‘Post-Mauryan’ is the name given to the period extending from approximately 200 BC – 300 AD, i.e., from the fall of the Mauryan dynasty to the rise of Gupta power. Though several important new developments are seen in this phase, it is best viewed in terms of the continuity and intensification of political, economic and social processes that started in the post- Vedic (6th, century BC) and matured in the Mauryan, culminating in the post-Mauryan. The period between 200 BC – AD 300 is considered an interesting period in Indian history with many expressions of culture, as seen in religion, art, and literature, in ideas, and institutions. This was a time when many foreign invaders had come into India. The 2nd century BC saw the subcontinent divided into a number of political regions, each with its own ambition. The decline and the subsequent disintegration of the mighty Mauryan Empire led to the rise of a number of regional kingdoms throughout the Indian subcontinent. The period between the 1st century BC and the first three centuries of the Christian era was a period of political and social flux in the history of ancient India On the one hand, a number of new foreign cultures were being assimilated into the Indian ethos while, on the other hand, the Indian subcontinent was witnessing a rise in trade and commerce with the outside world. Many small and large kingdoms emerged in India after the fall of the Mauryan dynasty. The northern part of the country saw a prolonged struggle between the foreign invaders such as the Indo-Greeks, the Sakas, the Parthians, and the Kushanas. The most important dynasty amongst these was that of the Kushanas, who had their origins in China. The Deccan and the central part of India saw the rise of the Satavahana Empire, while the southern peninsular regions saw the rise of number of kingdoms like those of the Cholas, the Cheras, and the Pandyas.

A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India – Upinder Singh Ancient India – Vijay Kachroo India’s Ancient Past – R. S. Sharma A History of India – Piyush Chauhan Exploring Early India – Ranabir Chakravarti