISSSE ,Pisa(Italy), 91-96, September 1998. T. Mangold and P. Russer, “Full-Wave Modelling and Automatic Equivalent-Circuit Generation of Millimeter-Wave Planar and Multilayer Structures”, IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 47, (6), pp. 851-858, June 1999. V. Chtchekatourov, W. Fisch, P. Russer “Model–based Parameter Estimation for Equivalent Circuit Generation with Transmission Line Matrix (TLM) Method, to be published

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